Brown-Lavoie, S. M.; Viecili, M. A.; Weiss, J. A.
There is a significant gap in understanding the risk of sexual victimization in individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and the variables that contribute to risk. Age appropriate sexual interest, limited sexual knowledge and experiences, and social deficits, may place adults with ASD at increased risk. Ninety-five adults with ASD and 117…
Ullman, Sarah E; Vasquez, Amanda L
This study examined sexual risk behaviors and sexual refusal assertiveness in relationship to child sexual abuse, emotion dysregulation, and adult sexual revictimization. Path analyses of 1,094 survivors who had sex in the past year were done to examine sexual risk behavior and sexual refusal assertiveness mediational pathways by which child sexual abuse severity and emotion dysregulation may affect revictimization over one year in adult female sexual assault survivors. Exchanging sex for money and sexual refusal assertiveness were significantly associated with emotion dysregulation, whereas exchanging sex for money, and not sexual refusal assertiveness, was only significantly related to child sexual abuse severity. Both exchanging sex for money and sex refusal assertiveness mediated the relationship between emotion dysregulation and adult sexual revictimization. Exchanging sex for money mediated the child sexual abuse severity-revictimization relationship. These findings demonstrate the importance of considering both risky and protective sexual behaviors in research and prevention programming that address sexual revictimization in women. PMID:25942287
Ullman, Sarah E.; Vasquez, Amanda L.
This study examined sexual risk behaviors and sexual refusal assertiveness in relationship to child sexual abuse (CSA), emotion dysregulation, and adult sexual revictimization. Path analyses of 1,094 survivors who had sex in the past year were done to examine sexual risk behavior, and sexual refusal assertiveness mediational pathways by which CSA severity and emotion dysregulation may affect revictimization over one year in adult female sexual assault survivors. Exchanging sex for money and sexual refusal assertiveness were significantly associated with emotion dysregulation, whereas exchanging sex for money, and not sexual refusal assertiveness, was only significantly related to CSA severity. Both exchanging sex for money and sex refusal assertiveness mediated the relationship between emotion dysregulation and adult sexual revictimization. Exchanging sex for money mediated the CSA severity-revictimization relationship. These findings demonstrate the importance of considering both risky and protective sexual behaviors in research and prevention programming that address sexual revictimization in women. PMID:25942287
Zweig, Janine M.; Yahner, Jennifer; Rossman, Shelli B.
This study examined whether physical and sexual victimization experiences were related to further substance use for a sample of drug-involved adult offenders and whether this increase could be attributed to depression experienced after the victimization occurred. A total of 674 men and 284 women from the longitudinal Multisite Adult Drug Court…
Tyler, Kimberly A; Beal, Morgan R
Little is known about how the social environment of homeless youth contributes to their risk and how it varies for different types of victimization. As such, the current study examines the constructs of victimization theories in order to investigate the potential risk for physical and sexual victimization among homeless young adults. Results revealed that running at an earlier age, running more often, sleeping on the street, panhandling, deviant peers associations, and not having a family member in one's network are associated with more physical victimization. Being female, a sexual minority, having an unkempt physical appearance, panhandling, and having friends who traded sex are associated with more sexual victimization. Overall, we find that the constructs differed in their ability to explain sexual versus physical victimization. PMID:20229696
Chan, Ko Ling
Objective: The current study investigated the prevalence and impact of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) on adult sexual victimization (ASV) in Hong Kong, China. This study also examines correlates of demographic characteristics, depression, suicidal ideation, and self-esteem with ASV. Methods: A total of 5,049 Chinese adult respondents were…
Millar, Golden; Stermac, Lana; Addison, Mary
There is a growing body of literature which seeks to better understand the needs of sexual assault victims presenting for specialized treatment. This study explored aspects of immediate and delayed treatment seeking among 1118 women who presented for treatment to a specialized sexual assault care centre within a large urban hospital. Variables related to demographic and assault-specific characteristics were examined for association with immediate (within 12 hours) or delayed (after 12 hours) treatment seeking. Results indicate the severity of the attack prompted women to seek treatment earlier and that women who were assaulted by a known perpetrator were more likely to delay seeking assistance. Findings are conceptualized under the rubric of sociological and feminist frameworks with suggestions for additional research. PMID:11942469
Ahlmeyer, S; Heil, P; McKee, B; English, K
Sexual offenders are extremely reluctant to disclose their offending histories for a variety of psychosocial and legal reasons. The polygraph has shown promise as a intervention for eliciting admissions of past sexual offending behaviors. For 60 adult male sexual offender (35 inmates and 25 parolees), the number of victims and offenses were recorded from the Presentence Investigative Report, Sexual History Disclosure form, and 2 consecutive polygraph examination reports. Dramatic increases in the number of admitted victims and offenses were found for inmates, but not for parolees, across each source. However, there was a substantial decline in the number of victim and offense admissions by the second polygraph examination for both groups, even though 80% of the examination results reveled deception about sexual offending behaviors. Standardized use of sanctions and privileges for deceptive and nondeceptive polygraph results, respectively, are proposed as a way of eliciting full disclosure of offending histories for these offenders. PMID:10872241
Norris, Thomas L.
This paper describes a four-phase therapeutic approach that has proven useful to adult female and male survivors of child sexual abuse. The methods described are primarily used in individual therapy, although the context is within the family therapy realm and relies heavily upon Structural Family Systems Theory. The four phases which a victim…
McCloskey, Kathy A; Raphael, Desreen N
Data from the 2000 National Incident-Based Reporting System (NIBRS) show that while males make up about nine out of every 10 adult sexual assault perpetrators, totaling about 26,878 incidents within the reporting period, females account for about one out of 10 perpetrators, totaling about 1,162 incidents. Male sexual assault perpetrators offend against child victims about 25% of the time and predominantly choose female child victims, whereas female perpetrators offend against child victims about 40% of the time and choose child victims of both genders equally. Male perpetrators offend against adolescent victims about 40% of the time, and once again tend to choose female adolescent victims. Female perpetrators offend against adolescent victims a comparable amount of time (about 45%), and for forcible offenses (rape, sodomy, sexual assault with an object, and forcible fondling) choose adolescent victims of both genders equally, while for non-forcible offenses (non-forcible incest and statutory rape) they tend to choose predominantly male victims. Finally, adult male sexual assault perpetrators choose adult victims about 36% of the time while female perpetrators choose adult victims only 16% of the time. Implications for professionals are discussed, including recommendations to aid in correct identification of adult perpetrators and child/adolescent victims of sexual assault. PMID:16354646
Stander, Valerie A.; Merrill, Lex L.; Thomsen, Cynthia J.; Crouch, Julie L.; Milner, Joel S.
Female (n = 5,226) and male (n = 5,969) U.S. Navy recruits completed a survey assessing their premilitary histories of adult sexual assault (SA), defined as attempted or completed rape since the age of 14. The survey was completed under anonymous or identified conditions. Overall, 39% of women reported premilitary SA victimization and 13% of men…
Regehr, Cheryl; Alaggia, Ramona; Dennis, Jane; Pitts, Annabel; Saini, Michael
Objectives: This article presents a systematic evaluation of the effectiveness of interventions aimed at reducing distress in adult victims of rape and sexual violence. Method: Studies were eligible for the review if the assignment of study participants to experimental or control groups was by random allocation or parallel cohort design. Results:…
Leclerc, Benoit; Wortley, Richard
The under-reporting of child sexual abuse by victims is a serious problem that may prolong the suffering of victims and leave perpetrators free to continue offending. Yet empirical evidence indicates that victim disclosure rates are low. In this study, we perform regression analysis with a sample of 369 adult child sexual offenders to examine potential predictors of victim disclosure. Specifically, we extend the range of previously examined potential predictors of victim disclosure and investigate interaction effects in order to better capture under which circumstances victim disclosure is more likely. The current study differs from previous studies in that it examines the impact of victim and offense variables on victim disclosure from the perspective of the offender. In line with previous studies, we found that disclosure increased with the age of the victim and if penetration had occurred. In addition, we found that disclosure increased when the victim came from a non-dysfunctional family and resisted the abuse. The presence of an interaction effect highlighted the impact of the situation on victim disclosure. This effect indicated that as victims get older, they are more likely to disclose the abuse when they are not living with the offender at the time of abuse, but less likely to do so when they are living with the offender at the time of abuse. These findings are discussed in relation to previous studies and the need to facilitate victim disclosure. PMID:25812798
Small, Kevonne; Zweig, Janine M.
An estimated 7.0% to 8.1% of American youth report being sexually victimized at some point in their life time. This article presents a background to youth sexual victimization, focusing on prevalence data, challenging issues when studying this problem, risk factors, and common characteristics of perpetrators. Additionally, a type of sexual…
Jonzon, Eva; Lindblad, Frank
Objective: To investigate the relationships between risk and protective factors and health outcome in a sample of adult females who had been victims of child sexual abuse. Method: Both person- and variable-oriented analyses were applied to questionnaire data from a non-clinical group of women (n=152) reporting sexual abuse during childhood.…
Choudhary, Ekta; Coben, Jeffrey; Bossarte, Robert M.
In the United States, an estimated three million men are victims of sexual violence each year, yet the majority of existing studies have evaluated the consequences and characteristics of victimization among women alone. The result has been a gap in the existing literature examining the physical and psychological consequences of sexual assault…
Rodriquez-Srednicki, Ofelia; Twaite, James A.
Examines comments on a vignette describing a teenage female victim, the perpetrator, and the nature of abuse. Results support the position that victims of child sexual abuse may be stigmatized as a result of their experience, and the likelihood of this may vary among cultural groups. Suggests clinicians assess culturally related attitudes of…
Threadcraft, Hal L.; Wilcoxon, S. Allen
Conducted study to investigate whether group cofacilitated by male and female counselor could provide therapeutic benefit to women survivors of childhood sexual victimization. Findings seem to provide preliminary evidence contradicting assumption that male counselors should not be involved in counseling female adult survivors of sexual…
Simons, Ronald L.; Whitbeck, Les B.
Studied 40 adolescent runaways and 95 homeless women to examine impact of early sexual abuse on prostitution and victimization. Findings suggest that early sexual abuse increases probability of involvement in prostitution irrespective of influence of running away, substance abuse, and other deviant acts; only indirectly affects chances of…
Choudhary, Ekta; Coben, Jeffrey; Bossarte, Robert M
In the United States, an estimated three million men are victims of sexual violence each year, yet the majority of existing studies have evaluated the consequences and characteristics of victimization among women alone. The result has been a gap in the existing literature examining the physical and psychological consequences of sexual assault among men. The main objective of this study was to identify health outcomes, risk behaviors, and perpetrator/victim relationship characteristics among men who have experienced an attempted or completed sexual assault using data from the sexual violence module of the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System survey. A total of 59,511 male respondents participated in the sexual violence module, and the majority of participants were White (73.7%), between the ages of 35 to 44 years (19.8%), married (69.0%), graduated from college (34.6%), and had an annual household income of more than US$50,000 (49.9%). Stratified multivariate logistic regression models were conducted to test the associations between victimization and health outcomes and risk behaviors controlling for age, marital status, race/ethnicity, income, education, and other potential confounders. Results of these analyses suggest important associations between health and sexual violence victimization. Specifically, men who reported unwanted attempted intercourse and attempted and completed intercourse were more likely to report poor mental health, poor life satisfaction, activity limitations, and lower emotional and social support. The current study extends knowledge of consequences of male sexual violence by considering characteristics of sexual assault and by identifying associations between victimization and a broad range of health indicators. PMID:19940163
Langenderfer-Magruder, Lisa; Walls, N Eugene; Kattari, Shanna K; Whitfield, Darren L; Ramos, Daniel
Prevalence of sexual victimization among lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) persons is frequently found to be higher than the prevalence reported by their heterosexual peers. Transgender individuals are often included solely as part of larger LGBTQ research samples, potentially obfuscating differences between sexual orientation and gender identity. In this study, the authors examined sexual assault/rape in a large convenience sample of LGBTQ adults (N = 1,124) by respondents' gender identity (cisgender, transgender) to determine whether differences exist in lifetime prevalence of sexual assault/rape and subsequent police reporting. Findings indicate transgender individuals report having experienced sexual assault/rape more than twice as frequently as cisgender LGBQ individuals. Authors found no statistically significant difference in reporting sexual violence to police. Implications for research and practice are discussed. PMID:26831853
Hetzel, Melanie D.; McCanne, Thomas R.
Objective: Previous research has indicated that women who experience childhood physical abuse or childhood sexual abuse are at increased risk for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and adult victimization. Recently, peritraumatic dissociation (PD) has been suggested as another possible risk factor for PTSD and adult victimization. The purpose of…
Meade, Christina S.; Kershaw, Trace S.; Hansen, Nathan B.; Sikkema, Kathleen J.
The prevalence of childhood sexual and physical abuse among persons with severe mental illness (SMI) is disproportionately high. Adults with SMI also engage in high rates of HIV risk behaviors. This study examined the association between childhood abuse and adult victimization, substance abuse, and lifetime HIV sexual risk in a sample of 152 adults with SMI receiving community mental health services. Structured interviews assessed psychiatric, psychosocial, and behavioral risk factors. Seventy percent reported childhood physical and/or sexual abuse, and 32% reported both types of abuse. Participants with childhood abuse were more likely to report adult victimization and greater HIV risk. A structural equation model found that childhood abuse was directly and indirectly associated with HIV risk through drug abuse and adult vicitimization. Integrated treatment approaches that address interpersonal violence and substance abuse may be necessary for HIV risk reduction in this population. PMID:17968646
Scheflin, Alan W.
Current legal issues involved in cases against therapists working with child sexual abuse victims are reviewed. Changes in the legal climate over the past decade are described. Issues involved in the "false memory" attack are discussed. Techniques for risk management and the current situation in the media are discussed. (EMK)
Méndez, Rose Marie; Kulbok, Pamela; Lawson, Sarah; Matos, Abigail
Sexual violence is a public health problem in Puerto Rico (PR), with an incidence of 7.4 cases for every 10,000 people during 2005-2006 (Departamento de Salud Secretaría Auxiliar de Salud Familiar y Servicios Integrados, 2007). Findings from the literature review indicated that the traditional model of care provided to the victims of sexual violence in the Emergency Department is incomplete; furthermore, it may cause revictimization because of the attitudes, behaviors, and practices of the community service providers, resulting in additional trauma. Emerging evidence demonstrates that Sexual Assault Nurse Examiner (SANE) programs are providing effective quality care. In PR, SANEs do not intervene in sexual assault cases; nevertheless, the Department of Health of PR has recognized the importance of SANE intervention. Consequently, there is a need for current evidence-based protocols and standards of care to describe the procedures, roles, and responsibilities for the provision of quality care to victims. This project involves the implementation of the Stufflebeam's Context-Input-Process-Product Model in the creation of the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico National Protocol for the Management of Victims of Sexual Violence: Adults/Adolescents. PMID:24158134
Görgen, T; Nägele, B
A study on the underresearched topic of elderly sexual victimization combined multiple data sources: German police crime statistics, 122 public prosecutor files on sexual victimization of people above age 60, survey data from 76 institutions assisting victims of sexual violence/domestic violence, in-depth interviews with 22 practitioners who had worked with sexually victimized elderly. The study shows that few cases of sexual victimization in old age are known to law enforcement agencies or victim services. Offences dealt with by the criminal justice system differ significantly from those known to battered women's shelters and victim services. The majority of incidents prosecuted by the criminal justice system are hands-off offences; hands-on offences are typically single incidents committed by strangers or loose acquaintances of the victim. Battered women's shelters and institutions of victim assistance are confronted with severe forms of sexual violence in intimate relationships, the prototypical case being an older woman who is repeatedly victimized by her husband over a considerable period of time and within a relationship characterized by a comprehensive system of violence, humiliation, and control (corresponding to Johnson's concept of intimate terrorism). The study demonstrates how small numbers of recorded cases of sexual violence in old age may reflect age-specific detection rates. It provides evidence on older victims' help-seeking behavior and on ways to improve victim services. PMID:17039295
Jonzon, Eva; Lindblad, Frank
This study examined the impact of child sexual abuse and disclosure characteristics on adult psychological and psychosomatic symptoms. Data on abuse characteristics, disclosure-related events, and subjective health were collected through semistructured interviews and questionnaires from 123 adult women reporting having been sexually abused in…
Santos-Iglesias, Pablo; Sierra, Juan Carlos
Sexual revictimization is frequent among victims of child sexual abuse. Several variables, such as sexual experience, substance abuse, and sexual assertiveness, have been proposed to explain the link between child sexual abuse and adolescent and adult sexual victimization, although they have typically been tested separately. The main objective of…
Widom, C P; Ames, M A
Using a prospective cohorts design, we assess the long-term criminal consequences of childhood sexual abuse through an examination of official criminal histories for a large sample of validated cases of childhood sexual abuse, compared to cases of physical abuse and neglect and a control group matched for age, race, sex, and approximate family socioeconomic status. Compared to other types of abuse and neglect, early childhood sexual abuse does not uniquely increase an individual's risk for later delinquent and adult criminal behavior. Childhood sexual abuse victims were at increased risk of arrest as a juvenile for being a runaway. As adults, child sexual abuse victims were at higher risk of arrest for sex crimes than controls, as were victims of physical abuse and neglect. Childhood sexual abuse victims were more likely to be arrested for prostitution as adults than other abuse and neglect victims and controls, regardless of gender. However, there was no support for a direct relationship among child sexual abuse, arrests for running away in adolescence, and adult arrests for prostitution. The findings also suggest an association for males between physical abuse and arrests for violent sex crimes (rape and/or sodomy). Caution is needed in interpreting these findings because of exclusive reliance on official record data and the possible impact of agency intervention. PMID:8187016
Rassenhofer, Miriam; Spröber, Nina; Schneider, Thekla; Fegert, Jörg M
Recent revelations about the scope and severity of past child sexual abuse in German institutions set off a broad public debate on this issue, and led to the establishment of a politically appointed Round Table committee and an Independent Commissioner whose mandates were to reappraise the issue and develop recommendations for future policies. A media campaign was launched to publicize the establishment of a Critical Incident Reporting System (CIRS) whereby now-adult victims of past abuse could anonymously provide testimonials and let policy makers know what issues were important to them. Respondents could either call a hotline number or communicate by mail or email. The information collected was documented and analyzed by a research team, and the results of interim reports were included in the recommendations of the Independent Commissioner and the Round Table committee. Most of the respondents described severe and repeated occurrences of childhood sexual abuse. For many, priorities were improvements in therapy and counseling services, the abolishment of the statute of limitations on prosecuting offenders, and financial compensation. Based on the recommendations of the Round Table and the Independent Commissioner, two new laws were adopted as well as an action plan and some guidelines. In addition to rules for recompensation of victims in an institutional context a fund for victims of sexual abuse in intrafamilial context was established by the Federal Government. Another effect of this process was raising societal sensitivity to the problem of child sexual abuse. The use of a CIRS enabled those directly affected by childhood sexual abuse to have some input into a political process designed to address this issue. Such an approach could have applicability in other countries or in other domains of public health and other forms of societal conflict as well. PMID:23796600
Strike, C; Myers, T; Calzavara, L; Haubrich, D
This study explored sexual coercion in dating situations among young adults ages 18-25. Focus group discussions were conducted with a mostly street-involved and sexually diverse (straight, gay, lesbian and bisexual) sample of young adults. While aware of the risks of unsafe sex, getting sex whenever possible or getting sex over with outweighed considerations of safer sex and disease transmission. Participants noted that partners could be manipulated or coerced into sex, using alcohol and drugs; obligations, expectations, and guilt; and exploitation of emotional and economic vulnerability. Overall, participants revealed that these factors led to an increase in total number of sexual events and particularly to unsafe sex. While sexual education and safer sex programs often address sexual negotiation, a focus on changing the behaviors of those who coerce partners into sex is also needed to reduce the risk of HIV transmission. PMID:11688928
Theilade, Lotte D Arlø
Sexual dysfunction is seen in up to 51% of torture victims. The torture victim seldom reports anything about having been tortured but often consults the health care system because of a somatic problem which may seem unrelated to torture. Therefore, it is important that doctors are aware of the possible correlation. Symptoms and findings may be both physical and psychical. The torture may be both sexual and non-sexual as well as physical and non-physical. Social, cultural and individual factors also influence the development of sexual dysfunction in a torture victim. The factors that cause sexual dysfunction and the identification of any direct causal relations are discussed. There are indications that sexual torture has a greater impact on the development of sexual dysfunction than other types of torture and it seems that sexual dysfunction is a result of many factors. PMID:12407879
Siddique, Julie A
By now, age and marital status are well-established correlates of criminal victimization, including adult women's sexual victimization. National crime statistics, as well as a large body of scholarly literature, have specified that younger women and unmarried women are at comparatively higher risk of sexual victimization than older women and married women. Few studies, however, have examined the relationship between age, marital status, and risk of victimization across diverse situational contexts of sexual victimization. The current study used data from the National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS) to examine whether the relationship between age, marital status, and risk of sexual victimization varied across victimization experiences involving three victim-offender relationships: stranger, acquaintance, and intimate partner. Results indicate both similarities and differences in the relationship between age, marital status, and risk of victimization across these three situational contexts of victimization. As expected, age was a significant predictor of victimization in all models; however, younger women's increased risk of victimization was far more pronounced for acquaintance and intimate partner victimization experiences as compared with stranger experiences. Also, consistent with prior research, unmarried women were at higher risk of victimization in all models; however, within unmarried status categories, separated women were at highest risk of both intimate partner and acquaintance victimization experiences as compared with never married or divorced women. PMID:25846759
Swahn, Monica H.; Choudhary, Ekta
Gaps in understanding of how area-based differences in exposure to violence are associated with asthma prevalence may limit the development of effective prevention programs and the identification of risk for asthma episodes. The current investigation examines the associations between sexual violence victimization and asthma episodes among US adult women across three different metropolitan settings. The association between sexual assault victimizations and asthma attacks in the past year was examined using data from the 2005, 2006, and 2007 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System surveys. Cross-sectional analyses were based on adult women with current asthma (n = 4,099). Multivariate logistic regression models were used to identify associations between four categories of sexual violence victimization and asthma episodes across three categories of metropolitan and non-metropolitan settings. Our findings show that unwanted touching, attempted unwanted intercourse, forced unwanted intercourse, and any sexual violence victimization (touching, attempted intercourse, or forced intercourse) were significantly associated with asthma episodes (ORadj. = 3.67, 95% CI, 1.76–7.69; ORadj. = 1.77, 95% CI, 1.32–2.37; ORadj. = 2.24, 95% CI, 1.64–3.05, and ORadj. = 1.93, 95% CI, 1.47–2.53, respectively). While no significant differences in the associations between asthma episodes and metropolitan status were found, a significant interaction between non-metropolitan areas and attempted sexual intercourse was identified (ORadj = 0.53, 95% CI, 0.29–0.96). Sexual victimization appears to be an important, but understudied, correlate of asthma morbidity among adult women in the USA, suggesting that additional research is needed to better understand the associations between sexual violence, psychological distress, and asthma. PMID:19096937
Chan, Heng Choon Oliver; Myers, Wade C; Heide, Kathleen M
Little is known about the racial patterns of crimes committed by sexual homicide offenders (SHOs). This study examined race and age influences on victim-offender relationship for juvenile and adult SHOs. A large sample (N = 3868) from the Supplemental Homicide Reports (1976-2005) was used. Analyses of victim-offender patterns included examining victim age effects (child, adolescent, adult, and elderly). The findings revealed several race- and age-based differences. Black offenders were significantly overrepresented in the SHO population. This finding held for juveniles and adults independently. White SHOs were highly likely to kill within their race, "intra-racially" (range 91-100%) across four victim age categories, whereas Black SHOs killed both intra-racially (range 24-82%) and inter-racially (18-76%), with the likelihood of their killing inter-racially increasing as the age of the victim increased. This study underscores the importance of considering victim-offender racial patterns in sexual murder investigations, and it offers practical implications for offender profiling. PMID:20487160
Burton, David L.; Duty, Kerry Jo; Leibowitz, George S.
This study compares sexually victimized and nonsexually victimized male adolescent sexual abusers on a number of variables. Self-report measures were administered to 325 male sexually abusive youth (average age 16) in six residential facilities in the Midwest, 55% of whom reported sexual victimization. The results indicate that the sexually…
Hequembourg, Amy L.; Bimbi, David; Parsons, Jeffrey T.
This study reports rates of childhood and adult sexual victimization among a community sample of 634 gay and bisexual-identified men, and examines how men with differing sexual victimization histories compare on a number of health-related outcomes. Results indicate that men with histories of childhood and adult sexual victimization are more likely to report substance use, more lifetime STIs, higher sexual compulsivity scores, and greater gay-related stigma scores than men with no histories of sexual victimization. Few differences are found in comparisons of health outcomes based on age at first sexual victimization (childhood vs. adulthood). Furthermore, men with histories of sexual victimization report healthier coping skills than men with no histories of sexual victimization, but no significant group differences are found in social support or stress-related growth. Findings underscore the importance of assessing lifetime sexual victimization among sexual minority men during counseling, with special attention given to the enhancement of protective factors among those at risk for harmful behaviors and subsequent poor health outcomes. PMID:23626503
Orr, Donald P.; Downes, Maureen C.
To assess the self-concept and psychological profile associated with sexual abuse, 20 young female victims evaluated in a sexual abuse clinic completed the Offer Self-Image Questionnaire. (Author/LMO)
McCloskey, Kathy A.; Raphael, Desreen N.
Data from the 2000 National Incident-Based Reporting System (NIBRS) show that while males make up about nine out of every 10 adult sexual assault perpetrators, totaling about 26,878 incidents within the reporting period, females account for about one out of 10 perpetrators, totaling about 1,162 incidents. Male sexual assault perpetrators offend…
Stermac, Lana; And Others
Examines the circumstances and characteristics of sexual assaults against adult males presenting to a crisis unit in a large metropolitan area. Most victims were young gay men, many of whom had physical or cognitive disabilities making them particularly vulnerable. Results suggest a need for increased awareness of acquaintance sexual assault in…
Burton, David L; Duty, Kerry Jo; Leibowitz, George S
This study compares sexually victimized and nonsexually victimized male adolescent sexual abusers on a number of variables. Self-report measures were administered to 325 male sexually abusive youth (average age 16) in six residential facilities in the Midwest, 55% of whom reported sexual victimization. The results indicate that the sexually victimized sexual abusers have more severe developmental antecedents (trauma, family characteristics, early exposure to pornography and personality) and recent behavioral difficulties (characteristics of sexual aggression, sexual arousal, use of pornography, and nonsexual criminal behavior) than the nonsexually victimized group. Results are contrasted with recent typological research, which found no relationship between sexual victimization and subtype membership. Treatment, research, and theoretical implications are discussed. PMID:21259148
Barnes, Jaclyn E.; Noll, Jennie G.; Putnam, Frank W.; Trickett, Penelope K.
Objective: This 15-year prospective, longitudinal study examines adolescent and young-adult female self-reports of traumatic sexual and physical experiences occurring subsequent to substantiated childhood sexual abuse-revictimizations (N=89). Method: These incidences were contrasted to sexual and physical victimizations reported by a group of…
George, William H; Davis, Kelly Cue; Masters, N Tatiana; Jacques-Tiura, Angela J; Heiman, Julia R; Norris, Jeanette; Gilmore, Amanda K; Nguyen, Hong V; Kajumulo, Kelly F; Otto, Jacqueline M; Andrasik, Michele P
This study used an experimental paradigm to investigate the roles of sexual victimization history and alcohol intoxication in young women's sexual-emotional responding and sexual risk taking. A nonclinical community sample of 436 young women, with both an instance of heavy episodic drinking and some HIV/STI risk exposure in the past year, completed childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and adolescent/adult sexual assault (ASA) measures. A majority of them reported CSA and/or ASA, including rape and attempted rape. After random assignment to a high alcohol dose (.10 %) or control condition, participants read and projected themselves into an eroticized scenario of a sexual encounter involving a new partner. As the story protagonist, each participant rated her positive mood and her sexual arousal, sensation, and desire, and then indicated her likelihood of engaging in unprotected sex. Structural equation modeling analyses revealed that ASA and alcohol were directly associated with heightened risk taking, and alcohol's effects were partially mediated by positive mood and sexual desire. ASA was associated with attenuated sexual-emotional responding and resulted in diminished risk taking via this suppression. These are the first findings indicating that, compared to non-victimized counterparts, sexually victimized women respond differently in alcohol-involved sexual encounters in terms of sexual-emotional responding and risk-taking intentions. Implications include assessing victimization history and drinking among women seeking treatment for either concern, particularly women at risk for HIV, and alerting them to ways their histories and behavior may combine to exacerbate their sexual risks. PMID:23857517
General Accounting Office, Washington, DC. General Government Div.
Sexual abuse can have negative consequences for children during the time of abuse as well as later in life. An important research question concerns the cycle of sexual abuse, specifically the likelihood that individuals who were victims of sexual abuse as children will become sexual abusers of children in adulthood. At the request of Congress, the…
Lacasse, Anne; Mendelson, Morton J.
Adolescence is a transitional period when the pressure to engage in romantic and sexual relationships can leave teenagers feeling confused and at risk for sexual coercion. Our studies investigated characteristics of male and female perpetrators and victims of peer sexual coercion, focusing on self-esteem, sexist attitudes, and involvement in…
Walsh, Kate; Gonsalves, Valerie M.; Scalora, Mario J.; King, Steve; Hardyman, Patricia L.
Despite data indicating that child maltreatment (CM) in various forms is associated with adult sexual victimization among community women, few studies have explicitly explored how types of CM might relate to prison sexual victimization. Because little is known about "how" CM might give rise to prison sexual victimization, the present study also…
Young, M Scott; Harford, Kelli-Lee; Kinder, Bill; Savell, Jodi K
A large body of research has documented the harmful effects of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) on adult mental health among females, but less work has examined this issue among males. This study examined whether gender moderated the relationship between CSA and adult mental health among a mixed-gender sample of 406 undergraduates. A Pearson chi-square test indicated that a significantly greater proportion of females (41.6%) than males (30.7%) reported a history of CSA. ANCOVAs tested whether gender, CSA status, and their interaction were related to adult mental health symptomatology as measured by Brief Symptom Inventory gender-normed t scores. Participants with a history of CSA reported significantly higher levels of global mental health problems, hostility, paranoid ideation, and psychoticism. The gender by CSA status interaction was not significant for any scale, indicating that the harmful effects of CSA on adult mental health did not vary by gender. PMID:17766729
Yuvarajan, Elil; Stanford, Matthew S
Although congregants often turn to clergy for help in dealing with personal difficulties, including marital problems, substance abuse issues, and mental illness, survivors of sexual assault do not commonly turn to clergy for support or guidance. This study utilized a mixed-methods approach, online survey, and semi-structured interviews to determine how clergy perceive sexual assault victimization. The results of this study showed that more blame was assigned to the victim as the relationship with the perpetrator became closer, with the exception of marital rape. This study also found that hostile sexism was a predictor of negative attitudes toward rape victims. PMID:26416842
Firestone, Philip; Moulden, Heather M; Wexler, Audrey F
The aim of this investigation was to undertake an exploratory analysis of clerics who sexually offend and the circumstances related to these offenses. Thirty-three adult male religious leaders who had been charged with a sexual offense against a child or adolescent were included in the study. This study examined descriptive information about offenders, their victims, as well as characteristics of the crimes. Notable trends included the following: religious leaders tended to offend against boys living with both parents, the offense often took place at the clergy's residence, and the offense involved fondling the victim. The study also compared offenders with single versus multiple victims on crime variables and differences were noted with respect to victim access. PMID:19842539
Bogolyubova, Olga; Skochilov, Roman; Smykalo, Lyubov
The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of childhood victimization experiences in a sample of young adults in St. Petersburg, Russia. The study sample included 743 students aged 19 to 25 from 15 universities in St. Petersburg, Russia. All of the study participants completed a reliable questionnaire assessing the following types of childhood victimization: conventional crime, child maltreatment, peer victimization, sexual victimization, and witnessing violence. Participation in the study was anonymous. High rates of victimization and exposure to violence were reported by the study participants. The majority of the sample experienced at least one type of victimization during childhood or adolescence, and poly-victimization was reported frequently. The most common type of victimization reported was peer or sibling assault (66.94%), followed by witnessing an assault without weapon (63.91%), personal theft (56.19%), vandalism (56.06%), and emotional bullying (49.99%). Sexual assault by a known adult was reported by 1.45% males and 5.16% of females. This study provides new information on the scope of childhood victimization experiences in Russia. Further research is warranted, including epidemiological research with representative data across the country and studies of the impact of trauma and victimization on mental health and well-being of Russian adults and children. PMID:25012953
Rogers, Paul; Davies, Michelle
This study investigated the roles of respondent, perpetrator, and victim gender on attributions toward a 10- or 15-year-old victim and an adult perpetrator in a hypothetical sexual abuse case. It was predicted (a) that female respondents would be more provictim and antiperpetrator than men, (b) that 10-year-old victims would be deemed more…
Peters, J J
Psychiatrists and others have too often discounted reports of sexual attacks upon children and ascribed the incident to fantasy. The author's experience in private psychoanalytic practice and in Philadelphia's rape victim clinics indicates that these assaults occur frequently. If the sexual attack is dealt with improperly or repressed it may cause serious psychologic problems for the victim as an adult. PMID:970503
Blitz, Cynthia L.; Shi, Jing; Bachman, Ronet; Siegel, Jane A.
People in prison are exposed to and experience sexual violence inside prisons, further exposing them to communicable diseases and trauma. The consequences of sexual violence follow the individual into the community upon release. This paper estimates the prevalence of sexual victimization within a state prison system. A total of 6,964 men and 564 women participated in a survey administered using audio-CASI. Weighted estimates of prevalence were constructed by gender and facility size. Rates of sexual victimization varied significantly by gender, age, perpetrator, question wording, and facility. Rates of inmate-on-inmate sexual victimization in the previous 6 months were highest for female inmates (212 per 1,000), more than four times higher than male rates (43 per 1,000). Abusive sexual conduct was more likely between inmates and between staff and inmates than nonconsensual sexual acts. Sexual violence inside prison is an urgent public health issue needing targeted interventions to prevent and ameliorate its health and social consequences, which spatially concentrate in poor inner-city areas where these individuals ultimately return. PMID:16937087
Davies, Michelle; Rogers, Paul
This study investigated victim culpability, credibility, and assault severity in a hypothetical sexual abuse case. A 2 (respondent gender) x 3 (victim age) x 3 (perpetrator type) between-subjects design was employed. Members (391) of the U.K. general public read the depiction of a female child assaulted by an adult male perpetrator. Respondents…
Ramsey, Jaimi L.; DiLalla, Lisabeth F.; McCrary, Megan K.
This study investigated the relations between sexual orientation, cyber victimization, and depressive symptoms in college students. Study aims were to determine whether sexual minority college students are at greater risk for cyber victimization and to examine whether recent cyber victimization (self-reported cyber victimization over the last…
Sundaram, Vanita; Laursen, Bjarne; Helweg-Larsen, Karin
The present study investigates the prevalence of sexual victimization and correlations between sexual victimization and indicators of poor health in two representative samples of men and women in Denmark. Specifically, the authors explore the prevalence of self-reported victimization among adolescents (N = 5,829) and adults (N = 3,932) and analyze…
Testa, Maria; Hoffman, Joseph H.; Livingston, Jennifer A.
Objectives: Previous research suggests that women's early sexual victimization experiences may influence their parenting behaviors and increase the vulnerability of their children to being sexually victimized. The current study considered whether mother's sexual victimization experiences, in childhood and after age 14, were associated with the…
Fisher, Bonnie S.; Cullen, Francis T.; Turner, Michael G.
The National College Women Sexual Victimization (NCVS) study attempted to build on and surmount the limitations of existing research on the sexual victimization of college students. In addition to the study of sexual victimization, the study investigated how rape estimates that use the two-stage process of behaviorally specific questions and…
The interviewing of the child victim of sexual exploitation is one of the first and most important steps in solving and prosecuting a case of child exploitation and is the topic of this document. The first chapter discusses the interviewer's role, focusing on improving communication, dealing with emotion, the interviewer's response, male or female…
Heerde, Jessica A; Scholes-Balog, Kirsty E; Hemphill, Sheryl A
Homeless youth commonly report engaging in sexual risk behaviors. These vulnerable young people also frequently report being sexually victimized. This systematic review collates, summarizes, and appraises published studies of youth investigating relationships between homelessness, perpetration of sexual offenses, experience of sexual victimization, and engagement in sexual risk behavior. A systematic search of seventeen psychology, health, and social science electronic databases was conducted. Search terms included "homeless*," "youth," "offend*," "victimization," "crime," "rape," "victim*," and "sex crimes." Thirty-eight studies were identified that met the inclusion criteria. Findings showed homeless youth commonly report being raped and sexually assaulted, fear being sexually victimized, and engage in street prostitution and survival sex. Rates of victimization and sexual risk behavior were generally higher for females. Given the paucity of longitudinal studies and limitations of current studies, it is unclear whether homelessness is prospectively associated with sexual victimization or engagement in sexual risk behavior, and whether such associations vary cross nationally and as a function of time and place. Future prospective research examining the influence of the situational context of homelessness is necessary to develop a better understanding of how homelessness influences the perpetration of sexual offenses, experience of sexual victimization, and engagement in sexual risk behavior among homeless youth. PMID:25411128
Cramer, Robert J; McNiel, Dale E; Holley, Sarah R; Shumway, Martha; Boccellari, Alicia
The present study investigates victim sexual orientation in a sample of 641 violent crime victims seeking emergency medical treatment at a public-sector hospital. Victim sexual orientation was examined as it: (a) varies by type of violent crime and demographic characteristics, (b) directly relates to psychological symptoms, and (c) moderates the relationship between victim and crime characteristics (i.e., victim gender, victim trauma history, and type of crime) and psychological symptoms (i.e., symptoms of acute stress, depression, panic, and general anxiety). Results showed that lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) victims were more likely to be victims of sexual assault. Heterosexual victims were more likely to be victims of general assault and shootings. LGBT victims demonstrated significantly higher levels of acute stress and general anxiety. Moreover, victim sexual orientation moderated the association of type of crime with experience of panic symptoms. Also, victim sexual orientation moderated the relation of victim trauma history and general anxiety symptoms. Results are discussed in relation to victimization prevalence rates, sexual prejudice theory, and assessment and treatment of violent crime victims. PMID:22471413
Orchowski, Lindsay M; Untied, Amy S; Gidycz, Christine A
Despite high rates of sexual assault among college women, most victims do not label the experience as sexual assault or rape. Prior research examining labeling of sexual victimization has focused on women's characterization of rape experiences as either not victimization or victimization. This study extends prior research by exploring factors associated with labeling various forms of sexual victimization as "not victimization," a "serious miscommunication," or a "sexual assault, date rape, rape, or crime." A sample of 1,060 college women reported on their experiences of sexual victimization since the age of 14 years. Women who reported experiences of prior sexual victimization (n = 371) indicated their level of acquaintance with the assailant, assault disclosure, substance use at time of assault, attributions of self- and perpetrator-blame for the assault, and labeling of the experience. Most women who reported experiences of sexual victimization did not self-identify as victims, and 38% labeled sexual victimization as a serious miscommunication. Greater acquaintance with the perpetrator, higher behavioral self-blame, and victim substance use at the time of the assault were associated with labeling sexual assault experiences as a serious miscommunication. Implications are discussed. PMID:24547673
Tripodi, Stephen J; Pettus-Davis, Carrie
Women are entering US prisons at nearly double the rate of men and are the fastest growing prison population. Current extant literature focuses on the prevalence of the incarceration of women, but few studies exist that emphasize the different trajectories to prison. For example, women prisoners have greater experiences of prior victimization, more reports of mental illness, and higher rates of illicit substance use. The purpose of this study was to understand the prevalence of childhood victimization and its association with adult mental health problems, substance abuse disorders, and further sexual victimization. The research team interviewed a random sample of 125 women prisoners soon to be released from prison to gather information on their childhood physical and sexual victimization, mental health and substance abuse problems as an adult, and sexual victimization in the year preceding incarceration. Results indicate that women prisoners in this sample, who were both physically and sexually victimized as children, were more likely to be hospitalized as an adult for a psychological or emotional problem. Women who were sexually victimized or both physically and sexually victimized were more likely to attempt suicide. Women who experienced physical victimization as children and women who were both physically and sexually victimized were more likely to have a substance use disorder and women who were sexually abused as children or both physically and sexually victimized were more likely to be sexually abused in the year preceding prison. This article ends with a discussion about prisons' role in providing treatment for women prisoners and basing this treatment on women's trajectories to prison, which disproportionately include childhood victimization and subsequent mental health and substance use problems. PMID:23196054
Carson, D K; Gertz, L M; Donaldson, M A; Wonderlich, S A
We examined connections between incest victims' family-of-origin and family-of-procreation characteristics in a sample of 40 American women who were in treatment for childhood or adolescent experiences of victimization. Retrospective data on their families-of-origin were collected along with their perceptions of current relationships with family members in the three-generational system. Results showed a close association between family-of-origin and family-of-procreation characteristics, especially in the areas of intergenerational intimacy, intergenerational fusion/individuation, and personal authority. A number of significant correlations were also found between subjects' past and present relationships with family-of-origin members and the dimensions of moral and religious orientation, achievement, and intellectual and cultural orientation, conflict, and control in their family-of-procreation. Some aspects of individual adjustment, including alienation, emotional discomfort, and defensiveness, were strongly related to various family-of-origin and family-of-procreation characteristics. PMID:1770462
Monroe, Laura M.; Kinney, Linda M.; Weist, Mark D.; Dafeamekpor, Denise Spriggs; Dantzler, Joyce; Reynolds, Matthew W.
A statewide assessment was conducted of assaults, experiences, needs, and recommendations of 125 adult victims receiving care at 19 sexual assault centers (SACs) in the State of Maryland. More than one half of the victims (55.6%) waited years before disclosing, with delays in reporting especially likely if the assault was perpetrated by a family…
Smith, S K
This is the second of a two-part article describing the results of a qualitative study on women's experiences of victimizing sexualization. Ten adult women described their experiences of harmful learning about themselves as female and sexual. A four-part thematic description of women's experiences of victimizing sexualization was derived. This article reports on two of the major categories: community and cultural characteristics and longer term personal impacts. Findings of the study support the feminist position that the enactment of gender itself at social and cultural levels sometimes places women at risk for victimization. PMID:9362721
Bullock, Clayton M; Beckson, Mace
Myths, stereotypes, and unfounded beliefs about male sexuality, in particular male homosexuality, are widespread in legal and medical communities, as well as among agencies providing services to sexual assault victims. These include perceptions that men in noninstitutionalized settings are rarely sexually assaulted, that male victims are responsible for their assaults, that male sexual assault victims are less traumatized by the experience than their female counterparts, and that ejaculation is an indicator of a positive erotic experience. As a result of the prevalence of such beliefs, there is an underreporting of sexual assaults by male victims; a lack of appropriate services for male victims; and, effectively, no legal redress for male sexual assault victims. By comparison, male sexual assault victims have fewer resources and greater stigma than do female sexual assault victims. Many male victims, either because of physiological effects of anal rape or direct stimulation by their assailants, have an erection, ejaculate, or both during the assault. This is incorrectly understood by assailant, victim, the justice system, and the medical community as signifying consent by the victim. Studies of male sexual physiology suggest that involuntary erections or ejaculations can occur in the context of nonconsensual, receptive anal sex. Erections and ejaculations are only partially under voluntary control and are known to occur during times of extreme duress in the absence of sexual pleasure. Particularly within the criminal justice system, this misconception, in addition to other unfounded beliefs, has made the courts unwilling to provide legal remedy to male victims of sexual assault, especially when the victim experienced an erection or an ejaculation during the assault. Attorneys and forensic psychiatrists must be better informed about the physiology of these phenomena to formulate evidence-based opinions. PMID:21653264
Rasmussen, Lucinda A
The Victim to Victimizer paradigm purports to explain the connection between being a victim of sexual abuse and becoming a perpetrator, attributing sexually abusive behavior to a predictable cycle of cognitive distortions and self-destructive and/or abusive behaviors. Integration of two ecological models, Trauma Outcome Process Assessment and Family Lovemap provides a more comprehensive explanation of salient contributors to sexually abusive behavior in youth (i.e., trauma). A case example illustrates the parallel Trauma Outcome Process in a victim, and the victim's perpetrator, identifying protective factors beneficial for trauma recovery. PMID:23585464
Hines, Denise A; Armstrong, Jessica L; Reed, Kathleen Palm; Cameron, Amy Y
College students are at particular risk for sexual assault victimization, yet research tends to focus on women as victims and men as perpetrators. The purpose of this study was to investigate gender differences in the prevalence, context, and predictors of sexual assault victimization among college students. Results showed that women were significantly more likely to have been sexually assaulted in a 2-month time period, but the context of victimization varied little by gender. Victimization was predicted by sexual orientation, time spent socializing and partying, and severe dating violence victimization for men and by year in school, time spent on the Internet, drinking and using drugs, and being a stalking and dating violence victim for women. Results are discussed in the context of routine activities theory and implications for prevention and future research. PMID:23393954
Background: The assessment of victims of child sexual abuse (CSA) is now a recognized aspect of clinical work for both CAMH and adult services. As juvenile perpetrators of CSA are responsible for a significant minority of the sexual assaults on other children, CAMH services are increasingly approached to assess these oversexualized younger…
Najdowski, Cynthia J; Ullman, Sarah E
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and problem drinking are common and often co-occurring sequelae experienced by women survivors of adult sexual assault, yet it remains unclear whether survivors drink to cope with PTSD symptoms or whether PTSD symptoms are exacerbated by drinking. Thus, we used a cross-lagged panel design with a large (N=555), ethnically diverse sample of women assault survivors to determine whether PTSD prospectively led to problem drinking or vice versa. We also examined whether cumulative sexual victimization experiences related to greater PTSD and problem drinking. Structural equation modeling revealed that child sexual abuse was associated with greater symptoms of PTSD and problem drinking and intervening sexual victimization was associated with greater symptoms of PTSD and problem drinking 1 year later. We found no evidence, however, that PTSD directly influenced problem drinking over the long term, or vice versa. Rather, experiencing revictimization during the study predicted survivors' prospective PTSD and problem drinking symptoms. Implications and recommendations for future research are discussed. PMID:19501469
Petersen, Jennifer L.; Hyde, Janet Shibley
The current study describes longitudinal trends in sexual harassment by adolescent peers and highlights gender, pubertal status, attractiveness, and power as predictors of harassment victimization. At the end of 5th, 7th, and 9th grades, 242 adolescents completed questionnaires about sexual harassment victimization, pubertal status, and perceived…
Shrum, Rebecca A.; Halgin, Richard P.
A senior psychology seminar that dealt with recent psychological, sociological, and feminist literature on sexual victimization is described. Major topics addressed were rape, childhood sexual abuse, and incest. The topics of pornography, sexual harassment, and sexual exploitation in the media were also covered. (Author/RM)
Roth, Susan; And Others
There is evidence that many women experience sexual assault, and that sexual assault can cause psychological and interpersonal problems. This study examined the psychological aftermath of sexual assault in a probability sample of female university students and employees (N=542), focusing on how various aspects of a victim's lifetime sexual assault…
Davies, Michelle; Rogers, Paul; Bates, Jo-Anne
This study investigates the impact of victim sexual orientation, the degree of victim physical resistance, and respondent gender on attributions of blame and assault severity in a hypothetical case of stranger-perpetrated male rape. One hundred eighty-three participants read a scenario depicting a rape in which the victim's sexuality and degree of resistance were both varied between-subjects before completing 12 blame attribution items. Overall, findings suggest that male respondents were less pro-victim than were females. While women generally attributed little victim blame and considered the assault very severe regardless of condition, men were influenced by both factors. Specifically, although men considered the assault severe, they blamed a gay victim more when he fought back against his attacker but, conversely, blamed a heterosexual victim when he did not fight back. Results are discussed in relation to homophobia and judgments about victim resistance during rape. Implications for treatment services are also considered. PMID:19042285
Masters, N. Tatiana; George, William H.; Davis, Kelly Cue; Norris, Jeanette; Heiman, Julia R.; Jacques-Tiura, Angela J.; Gilmore, Amanda K.; Nguyen, Hong V.; Kajumulo, Kelly F.; Otto, Jacqueline M.; Stappenbeck, Cynthia A.
Sexually victimized women may make sexual decisions differently than non-victimized women. This study used an eroticized scenario and laboratory alcohol administration to investigate the roles of victimization history, intoxication, and relationship context in women’s perceptions of a male partner and their subsequent intentions for unprotected sex. A community sample of 436 women completed childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and adolescent/adult sexual assault (ASA) measures. After random assignment to an alcohol or control condition, participants read and projected themselves into a sexual scenario which depicted the male partner as having high or low potential for a lasting relationship. Participants rated their perceptions of his intoxication, STI risk level, and anticipated reactions to insistence on condom use. They then indicated their likelihood of allowing the partner to decide how far to go sexually (abdication) and engaging in unprotected sex. SEM analyses revealed that intoxication predicted greater unprotected sex likelihood indirectly via abdication. CSA and ASA predicted partner perceptions, which in turn predicted unprotected sex likelihood. These findings indicate that, compared to non-victimized counterparts, sexually victimized women may respond differently in sexual encounters partly as a function of their perceptions of partners’ STI risk and anticipated reactions to condom insistence. PMID:23718552
Tyler, R P; Stone, L E
Children have been sexually exploited throughout recorded history. The invention of the camera and subsequent related technological advances (slides, movies, instant picture cameras and videotape) have provided new avenues for the exploitation of children by facilitating the distribution of pictorial representations of these children on a world-wide basis. A major use of commercial child pornography is to convince a potential child victim that the sexual acts desired by the adult offender are fun, exciting, can satisfy the child's curiosity and are a societally acceptable means of expressing affection. Commercial child pornography publications contain numerous pictures of children viewing child pornography, in some cases replicating the pose(s) depicted in the viewed material. Although many jurisdictions have now prohibited child pornography, the need for a world-wide ban continues, as the remaining producers distribute their material throughout the world. PMID:3902167
Davies, M; Pollard, P; Archer, J
This study investigated the impact of respondent gender, victim gender, and victim sexual orientation on judgments toward the victim of a depicted stranger rape. Respondents were required to read a scenario in which victim gender and sexual orientation varied between subjects, and to complete measures of behavioral blame, responsibility, and severity of the attack. Results revealed that male respondents made more anti-victim judgments than female respondents did. Male respondents judged gay male victims more negatively than they did other victims. Female respondents' judgments were pro-victim regardless of victim gender and victim sexual orientation. Results are discussed in relation to the feminist analysis of victim blame, and blame toward male rape victims. Implications for support services, particularly of male victims, are also considered. PMID:11863061
Schry, Amie R; White, Susan W
Sexual victimization is prevalent among college women and is associated with adverse psychological consequences. Social anxiety, particularly related to interpersonal interaction, may increase risk of sexual victimization among college women by decreasing sexual assertiveness and decreasing the likelihood of using assertive resistance techniques. This study examined social interaction anxiety as a risk factor for sexual victimization. College women (n=672) completed online measures of social interaction anxiety, sexual assertiveness, and sexual victimization experiences. Social interaction anxiety was significantly positively related to likelihood of experiencing coerced sexual intercourse, and significant indirect effects, via decreased sexual refusal assertiveness, were found for both coerced sexual intercourse and rape. Social anxiety may be an important psychological barrier to assertive resistance during risky sexual situations, and developers of risk reduction programs for college women should consider including methods to help women overcome their social anxiety in order to successfully use assertive resistance techniques. PMID:23312432
Part II: Differences between Sexually Victimized and Nonsexually Victimized Male Adolescent Sexual Abusers and Delinquent Youth--Further Group Comparisons of Developmental Antecedents and Behavioral Challenges
Leibowitz, George S.; Burton, David L.; Howard, Alan
In a recent paper published in the "Journal of Child Sexual Abuse," we assessed the differences between sexually victimized and nonsexually victimized male adolescent sexual abusers (Burton, Duty, & Leibowitz, 2011). We found that the sexually victimized group had more severe developmental antecedents (e.g., trauma and early exposure to…
Schry, Amie R.; White, Susan W.
Sexual victimization is prevalent among college women and is associated with adverse psychological consequences. Social anxiety, particularly related to interpersonal interaction, may increase risk of sexual victimization among college women by decreasing sexual assertiveness and decreasing the likelihood of using assertive resistance techniques.…
Denov, Myriam S.
Although the long-term effects of sexual abuse by men have been studied extensively, minimal research has explored the effects of sexual abuse by women. This qualitative study explores the experience and long-term impact of sexual abuse by women. The data were derived from in-depth interviews with 14 adult victims (7 men, 7 women) of child sexual…
Ogle, Christin M.; Block, Stephanie D.; Harris, LaTonya S.; Goodman, Gail S.; Pineda, Annarheen; Timmer, Susan; Urquiza, Anthony; Saywitz, Karen J.
The present study examined the specificity of autobiographical memory in adolescents and adults with versus without child sexual abuse (CSA) histories. Eighty-five participants, approximately half of whom per age group had experienced CSA, were tested on the Autobiographical Memory Interview. Individual difference measures, including for trauma-related psychopathology, were also administered. Findings revealed developmental differences in the relation between autobiographical memory specificity and CSA. Even with depression statistically controlled, reduced memory specificity in CSA victims relative to controls was observed among adolescents but not among adults. A higher number of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder criteria met predicted more specific childhood memories in participants who reported CSA as their most traumatic life event. These findings contribute to the scientific understanding of childhood trauma and autobiographical memory functioning and underscore the importance of considering the role of age and degree of traumatization within the study of autobiographical memory. PMID:23627947
Testa, Maria; Hoffman, Joseph H.; Livingston, Jennifer
Objective: Women who experience sexual victimization, whether in childhood, adolescence, or adulthood, are at elevated risk of sexual revictimization. The mechanism responsible for this robust association is unclear, however. The present study proposed and tested a prospective, mediated model that posited that the association between adolescent and college victimization is mediated via two types of risk exposure in the first semester of college: alcohol-related and sexual risk behaviors. Method: Female adolescents (N = 469) were recruited from the community at the time of high school graduation. They completed baseline assessments as well as follow-ups at the end of the first and second semesters of college. Results: Consistent with hypotheses, adolescent sexual victimization was associated indirectly, via high school risk behaviors, with increased first semester college risk behaviors (i.e., sexual partners, hookups, heavy episodic drinking and heavy drinking contexts), which were, in turn, strongly predictive of sexual victimization experiences in the first year of college. College risk behaviors partially mediated the significant association between adolescent and first year college victimization; however, even women without prior victimization faced elevated risk of college victimization with higher levels of college risk behaviors. Conclusions: Women who have experienced adolescent sexual victimization engage in higher levels of risk-taking in college, thereby increasing vulnerability to college victimization. Intervention to reduce these primarily alcohol-related risk-taking behaviors may reduce vulnerability to college sexual victimization. PMID:20350035
Leibowitz, George S; Laser, Julie A; Burton, David L
An etiological model of sexually abusive behavior including dissociation could have utility for researchers and treatment providers working with sexually abusive youth with trauma histories. This article explores relationships between dissociation, victimization, and juvenile sexual offending. Self-reported data on dissociation and 5 types of abuse were collected from 2 racially/ethnically diverse groups of sexually abusive and general delinquent male adolescents (n = 502). Bivariate analysis showed significant correlations between all types of child abuse and dissociation with the exception of emotional neglect. Hierarchical logistic regression analysis indicated that dissociation was significant in predicting sexual offender status. Moreover, dissociation, sexual victimization, and physical abuse showed significant effects in predicting membership in the sexual offender group. The results confirm the need for additional research in the areas of assessment and treatment of dissociation among sexually abusive youth. PMID:21240737
The purpose of this study is to examine how professionals and paraprofessionals involved with a Sexual Assault Response Team (SART) understand and navigate different professional statutory requirements for victim confidentiality. Telephone surveys are conducted with 78 professionals: medical (27.8%), criminal justice (44.3%), and victim advocacy…
Part II: differences between sexually victimized and nonsexually victimized male adolescent sexual abusers and delinquent youth: further group comparisons of developmental antecedents and behavioral challenges.
Leibowitz, George S; Burton, David L; Howard, Alan
In a recent paper published in the Journal of Child Sexual Abuse, we assessed the differences between sexually victimized and nonsexually victimized male adolescent sexual abusers ( Burton, Duty, & Leibowitz, 2011 ). We found that the sexually victimized group had more severe developmental antecedents (e.g., trauma and early exposure to pornography) and behavioral difficulties (sexual aggression, arousal, pornography use, and nonsexual offenses). The present study compares sexually victimized and nonsexually victimized adolescent sexual abusers with a group of nonsexually victimized delinquent youth. Findings included that delinquent youth had fewer behavioral and developmental problems than the comparison groups. In addition, sexually victimized sexual abusers had the highest mean scores on trauma and personality measures. Implications for research and treatment are offered. PMID:22574846
Underwager, Ralph; Wakefield, Hollida
The investigation and adjudication of cases of alleged sexual abuse of children can cause as much or more trauma to a child as the sexual abuse itself. Such secondary victimization may occur when children are subjected to repeated interviews, questionable techniques, intrusive physical examinations, inappropriate reactions and overreactions by…
Surveyed New Zealand undergraduate students. Found that 51.6 percent of 347 women reported sexual victimization and 25.3 percent had either been raped or experienced attempted rape. Prevalence data are almost identical to those found using same instrument (Sexual Experiences Survey) in United States. New Zealand men reported perpetrating…
Gore, Michele T.; Black, Pamela J.
This paper reports findings of an exploratory study surveying 61 students about their prior child sexual abuse victimization. Bachelor of Social Work (BSW) students were surveyed at the beginning and end of a child abuse course and results indicated that 19.7 % of the students reported being sexually abused during childhood. Results also indicated…
Ullman, Sarah E.; Najdowski, Cynthia J.; Filipas, Henrietta H.
This study examined the unique effects of child sexual abuse simultaneously with post-traumatic stress disorder symptom clusters, problem drinking, and illicit drug use in relation to sexual revictimization in a community sample of female adult sexual assault victims. Participants (N = 555) completed two surveys a year apart. Child sexual abuse…
Sylaska, Kateryna M; Edwards, Katie M
Although research on disclosure following intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization is burgeoning, sexual minority young adults' (lesbian, gay, bisexual, queer, questioning, etc.; LGBQ+) experiences have not received equal attention. The current study employed the minority stress framework to examine disclosure experiences of LGBQ+ college students across the United States reporting physical IPV victimization within their current relationship (n = 77). Participants completed measures assessing minority stress and IPV disclosure, and answered open-ended questions regarding the most and least helpful persons/responses to disclosure or reasons for non-disclosure. Results indicated that approximately one-third (35 %) of victims disclosed to at least one person, with friends being the most common recipients. Thematic analyses indicated that talking or listening to the victim was considered the most helpful response and not understanding the situation least helpful. Reasons for non-disclosure centered on themes of the victims' perception that the IPV was not a big deal. Quantitative findings regarding physical IPV disclosure indicated that non-disclosers experienced greater minority stress than disclosers. The current study suggests the presence of differences between sexual minority (i.e., LGBQ +persons) and non-sexual minority persons, as well as between LGBQ+ young adults/college students and older adults and presents a theoretical structure (i.e., minority stress framework) through which these differences may be understood. PMID:25845665
Schaefer, Gerard A.; Mundt, Ingrid A.; Ahlers, Christoph J.; Bahls, Christian
Sexual abuse of children has been a topic of scientific investigation for the past few decades. Research in this area, however, is rarely initiated, conceptualized, and conducted by victims themselves. Apart from possibly having painted a one-sided picture of sexual abuse, this presumed dominance of nonvictims might also have marginalized victims…
Leclerc, Benoit; Wortley, Richard; Smallbone, Stephen
This study examines the efficacy, as experienced by offenders with their victim, of self-protection strategies used in child sexual abuse cases. It also investigates whether the efficacy of self-protection varies according to victim characteristics. The sample consists of 94 adult offenders who sexually abused a single child and who agreed to…
Leroux, Elisabeth J; Pullman, Lesleigh E; Motayne, Gregory; Seto, Michael C
More knowledge is needed about the etiology and treatment needs of adolescent sex offenders. The current study compared adolescents who had offended against children (defined as below the age of 12 and at least 5 years younger than the adolescent), adolescents who have offended against peers or adults, and adolescents who had victims in both age groups. Based on Seto and Lalumière's meta-analytic findings, participants were compared on theoretically derived factors, including childhood sexual abuse, atypical sexual interests, sexual experience, social competence, psychiatric history, and general delinquency factors (past criminal history, substance abuse history, and offense characteristics). The study sample consisted of 162 court-referred male adolescent sexual offenders aged 12 to 17 years. Of the six identified domains, groups significantly differed on five of them; the exceptions were variables reflecting social competence. The results further support the validity of distinguishing adolescent sex offenders by victim age. PMID:24906363
Cecil, Heather; Matson, Steven C.
Adolescent females are disproportionately represented among reported cases of sexual victimization. Because sexual victimization is associated with an array of negative sequelae (e.g., depression, alcohol abuse), psychometrically sound instruments are urgently needed to assess sexual victimization or coercion. The investigation conducts a…
Andersen, Judith P; Zou, Christopher; Blosnich, John
Prior research shows that health disparities exist between sexual minority and heterosexual individuals. We extend the literature by testing if the higher prevalence of childhood victimization experienced by sexual minority individuals accounts for lifetime health disparities. Heterosexual (n = 422) and sexual minority (n = 681) participants were recruited on-line in North America. Respondents completed surveys about their childhood victimization experiences (i.e., maltreatment by adults and peer victimization) and lifetime physician-diagnosed physical health conditions. Results showed that sexual minority individuals experienced higher prevalence of childhood victimization and lifetime physical health problems than heterosexuals. Mediation analyses indicated that maltreatment by adults and peer bullying explained the health disparities between sexual minority individuals and heterosexuals. This study is the first to show that multiple childhood victimization experiences may be one pathway to explain lifetime physical health disparities. Intervention programs reducing the perpetration of violence against sexual minority individuals are critical to reduce health care needs related to victimization experiences. PMID:25864147
Rubenzahl, Samuel A.; Gilbert, Brenda O.
Surveys of agencies specializing in treating victims of child sexual abuse indicate that sexual education is covered in treatment with children of all ages, with male and female clients, and in both individual and group therapy. There was a statistically significant difference in the coverage of sexual education based on clients' age, but not…
Plumm, Karyn M; Terrance, Cheryl A; Henderson, Vanessa R; Ellingson, Heather
A jury simulation paradigm was employed for two studies exploring levels of victim blame in a case of bias-motivated assault based on sexual orientation. In the first study, participants were grouped according to their score on the Index of Homophobia (IHP) scale as either reporting high or low support for gay and lesbian community members. The label of the crime (i.e., bias-motivated assault versus first-degree assault) as well as the gender of the victim were systematically varied. Results indicated that attributions of blame against the victim varied as a function of participants' attitudes toward minority sexual orientation. As extra-legal factors likely contribute to victim blame in these cases, the second study explored such factors as location and "provocation." Jurors in the second study read a transcript depicting an attack on a gay man by a man in either a local bar (i.e., not a gay bar) or a gay bar. Within location conditions, jurors were presented with either "provocation" by the victim (i.e., asking the perpetrator to dance and putting his arm around him) or alternatively no provocation was presented. Results revealed significant differences of victim blame depending on condition. Participants in both the local bar and provocation present conditions were more likely to blame the victim for the attack than those in the gay bar or provocation-absent conditions. Implications for hate crime law and attribution theory within the courtroom are discussed. PMID:20390993
Linet, T; Nizard, J
Caring for victims of sexual assault is a difficult situation where the physician has to simultaneously evaluate the psychological impact and conduct a complete and precise physical examination. To make sure every step of the examination is completed and all samplings are done in the correct order by all physicians, it is useful to have a written routine protocol. We describe step-by-step management procedures for victims of sexual assault, taking into consideration the psychological aspect, the physical examination, the different samplings, and the different emergency treatments. Free download of the entire protocol, with the booklet containing examples of prescriptions, is available at http://www.agof.net/constatviol/. PMID:15052175
Teaster, Pamela B; Ramsey-Klawsnik, Holly; Abner, Erin L; Kim, Sujee
This study examined 64 cases of sexual victimization of women ages 65+ (mean = 81) living in facilities that were investigated by APS and regulatory agencies in five states over a six-month period. Typically, abuse involved molestation (53%) and unwelcome sexual interest in the body (20%). Abilities and needs of women in substantiated and unsubstantiated cases were comparable. Resident perpetrators were more likely to be substantiated than staff or any other perpetrator (p = 0.008). Our results underscore the need to evaluate differences associated with gender, age, and residence, and to train on reporting and intervention by disciplines serving victims. PMID:26331674
Walsh, Kate; Gonsalves, Valerie M.; Scalora, Mario J.; King, Steve; Hardyman, Patricia L.
Despite data indicating that child maltreatment (CM) in various forms is associated with adult sexual victimization among community women, few studies have explicitly explored how types of CM might relate to prison sexual victimization. Because little is known about how CM might give rise to prison sexual victimization, the present study also examined emotion dysregulation emanating from early abuse experiences as a potential mediator in the link between early CM and inmate-on-inmate prison sexual victimization. Approximately 168 incarcerated women completed self-report inventories assessing various types of childhood maltreatment, emotion dysregulation, and coerced or forced sexual experiences in prison. Nearly 77% of the sample endorsed experiencing at least one form of CM, with 64% of inmates reporting that they experienced two or more forms of CM. Approximately 9% of inmates reported sexual coercion and 22% reported a forced sexual experience in prison. Each form of CM was associated with prison sexual coercion; however, fewer associations emerged between CM and forced prison sexual experiences. Emotion dysregulation was found to mediate links between CM, particularly co-occurring CM, and sexual coercion in prison, but it was unrelated to forced prison sexual experiences. Implications are discussed. PMID:21987505
Smith, S K
Qualitative, interpretive research was conducted with ten adult women who felt that their experiences of learning about themselves as female and sexual had been harmful. The term "victimizing sexualization" was developed to identify this experience, and a thematic description of these women's experiences was derived. Components of their experiences were described within four major categories, including perceptions and descriptions directly related to abuse experiences, home and family environments, community and cultural characteristics, and longer term personal impacts. This article reports on two of the major thematic categories: perceptions and descriptions related to abuse experiences and home and family environment. Findings of this study establish "victimizing sexualization" as a meaningful women's health construct with important connections to feminist perspectives on women's lives. PMID:9362720
Palm, Kathleen M.; Follette, Victoria M.
There is a growing body of research illustrating a significant relationship between a history of sexual victimization and the development of physical health problems; however, few researchers have examined variables that mediate this relationship. The present study examined two potential mediating variables: experiential avoidance and current…
Miller, Audrey K.; Markman, Keith D.; Amacker, Amanda M.; Menaker, Tasha A.
Legal scholars have argued that laws have an "expressive function", specifically that sexual assault laws may convey social-level messages that victims are culpable for crimes against them. In a university sample, we conducted the first experimental test of legal scholars' proposal, hypothesizing that legal messages--specifically their clarity and…
Luo, Feijun; Stone, Deborah M.; Tharp, Andra T.
Objectives We examined (1) whether sexual minority youths (SMYs) are at increased risk for physical dating violence victimization (PDVV) compared with non-SMYs, (2) whether bisexual youths have greater risk of PDVV than lesbian or gay youths, (3) whether youths who have had sexual contact with both sexes are more susceptible to PDVV than youths with same sex–only sexual contact, and (4) patterns of PDVV among SMYs across demographic groups. Methods Using 2 measures of sexual orientation, sexual identity and sexual behavior, and compiling data from 9 urban areas that administered the Youth Risk Behavior Surveys from 2001 to 2011, we conducted logistic regression analyses to calculate odds of PDVV among SMYs across demographic sub-samples. Results SMYs have significantly increased odds of PDVV compared with non-SMYs. Bisexual youths do not have significantly higher odds of PDVV than gay or lesbian youths, but youths who had sexual contact with both-sexes possess significantly higher odds of PDVV than youths with same sex–only sexual contact. These patterns hold for most gender, grade, and racial/ethnic subgroups. Conclusions Overall, SMYs have greater odds of PDVV versus non-SMYs. Among SMYs, youths who had sexual contact with both sexes have greater odds of PDVV than youths with same sex–only sexual contact. Prevention programs that consider sexual orientation, support tolerance, and teach coping and conflict resolution skills could reduce PDVV among SMYs. PMID:25121813
Simons, Leslie Gordon; Simons, Ronald L; Lei, Man-Kit; Sutton, Tara E
Sexual violence against women is a major concern to researchers and policy makers, as well as to the general public. This study uses a sample of more than 2,000 college students to investigate the extent to which exposure to harsh parenting practices and sexually explicit materials contributes to perpetration and victimization. Findings indicate that frequent corporal punishment in the family of origin combined with consumption of pornographic materials increased the probability that males reported engaging in coercive sexual practices. For females, both frequent corporal punishment and exposure to paternal hostility combined with consumption of pornographic materials were associated with higher levels of reported sexual victimization. These results provide increased understanding of the impact of pornography use among a nonclinical sample, as well as the consequences of experiencing harsh corporal punishment in one's family of origin, on the sexual victimization of females. PMID:22852438
Mustaine, Elizabeth Ehrhardt; Tewksbury, Richard; Corzine, Jay; Huff-Corzine, Lin
This study examined the utility of social disorganization theory as an explanation for child sexual abuse with a focus on differentiating single and multiple victim cases. Drawing on 1,172 child sexual abuse cases (including 159 cases with multiple victims) in Orange County, Florida, from 2004 to 2006, the present study considered case characteristics and elements of social disorganization as potential predictors of child sexual abuse cases involving single and multiple victims. We found that social disorganization theory does not successfully predict the locations of multiple victim child sexual abuse incidents and is not useful for distinguishing between child sexual abuse incidents with single or multiple victims. PMID:24393089
East, Patricia L; Chien, Nina C; Adams, Joyce A; Hokoda, Audrey; Maier, Ashley
This study examined the extent to which a sister's prior sexual and dating victimization is a risk factor for young women being similarly victimized and the possible factors underlying a co-occurrence. The sample involved 122 young adult Latina or African American sister pairs (244 women; ages 16-25) who resided in low-income, urban neighborhoods. Results indicated that women whose sisters had been victimized had increased risk of victimization even after controlling for neighborhood crime, parental controls, age and race-ethnicity (odds ratios were 4.0 for unwanted touching, 6.2 for a forced sex act, and 16.7 for dating violence). In high-crime neighborhoods, the presence of two adult parent figures in the home was associated with women's reduced likelihood of unwanted touching, and mothers' high monitoring during adolescence was associated with women's lower risk of dating aggression. Survival analysis results showed that the risk period of a second sister being victimized lasts between 7 and 10 years after a first sister's victimization. The prevention implications of study findings are discussed. PMID:21171768
Yarkovsky, Nicole; Timmons Fritz, Patti A
The present study examined relations between attachment style, age at first sexual intercourse, and dating aggression (DA) victimization. In all, 137 heterosexual female undergraduate students 18 to 25 years of age (M = 20.76, SD = 1.87) completed an online questionnaire that included questions regarding sexual history, attachment style (Experiences in Close Relationships Scale), and DA (Conflict in Adolescent Dating Relationships Inventory). Initial bivariate correlations revealed that women reported higher rates of DA victimization if they were more anxiously attached (r = .30, p = .000), had an earlier age at vaginal sexual debut (r = -.19, p = .015), and had an earlier age at oral sexual debut (r = -.15, p = .046); however, when entered into a predictive multivariate model, neither the addition of anxious attachment nor an early age at sexual debut accounted for a significant amount of variance above and beyond control variables. Although we were unable to affirm anxious attachment and an early age at first intercourse as risk factors for DA victimization, posthoc analyses emphasized the need to control for social desirability when gathering information on sensitive topics in clinical and research settings. PMID:24106148
Sigurvinsdottir, Rannveig; Ulman, Sarah E
Few studies examine the sexual violence victimization and recovery of nonheterosexuals. Limited available research suggests that lesbian and bisexual women are at increased risk for sexual violence and experience more recovery problems following assault than heterosexuals. We examine differences by sexual orientation in victimization, recovery, and social reactions as well as whether racial differences relate to recovery in female sexual assault survivors (N = 1,863) from the community. Bisexual women emerged as a distinct group from heterosexual women with greater recovery problems and experienced greater impact of social reactions. Black sexual minority women also had more negative outcomes than White sexual minority women. Results suggest that differences in sexual orientation and race relate to poorer recovery, especially for survivors with multiple marginalized identities. PMID:26159835
Testa, Maria; VanZile-Tamsen, Carol; Livingston, Jennifer A.
Although behavioral risk factors such as substance use have been hypothesized to increase women's vulnerability to sexual victimization, prospective studies provide mixed empirical support. In the current prospective study, the authors considered substance use, sexual activity, and sexual assertiveness as predictors of sexual victimization from…
Hagan, Kiara S; Reidy, Lisa
Drug facilitated sexual assault (DFSA) can be defined as sexual activity occurring whereby the victim is incapacitated by drugs and/or alcohol and thereby unable to consent. A new wave of designer drugs is emerging in the community at large and one group, the synthetic cathinones, is described in this study. Analyzing urine samples from reported sexual assaults submitted to the University of Miami Toxicology Lab in 2013 determined that methylone has become a popular drug encountered in these cases. Derivatization of these synthetic cathinones enabled a validated a qualitative method to identify ten different designer drugs. Of the forty-five sexual assault samples submitted, 13% were positive for synthetic cathinones without any toxicological finding of ethanol, GHB or ketamine. This study illustrates the recent correlation of drug-facilitated sexual assaults and the use of synthetic cathinones. PMID:26301833
Campbell, Rebecca; Greeson, Megan R; Fehler-Cabral, Giannina; Kennedy, Angie C
In this study, we conducted semistructured interviews with N = 20 adolescent sexual assault victims who sought postassault help from the medical and legal system to understand young survivors' disclosure and help-seeking processes. Results revealed three distinct disclosure patterns and pathways to help-seeking. First, in the voluntary disclosure group, victims told their friends, who encouraged them to tell an adult, who then encouraged--and assisted--the survivors in seeking help. Throughout this process, the survivors' disclosures at each step were within their control and reflected their choices for how to proceed. Second, in the involuntary disclosure pattern, victims also first disclosed to friends, but then those friends told adults about the assault, against the survivors' wishes; the adults made the victims seek help, which was also against the survivors' preferences. Third, in situational disclosures, the survivors were unconscious at the time of the assault, and their friends disclosed and sought help on their behalf. We also examined how these initial disclosure patterns related to victims' continued engagement with these systems. PMID:25933673
Reese-Weber, Marla; Smith, Dana M.
The association between a history of child sexual abuse (CSA) and specific negative outcomes (attachment, feelings of power, and self-esteem) was explored as was the relationship between those negative outcomes and sexual victimization during the first semester of college. Two groups of freshman college women (67 who had experienced CSA and 55 who…
Testa, Maria; Hoffman, Joseph H.; Livingston, Jennifer A.
Objective: Women who experience sexual victimization, whether in childhood, adolescence, or adulthood, are at elevated risk of sexual revictimization. The mechanism responsible for this robust association is unclear, however. The present study proposed and tested a prospective, mediated model that posited that the association between adolescent…
Background Sexual violence is considered a serious violation of human rights which affects mainly young women and adolescents. There is little information about the conditions under which sexual offences occur. We evaluated characteristics of sexual violence against adolescent girls and adult women. Method This is a quantitative, retrospective, descriptive study of sexual violence against adolescent girls and adult women. Analyses were carried out on data collected from 1118 women, 546 adolescents (10-19 years) and 572 adults (≥ 20 years), with a complaint of rape treated at Hospital Pérola Byington, São Paulo, between 1994 and 1999. The age limit of the adolescent sample met the World Health Organization’s (WHO) criteria. We analyzed the type of sexual contact, degree of intimidation, perpetrator and activity of the victim during the approach. Results Crimes without penetration were five times more frequent in adolescents and use of threats of death or intimidation was common in both groups. Mental illness was more prevalent in adult victims and the majority of adolescent victims were aged <14 years. Uncle and stepfather perpetrators were more frequent among adolescents and partners or former intimate partners in adult women. In most cases the approach occurred in public places, although sex crimes at the perpetrator’s residence were more frequent amongst adolescents. Conclusions Although children and adolescents require the same intervention measures and legal protection, a considerable proportion of adolescent sex offenders can face conditions similar to those of adult women. PMID:24450307
Marshal, Michael P.; Guadamuz, Thomas E.; Wei, Chongyi; Wong, Carolyn F.; Saewyc, Elizabeth; Stall, Ron
Objectives. We compared the likelihood of childhood sexual abuse (under age 18), parental physical abuse, and peer victimization based on sexual orientation. Methods. We conducted a meta-analysis of adolescent school-based studies that compared the likelihood of childhood abuse among sexual minorities vs sexual nonminorities. Results. Sexual minority individuals were on average 3.8, 1.2, 1.7, and 2.4 times more likely to experience sexual abuse, parental physical abuse, or assault at school or to miss school through fear, respectively. Moderation analysis showed that disparities between sexual minority and sexual nonminority individuals were larger for (1) males than females for sexual abuse, (2) females than males for assault at school, and (3) bisexual than gay and lesbian for both parental physical abuse and missing school through fear. Disparities did not change between the 1990s and the 2000s. Conclusions. The higher rates of abuse experienced by sexual minority youths may be one of the driving mechanisms underlying higher rates of mental health problems, substance use, risky sexual behavior, and HIV reported by sexual minority adults. PMID:21680921
Snyder, Jamie A; Fisher, Bonnie S; Scherer, Heidi L; Daigle, Leah E
Few studies have examined sexual victimization among cadets and midshipmen at the three U.S. Military Academies. Self-report data from the 2005 Service Academy Sexual Assault Survey of Cadets and Midshipmen (n = 5,220) were used to examine the extent of unwanted sexual attention, sexual harassment, unwanted sexual contact, sexual coercion, and rape within the last academic year and their effects on cadets' and midshipmen's perceptions of their leadership's morality and intolerance for sexual victimization. About 60% of cadets and midshipmen experienced at least one type of sexual victimization and 25% reported that they had experienced polyvictimization (e.g., two or more types). Eighty-six percent of female and 42% of male cadets and midshipmen were sexually victimized. Those who were sexually victimized had significantly more negative views of their leadership's morality and intolerance for sexual victimization than nonvictims. Cadets and midshipmen who reported experiencing polyvictimization were more likely to perceive leadership as less moral and more tolerant of sexual victimization than those experiencing a single type. This pattern also was observed for gender-specific models; both male and female victims reported more negative perceptions of leadership. Implications concerning the effects of sexual victimization on military leadership are discussed. PMID:22585112
Klettke, Bianca; Hallford, David; Mellor, David
The success of prosecutions of perpetrators of sexual abuse often depends substantially upon the perceived credibility of the victim witness. However, perceptions of credibility may vary by generation of the observer, and the constitution of juries may therefore lead to bias. In this study we examined whether perceptions of credibility of female victims of sexual abuse varied across generation Y, generation X, "baby boomers", and "builders". One hundred and twenty-eight jury-eligible members of the community from each generation (N=512) responded to ten questions assessing the perceived believability, competence, trustworthiness, demeanour and sexual naiveté of females providing testimony related to alleged sexual abuse. Although consistent between-generation differences were not found for all questions, or all four groups of generational cohorts, in instances where significant differences were found, it was consistently the older generation groups (builders and baby boomers) that attributed less credibility to the victim than the younger generation groups (generation Y and generation X). The implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:26439120
Waldron, Jonathan C; Scarpa, Angela; Kim-Spoon, Jungmeen; Coe, Christopher L
The current study investigated whether a history of child abuse is a predictor of adult immune status, with unwanted adult sexual experiences as a proximal mediator. Participants included 89 young adult women (M(age) = 19.24) who were classified as having experienced no child abuse, child physical abuse, or child sexual abuse, based upon self-reported victimization history before 14 years of age. Participants also reported on unwanted sexual experiences in young adulthood and provided four saliva samples, which were collected over two consecutive days to determine secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA). Age and negative life events were considered as covariates. The results indicated that adult sexual victimization partially mediated the relationship between child abuse (physical and sexual) and sIgA. Specifically, child abuse experiences predicted more adult sexual victimization experiences, which in turn predicted lower sIgA levels. These findings support long-term health effects of victimization, and suggest that the influence of child abuse on sIgA may be perpetuated through adult victimization. Prevention efforts should aim to empower child maltreatment survivors with skills to prevent adult re-victimization. By thwarting future unwanted sexual experiences in adulthood, individuals will be better protected from the health impairments associated with early abuse experiences. PMID:25395225
Klipfel, Katherine M; Claxton, Shannon E; van Dulmen, Manfred H M
The frequent occurrence of aggression within committed romantic relationships is well documented. However, little is known about experiences of interpersonal aggression within casual sexual relationships and experiences. This study aimed to describe the occurrence of emotional, physical, and sexual aggression victimization within committed romantic relationships, casual dating relationships, friends-with-benefit relationships, booty-calls, and one-night stands. College students (N = 172) provided data regarding the lifetime occurrence of emotional, physical, and sexual aggression across different forms of casual sexual relationships and experiences (friends-with-benefits, booty-call, casual dating, one-night stands, committed relationships). Emotional, physical, and sexual subtypes of aggression were reported across all casual sexual relationships and experiences. While a higher percentage of individuals who had been involved in committed relationships reported experiencing at least one form of aggression (approximately 69%), prevalence of at least one form of aggression ranged from approximately 31% to 36% for the various casual sexual relationships/experiences. Across relationships/experiences, emotional and sexual aggression were more common than physical aggression. The findings from this study indicate that emotional, physical, and sexual aggression occur across types of relationships and experiences. Thus, the current study underscores the importance of considering casual dating, friends-with-benefits, booty-calls, and one-night stands when assessing interpersonal aggression. PMID:24176987
Zou, Christopher; Andersen, Judith P
Few studies have examined the rates of childhood victimization among individuals who identify as "mostly heterosexual" (MH) in comparison to other sexual orientation groups. For the present study, we utilized a more comprehensive assessment of adverse childhood experiences to extend prior literature by examining if MH individuals' experience of victimization more closely mirrors that of sexual minority individuals or heterosexuals. Heterosexual (n = 422) and LGB (n = 561) and MH (n = 120) participants were recruited online. Respondents completed surveys about their adverse childhood experiences, both maltreatment by adults (e.g., childhood physical, emotional, and sexual abuse and childhood household dysfunction) and peer victimization (i.e., verbal and physical bullying). Specifically, MH individuals were 1.47 times more likely than heterosexuals to report childhood victimization experiences perpetrated by adults. These elevated rates were similar to LGB individuals. Results suggest that rates of victimization of MH groups are more similar to the rates found among LGBs, and are significantly higher than heterosexual groups. Our results support prior research that indicates that an MH identity falls within the umbrella of a sexual minority, yet little is known about unique challenges that this group may face in comparison to other sexual minority groups. PMID:26444428
Zou, Christopher; Andersen, Judith P.
Few studies have examined the rates of childhood victimization among individuals who identify as “mostly heterosexual” (MH) in comparison to other sexual orientation groups. For the present study, we utilized a more comprehensive assessment of adverse childhood experiences to extend prior literature by examining if MH individuals’ experience of victimization more closely mirrors that of sexual minority individuals or heterosexuals. Heterosexual (n = 422) and LGB (n = 561) and MH (n = 120) participants were recruited online. Respondents completed surveys about their adverse childhood experiences, both maltreatment by adults (e.g., childhood physical, emotional, and sexual abuse and childhood household dysfunction) and peer victimization (i.e., verbal and physical bullying). Specifically, MH individuals were 1.47 times more likely than heterosexuals to report childhood victimization experiences perpetrated by adults. These elevated rates were similar to LGB individuals. Results suggest that rates of victimization of MH groups are more similar to the rates found among LGBs, and are significantly higher than heterosexual groups. Our results support prior research that indicates that an MH identity falls within the umbrella of a sexual minority, yet little is known about unique challenges that this group may face in comparison to other sexual minority groups. PMID:26444428
Grant, Deborah Dillon
The national statistics for child sexual abuse are staggering. In 2004, there were 209,880 victims of rape, attempted rape or sexual assaults according to the National Crime Victimization Survey. While effective treatment alternatives for victims are being provided, non-offending caregivers can be easily overlooked. Mason and Erooga (1990) have…
Brecklin, Leanne R.; Ullman, Sarah E.
The impact of victim and offender preassault substance use on the outcomes of sexual assault incidents was analyzed. Nine hundred and seventy female sexual assault victims were identified from the first wave of a longitudinal study based on a convenience sampling strategy. Multivariate models showed that victim injury was more likely in assaults…
Hershcovis, M. Sandy; Barling, Julian
In 2 studies, we investigated victim attributions (Study 1) and outcomes (Study 2) for workplace aggression and sexual harassment. Drawing on social categorization theory, we argue that victims of workplace aggression and sexual harassment may make different attributions about their mistreatment. In Study 1, we investigated victim attributions in…
Snyder, Jamie A.; Fisher, Bonnie S.; Scherer, Heidi L.; Daigle, Leah E.
Few studies have examined sexual victimization among cadets and midshipmen at the three U.S. Military Academies. Self-report data from the 2005 Service Academy Sexual Assault Survey of Cadets and Midshipmen (n = 5,220) were used to examine the extent of unwanted sexual attention, sexual harassment, unwanted sexual contact, sexual coercion, and…
Examined retrospective data on homicide-suicide in Australia to determine what differentiates homicides between adult sexual intimates that include suicide of offender from those that do not. Found that, if offender was male, estranged from partner, and used gun to kill more than one victim, or was older with ailing wife, he was more apt to also…
Espelage, Dorothy L.; Holt, Melissa K.
Associations among bullying, peer victimization, sexual harassment, and dating violence were examined among 684 middle and high school students. Cluster analysis of self-report measures revealed four distinct bully-victim subtypes: uninvolved, victims, bully-victims, and bullies. African-American students comprised the bully cluster more than…
... Sexual Abuse and Suicide 2014 One third of sexual assault victims were under the age of 12. 1 ... D. (2005). Adult perpetrator gender asymmetries in child sexual assault victim selection: Results from the 2000 National Incident- ...
Diniz, Normélia Maria Freire; de Almeida, Lílian Conceição Guimarães; dos S Ribeiro, Bárbara Cristina; de Macêdo, Valéria Góes
This study aimed to investigate the adherence of women victims of sexual violence, to AIDS chemoprevention treatment. A quantitative study was carried out at a care service to victims of sexual violence in Salvador (Bahia, Brazil). Study participants were 172 women. Data were collected through interviews with forms and consultation of patient files. The results showed that 45.4% of the abused women were teenagers and 40.7% of the attended women were raped. Only 54% of the women were advised to use antiretrovirals to prevent HIV. Adherence to treatment occurred in 57.4% of cases and discontinuity corresponded to 42.6%. Non-adherence to treatment was attributed to psychological or emotional disorders and non-understanding of the established treatment. Therefore, it is important that professionals pay careful attention in order to perceive the conditions that might increase women's vulnerability to the infection. PMID:17375226
Monks, Stormy M; Tomaka, Joe; Palacios, Rebecca; Thompson, Sharon E
Alcohol and alcohol expectancies relate to sexual victimization. The present study examined these links in a sample of 407 predominantly Hispanic male and female college students, along the Mexico-US border. The study also examined the independent contribution of sexual sensation seeking to the prediction of victimization. Results showed that victimization was associated with alcohol risk, alcohol consumption-related problems, and positive alcohol expectancies. Importantly, sexual sensation seeking independently predicted victimization and did so after controlling for alcohol risk and expectancies. Our results suggest that associations among victimization, alcohol risk, and expectancies generalize to Hispanic women and men. The study's limitations are noted. PMID:20388010
Brown, Jackie; Burnette, Mandi L; Cerulli, Catherine
Intimate partner violence (IPV), childhood abuse, and sexual assault in adulthood are profound public health concerns, particularly for women. Exposure to trauma can contribute to long-standing health problems and escalated medical costs. Unfortunately, these experiences are often intertwined. Sexual assault often occurs in intimate relationships in which there is concurrent IPV; likewise, many victims of IPV have experienced childhood abuse. The prevalent intersections of these struggles can lead to posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. This article examines the contributions of childhood abuse histories and sexual assault to PTSD symptoms among women experiencing IPV. Findings suggest childhood abuse experiences account for more variance in PTSD symptoms than adult sexual assault. Clinical implications are discussed. PMID:25324230
Morisky, Donald E.; Williams, John K.; Ford, Chandra L.; Gee, Gilbert C.
Objectives. To investigate whether forced sex of men by women was associated with sexual risk behaviors, and whether this association was mediated by substance use. Methods. Data from US men aged 18 years or older at interview in the National Survey of Family Growth 2006–2010 (n = 8108) who reported sexual behavior history. Outcome variables were condom use at most recent sex and number of lifetime sexual partners. Sexual activity covariates included age at first consensual sex and treatment of sexually transmitted infections. Alcohol and drug use were the mediating factors. Results. Six percent of men reported forced sex by a woman at a mean age of 18 years. On average, victimized men had 3 more lifetime sexual partners than nonvictimized men (P < .01). Furthermore, victimized men who reported drug use had, on average, 4 more female sexual partners (P < .01) than nonvictimized men. Marijuana (P < .05) and crack cocaine use (P < .05) partially mediated the association between forced sex and number of female partners. Neither condom use nor number of male partners differed between victimized and nonvictimized men. Conclusions. A nontrivial fraction of men experience forced sex by women; some of them have elevated sexual risk behaviors. PMID:27077345
Duncan, D F
The prevalence of being a victim of forced sex was examined in a sample of 412 university students. Sexual victimization was significantly more common among female than male and among gay and lesbian than heterosexual students. PMID:2326430
Numerous studies show that survivors of childhood sexual abuse suffer as adults from depression, post-traumatic stress disorder, alcohol and drug abuse, and other mental illnesses. As such, the effect of experiencing traumatic events during childhood including sexual abuse can have lasting implications. The purpose of this paper is to examine…
... JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PRISON RAPE ELIMINATION ACT NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Adult Prisons and Jails... to all inmates who have been victimized by sexual abuse in any prison, jail, lockup, or juvenile... any investigation arising out of the incident. (h) All prisons shall attempt to conduct a...
Yeater, Elizabeth A.; McFall, Richard M.; Viken, Richard J.
This study evaluated the effects of a sexual victimization history and the contextual features of sexual activity and alcohol use on the effectiveness of women's responses to 44 written vignettes describing diverse dating and social situations. One hundred and one undergraduate women reported their history of sexual victimization and provided…
Muram, David; And Others
Fifty-nine girls (age 12 and under) who were associates of victims of sexual abuse received a colposcopic examination. Forty-five of the girls were found to have abnormal genital findings, which were considered specific for sexual abuse in 40 cases. Medical evaluation of siblings and close associates of sexual abuse victims is recommended.…
Pereda, Noemí; Abad, Judit; Guilera, Georgina
The purpose of this study was to investigate the lifetime prevalence and characteristics of self-reported child sexual victimization and associations between sexual victimization and sociodemographic characteristics and victimological profiles in community adolescents in Spain. The Juvenile Victimization Questionnaire (Finkelhor, Hamby, Ormrod, & Turner, 2005) was applied to a sample of 1,105 community adolescents (M = 14.52 years, SD = 1.76). Experience of sexual victimization (with or without physical contact) was reported by 8.8% of the sample, at a mean age of 13 years old. Sexual victimization was more prevalent in girls (14.2%) and in older adolescents (10.6%). Offenders were mainly male (87.6%) and were mostly friends, neighbors, or schoolmates (52.6%). No injuries resulted from victimization (4.3%), although the percentage of penetration or attempted penetration was very high (30.6%). Only 9.3% of victims reported the incident to the police or the justice system. In regard to victimological profiles, sexual victims also experienced other forms of victimization (M = 7.16; SD = 3.39): boys reported more conventional crimes, peer and sibling victimization, and witnessing community violence than other victims, whereas sexually victimized girls reported more caregiver victimization and property crimes. Sexually victimized youth present a distinctive sociodemographic and victimological profile. Professionals need to be aware of these characteristics in order to conduct adequate prevention programs. We also need to assess a wide range of victimization experiences when treating sexual abuse victims in order to make adolescents less vulnerable to violence. PMID:26849005
Romero-Sánchez, Mónica; Megías, Jesús L; Krahé, Barbara
Two studies investigated the effects of information related to rape myths on Spanish college students' perceptions of sexual assault. In Study 1, 92 participants read a vignette about a nonconsensual sexual encounter and rated whether it was a sexual assault and how much the woman was to blame. In the scenario, the man either used physical force or offered alcohol to the woman to overcome her resistance. Rape myth acceptance (RMA) was measured as an individual difference variable. Participants were more convinced that the incident was a sexual assault and blamed the woman less when the man had used force rather than offering her alcohol. In Study 2, 164 college students read a scenario in which the woman rejected a man's sexual advances after having either accepted or turned down his offer of alcohol. In addition, the woman was either portrayed as being sexually attracted to him or there was no mention of her sexual interest. Participants' RMA was again included. High RMA participants blamed the victim more than low RMA participants and were less certain that the incident was a sexual assault, especially when the victim had accepted alcohol and was described as being sexually attracted to the man. The findings are discussed in terms of their implications for the prevention and legal prosecution of sexual assault. PMID:22203631
Davies, Michelle; Patel, Fehmida; Rogers, Paul
The current study investigated the impact that respondent gender, victim-perpetrator relationship, and the level of emotional closeness had on attributions in a hypothetical child sexual abuse case. A total of 160 university students read a hypothetical scenario depicting a female child sexually abused by an adult male. The perpetrator was either the victim's biological father or her stepfather, with this relationship described as being either emotionally close or emotionally distant. Respondents read one of four (2 victim-perpetrator relationship × 2 emotional closeness) scenarios before completing 26 attribution items pertaining to credibility, blame, and severity. Principle components analysis yielded five factors, namely victim credibility, mother culpability, perpetrator culpability, assault severity, and victim culpability. Multivariate analysis of covariance--controlling for respondent (Caucasian vs. non-Caucasian) ethnicity--revealed, as predicted, significant main effects for respondent gender, victim-perpetrator relationship, and emotional closeness. In general, females assigned more provictim/ antiperpetrator/antimother attributions than males. Results were also suggested that both victim-perpetrator relationship and emotional closeness influence attributions made toward the victim, perpetrator, and nonoffending mother. Methodological issues and suggestions for future work are also discussed. PMID:23027835
Testa, Maria; Livingston, Jennifer A.
Before effective prevention interventions can be developed, it is necessary to identify the mechanisms that contribute to the targeted negative outcomes. A review of the literature on women's substance use and sexual victimization points to women's heavy episodic drinking as a proximal risk factor, particularly among college samples. At least half of sexual victimization incidents involve alcohol use and the majority of rapes of college women occur when the victim is too intoxicated to resist (“incapacitated rape”). Despite the importance of women's heavy episodic drinking as being a risk factor, existing rape prevention programs have rarely addressed women's alcohol use and have shown little success in reducing rates of sexual victimization. We argue that given the strength of the association between heavy episodic drinking and sexual victimization among young women, prevention programs targeting drinking may prove more efficacious than programs targeting sexual vulnerability. Applications of existing drinking prevention strategies to reducing women's sexual victimization are discussed. PMID:19938922
Russell, Stephen T; Toomey, Russell B; Ryan, Caitlin; Diaz, Rafael M
Many lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) adolescents disclose their sexual and/or gender identities to peers at school. Disclosure of LGBT status is linked with positive psychosocial adjustment for adults; however, for adolescents, "coming out" has been linked to school victimization, which in turn is associated with negative adjustment. This study investigates the associations among adolescent disclosure of LGBT status to others at school, school victimization, and young adult psychosocial adjustment using a sample of 245 LGBT young adults (aged 21-25 years, living in California). After accounting for the association between school victimization and later adjustment, being out at high school was associated with positive psychosocial adjustment in young adulthood. Results have significant implications for training of school-based health and mental health providers, education and guidance for parents and caregivers, fostering positive development of LGBT youth, and developing informed school policies and educational practices. PMID:25545431
Burton, Chad M; Marshal, Michael P; Chisolm, Deena J; Sucato, Gina S; Friedman, Mark S
Sexual minority youth (youth who are attracted to the same sex or endorse a gay/lesbian/bisexual identity) report significantly higher rates of depression and suicidality than heterosexual youth. The minority stress hypothesis contends that the stigma and discrimination experienced by sexual minority youth create a hostile social environment that can lead to chronic stress and mental health problems. The present study used longitudinal mediation models to directly test sexual minority-specific victimization as a potential explanatory mechanism of the mental health disparities of sexual minority youth. One hundred ninety-seven adolescents (14-19 years old; 70 % female; 29 % sexual minority) completed measures of sexual minority-specific victimization, depressive symptoms, and suicidality at two time points 6 months apart. Compared to heterosexual youth, sexual minority youth reported higher levels of sexual minority-specific victimization, depressive symptoms, and suicidality. Sexual minority-specific victimization significantly mediated the effect of sexual minority status on depressive symptoms and suicidality. The results support the minority stress hypothesis that targeted harassment and victimization are partly responsible for the higher levels of depressive symptoms and suicidality found in sexual minority youth. This research lends support to public policy initiatives that reduce bullying and hate crimes because reducing victimization can have a significant impact on the health and well-being of sexual minority youth. PMID:23292751
Olatayo, Adeoti Adekunle; Kubwa, Ojo Osaze; Adekunle, Ajayi Ebenezer
Introduction Oftentimes the older adults are assumed to be asexual as few studies explore into the sexuality of this age group worldwide and even in Nigeria. It is an important aspect of quality of life which is often neglected by people in this age group, attending physicians and the society as a whole. The study was aimed at determining the perception of older adults about sexuality, identify the factors that could militate against sexuality and fill any void in information in this regard. Methods Descriptive study conducted in one hundred older adults. A semi-structured questionnaire was administered to consenting participants between 1st of September 2013 and 31st of March 2014. Results Mean age of respondents was 66.42± 5.77 years. Seventy-eight percent of the male respondents considered engaging in sexual activity as safe compared to 45.8% of the female respondents. More of the women (33.3%) regarded sexuality in the older adults as a taboo when compared to the men (5.4%). However, the men were more favourably disposed to discussing sexual problems than the women with their spouses (42% vs 20%) and Physicians (23.2% vs 0.0%). Major factors responsible for sexual inactivity were participants’ medical ailments (65%), partners’ failing health (15%) as well as anxiety about sexual performance (25%) in the men and dyspareunia (25%) in women. Conclusion There is an urgent need to correct the misconception about sexuality in this age group especially among the women and for the physicians to explore the sexual history of every patient. PMID:26977224
The victim impact statement (VIS) is a written account of harms experienced as a result of crime. This study investigates VIS use by sexually assaulted women through interviews with Canadian victims, victim services workers, and feminist advocates (N = 35). Findings suggest that victims use the VIS to express relational caring. Relational caring is an ethic of care that prioritizes others through privileging the harms experienced by others because of witnessing the sexual assault or coping with the victim's postassault sequelae, protecting future or hypothetical victims, and promoting the interests of intimate partner offenders. Relational caring challenges traditional conceptions of victim agency and VIS use for instrumental purposes, as well as the targets and temporalities of sexual assault harms that are detailed in the statement. Relational caring has unique implications for victims who are mothers, especially those abused as minors, and for intimate partners. Legal, therapeutic, and social service consequences are discussed. PMID:25905129
Mann, Ruth E; Barnett, Georgia D
A sexual offender is thought to have victim empathy when he has a cognitive and emotional understanding of the experience of the victim of his sexual offense. Most sex offender treatment programs devote significant time to developing victim empathy. The authors examine three meta-analytic studies and some individual studies that suggest victim empathy work is unnecessary, or even harmful. Service user studies, however, report positive reactions to victim empathy work. The authors conclude that the enthusiasm for victim empathy work as a rehabilitative endeavor is disproportionate given the weak evidence base and the lack of a coherent theoretical model of change. However, because the research is inconclusive, it is not possible to conclude that victim empathy work is "correctional quackery." We suggest a research program to clarify whether or not victim empathy intervention for sexual offenders has value. PMID:22915205
Larsen, Mie-Louise; Hilden, Malene
This study aims to provide descriptive data regarding male victims of sexual assault seen at the Centre for Victims of Sexual Assault in Copenhagen, Denmark. All 55 male victims attending the center in the time period of March 2001 until December 2010 underwent a standardized data collection. Data included information on the victim and the sexual assault. Male victims accounted for less than 2% of the total number of visits to the center in this time period. Fifty three percent were between 15 and 24 years. In all cases the perpetrator was male, and 25% were assaulted by more than one perpetrator. Of the 62% of male victims who gave information on sexual orientation, 36% reported themselves as heterosexuals. A total of 45.5% had an alcohol intake of more than 5 units in the hours before the assault. Forty two percent reported the assault to the police. The male victims differed from female victims in several ways; they were more often assaulted by a stranger; more likely to be assaulted by more than one perpetrator; more likely being victim of drug rape; less likely to have experienced previous sexual abuse and less willing to report their assault to the police. Being victim of a sexual assault by another man is considered a taboo subject and it is likely that the dark figure of men exposed to sexual assault is much higher than it is for women. Strengthening our knowledge regarding male victims of sexual assault is necessary to improve both primary and secondary preventive measures in order to make male victims feel safe in coming forward. Male victims should have equal access to both medical and psychological help as female victims. PMID:27391940
Lacelle, Celine; Hebert, Martine; Lavoie, Francine; Vitaro, Frank; Tremblay, Richard E.
Research studies have provided increasing evidence for the potential adverse impact of child sexual abuse on women's sexual health. The present study examined the association between child sexual abuse and sexual health while controlling for various forms of childhood victimization. Self-report questionnaires were administered to 889 young women…
Turchik, Jessica A; Hebenstreit, Claire L; Judson, Stephanie S
Although the majority of adulthood sexual violence involves a male perpetrator and a female victim, there is also substantial evidence that members of both genders can be victims and perpetrators of sexual violence. As an alternative to viewing sexual violence within gender-specific terms, we advocate for the use of a gender inclusive conceptualization of sexual aggression that takes into account the factors that contribute to sexual victimization of, and victimization by, both men and women. The goal of the current review is to examine the need and importance of a gender inclusive conceptualization of sexual violence and to discuss how compatible our current theories are with this conceptualization. First, we examine evidence of how a gender-specific conceptualization of sexual violence aids in obscuring assault experiences that are not male to female and how this impacts victims of such violence. We specifically discuss this impact regarding research, law, public awareness, advocacy, and available victim treatment and resources. Next, we provide an overview of a number of major sexual violence theories that are relevant for adult perpetrators and adult victims, including neurobiological and integrated biological theories, evolutionary psychology theory, routine activity theory, feminist theory, social learning and related theories, typology approaches, and integrated theories. We critically examine these theories' applicability to thinking about sexual violence through a gender inclusive lens. Finally, we discuss further directions for research, clinical interventions, and advocacy in this area. Specifically, we encourage sexual violence researchers and clinicians to identify and utilize appropriate theoretical frameworks and to apply these frameworks in ways that incorporate a full range of sexual violence. PMID:25612800
LeMaire, Kelly L; Oswald, Debra L; Russell, Brenda L
This study investigated whether attitudinal variables, such as benevolent and hostile sexism toward men and women, female rape myth acceptance, and tolerance of sexual harassment are related to women labeling their sexual assault experiences as rape. In a sample of 276 female college students, 71 (25.7%) reported at least one experience that met the operational definition of rape, although only 46.5% of those women labeled the experience "rape." Benevolent sexism, tolerance of sexual harassment, and rape myth acceptance, but not hostile sexism, significantly predicted labeling of previous sexual assault experiences by the victims. Specifically, those with more benevolent sexist attitudes toward both men and women, greater rape myth acceptance, and more tolerant attitudes of sexual harassment were less likely to label their past sexual assault experience as rape. The results are discussed for their clinical and theoretical implications. PMID:26832168
Testa, Maria; Livingston, Jennifer A; Hoffman, Joseph H
Although rape and sexual victimization experiences have been hypothesized to contribute to subsequent heavy drinking and alcohol problems among women, little prospective evidence exists. The present prospective study examined whether sexual victimization contributes to subsequent heavy drinking among a community sample of women, 18-30 years of age (n=927). Using three waves of data, 12 months apart, we examined the impact of T1 sexual victimization on T2 heavy drinking, and of T2 sexual victimization on T3 heavy drinking. There were significant bivariate differences between sexually victimized and non-victimized women on heavy drinking both concurrently and prospectively. However, after controlling for prior heavy drinking and demographic variables, most differences disappeared. We also tested the hypothesis that Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) Symptoms would mediate the relationship between T2 sexual victimization and T3 heavy drinking. Although T2 sexual victimization predicted T2 PTSD symptoms, PTSD did not contribute to subsequent heavy drinking. Findings suggest that heavy drinking is relatively stable over time and that sexual victimization does not make a substantial independent contribution to heavy drinking among women in the general population. PMID:17597304
D'Abreu, Lylla Cysne Frota; Krahé, Barbara
Using both cross-sectional and prospective analyses, this study examined vulnerability factors for sexual victimization in 541 female and male Brazilian college students, of whom a subgroup of 250 took part in two measurements 6 months apart. Risk factors for sexual victimization (alcohol consumption, casual sex, and ambiguous communication) in participants' cognitive scripts for consensual sex were linked to sexual victimization via their translation into risky sexual behavior. Pornography use was indirectly linked to sexual victimization through its influence on risky sexual scripts and sexual behavior. Child sexual abuse predicted sexual victimization in the cross-sectional analysis, and victimization since age 14 predicted revictimization in the six months covered by the prospective period. Few gender differences were found. This study is the first prospective investigation of vulnerability factors for sexual victimization in Brazil, and similarities to evidence from North America are discussed. PMID:25795529
... for your partner. It also benefits your physical health by reducing stress and making you feel good about yourself. As you age, your sexual health will change. But growing older doesn’t have ...
Reese-Weber, Marla; Smith, Dana M
The association between a history of child sexual abuse (CSA) and specific negative outcomes (attachment, feelings of power, and self-esteem) was explored as was the relationship between those negative outcomes and sexual victimization during the first semester of college. Two groups of freshman college women (67 who had experienced CSA and 55 who had not) completed measures of attachment, feelings of power, and self-esteem at the beginning of their freshman year of college. At the end of their first semester of college, participants (n = 93) provided information about whether they had been sexually assaulted during their first semester of college. The results indicated that participants in the CSA group did not differ on reported attachment anxiety, attachment avoidance, feelings of power, or self-esteem as compared to the control group. However, participants in the CSA group were more like to be sexually victimized during their first semester of college. Finally, logistic regression indicated that the negative outcomes of CSA were significantly related to sexual victimization during the first semester of college, with attachment anxiety playing an important role. Theoretical and practical implications of the findings are discussed. PMID:20587463
Collins, Mary Elizabeth
Analyzes an existing longitudinal survey of adolescent mothers (N=315). Data from Time 1 were used to predict victimization reported in the year between Time 1 and Time 2. Explores factors that increased the likelihood of reported sexual victimization at Time 2 and factors that reduce the risk of victimization. Investigates risk factors for…
Maier, Shana L.
In response to the negative and inefficient treatment of rape victims by emergency room personnel, the first Sexual Assault Nurse Examiner (SANE) programs began in the late 1970s. While SANEs, doctors, rape victim advocates, police officers and prosecutors work together to ensure the most comprehensive and sensitive care of rape victims, they all…
Greenberg, D M; Bradford, J M; Curry, S
The association between perpetration of sexual abuse and the offender's own victimization as a child has been well documented in the literature. Various researchers have examined this relationship by assessing the exclusiveness of the sexual abuser's behavior, the gender of his victims and the gender of his own childhood abuser. This study was designed to assess the differences between pedophiles and hebephiles in features of their own childhood victimization. Subjects were 135 pedophiles and 43 hebephiles who admitted to their offences. A total of 42% of pedophiles and 44% of hebephiles reported being sexually victimized in their own childhoods. Pedophiles reported being molested at a younger age than hebephiles. Both groups appear to chose their age specific victims in accordance with the age of their own experience of sexual victimization. Although the cause of child molestation remains undetermined these results support social learning and modeling theories. PMID:8455000
Walsh, Kate; DiLillo, David; Messman-Moore, Terri L.
The present study examined whether and which facets of emotion dysregulation serve an intervening role in the association between prior victimization and risk perception in an analogue sexual assault vignette. Participants were 714 university women who completed self-report measures of sexual victimization, emotion dysregulation, and a…
Gidycz, Christine A.; Orchowski, Lindsay M.; King, Carrie R.; Rich, Cindy L.
The present study utilizes the National College Health Risk Behavior Survey to examine the relationship between health-risk behaviors and sexual victimization among a sample of college women. A prospective design is utilized to examine the relationship between health-risk behaviors as measured at baseline and sexual victimization during a 3-month…
Edinburgh, Laurel; Saewyc, Elizabeth; Levitt, Carolyn
Objectives: This study compared health care assessments, referrals, treatment, and outcomes for young adolescent sexual assault/sexual abuse victims seen at a hospital-based Child Advocacy Center (CAC), to that provided to similar victims evaluated by other community providers. A second purpose was to document how common DNA evidence is found…
Gidycz, Christine A.; Loh, Catherine; Lobo, Traci; Rich, Cindy; Lynn, Steven Jay; Pashdag, Joanna
Objective: The authors' purpose in this study was to assess longitudinally the relationships among alcohol use, risk perception, and sexual victimization. Participants: Three hundred and seventy-two women from 2 midsized universities made up the sample. Methods: Participants filled out questionnaires regarding history of sexual victimization,…
Sheffield, Emilyn A.; And Others
The health status and leisure behavior of victims of sexual assault were studied. Data concerning present illness symptoms, past illness symptoms, negative health behavior, family health history, and female reproductive physiology illness symptoms were obtained and analyzed. Sexual assault victims were similar to nonvictims demographically except…
Spiller, Laura C; Jouriles, Ernest N; McDonald, Renee; Skopp, Nancy A
OBJECTIVE: Despite the substantial co-occurrence of women's experiences of physical and sexual violence, very little is known about their separate and combined effects on child functioning. The present study examines whether sexual victimization experienced by physically abused women is associated with their children's disruptive behavior problems, after controlling for mothers' physical victimization and parent to child aggression. It also tests the hypothesis that maternal distress mediates the association between women's sexual victimization and their children's disruptive behavior problems. METHOD: The sample includes 449 mothers and their children (4-8 years) who were recruited while residing in domestic violence shelters. Mothers reported on their experiences of physical and sexual victimization over the past year and their current symptoms of psychological distress. Trained diagnosticians interviewed mothers about their children's disruptive behavior problems. RESULTS: Approximately 75% of the women reported experiences of sexual victimization. Physically abused women's experiences of sexual victimization correlated positively with their children's disruptive behavior problems and their own psychological distress. The results of path analyses indicated that maternal psychological distress mediates the relation between women's experiences of sexual victimization and their children's disruptive behavior problems. CONCLUSIONS: This research suggests that physically abused women's experiences of sexual victimization are important for understanding their children's disruptive behavior problems. Additionally, this research provides further evidence that maternal psychological distress is important for understanding how intimate partner violence might influence children. PMID:23166861
Societal myths argue against active expression of sexuality in older adults, but these prejudices are unfounded. Using a deconstructionist framework, this article addresses issues surrounding sexuality in older adults. Implications for clinical practice are given.
Apolinsky, Sandra R.; Wilcoxon, S. Allen
Investigated comparative effects of symbolic confrontation in affecting measures of self-concept and depression of 30 adult female survivors of childhood sexual abuse participating in a counseling group. The results seem to suggest that the technique of symbolic confrontation can be effective in ameliorating negative aftereffects of victimization…
Wishon, Phillip M.
Each year in the United States, thousands of school-aged children become involved in sexual activities arranged by adults for purposes of pleasure and profit. Nationwide, annual profits from the child pornography industry and from female and male child prostitution are in the tens of millions of dollars. Heretofore, the majority of…
Nilsen, Wendy; Conner, Kenneth R.
In a sample of 494 female undergraduates, current suicidal ideation was assessed and victimization was assessed retrospectively. Analyses revealed an association between suicidal ideation and emotional and physical abuse in childhood and a history of partner violence. No relationship was found between childhood sexual abuse or forced sex in…
Rogers, Paul; Lowe, Michelle; Reddington, Katie
Three-hundred and seven members of the UK public read a hypothetical child sexual abuse case in which the victim's chronological age (12 versus 15 years old) and dress style (sexualized versus nonsexualized) were experimentally manipulated before completing 22 assault severity and blame attribution items. It was predicted that the 15-year-old and the sexually dressed victim would be blamed more for her own abuse. In addition, males were expected to be more blaming generally, but especially of the older and/or sexually dressed victim. Results were generally in line with predictions, highlighting the role seemingly controllable victim characteristics play in blaming child sexual abuse victims. Findings are discussed in relation to defensive attributions, gender stereotyping and the newly suggested victim pseudomaturity effect. Criminal justice, victim welfare, and rape myth implications together with methodological issues and ideas for future research work are also considered. PMID:26854588
Tener, Dafna; Murphy, Sharon B
Victims of childhood sexual abuse carry the experience of abuse into adulthood. One of the dilemmas victims face during adulthood is the decision to disclose or conceal the abuse. Although adult disclosure may be affected by former disclosure during childhood, adult survivors face new challenges and dilemmas, such as to whom, when, and how to tell. The purpose of this article is to review the domains found in the literature on survivors' experiences regarding disclosure of child sexual abuse during adulthood, all of which were published between 1980 and 2013. Domains include decisions to disclose during adulthood, barriers and facilitators to disclosure and potential recipients of the disclosure, as well as the process of telling and its impact on survivors' well-being. The authors present implications for policy, practice, and research. PMID:24903400
Jennings, Wesley G; Richards, Tara N; Tomsich, Elizabeth; Gover, Angela R
The link between child sexual abuse and adult intimate partner violence surfaces throughout prior research. Nonetheless, methodologies investigating this cycle of violence predominantly involve descriptive, correlational, or traditional regression-based analyses that preclude more definitive statements about the empirical relationship between child sexual abuse and adult partner violence. In recognition of these limitations, the current study presents a quasi-experimental investigation into the relationship between sexual abuse in childhood and physical partner violence victimization and/or perpetration in young adulthood. Propensity score matching analysis of a national data set sampling over 4,000 young adults suggests that experiencing child sexual abuse influences adult intimate partner violence victimization and perpetration. Study implications and directions for future research are discussed. PMID:26340073
Mahoney, Bere; Davies, Michelle; Scurlock-Evans, Laura
International surveys of victims show crime rates in England and Wales, including hate crimes, are among the highest in Europe. Nevertheless, sexual minority status is a less considered risk factor in general victimization research. This study used sexual minority status and sex to predict victimization across British Crime Surveys from 2007-2010. Logistic regression analyses showed sexual minority status groups were more likely than heterosexuals to be victimized from any and some specific crimes. However, bisexuals rather than lesbians or gay men were more consistently victimized, notably by sexual attacks and within the household. Implications for understanding victimization among these groups are discussed. PMID:24972149
Walsh, Kate; DiLillo, David; Messman-Moore, Terri L
The present study examined whether and which facets of emotion dysregulation serve an intervening role in the association between prior victimization and risk perception in an analogue sexual assault vignette. Participants were 714 university women who completed self-report measures of sexual victimization, emotion dysregulation, and a computer-administered written vignette of a college party scene that culminates in acquaintance rape. Approximately 42% of the sample reported lifetime sexual victimization during childhood, adolescence, or adulthood. Two individual aspects of emotion dysregulation, limited access to emotion regulation strategies and impulse control difficulties, mediated the association between lifetime victimization and leaving the scenario later. Findings suggest the importance of emotion dysregulation in predicting risk perception among victims and of improving victims' emotion regulation skills in revictimization risk reduction interventions. PMID:22550144
Leenaars, Lindsey S; Dane, Andrew V; Marini, Zopito A
We studied indirect victimization from an evolutionary perspective by examining links between this type of victimization and several indicators of attractiveness (past sexual behavior, dating frequency and physical appearance). Two thousand three hundred and nineteen (56% female) students (ages 13-18) from a region of southern Ontario, Canada, completed self-report measures of indirect victimization, physical appearance, dating frequency, recent sexual behavior (number of partners in previous month) and past sexual behavior (number of lifetime partners minus number of partners in previous month) as well as indexes of depression, aggression and attachment security, which were used to control for psychosocial maladjustment. Consistent with an evolutionary framework, physical appearance interacted significantly with gender, wherein attractive females were at greater risk for indirect victimization, whereas for males physical attractiveness was a protective factor, reducing risk of victimization. Physical appearance also interacted with grade, being inversely related to indirect victimization for younger adolescents and having a nonsignificant association with victimization for older youth. Finally, recent sexual behavior was associated with increased risk of indirect victimization for older adolescents only, which we discussed with regard to peer perceptions of promiscuity and short-term mating strategies. These findings have important implications for the development of interventions designed to reduce peer victimization, in that victims of indirect aggression may represent a rather broad, heterogeneous group, including attractive individuals with no obvious signs of maladjustment. PMID:18351598
Amacker, Amanda M; Littleton, Heather L
Individuals view similar rape victims as less responsible for the rape than victims perceived as dissimilar. However, it is unclear if individuals hold victims they perceive as similar less responsible for the assault, or if individuals view themselves as more similar to victims they do not view as responsible for the assault. The current study, therefore, examined the temporal relationship between these constructs. A total of 167 college women listened to a date narrative that ended in sexual assault, consensual sex, or no sexual activity (these last two served as controls). Results supported that participants viewed themselves as less similar to the woman in the narrative when the date ended in sexual assault. Only similarity ratings made following learning that the woman was sexually assaulted predicted responsibility attributions suggesting that viewing a victim as responsible for the assault results in decreased perceptions of similarity toward her. Implications and suggestions for future research are discussed. PMID:24334861
Jennings, Wesley G; Zgoba, Kristen M; Maschi, Tina; Reingle, Jennifer M
There has been a recent proliferation in the number of studies that are investigating the phenomenon that has been coined the victim-offender overlap. There has been noticeably less attention toward examining the sexual victimization and sex offending overlap. Acknowledging this gap in the literature, the present study provides an assessment of this overlap among a large sample of male prisoners with a focus on the cycle of violence hypothesis. Bivariate results reveal a considerable degree of overlap between sexual victimization and sex offending, and multivariate results estimated from a series of bivariate probit models simultaneously assessing both outcomes suggest that experiencing emotional abuse early on in the life-course is a robust risk factor for experiencing sexual victimization and demonstrating sex offending behavior. Furthermore, being physically neglected and witnessing family violence also emerged as significant risk factors for sexual victimization. Study limitations and policy implications are also discussed. PMID:23864522
Shahali, Shadab; Mohammadi, Eesa; Lamyian, Minoor; Kashanian, Maryam; Eslami, Mohammad; Montazeri, Ali
Background: Victims of sexual assault need comprehensive healthcare services to deal with the consequences of their experience. However, there are still many girls/women that delay seeking healthcare after they experience sexual assault. Objectives: To explore the process of health care and clinical services for victims of sexual assault in the health care centers of Iran. Patients and Methods: This was a qualitative study based on the grounded theory method. The sample consisted of 23 health care providers and 10 victims of sexual violence. Unstructured interviews and observations were used for data collection. Constant comparative analysis was used according to the Strauss and Corbin method. Results: The analysis of all data led to the extraction of four categories: “performing routines”, “victims’ expectations”, “conflict between expectations of victims and existing healthcare services”, and the core category of “neglect of healthcare providers to address the needs and expectations of victims”. Providers were offering health care to the victims of sexual violence regardless of their needs. Due to this neglect, victims sought illegal solutions to overcome the consequences that led to social stigma. Conclusions: The findings indicate the lack of mutual understanding between health care providers and victims of sexual violence in relation to the expectations and priorities of victims. PMID:27231579
Hillman, R J; O'Mara, N; Taylor-Robinson, D; Harris, J R
Sexual assault of males is an infrequently reported and a poorly understood phenomenon. Details of 100 victims who sought assistance from a nationwide agency set up specifically to provide help for such individuals are reported here. Twenty eight victims were aged 16 years or over at the time of assault. The assailants were known by 72 of the victims and were perceived by the victim to have a heterosexual orientation in 72% of these cases. Attacks were often multiple and in 33 cases involved disruption of skin or mucous membranes. Twenty victims received threats about the possibility of transmission of the human immunodeficiency virus and 17 victims sought medical advice following the assault, most commonly from their general practitioner. It is suggested that greater opportunities for medical and psychological support should be given to male victims of sexual assault. PMID:2282228
Reis, Jair Naves dos; Martin, Carmen Cinira Santos; Ferriani, Maria das Graças Carvalho
This study aims to analyze the coercive methods used by sex offenders and the occurrence of non-genital injuries in female children, adolescent, and adult victims of sexual abuse reported to the Women's Police Precinct and examined at the Department of Forensic Medicine in Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo State, Brazil, from 1996 to 2000. Age distribution followed the criteria established by Brazil's Statute for Children and Adolescents (the prevailing legislation on issues pertaining to minors). Physical violence was the most frequently used form of coercion against adults (44.1%) and adolescents (25.0%), followed by serious threat in 36.5% and 17.0% of the cases, respectively. Presumed violence by innocentia consilii occurred in 94.1% of the children and 42.8% of the adolescents. Minor non-genital injuries were found in 7.8% of the cases, involving children (3.0%), adolescents (7.2%), and adults (14.4%), with no weapons involved in 75.0% of these cases. A decrease in the number of cases with injuries was observed in relation to knives (14.3%) and handguns (10.7%) used against adult and adolescent victims. PMID:15073626
Ribeiro, Márcia Aparecida; Ferriani, Maria das Graças Carvalho; Reis, Jair Naves dos
This study analyzes the characteristics of sexual abuse committed within the family against age groups classified according to the Brazilian Statute for Children and Adolescents (the prevailing legislation on matters pertaining to minors) and treated at the Reference Center for Children and Adolescents and the Guardianship Councils in Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo State, Brazil, from 1995 to 2000. Some 234 abuses were identified, committed by 217 aggressors, against 210 families and a total of 226 victims. A total of 131 children (48.7%) and 95 adolescents (41.2%), predominantly females, were victimized. Children ranging from 10 to 12 years were the most frequently abused (19.5%), as well as adolescents from 12 to 14 years old (17.3%). The majority of the victims live in families with 3 (19.9%) or 4 children (177%), and the firstborn are the most frequently abused (33.6%). The majority of aggressors who acted alone victimized only one individual (86.7%). Fathers (34.2%) and stepfathers (30.3%) were the most frequent aggressors, with the former victimizing more children (19.7%) and the latter adolescents (17.1%). PMID:15073625
Edwards, Katie M; Kearns, Megan C; Gidycz, Christine A; Calhoun, Karen S
The researchers assessed the predictors of victim-perpetrator relationship stability following a sexual assault. Participants included 254 women sexually assaulted by a friend, casual dating partner, or steady dating partner. Results suggested that most victim-perpetrator relationships (75%) continued following the sexual assault. Greater trauma symptomatology, less perpetrator blame, and nondisclosure of the assault by victims predicted relationship continuation with the perpetrator. Additionally, the odds of continuing the relationship were greater following acts of sexual coercion than following acts of completed rape. Close relationships (steady dating partner) were more likely to continue following the sexual assault than less close relationships (friends and casual dating partners). Unexpectedly, the odds of relationship stability were greater for women without histories of childhood sexual abuse than women with histories of childhood sexual abuse. Implications for future research and intervention are discussed. PMID:22455182
Breitenbecher, K H
The purpose of the present investigation was to assess the relation between threat perception in a dating situation and sexual victimization. During an initial session, participants in the experimental condition (n = 116) viewed a video that depicts a heterosexual couple interacting on a date and reflects risk factors for sexual assault. Participants in the control condition (n = 108) viewed a video that does not contain such risk factors. Participants in each condition also responded to survey instruments assessing demographic variables, history of child sexual abuse, history of adolescent sexual assault, and perception of threat cues in the stimulus videos. A subset of participants (n = 66) returned for a 5-month follow-up session and was assessed for experience of sexual assault during the follow-up period. Results fail to support an association between threat perception and sexual victimization history or an association between threat perception and sexual victimization during the follow-up period. PMID:10418767
Everett, Bethany G.; Rosario, Margaret; Birkett, Michelle
Objectives. We used nuanced measures of sexual minority status to examine disparities in victimization and their variations by gender, age, and race/ethnicity. Methods. We conducted multivariate analyses of pooled data from the 2005 and 2007 Youth Risk Behavior Surveys. Results. Although all sexual minorities reported more fighting, skipping school because they felt unsafe, and having property stolen or damaged at school than did heterosexuals, rates were highest among youths who identified as bisexual or who reported both male and female sexual partners. Gender differences among sexual minorities appeared to be concentrated among bisexuals and respondents who reported sexual partners of both genders. Sexual minority youths reported more fighting than heterosexual youths, especially at younger ages, and more nonphysical school victimization that persisted through adolescence. White and Hispanic sexual minority youths reported more indicators of victimization than did heterosexuals; we found few sexual minority differences among African American and Asian American youths. Conclusions. Victimization carries health consequences, and sexual minorities are at increased risk. Surveys should include measures that allow tracking of disparities in victimization by sexual minority status. PMID:24328633
Rothman, Emily; Silverman, Jay
Objective: Although a variety of sexual assault prevention programs are currently available to college health professionals, there is a dearth of information about the effect of these programs on sexual assault victimization rates. Participants: The authors evaluated the efficacy of a sexual assault prevention program for first-year students at a…
BASILE, KATHLEEN C.; SMITH, SHARON G.; WALTERS, MIKEL L.; FOWLER, DAWNOVISE N.; HAWK, KATHRYN; HAMBURGER, MERLE E.
This study sought to add to the limited information currently available on circumstances of sexual violence victimization and associated negative health experiences among Hispanic women. Data come from a community sample of mostly Mexican women in an urban southwestern city. Household interviews were completed with a sample of 142 women during 3 months in 2010. Findings indicate that 31.2% of women reported rape victimization and 22.7% reported being sexually coerced in their lifetime. Victims of rape and/or sexual coercion were significantly more likely to report symptoms of depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) during their lifetime. Among victims whose first unwanted sexual experience resulted in rape and/or sexual coercion, perpetrators were almost always someone known to the victims, and were mostly family members or intimate partners, depending on the victim’s age. About one-fifth of victims were injured and 17.1% needed medical services. These findings suggest the need for more attention to the physical and mental health needs of sexually victimized Hispanic women. PMID:26752978
Van Bourgondien, Mary E.; And Others
A survey of the sexual behavior of 89 adults with autism living in group homes found that the majority of individuals were engaging in some form of sexual behavior. Masturbation was the most common sexual behavior; however, person-oriented sexual behaviors with obvious signs of arousal were also found. Information regarding group home sexuality…
Walsh, Kate; DiLillo, David; Messman-Moore, Terri L.
The present study examined whether and which facets of emotion dysregulation serve an intervening role in the association between prior victimization and risk perception in an analogue sexual assault vignette. Participants were 714 university women who completed self-report measures of sexual victimization, emotion dysregulation, and a computer-administered written vignette of a college party scene that culminates in acquaintance rape. Approximately 42% of the sample reported lifetime sexual victimization during childhood, adolescence, or adulthood. Two individual aspects of emotion dysregulation, limited access to emotion regulation strategies and impulse control difficulties, mediated the association between lifetime victimization and leaving the scenario later. Findings suggest the importance of emotion dysregulation in predicting risk perception among victims and of improving victims’ emotion regulation skills in revictimization risk reduction interventions. PMID:22550144
Nielsen, Louise Hjort; Hansen, Maj; Elklit, Ask; Bramsen, Rikke Holm
For fear of causing unnecessary distress, ethical concerns have been raised in regard to asking vulnerable persons e.g. sexually traumatized victims to participate in scientific research studies. The current study investigates how victims of sexual assault perceived participating in scientific research in regard to victims' psychological and/or physiological distress and potential beneficial outcomes from participation (N=51). Results from interviews with victims indicated that the majority of victims of sexual assault who had taken part in the study considered their participation in research a positive experience causing little short- or long-term psychological or physiological distress. In addition, over half of the respondents reported some benefits from participation. PMID:27256950
Ullman, Sarah E; Peter-Hagene, Liana C; Relyea, Mark
This study examined whether coping, emotion regulation, and self-blame mediate relationships of trauma histories with post-traumatic stress disorder and depression in adult sexual assault victims (N = 1863). A path analysis showed that theorized mediators partially mediated associations between trauma history variables and psychological symptoms. Specifically, child sexual abuse severity was related to greater post-traumatic stress disorder and depression indirectly through maladaptive coping and decreased emotion regulation but not self-blame. Other traumas had direct relationships with symptoms and partially mediated effects through maladaptive coping and emotion regulation. Child sexual abuse was unrelated to self-blame, but other traumas were related to greater self-blame. Results differed according to whether women had counseling post-assault. Implications are drawn for future research and clinical treatment of adult sexual assault victims. PMID:24393091
Fagan, P J; Meyer, J K; Schmidt, C W
The focus of this paper is on the adult who has adequately mastered the oedipal stage of psychosexual development and who presents with a sexual dysfunction. Drawing on the developmental sequence of Erik Erikson, the authors suggest that failure to address adequately an adult psychosocial crisis may result in sexual dysfunction. There may be both adult developmental deficits and regression to adolescent and adult stages previously negotiated. Both may be symptomatically represented by sexual dysfunction. The authors urge that the sexual and marital problems be evaluated within an adult developmental framework and that the therapy address the psychosocial issues which are appropriate to the developmental stage of the patient. PMID:3820320
Cecil, Heather; Matson, Steven C
We examined levels of sexual victimization among a sample of 249 14- to 19-year-old African American adolescent women. Victimization was common: 32.1% reported having been raped, 33.7% had experienced sexual coercion, and 10.8% reported an attempted rape. Only 23.4% had never been victimized. We investigated whether levels of psychological health and family dysfunction varied as a function of the type of sexual victimization. Girls who had been raped had lower levels of self-esteem and mastery and higher levels of depression compared to girls who reported no sexual victimization. Significantly higher levels of family cohesion and significantly lower levels of family support were reported by girls who had been raped versus girls who reported no sexual victimization. These findings are a starting point for future studies by providing evidence that levels of mental health and family dysfunction vary by the type of sexual victimization experienced. PMID:19817034
Holt, Karen; Massey, Christina
The overwhelming number of male victims of clergy sexual abuse led to assumptions regarding sexual preference of clergy offenders. The present study examined 9,540 records (incidents) of alleged cleric sexual abuse in the United States between 1950 and 1999 to explore situational factors of the abuse by victim gender. No evidence was found to suggest that male victims were purposefully targeted more than female victims; rather, the abuse appeared to be more a function of opportunity. These findings support a situational framework of sexual abuse for the majority of clergy abuse and the assertion that abuse in church can be understood as not a crisis regarding homosexuality but as a social problem that must be examined in its context. PMID:23264544
Meyer, Ilan H.
We assessed 12-month prevalence and incidence data on sexual victimization in 5 federal surveys that the Bureau of Justice Statistics, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and the Federal Bureau of Investigation conducted independently in 2010 through 2012. We used these data to examine the prevailing assumption that men rarely experience sexual victimization. We concluded that federal surveys detect a high prevalence of sexual victimization among men—in many circumstances similar to the prevalence found among women. We identified factors that perpetuate misperceptions about men’s sexual victimization: reliance on traditional gender stereotypes, outdated and inconsistent definitions, and methodological sampling biases that exclude inmates. We recommend changes that move beyond regressive gender assumptions, which can harm both women and men. PMID:24825225
Summit, R C
Psychiatrists have tended to be reluctant followers rather than leaders in the proliferation of concern for child abuse that has developed over the past 25 years. By discounting the relevance of child sexual trauma, psychiatric clinicians and theoreticians overlook not only the therapeutic needs of many survivors but the opportunity to reconceptualize the role of trauma in the etiology and treatment of conditions presumed to be incurable. Present controversies over child sexual abuse are mirrors of past misadventures with uncovering. Since 1860, child abuse has been discovered and then discredited every 35 years by the most visionary clinicians of the day, each faced with the alternative of denouncing the discovery or succumbing to scorn and disgrace. The history of child sexual abuse, whether viewed by parent via child, therapist via patient, or adult survivor via the child within, is one of unimaginable pain and betrayal masked by adult distancing, disavowal, victim blame, and identification with the aggressor. The lurid emotional imperatives of the trauma itself have no place in a just and fair society, and they resist translation into the rational, objective language and concepts of behavioral science. The subject of child sexual abuse is itself so passionate and so paradoxical that it provokes polarized dichotomies at every level, leaving indifference and avoidance as the only hope for serenity. The active nesciance, the determined insistence on not knowing, that pervades every aspect of child sexual abuse encourages the most authoritative scholars to be the most repressive of radical discovery, especially if authority has been achieved as a reaction against youthful vulnerability. Every clinician facing a survivor of childhood sexual trauma faces an assault on personal comfort and authority, just as each patient in that encounter risks intimidation and disgrace. The connections between childhood assault and adult adjustment will be missed unless the therapist
White, Bradley H.; Kurpius, Sharon E. Robinson
Investigated the relationship of sex, gender role attitudes, and sexual orientation to perceptions of rape. College students responded to scenarios depicting the rape of heterosexual and homosexual males and females. Men assigned more blame to victims (particularly male victims) than did women. Traditional gender role attitudes positively related…
Maier, Shana L.
While Sexual Assault Nurse Examiner programs have improved the treatment of rape victims by offering more compassionate and thorough treatment, SANEs believe victims continue to face revictimization by the medical, criminal justice and legal systems. The purpose of this research is to explore SANEs' perceptions of the revictimization of rape…
Toomey, Russell B.; Russell, Stephen T.
School-based victimization is associated with poorer developmental, academic, and health outcomes. This meta-analytic review compared the mean levels of school-based victimization experienced by sexual minority youth to those of heterosexual youth, and examined moderators of this difference. Results from 18 independent studies (N = 56,752…
Griffin, Melissa J.; Read, Jennifer P.
Women who enter college with a sexual victimization (SV) history may be at particular risk for deleterious outcomes including maladaptive alcohol involve posttraumatic stress, and re-victimization. Further, pre-college SV may be an impediment for the achievement of academic mile and may negatively impact the transition into college. Recent work…
Rogers, Paul; Davies, Michelle; Anderson, Irina; Potton, Anita
The present study examines the effects of victim age, victim physical maturity, and respondent gender on attributions toward victims, perpetrator, and the nonoffending members of the victim's family in a hypothetical child sexual abuse (CSA) case. Participants read a brief CSA vignette in which the male perpetrator (a school caretaker) sexually…
Reynolds, Lisa L.; Birkimer, John C.
Examines interactions between victim age and victim response, and victim relation to perpetrator and victim response influencing perceptions of child sexual abuse (CSA). Results suggest that undergraduate students' perceptions of CSA are influenced by several factors and that laws regarding CSA may not be well understood. (Contains 29 references,…
McNamara, James J; Morton, Robert J
The frequency of serial sexual murder has been widely discussed, and estimates of the number of victims in the United States range from 500 to 6000 per year. This study attempted to quantify the number of serial sexual murder victims in Virginia for a ten-year period. Multiple sources of data were utilized, including Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) case files, FBI's Violent Criminal Apprehension Program (ViCAP) reports, Virginia State Police ViCAP reports, Virginia Homicide Investigators Association, and the Virginia Division of Forensic Science DNA database, to effectively cull out all the known serial sexual murder victims for the given time period. Review of these records revealed a total of 28 victims of serial sexual murder, compared with a total of 5183 murder victims for the same ten-year period. The frequency of serial sexual victimization was 0.5% of all homicides for the given period. These results highlight the unusual frequency of serial sexual murder. PMID:15171171
Holoyda, Brian J; Newman, William J
Sexual offending is a significant public health problem in the USA due to its prevalence and the substantial impact it has on victims, victims' families, and the legal and mental health systems. The assessment of sexual offender recidivism risk is an important aspect of developing effective management strategies for sexual offenders in terms of placement, treatment, and other interventions. Researchers have developed numerous tools to aid in the assessment of sexual violence recidivism risk, including actuarial measures, structured professional judgment methods, and psychophysiologic assessment of sexual interests. The Static-99R and Sexual Violence Risk-20 are two instruments that have received substantial research attention for their ability to accurately compare offenders' risk of recidivism to normative group data. Penile plethysmography and visual reaction time are used to evaluate subjects' responses to sexual stimuli in an effort to characterize offenders' sexual arousal and interest, respectively. Though current research has focused on risk assessment tools' predictive utility, future research will need to examine the impact that actuarial and structured professional judgment tools have on reducing recidivism if they are to have relevance in the management of sexual offenders. PMID:26781555
Conroy, Amy A.; Chilungo, Abdallah
In sub-Saharan Africa, research on intimate partner violence (IPV) has largely failed to consider men’s experiences as victims by female perpetrators—particularly within ongoing heterosexual relationships such as marriage. The objectives of this study were to document the prevalence of sexual coercion among men, to describe the characteristics of male victims, and to test for an association between sexual coercion and HIV positivity. In 2010, cross-sectional data on HIV risk behaviors, HIV status, and IPV was collected from a sample of 684 mostly-married men in rural Malawi. Bivariate analyses were used to examine differences in HIV risk characteristics between victims and non-victims of sexual coercion. Multivariate logistic regression was used to determine the association between sexual coercion and HIV positivity. Over one-tenth (10.4%) of men reported being a victim of sexual coercion. Male victims of sexual coercion were more likely to be married (p<0.05), older than 24 years (p<0.05), physically abused by a female partner (p<0.001), believed their partners were at higher risk for HIV (p<0.05), and had consumed alcohol in the past month (p<0.01). After controlling for potential confounders, the odds of being HIV positive were 7.2 times higher among men who had experienced sexual coercion (p<0.000). In sub-Saharan Africa, research on men’s experience of violence as victims is long overdue. More formative research is needed to understand the mechanisms through which men experience violence and how to appropriately measure IPV among male victims. While the data are cross-sectional and cannot evaluate causality, the strength of the association with HIV positivity merits further attention. PMID:24992179
Flack, William F; Kimble, Matthew O; Campbell, Brooke E; Hopper, Allyson B; Petercă, Oana; Heller, Emily J
Almost all research on sexual assault victimization among undergraduate university students pertains to incidents that occur on domestic college and university campuses. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of sexual assault victimization and related factors among undergraduates in the context of study-abroad programs. Two hundred eight female students (52% response rate) from a small university in the northeastern United States who had recently studied abroad responded to an online survey containing measures of sexual assault, posttraumatic stress responses (PSR), and alcohol consumption. Almost 19% of the respondents indicated one or more types of sexual assault victimization. Approximately 17% reported non-consensual sexual touching, 7% attempted rape, 4% rape, with 9% reporting attempted rape or rape. As in domestic studies, victimization in this sample was related positively to alcohol consumption and PSR. Use of force was the most frequently reported perpetrator tactic. In sum, the high rates of sexual assault victimization reported by this sample during study abroad replicate previous findings. This context requires further attention from sexual assault researchers, especially given the increasing numbers of university students engaging in study abroad, and from campus support personnel who may be unaware of the likelihood of assault in this context. PMID:25524266
Yeater, Elizabeth A; McFall, Richard M; Viken, Richard J
This study evaluated the effects of a sexual victimization history and the contextual features of sexual activity and alcohol use on the effectiveness of women's responses to 44 written vignettes describing diverse dating and social situations. One hundred and one undergraduate women reported their history of sexual victimization and provided written descriptions of how they would respond to each vignette. Experts in the sexual violence research area then evaluated the effectiveness of these responses in decreasing risk of having an unwanted sexual experience, meaning one in which the woman is verbally or physically coerced into having sexual contact of any kind with a man. Results revealed that past victimization moderated the influence of the situations' contextual features on women's response effectiveness. Specifically, as the presence of sexual activity increased in the situations, the response effectiveness of more severely victimized women increased less than nonvictimized women. In addition, as the presence of alcohol increased in the situations the response effectiveness of more severely victimized women decreased more than that of nonvictimized women. PMID:20457845
Van Dorn, Richard A.; Johnson, Kiersten L.; Grimm, Kevin J.; Douglas, Kevin S.; Swartz, Marvin S.
Objectives. In a large heterogeneous sample of adults with mental illnesses, we examined the 6-month prevalence and nature of community violence perpetration and victimization, as well as associations between these outcomes. Methods. Baseline data were pooled from 5 studies of adults with mental illnesses from across the United States (n = 4480); the studies took place from 1992 to 2007. The MacArthur Community Violence Screening Instrument was administered to all participants. Results. Prevalence of perpetration ranged from 11.0% to 43.4% across studies, with approximately one quarter (23.9%) of participants reporting violence. Prevalence of victimization was higher overall (30.9%), ranging from 17.0% to 56.6% across studies. Most violence (63.5%) was perpetrated in residential settings. The prevalence of violence-related physical injury was approximately 1 in 10 overall and 1 in 3 for those involved in violent incidents. There were strong associations between perpetration and victimization. Conclusions. Results provided further evidence that adults with mental illnesses experienced violent outcomes at high rates, and that they were more likely to be victims than perpetrators of community violence. There is a critical need for public health interventions designed to reduce violence in this vulnerable population. PMID:24524530
Ohene, Sally-Ann; Johnson, Kiana; Atunah-Jay, Sarah; Owusu, Andrew; Borowsky, Iris Wagman
Violence in all forms poses a concern because of associations with multiple adverse effects including injuries and mental health problems. There is however limited data on violence in general and youth violence in particular in Ghana. To explore the nature and scope of youth violence in Ghana, we used the nationwide Global School-based Health Survey, conducted among senior high school students in Ghana, to explore risk and protective factors at the individual, family, and environmental levels associated with sexual and physical violence victimization. A fifth of these students reported being forced to have sex in their lifetime while two out of five had been a victim of a physical attack in the year preceding the survey. In final multivariate analysis, for sexual violence victimization, history of sexual activity with or without condom use at last sex, feeling sad or hopeless, and being a victim of bullying and electronic bullying were identified as risk factors, while having friends who were not sexually active was protective. Independent risk factors for physical violence victimization were attempting suicide in the last year, alcohol use in the past month, and bullying other students in the past month. Parent respect for privacy just reached significance as a protective factor for physical violence victimization in the final model. Recognition of the magnitude of violence victimization among Ghanaian students and associated factors must be used to guide development and implementation of appropriate concrete measures to prevent and address the problem. PMID:26603310
Clarke, Allyson K; Lawson, Karen L
One potential barrier facing sexual assault survivors is that prejudicial attitudes and perceptions of victim appearance can influence the amount of blame, sympathy, and help that they receive from others. Using Weiner's (1980) attribution-affect-action theory as a guide, the present study investigated the relation between observer attitudinal characteristics (rape myth acceptance [RMA] and antifat attitudes [AFA]), victim weight, and specific judgments regarding a hypothetical sexual assault case. Female undergraduate participants (N=173) were presented with a sexual assault scenario and asked to complete a series of self-report questionnaires. Consistent with past research, attributions of victim fault were positively associated with adherence to rape myths and were higher toward thin victims than overweight victims. Further, the relation between the rater attitudinal variables and sentencing recommendations was found to be dependent on victim weight. When the victim was presented as thin, neither RMA nor AFA emerged as a predictor of sentencing recommendations. In contrast, both RMA and AFA were positively related to sentencing recommendations when the victim was presented as overweight. Theoretical and practical implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:19459403
This study examined the experiences of peer and adult victimization of 737 12-year-old Finnish students. Of the respondents, 28.4% had experienced peer or adult, or both kinds of violence. Peer violence was the most common type of violence, while adult violence was rare. The associations between victimization and depression, somatization and…
Moulden, Heather M; Firestone, Philip; Wexler, Audrey F
The aim of this investigation was to undertake an exploratory analysis of child care providers who sexually offend against children and adolescents and the circumstances related to these offences. Archival Violent Crime Linkage Analysis System (ViCLAS) reports were obtained from the Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP), and demographic and criminal characteristics for the offender, as well as information about the victim and offence, were selected for analyses. A descriptive approach was used to analyze the qualitative reports for a group of 305 Canadian sexual offenders between 1995 and 2002. Adult male (N = 163) and female ( N = 14), along with juvenile male (N = 100) and female (N = 28) child care providers who were involved in a sexual offence against a child or adolescent are described. This article provides unique information about the crimes committed by child care providers in that it is focused on crime characteristics, rather than on personality or treatment variables. Furthermore, it represents a comprehensive examination of this type of offender by including understudied groups, namely juvenile and female offenders. PMID:17652144
Williams, Trish; Connolly, Jennifer; Pepler, Debra; Craig, Wendy
The present study examined the link between sexual orientation and adjustment in a community sample of 97 sexual minority (gay male, lesbian, bisexual, and questioning) high school students, taking into account their experiences of peer victimization and social support within peer and family contexts. Adolescents were identified in a large-scale…
Hall, Richard F.; Graham, Richard D.; Hoover, Gail A.
Sexual harassment is a pervasive problem in education. With victims of harassment pursuing administrative and judicial redress, an awareness of and a program for response to the sexual harassment issue are good risk management strategies for a private university and its staff, employees, and students. This article examines, first, the two types of…
Long, LaDonna; Ullman, Sarah E
Few studies have examined factors related to problem drinking and drug use in Black sexual assault victims. Given that sexual assault and histories of trauma are associated with substance abuse in victims, research is needed to determine what factors may be related to these outcomes for Black survivors. Furthermore, child sexual abuse (CSA) is a risk factor for substance abuse, but no studies have examined correlates of substance abuse outcomes separately according to CSA history. This study examines a large diverse sample of Black sexual assault victims (N = 495) to determine the associations of demographics, trauma history, assault characteristics, and postassault psychosocial factors with problem drinking and drug use using multivariate regressions. Traumatic life events, using substances to cope and self-blame, were associated with greater problem drinking and drug use. Implications for practitioners and policymakers are discussed. PMID:26646054
Reynolds, Lisa L; Birkimer, John C
Two studies examined interactions between victim age and victim response, and victim relation to perpetrator and victim response influencing perceptions of child sexual abuse (CSA). Undergraduates read one of several vignettes describing a sexual encounter between a man and a girl. In Experiment 1, age of the girl was varied; victim age interacted with victim response to increase ratings of abuse and expected trauma for the girl. In Experiment 2, age was held constant while victim relation to perpetrator was varied; men gave higher ratings of abuse than did women for scenarios involving a step father rather than a neighbor, regardless of victim response. In both studies, psychotherapy was expected to help the victim more than the perpetrator and the law was judged to be less stringent than it is regarding CSA. Results suggest that perceptions of CSA are influenced by several factors and that laws regarding CSA may not be well understood. PMID:16221633
Rudin, Margaret M.; And Others
Comparison of 87 child abuse victims of lone female perpetrators with 93 victims of lone male perpetrators found that female perpetrators abused children 3.3 years younger than male perpetrators. Both female and male perpetrators abused more girls than boys and did not differ in severity of abuse. (Author/DB)
Littleton, Heather; Axsom, Danny; Grills-Taquechel, Amie
How a victim of rape characterizes her assault has potential implications for her postassault experiences and revictimization risk. Prior research has identified several potential benefits to not conceptualizing one's experience as a form of victimization. The current study sought to identify whether there are costs to not acknowledging rape as…
Cashwell, Craig S.; And Others
Focuses on the sexually aggressive behavior of children and adolescents who have been sexually abused. It provides an overview of the current literature on sexual reactivity, offers theoretical explanations for the incidence of sexually reactive behavior, and discusses implications for prevention and early intervention of this phenomenon. (CH)
Green, A H
Although physical and sexual abuse are separate and distinct types of victimization, their impact on children is quite similar. Both of these forms of maltreatment involve the exploitation or misuse of a child by a parent or caretaker in the context of a pathologic family system. Physical and sexual abuse constitute an acute traumatic event for the child, generating phobic responses and anxiety-related symptoms including post-traumatic stress disorder. The long-term traumatic elements stemming from the chronic stigmatization and scapegoating contribute to problems of depression and low self-esteem and distortions in character formation. Betrayal by a primary caretaker leads to mistrust of others and difficulties with object relationships. Perhaps the most striking similarity between physical and sexual abuse of children is the tendency of the children to re-enact and recreate their victimization with others, leading to a transmission of violence in the next generation. Like their parents who were frequently victimized during childhood, they repeat and perpetuate an "aggressor-victim" interaction in their subsequent relationships. Both physical and sexual abuse are embedded in a deviant family structure, which adds to the psychopathology of the children. The contrast between physical and sexual abuse can be demonstrated by their specific impact on aggression and sexuality, respectively. The physically abused child has difficulty in experiencing and modulating aggressive impulses, whereas the victim of incest is often impaired in his ability to experience and integrate sexual feelings. The physically abused child is also at greater risk for cognitive and CNS impairment. Intervention with the abusing parents is the first step in protecting the children from further damage, but treatment of the child victims is necessary not only to diminish their psychopathology and emotional distress, but to prevent the cycle of violence in the next generation. PMID:3062593
Ullman, Sarah E.; Filipas, Henrietta H.
Demographics, assault variables, and postassault responses were analyzed as correlates of PTSD symptom severity in a sample of 323 sexual assault victims. Regression analyses indicated that less education, greater perceived life threat, and receipt of more negative social reactions upon disclosing assault were each related to greater PTSD symptom severity. Ethnic minority victims reported more negative social reactions from others. Victims of more severe sexual victimization reported fewer positive, but more negative reactions from others. Greater extent of disclosure of the assault was related to more positive and fewer negative social reactions. Telling more persons about the assault was related to more negative and positive reactions. Implications of these results for developing contextual theoretical models of rape-related PTSD are discussed. PMID:11469163
Tyler, Kimberly A.; Melander, Lisa A.
This study investigated risk factors for discrepant reporting of physical and sexual abuse among 172 homeless young adults. Discrepant reporting includes situations in which a respondent denies experiencing abuse in general but reports being a victim of specific forms of maltreatment. The results revealed that discrepant reporting rates tended to…
Lambie, Ian; Johnston, Emma
Research has shown that child sexual abuse victims are overrepresented among sexual abuse offenders, leading to the sexually abused-sexual abuser hypothesis. However, a large proportion of child sexual abuse victims do not go on to sexually offend, and such individuals are labeled as resilient victims. Surprisingly few studies have looked at why some male victims of sexual abuse do not go on to offend. In-depth qualitative interviews were conducted with 47 resilient men focusing on their beliefs as to why they had not gone on to sexually abuse others. Results revealed four themes for why the victims did not offend: empathy, morals, lack of sexual desire, or a combination of the previous three. In regard to the process of developing their resiliency, some participants claimed they made a conscious decision, whereas others reported the decision was an unconscious one. The various factors that were reported as contributing to the conscious or unconscious decision (becoming aware of sexual abuse, admitting the experience had happened to them, empathy, social support, and lack of sexual desire to abuse) are discussed, along with the four themes, and the implication of these results for prevention. Finally, conclusions are drawn that the victim-offender pathway is far from inevitable as most participants stated their reason for not offending was directly related to their own experience of sexual abuse victimisation. PMID:25633386
James, Veronyka J; Lee, Daniel R
Despite increased attention, education, and prevention programs, sexual assault of college students and underreporting of this victimization remain a pervasive problem. Previous research has examined factors influencing the reporting of crimes by the public to the police, the extent of sexual victimization on college campuses, sexual assault victimization reporting and/or disclosure (for both university victims and non-university victims), and perceptions of police by university students. However, there remains a dearth of research examining whether students' perceptions of police influence their decision to report victimization, in particular sexual assault victimization. The present study examined whether students' perceptions of police influence their decision to report victimization. Using data obtained from a survey of students attending a public university in Southwestern Pennsylvania, the current study examines factors that impact victimization reporting and whether perceptions of police influence victims' decision to report or not. The results of the analyses indicated that victimization reporting and satisfaction with the police were impacted by gender, and support was found for the proposition that perceptions of the police influence the likelihood to report victimization. PMID:25324227
Bauermeister, José A.; Morales, Mercedes M.; Seda, Gretchen; González-Rivera, Milagritos
Sexual prejudice is linked to hate crimes, mental health, risk behaviors, and stigma. Few studies have examined sexual prejudice among Latinos. We surveyed 382 college students in Puerto Rico. A structural model tested whether contact and positive experiences with homosexuals, perceived similarities with peers' attitudes toward homosexuality, and religiosity were predictive of sexual prejudice among Puerto Rican young adults. Sex differences in the structural model were explored. With the exception of peers' attitudes toward homosexuality, all study variables predict sexual prejudice. No sex differences were found. Implications for decreasing sexual prejudice among Puerto Rican youth in a college setting are discussed. PMID:18689195
Steine, Iris M.; Krystal, John H.; Nordhus, Inger H.; Bjorvatn, Bjorn; Harvey, Allison G.; Eid, Jarle; Gronli, Janne; Milde, Anne M.; Pallesen, Stale
In this study of victims of sexual abuse, the aim was to investigate the role of perceived social support and abuse characteristics in self-reported insomnia, nightmare frequency, and nightmare distress. Four hundred sixty Norwegian victims of sexual abuse completed a questionnaire assessing perceived social support, abuse characteristics,…
Rogers, Paul; Titterington, Leigh; Davies, Michelle
This study examines the effects victim disability (physical vs. intellectual vs. none), victim resistance (physical vs. verbal vs. none) and respondent gender (male vs. female) have on attributions of blame and credibility in a hypothetical case of child sexual abuse. Three hundred and thirty-five respondents read a fictional police statement…
Hines, Denise A; Douglas, Emily M
Although research has documented the prevalence and health correlates of sexual aggression among women who have experienced severe partner violence (PV), no research has documented the parallel issues among male victims of severe PV. Research also suggests that children of female victims of both physical and sexual PV have worse mental health than children of female victims of physical PV only, but no research has assessed the mental health of children whose fathers experienced both physical and sexual PV. We surveyed 611 men who experienced physical PV from their female partners and sought help. We assessed the types and extent of various forms of PV, the men's mental and physical health, and the mental health of their oldest child. Results showed that almost half of the men experienced sexual aggression in their relationship, and 28 % severe sexual aggression. Increasing levels of severity of sexual aggression victimization was associated with greater prevalence and types of other forms of PV. In addition, greater levels of severity of sexual aggression victimization among the men was significantly associated with depression symptoms, post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms, physical health symptoms, and poor health, and attention deficit and affective symptoms among their children. These associations held after controlling for demographics and other violence and trauma exposure. Discussion focused on the importance of broadening our conceptualization of PV against men by women to include sexual aggression as well. PMID:25501862
Villela, Wilza V; Lago, Tânia
This article analyzes treatment for female victims of sexual violence, with a focus on partnerships between government and the organized women's movement. The central references are the specific literature and testimony by key social actors who have participated in this process. The results show that despite the real and symbolic importance of care for rape victims, the government and the women's movement have not succeeded in guaranteeing the expansion of these services or adequately linking the discussion of sexual violence to women's right to abortion under any circumstances. It is thus necessary to step up the measures on this agenda. PMID:17221098
Golding, Jonathan M; Wasarhaley, Nesa E; Lynch, Kellie R; Lippert, Anne; Magyarics, Casey L
The present study investigated the influence of a sexual assault nurse examiner's (SANE's) testimony on mock juror perceptions of a child or adolescent victim of child sexual assault. Community members (N = 252, 156 females) read a fictional criminal trial summary of a child sexual assault case in which the victim was 6 or 15 years old and the prosecution presented medical testimony from a SANE or a traditional registered nurse (RN), or did not present medical testimony. Mock jurors were more likely to render guilty verdicts when a SANE testified compared with the other two testimony conditions. In addition, pro-victim judgments (e.g., sympathy toward the victim) and negative defendant judgments (e.g., anger toward the defendant) mediated this relation. Finally, cognitive network representations of the case demonstrated that the RN and no-medical-testimony groups were similar and the SANE group was distinct from the other two conditions. We discuss these results in terms of the implications of SANE testimony in child sexual assault court cases. PMID:26294384
Unlu, Gulsen; Cakaloz, Burcu
Purpose Child sexual abuse and sexual dating violence victimization are common problems that are known to have long-term negative consequences. This study aimed to compare the sociodemographic, abuse-related, and clinical features of female adolescents who were sexually abused by different perpetrators, and identify the factors associated with suicidality and nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) in these cases. Patients and methods Data of 254 sexually abused female adolescents between the ages of 12–18 years were evaluated. The cases were classified into three groups, namely “sexual dating violence”, “incest”, and “other child sexual abuse”, according to the identity of the perpetrator. The three groups were compared in terms of sociodemographic, abuse-related, and clinical features. Results Major depressive disorder was the most common psychiatric diagnosis, which was present in 44.9% of the cases. Among all victims, 25.6% had attempted suicide, 52.0% had suicidal ideation, and 23.6% had NSSI during the postabuse period. A logistic regression analysis revealed that attempted suicide was predicted by dating violence victimization (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] =3.053; 95% confidence interval [CI] =1.473, 6.330) and depression (AOR =2.238; 95% CI =1.226, 4.086). Dating violence victimization was also the strongest predictor of subsequent suicidal ideation (AOR =3.500; 95% CI =1.817, 6.741). In addition, revictimization was determined to be an important risk factor for both suicidal ideation (AOR =2.897; 95% CI =1.276, 6.574) and NSSI (AOR =3.847; 95% CI =1.899, 7.794). Conclusion Perpetrator identity and revictimization are associated with negative mental health outcomes in sexually victimized female adolescents. Increased risk of suicidality and NSSI should be borne in mind while assessing cases with dating violence and revictimization histories, in particular. PMID:27382291
Adams-Curtis, Leah E; Forbes, Gordon B
The literature on college women's experiences with sexual coercion is reviewed, with an emphasis on work published since 1990. Sexual coercion is defined as any situation in which one person uses verbal or physical means (including the administration of drugs or alcohol, with or without the other person's consent) to obtain sexual activity against consent. We argue that coercive sexual behavior among college students can best be understood within the context of other sexual behaviors and values on college campuses. Significant definitional and methodological problems are identified and discussed. Important victim, perpetrator, and situational variables are identified and discussed. These include attitudes toward women, beliefs about sexual behavior (including rape-supporting beliefs and values), communication problems, coercion-supporting peer groups (including fraternities and athletics), concepts of masculinity and femininity, sexual promiscuity, and alcohol. PMID:15070552
Reingle, Jennifer M.; Maldonado-Molina, Mildred M.
The purpose of this article is to evaluate the victim–offender overlap among a nationally representative sample of Native American adolescents and young adults. Data for this study were obtained from 338 Native American youth who participated in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) Waves I-IV. Group-based trajectory modeling was used to estimate trajectories of violence and victimization separately. Bivariate tests were used to assess the overlap between victimization and violent trajectory groups. Multinomial regression procedures were used to assess the predictors of victimization, offending, and the overlap category of both victimization and offending. Three trajectory groups were found for violence (nonviolent, escalators, and desistors) and victimization (nonvictim, decreasing victimization, and increasing victimization). We found substantial evidence of an overlap between victimization and offending among Native Americans, as 27.5% of the sample reported both victimization and offending. Those in the overlap group had greater number of risk factors present at baseline. These results suggest that the victim–offender overlap is present in Native American adolescents. Explanations and implications are discussed. PMID:24078778
Everett, Bethany G.; Heath, Ryan D.; Elsaesser, Caitlin E.; Neilands, Torsten B.
Abstract Purpose: Sexual minority youth (SMY) are at higher risk for victimization and suicide than are heterosexual youth (HY). Relatively little research has examined which types of victimization are most closely linked to suicide, which is necessary to develop targeted prevention interventions. The present study was conducted to address this deficit. Methods: The data come from the 2011 Chicago Youth Risk Behavior Survey (n = 1,907). Structural equation modeling (SEM) in Mplus evaluated the direct, indirect, and total effects of sexual orientation on a latent indicator of suicidal ideation and behaviors via seven types of victimization. Four indicators of victimization were school-specific (e.g., harassment due to sexual orientation or gender identity (SO/GID), bullying, threatened or injured with a weapon, and skipping school due to safety concerns), and three indicators assessed other types of victimization (e.g., electronic bullying, intimate partner violence, and sexual abuse). Results: Thirteen percent of youth were classified as SMY. Significantly more SMY than HY reported suicidal ideation (27.95% vs. 13.64%), a suicide plan (22.78% vs. 12.36%), and at least one suicide attempt (29.92% vs. 12.43%) in the past year (all P < .001). A greater percentage of SMY reported SO/GID-related harassment, skipping school, electronic bullying, and sexual abuse. Sexual orientation was not directly related to suicidal ideation and behaviors in SEM. Rather, SMY's elevated risk of suicidality functioned indirectly through two forms of school-based victimization: being threatened or injured with a weapon (B = .19, SE = .09, P ≤ .05) and experiencing SO/GID-specific harassment (B = .40, SE = .15, P ≤ .01). There also was a trend for SMY to skip school as a strategy to reduce suicide risk. Conclusion: Although SMY experience higher rates of victimization than do HY, school-based victimization that involves weapons or is due to one's SO
During the 20th century, erotic experiences between minors and adults occupied a position of increasing interest, both public as well as scientific. In this area of research, one of the most notable evolutions in how these experiences are treated has been the progressive disappearance and/or the intense redefinition of what earlier researchers called "participating victims," i.e., minors apparently interested in accepting and/or sustaining these relationships. The present work, through a comparative analysis of the literature, seeks to substantiate this transformation during the second third of the 20th century. It will also argue that this evolution can be fundamentally explained in terms of the intense emotional, moral, and ideological importance that is ascribed to these experiences in the rise of the current victimological paradigm. Finally, this study endeavors to contribute to the understanding of childhood and the scientific study of child sexuality as well as of these experiences with adults. PMID:20039115
Clark, C. Brendan; Perkins, Adam; McCullumsmith, Cheryl B.; Islam, M. Aminul; Hanover, Erin E.; Cropsey, Karen L.
The purpose of this study was to examine how victims of sexual abuse in a community corrections population differ as a result of their sex and race. Of the 19,422 participants, a total of 1,298 (6.7%) reported a history of sexual abuse and were compared with nonabused participants. The sample was analyzed by race-gender groups (White men, White…
Yule, Carolyn; Griffiths, Elizabeth
Victimization studies consistently find that household structure influences the risk of personal and property victimization among adult household members, with those in "traditional" homes enjoying the most protection from victimization and lone parents experiencing the greatest vulnerability. Drawing on the concept of "coupling constraints,"…
Johnson, Sarah E.; Holder-Hayes, Enver; Tessman, Greta K.; King, Brian A.; Alexander, Tesfa; Zhao, Xiaoquan
Introduction A growing body of evidence reveals higher rates of tobacco use among sexual minority populations relative to non-minority (“straight”) populations. This study seeks to more fully characterize this disparity by examining tobacco use by distinct sexual identities and gender to better understand patterns of: (1) cigarette smoking and smoking history; and (2) use of other tobacco products including cigars, pipes, hookah, e-cigarettes, and smokeless tobacco. Methods Data from the 2012–2013 National Adult Tobacco Survey, a random-digit dialed landline and cellular telephone survey of U.S. adults aged ≥18 years, were analyzed in 2014. A sexual minority category was created by combining gay, lesbian, and bisexual responses, along with those who selected an option for other non-heterosexual identities. Results Smoking prevalence was higher among sexual minority adults (27.4%) than straight adults (17.3%). Cigarette smoking was particularly high among bisexual women (36.0%). Sexual minority women started smoking and transitioned to daily smoking earlier than their straight peers. Use of other tobacco products was higher among sexual minority women: prevalence of e-cigarette (12.4%), hookah (10.3%), and cigar use (7.2%) was more than triple that of their straight female peers (3.4%, 2.5%, and 1.3%, respectively). Likewise, prevalence of sexual minority men’s e-cigarette (7.9%) and hookah (12.8%) use exceeded that of straight men (4.7% and 4.5%, respectively). Conclusions Tobacco use is significantly higher among sexual minority than straight adults, particularly among sexual minority women. These findings underscore the importance of tobacco control efforts designed to reach sexual minorities and highlight the heterogeneity of tobacco use within this population. PMID:26526162
Kaltiala-Heino, Riittakerttu; Fröjd, Sari; Marttunen, Mauri
Sexual harassment has been studies as a mechanism reproducing inequality between sexes, as gender based discrimination, and more recently, as a public health problem. The role of family-related factors for subjection to sexual harassment in adolescent has been little studied. Our aim was to study the role of socio-demographic family factors and parental involvement in adolescent's persona life for experiences of sexual harassment among 14-18-year-old population girls and boys. An anonymous cross-sectional classroom survey was carried out in comprehensive and secondary schools in Finland. 90953 boys and 91746 girls aged 14-18 participated. Sexual harassment was elicited with five questions. Family structure, parental education, parental unemployment and parental involvement as perceived by the adolescent were elicited. The data were analyzed using cross-tabulations with chi-square statistics and logistic regressions. All types of sexual harassment experiences elicited were more common among girls than among boys. Parental unemployment, not living with both parents and low parental education were associated with higher likelihood of reporting experiences of sexual harassment, and parental involvement in the adolescent's personal life was associated with less reported sexual harassment. Parental involvement in an adolescent's life may be protective of perceived sexual harassment. Adolescents from socio-economically disadvantaged families are more vulnerable to sexual harassment than their more advantaged peers. PMID:27131452
Diouf, A; Gaye, A; Sangare, M; Ba Gueye, M; Diadhiou, F
Sexual assaults constitute a prominent fact of our societies to this end twentieth Century. Then its's very important for physicians to be informed about obstacles encoured to manage assaults victims. Our study presents 25 cases of sexual assaults listed in Obstetrics and Gynecology Clinics of University Center Hospital of Dakar. It works out that: there are adolescents in most cases (85%); delay of examination is too long (11 cases beyond 24 hours) and compromises cytologic exams; injuries evaluation is sometimes negative; no lesion of anal sodomy is found. The authors insist to provide more informations to physicians to overcome evaluation of assault victim which has an impact for legal proceeding against offender. They call gaps to fill up un senegalese jurisprudence about assault victim who gets an accidental pregnancy. PMID:7757135
Hamby, Sherry L.; Koss, Mary P.
Methodological analyses of sexual victimization research are still rare, despite the explosion of interest in this topic and widely varying rates across studies. In-depth analysis of the meaning of differences in rates is especially lacking. A series of five ethnically and geographically diverse focus groups were held to explore how wording in…
Münzer, Annika; Fegert, Jörg M; Goldbeck, Lutz
The differential effects of sexual victimization and other forms of maltreatment on psychological functioning are not well understood. A sample of sexually victimized children and adolescents (N = 70; 6.3-17.9 years) and a group of youth with a history of nonsexual maltreatment (N = 108; 6.7-16.9 years) were compared using measures of mental health and psychosocial functioning. Assessments included standardized clinical interviews on individual maltreatment history and current psychopathology as well as questionnaires on behavioral and emotional symptoms, including posttraumatic stress symptoms. The results from this study suggest that the risk of experiencing any current mental disorders was independent of type of maltreatment. The risk of meeting the criteria for a current diagnosis of major depression, however, is greater among youth with a history of maltreatment that includes sexual victimization. The significant impact of sexual victimization on posttraumatic stress symptoms was found to be nonsignificant after controlling for age and gender effects. The results indicate that the outcomes of child maltreatment depend on type of maltreatment, but age and gender must be taken into account. PMID:27135385
Breitenbecher, Kimberly Hanson
The primary purpose of this investigation was to assess the convergent validities of two measures of dating behaviors related to risk for sexual victimization, the Dating Self-Protection Against Rape Scale (DSPARS) and the Dating Behavior Survey (DBS). Three hundred seventy-seven women responded to measures assessing self-protective dating…
Hippensteele, Susan; Pearson, Thomas C.
If a university is to respond effectively to campus sexual harassment problems, a comprehensive, proactive program of prevention education and complaint resolution must be in place. The University of Hawaii at Manoa has developed such formalized assistance for student and employee victims of harassment through prevention education, supportive…
Aldridge, Jan; Lamb, Michael E.; Sternberg, Kathleen J.; Orbach, Yael; Esplin, Phillip W.; Bowler, Lynn
Ninety 4- to 13-year-old alleged victims of sexual abuse were interviewed by police officers using the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) investigative interview protocol, following which they were shown a human figure drawing and asked a series of questions. The drawing and associated questions elicited an average of…
Cyr, Mireille; McDuff, Pierre; Wright, John; Theriault, Chantal; Cinq-Mars, Caroline
This study investigated self-harming behaviors in 149 female adolescent victims of sexual abuse, first, by determining the rates of nine types of self-mutilating behavior at intake and nine months later and, second, by investigating comorbidity of clinical correlates associated with these behaviors. The adolescents were divided into three groups…
Ullman, Sarah E.; Filipas, Henrietta H.; Townsend, Stephanie M.; Starzynski, Laura L.
This study's goal is to identify differences in background, assault, and post assault factors according to the victim-offender relationship. A mail survey is conducted with more than 1,000 female sexual assault survivors (response rate 90%) recruited from college, community, and mental health agency sources. Stranger assailants are associated with…
Schnoll, Jessica S.; Connolly, Jennifer; Josephson, Wendy J.; Pepler, Debra; Simkins-Strong, Emily
Using a developmental-contextual framework, the present study investigated risk factors for same- and cross-gender sexual harassment victimization in 986 middle school students. Participants completed questionnaires in the fall and spring of the same school year so risk factors could be explored longitudinally. Results revealed that gender…
Malloy, Lindsay C.; Brubacher, Sonja P.; Lamb, Michael E.
The current study explored the expected consequences of disclosure discussed by 204 5- to 13-year-old suspected victims of child sexual abuse during the course of investigative interviews conducted using the NICHD Investigative Interview Protocol. Expected consequences were mentioned in nearly half of all interviews, with older children and those…
Gellert, George A.; And Others
An interim set of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) testing guidelines for victims of pediatric sexual abuse (PSA) is proposed. Guidelines are based on responses of 63 practitioners of PSA assessment to 7 hypothetical clinical profiles with 12 testing criteria. (Author/DB)