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Sample records for adult stress interplay

  1. The interplay of early-life stress, nutrition, and immune activation programs adult hippocampal structure and function

    PubMed Central

    Hoeijmakers, Lianne; Lucassen, Paul J.; Korosi, Aniko

    2015-01-01

    Early-life adversity increases the vulnerability to develop psychopathologies and cognitive decline later in life. This association is supported by clinical and preclinical studies. Remarkably, experiences of stress during this sensitive period, in the form of abuse or neglect but also early malnutrition or an early immune challenge elicit very similar long-term effects on brain structure and function. During early-life, both exogenous factors like nutrition and maternal care, as well as endogenous modulators, including stress hormones and mediator of immunological activity affect brain development. The interplay of these key elements and their underlying molecular mechanisms are not fully understood. We discuss here the hypothesis that exposure to early-life adversity (specifically stress, under/malnutrition and infection) leads to life-long alterations in hippocampal-related cognitive functions, at least partly via changes in hippocampal neurogenesis. We further discuss how these different key elements of the early-life environment interact and affect one another and suggest that it is a synergistic action of these elements that shapes cognition throughout life. Finally, we consider different intervention studies aiming to prevent these early-life adversity induced consequences. The emerging evidence for the intriguing interplay of stress, nutrition, and immune activity in the early-life programming calls for a more in depth understanding of the interaction of these elements and the underlying mechanisms. This knowledge will help to develop intervention strategies that will converge on a more complete set of changes induced by early-life adversity. PMID:25620909

  2. The interplay of early-life stress, nutrition, and immune activation programs adult hippocampal structure and function.

    PubMed

    Hoeijmakers, Lianne; Lucassen, Paul J; Korosi, Aniko

    2014-01-01

    Early-life adversity increases the vulnerability to develop psychopathologies and cognitive decline later in life. This association is supported by clinical and preclinical studies. Remarkably, experiences of stress during this sensitive period, in the form of abuse or neglect but also early malnutrition or an early immune challenge elicit very similar long-term effects on brain structure and function. During early-life, both exogenous factors like nutrition and maternal care, as well as endogenous modulators, including stress hormones and mediator of immunological activity affect brain development. The interplay of these key elements and their underlying molecular mechanisms are not fully understood. We discuss here the hypothesis that exposure to early-life adversity (specifically stress, under/malnutrition and infection) leads to life-long alterations in hippocampal-related cognitive functions, at least partly via changes in hippocampal neurogenesis. We further discuss how these different key elements of the early-life environment interact and affect one another and suggest that it is a synergistic action of these elements that shapes cognition throughout life. Finally, we consider different intervention studies aiming to prevent these early-life adversity induced consequences. The emerging evidence for the intriguing interplay of stress, nutrition, and immune activity in the early-life programming calls for a more in depth understanding of the interaction of these elements and the underlying mechanisms. This knowledge will help to develop intervention strategies that will converge on a more complete set of changes induced by early-life adversity. PMID:25620909

  3. Oxidative Stress, Prooxidants, and Antioxidants: The Interplay

    PubMed Central

    Rahal, Anu; Kumar, Amit; Singh, Vivek; Yadav, Brijesh

    2014-01-01

    Oxidative stress is a normal phenomenon in the body. Under normal conditions, the physiologically important intracellular levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) are maintained at low levels by various enzyme systems participating in the in vivo redox homeostasis. Therefore, oxidative stress can also be viewed as an imbalance between the prooxidants and antioxidants in the body. For the last two decades, oxidative stress has been one of the most burning topics among the biological researchers all over the world. Several reasons can be assigned to justify its importance: knowledge about reactive oxygen and nitrogen species production and metabolism; identification of biomarkers for oxidative damage; evidence relating manifestation of chronic and some acute health problems to oxidative stress; identification of various dietary antioxidants present in plant foods as bioactive molecules; and so on. This review discusses the importance of oxidative stress in the body growth and development as well as proteomic and genomic evidences of its relationship with disease development, incidence of malignancies and autoimmune disorders, increased susceptibility to bacterial, viral, and parasitic diseases, and an interplay with prooxidants and antioxidants for maintaining a sound health, which would be helpful in enhancing the knowledge of any biochemist, pathophysiologist, or medical personnel regarding this important issue. PMID:24587990

  4. Interplay between neuroimmunoendocrine systems during post-traumatic stress disorder: a minireview.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Moisés E; Wieck, Andréa; Lopes, Rodrigo P; Teixeira, Antonio L; Grassi-Oliveira, Rodrigo

    2010-01-01

    Early life stress has been suggested to mediate vulnerability to affective disorders. Traumatic events experienced in childhood such as sexual abuse and/or physical neglect may lead to psychiatric diseases in adult life, including post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Previous studies have focused on adult traumatic events and very little is known regarding the long-term physiological effects of early life stress. Here, we review the complex interplay between most important cognitive, neuroendocrine and immunological changes reported in PTSD, focusing on long-term implications of childhood maltreatment. PTSD has been associated with significant biological changes related to impaired cognitive functions, attenuated hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function (hypocortisolism) and activation of innate immune responses (low-grade inflammation). PMID:20134200

  5. The Interplay of Stress and Sleep Impacts BDNF Level

    PubMed Central

    Brand, Serge; Calabrese, Pasquale; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Eckert, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Background Sleep plays a pivotal role in normal biological functions. Sleep loss results in higher stress vulnerability and is often found in mental disorders. There is evidence that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) could be a central player in this relationship. Recently, we could demonstrate that subjects suffering from current symptoms of insomnia exhibited significantly decreased serum BDNF levels compared with sleep-healthy controls. In accordance with the paradigm indicating a link between sleep and BDNF, we aimed to investigate if the stress system influences the association between sleep and BDNF. Methodology/Principal Findings Participants with current symptoms of insomnia plus a former diagnosis of Restless Legs Syndrome (RLS) and/or Periodic Limb Movement (PLM) and sleep healthy controls were included in the study. They completed questionnaires on sleep (ISI, Insomnia Severity Index) and stress (PSS, Perceived Stress Scale) and provided a blood sample for determination of serum BDNF. We found a significant interaction between stress and insomnia with an impact on serum BDNF levels. Moreover, insomnia severity groups and score on the PSS each revealed a significant main effect on serum BDNF levels. Insomnia severity was associated with increased stress experience affecting serum BDNF levels. Of note, the association between stress and BDNF was only observed in subjects without insomnia. Using a mediation model, sleep was revealed as a mediator of the association between stress experience and serum BDNF levels. Conclusions This is the first study to show that the interplay between stress and sleep impacts BDNF levels, suggesting an important role of this relationship in the pathogenesis of stress-associated mental disorders. Hence, we suggest sleep as a key mediator at the connection between stress and BDNF. Whether sleep is maintained or disturbed might explain why some individuals are able to handle a certain stress load while others develop a

  6. Perceived Stress among Deaf Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Elaine G.; Ouellette, Sue E.; Kang, Youngmi

    2006-01-01

    The Present Article describes the effectiveness of stress management classes in decreasing perceived stress among Deaf adults. Deaf adults may experience unique stressors, in addition to circumstances associated with increased stress in the general population. The Perceived Stress Scale (S. Cohen, Kamarck, & Mermelstein, 1983) was used as a…

  7. The interplay of subjective social status and essentialist beliefs about cognitive aging on cortisol reactivity to challenge in older adults.

    PubMed

    Weiss, David; Weiss, Mona

    2016-08-01

    Older adults are more likely than younger adults to experience stress when confronted with cognitive challenges. However, little is known about individual differences that might explain why some older adults exhibit stronger stress responses than others. We examined the interplay of two social-cognitive factors to explain older adults' cortisol reactivity: (1) subjective social status, and (2) essentialist beliefs about cognitive aging. We hypothesized that, depending on whether older adults believe that aging-related cognitive decline is inevitable versus modifiable, low subjective social status should lead to stronger or weaker cortisol reactivity. Using longitudinal data, we assessed the impact of cognitive challenges on stress reactivity in a sample of older adults (N = 389; 61-86 years). As predicted, regression analyses confirmed that 44 min after cognitively challenging tasks, older adults exhibited a significantly different cortisol reactivity depending on their subjective social status and their essentialist beliefs about cognitive aging. Specifically, older adults with low subjective social status and high essentialist beliefs showed a significantly elevated cortisol reactivity. We discuss the role of essentialist beliefs about cognitive aging to predict when and why high versus low subjective social status leads to stress responses in older adults. PMID:27159187

  8. Interplay between stress response genes associated with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and brain volume.

    PubMed

    van der Meer, D; Hoekstra, P J; Bralten, J; van Donkelaar, M; Heslenfeld, D J; Oosterlaan, J; Faraone, S V; Franke, B; Buitelaar, J K; Hartman, C A

    2016-09-01

    The glucocorticoid receptor plays a pivotal role in the brain's response to stress; a haplotype of functional polymorphisms in the NR3C1 gene encoding this receptor has been associated with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The serotonin transporter (5-HTT) gene polymorphism 5-HTTLPR is known to influence the relation between stress exposure and ADHD severity, which may be partly because of its reported effects on glucocorticoid levels. We therefore investigated if NR3C1 moderates the relation of stress exposure with ADHD severity and brain structure, and the potential role of 5-HTTLPR. Neuroimaging, genetic and stress exposure questionnaire data were available for 539 adolescents and young adults participating in the multicenter ADHD cohort study NeuroIMAGE (average age: 17.2 years). We estimated the effects of genetic variation in NR3C1 and 5-HTT, stress exposure and their interactions on ADHD symptom count and gray matter volume. We found that individuals carrying the ADHD risk haplotype of NR3C1 showed significantly more positive relation between stress exposure and ADHD severity than non-carriers. This gene-environment interaction was significantly stronger for 5-HTTLPR L-allele homozygotes than for S-allele carriers. These two- and three-way interactions were reflected in the gray matter volume of the cerebellum, parahippocampal gyrus, intracalcarine cortex and angular gyrus. Our findings illustrate how genetic variation in the stress response pathway may influence the effects of stress exposure on ADHD severity and brain structure. The reported interplay between NR3C1 and 5-HTT may further explain some of the heterogeneity between studies regarding the role of these genes and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity in ADHD. PMID:27391809

  9. Learning Havens for Stressed Adult Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seay, Sandra E.

    2005-01-01

    Having stressful workdays is not the sole prerogative of adult students enrolled in educational leadership programs. According to a report released by the American Institute of Stress in 2002, 80% of adult workers felt stress in the workplace. From this it can be assumed that a certain amount of stress accompanies every adult who enters an evening…

  10. Interplay between Inflammation and Cellular Stress Triggered by Flaviviridae Viruses.

    PubMed

    Valadão, Ana L C; Aguiar, Renato S; de Arruda, Luciana B

    2016-01-01

    The Flaviviridae family comprises several human pathogens, including Dengue, Zika, Yellow Fever, West Nile, Japanese Encephalitis viruses, and Hepatitis C Virus. Those are enveloped, single-stranded positive sense RNA viruses, which replicate mostly in intracellular compartments associated to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and Golgi complex. Virus replication results in abundant viral RNAs and proteins, which are recognized by cellular mechanisms evolved to prevent virus infection, resulting in inflammation and stress responses. Virus RNA molecules are sensed by Toll-like receptors (TLRs), RIG-I-like receptors (RIG-I and MDA5) and RNA-dependent protein kinases (PKR), inducing the production of inflammatory mediators and interferons. Simultaneously, the synthesis of virus RNA and proteins are distinguished in different compartments such as mitochondria, ER and cytoplasmic granules, triggering intracellular stress pathways, including oxidative stress, unfolded protein response pathway, and stress granules assembly. Here, we review the new findings that connect the inflammatory pathways to cellular stress sensors and the strategies of Flaviviridae members to counteract these cellular mechanisms and escape immune response. PMID:27610098

  11. Interplay between Inflammation and Cellular Stress Triggered by Flaviviridae Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Valadão, Ana L. C.; Aguiar, Renato S.; de Arruda, Luciana B.

    2016-01-01

    The Flaviviridae family comprises several human pathogens, including Dengue, Zika, Yellow Fever, West Nile, Japanese Encephalitis viruses, and Hepatitis C Virus. Those are enveloped, single-stranded positive sense RNA viruses, which replicate mostly in intracellular compartments associated to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and Golgi complex. Virus replication results in abundant viral RNAs and proteins, which are recognized by cellular mechanisms evolved to prevent virus infection, resulting in inflammation and stress responses. Virus RNA molecules are sensed by Toll-like receptors (TLRs), RIG-I-like receptors (RIG-I and MDA5) and RNA-dependent protein kinases (PKR), inducing the production of inflammatory mediators and interferons. Simultaneously, the synthesis of virus RNA and proteins are distinguished in different compartments such as mitochondria, ER and cytoplasmic granules, triggering intracellular stress pathways, including oxidative stress, unfolded protein response pathway, and stress granules assembly. Here, we review the new findings that connect the inflammatory pathways to cellular stress sensors and the strategies of Flaviviridae members to counteract these cellular mechanisms and escape immune response. PMID:27610098

  12. Interplay between shear stress and adhesion on neutrophil locomotion.

    PubMed

    Smith, Lee A; Aranda-Espinoza, Helim; Haun, Jered B; Hammer, Daniel A

    2007-01-15

    Leukocyte locomotion over the lumen of inflamed endothelial cells is a critical step, following firm adhesion, in the inflammatory response. Once firmly adherent, the cell will spread and will either undergo diapedesis through individual vascular endothelial cells or will migrate to tight junctions before extravasating to the site of injury or infection. Little is known about the mechanisms of neutrophil spreading or locomotion, or how motility is affected by the physical environment. We performed a systematic study to investigate the effect of the type of adhesive ligand and shear stress on neutrophil motility by employing a parallel-plate flow chamber with reconstituted protein surfaces of E-selectin, E-selectin/PECAM-1, and E-selectin/ICAM-1. We find that the level and type of adhesive ligand and the shear rate are intertwined in affecting several metrics of migration, such as the migration velocity, random motility, index of migration, and the percentage of cells moving in the direction of flow. On surfaces with high levels of PECAM-1, there is a near doubling in random motility at a shear rate of 180 s(-1) compared to the motility in the absence of flow. On surfaces with ICAM-1, neutrophil random motility exhibits a weaker response to shear rate, decreasing slightly when shear rate is increased from static conditions to 180 s(-1), and is only slightly higher at 1000 s(-1) than in the absence of flow. The random motility increases with increasing surface concentrations of E-selectin and PECAM-1 under static and flow conditions. Our findings illustrate that the endothelium may regulate neutrophil migration in postcapillary venules through the presentation of various adhesion ligands at sites of inflammation. PMID:17071667

  13. Nitric Oxide, Oxidative Stress, and p66Shc Interplay in Diabetic Endothelial Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Greco, Simona; Capogrossi, Maurizio C.; Gaetano, Carlo

    2014-01-01

    Increased oxidative stress and reduced nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability play a causal role in endothelial cell dysfunction occurring in the vasculature of diabetic patients. In this review, we summarized the molecular mechanisms underpinning diabetic endothelial and vascular dysfunction. In particular, we focused our attention on the complex interplay existing among NO, reactive oxygen species (ROS), and one crucial regulator of intracellular ROS production, p66Shc protein. PMID:24734227

  14. The interplay of couple's shared time, women's intimacy, and intradyadic stress.

    PubMed

    Milek, Anne; Butler, Emily A; Bodenmann, Guy

    2015-12-01

    Theoretically, spending time together should be central for couples to build intimacy and should be associated with less relationship stress; however, few empirical studies have examined these links. The present study used 14 days of diary data from 92 women to investigate the interplay between the amount of time they spent with their partner (shared time), intimacy, and daily stress originating inside the relationship (intradyadic stress) on a within- and between-personal level. Multilevel analyses revealed moderation patterns: For example, when women spent more time with their partners than usual on a weekday with low levels of intradyadic stress, they reported higher intimacy. These associations varied substantially between women and were weaker on the weekend or on days with high levels of intradyadic stress. At the between-person level, higher average shared time appeared to buffer the negative association between intradyadic stress and intimacy. Our results suggest that daily fluctuations in intradyadic stress, intimacy, and shared time may have different implications compared with aggregated amounts of those variables. Spending more time together on a weekday with low intimacy might be linked to more intradyadic stress, but aggregated over the long run, spending more time together may provide opportunities for stress resolution and help couples to maintain their intimacy. PMID:26376425

  15. Inductive interactions mediated by interplay of asymmetric signalling underlie development of adult haematopoietic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Souilhol, Céline; Gonneau, Christèle; Lendinez, Javier G; Batsivari, Antoniana; Rybtsov, Stanislav; Wilson, Heather; Morgado-Palacin, Lucia; Hills, David; Taoudi, Samir; Antonchuk, Jennifer; Zhao, Suling; Medvinsky, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    During embryonic development, adult haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) emerge preferentially in the ventral domain of the aorta in the aorta-gonad-mesonephros (AGM) region. Several signalling pathways such as Notch, Wnt, Shh and RA are implicated in this process, yet how these interact to regulate the emergence of HSCs has not previously been described in mammals. Using a combination of ex vivo and in vivo approaches, we report here that stage-specific reciprocal dorso-ventral inductive interactions and lateral input from the urogenital ridges are required to drive HSC development in the aorta. Our study strongly suggests that these inductive interactions in the AGM region are mediated by the interplay between spatially polarized signalling pathways. Specifically, Shh produced in the dorsal region of the AGM, stem cell factor in the ventral and lateral regions, and BMP inhibitory signals in the ventral tissue are integral parts of the regulatory system involved in the development of HSCs. PMID:26952187

  16. Inductive interactions mediated by interplay of asymmetric signalling underlie development of adult haematopoietic stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Souilhol, Céline; Gonneau, Christèle; Lendinez, Javier G.; Batsivari, Antoniana; Rybtsov, Stanislav; Wilson, Heather; Morgado-Palacin, Lucia; Hills, David; Taoudi, Samir; Antonchuk, Jennifer; Zhao, Suling; Medvinsky, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    During embryonic development, adult haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) emerge preferentially in the ventral domain of the aorta in the aorta–gonad–mesonephros (AGM) region. Several signalling pathways such as Notch, Wnt, Shh and RA are implicated in this process, yet how these interact to regulate the emergence of HSCs has not previously been described in mammals. Using a combination of ex vivo and in vivo approaches, we report here that stage-specific reciprocal dorso–ventral inductive interactions and lateral input from the urogenital ridges are required to drive HSC development in the aorta. Our study strongly suggests that these inductive interactions in the AGM region are mediated by the interplay between spatially polarized signalling pathways. Specifically, Shh produced in the dorsal region of the AGM, stem cell factor in the ventral and lateral regions, and BMP inhibitory signals in the ventral tissue are integral parts of the regulatory system involved in the development of HSCs. PMID:26952187

  17. The interplay of adult and larval time constraints shapes species differences in larval life history.

    PubMed

    Mikolajewski, Dirk J; De Block, Marjan; Stoks, Robby

    2015-04-01

    In animals with a complex life cycle, larval life-history plasticity is likely shaped by the interplay of selective factors in both larval and adult stages. A wide interspecific variation in responses to larval time constraints imposed by seasonality has been documented. Few studies have addressed differences among closely related species in the evolutionary trajectories of age and size at metamorphosis and their link with larval growth rate under time constraints. None have considered how species-specific length of the reproductive season affects larval developmental responses to time constraints. We tested in four Coenagrion damselfly species whether species with a longer reproductive season, facing a smaller threat of missing out on reproduction, react less to larval time constraints and pre-winter food shortage by accelerating development rate and growth rate, and therefore pay less physiological costs. All species increased development and growth rates under larval time constraints. The magnitude of this increase negatively correlated across species with the length of the reproductive season. Under larval time constraints, only the species exhibiting the longest reproductive season suffered a delayed emergence and a reduced investment in energy storage, yet also showed an increased immune function. Under a longer reproductive season, evolution may favor compensation for larval constraints after metamorphosis. Growth rate was accelerated after pre-winter food shortage to the same extent across species; effects on age and mass at emergence also did not differ among species. Time constraints associated with the length of the reproductive season may predictably contribute to species differences in their response to time constraints imposed in the larval stage. Our study adds empirical proof that the interplay of selective factors in the larval and adult stages may determine life-history plasticity with regard to larval time constraints. PMID:26230032

  18. Theoretical Approaches for Understanding the Interplay Between Stress and Chemical Reactivity.

    PubMed

    Kochhar, Gurpaul S; Heverly-Coulson, Gavin S; Mosey, Nicholas J

    2015-01-01

    The use of mechanical stresses to induce chemical reactions has attracted significant interest in recent years. Computational modeling can play a significant role in developing a comprehensive understanding of the interplay between stresses and chemical reactivity. In this review, we discuss techniques for simulating chemical reactions occurring under mechanochemical conditions. The methods described are broadly divided into techniques that are appropriate for studying molecular mechanochemistry and those suited to modeling bulk mechanochemistry. In both cases, several different approaches are described and compared. Methods for examining molecular mechanochemistry are based on exploring the force-modified potential energy surface on which a molecule subjected to an external force moves. Meanwhile, it is suggested that condensed phase simulation methods typically used to study tribochemical reactions, i.e., those occurring in sliding contacts, can be adapted to study bulk mechanochemistry. PMID:26233311

  19. Twin-based study of the complex interplay between childhood maltreatment, socioeconomic status and adult memory.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, Ximena; Alemany, Silvia; Fatjó-Vilas, Mar; González-Ortega, Itxaso; González-Pinto, Ana; Cuesta, Manuel J; Fañanás, Lourdes

    2013-08-01

    Childhood maltreatment and low socioeconomic status (SES) are considered stressful environmental events with lasting detrimental effects on adult mental health and associated cognitive performance, such as memory. However, the association between childhood maltreatment and low SES remains unclear, probably due to design limitations and putative confounding factors. Particular concerns have been raised on genetic influences, as genetic background may modulate the effects of environmental stressors. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of childhood maltreatment on adult memory in low- and high-SES subjects, free of confounding due to other environmental and genetic influences. A monozygotic twin design based on 188 healthy adult subjects (94 twin pairs) from the general population was conducted. This design based on genetically identical individuals allowed disentangling the unique environmental effects of childhood maltreatment on memory, which was explored in low and high SES. Results showed that the unique environmental effects of childhood maltreatment were only evident in the high-SES group (β = -0.22; SE = 0.08; p < 0.01; 95 % CI = -0.375 to -0.066). By contrast, no evidence for this effect could be detected in the more stressful low-SES group. These results suggest that enriched environments may provide a more stable context where early stressful experiences can influence cognitive processes. This study provides preliminary support for the inclusion of environmental enrichment in studies addressing the impact of childhood maltreatment on adult cognition and psychiatric disorders. PMID:23188190

  20. Interplay between Solo and keratin filaments is crucial for mechanical force–induced stress fiber reinforcement

    PubMed Central

    Fujiwara, Sachiko; Ohashi, Kazumasa; Mashiko, Toshiya; Kondo, Hiroshi; Mizuno, Kensaku

    2016-01-01

    Mechanical force–induced cytoskeletal reorganization is essential for cell and tissue remodeling and homeostasis; however, the underlying cellular mechanisms remain elusive. Solo (ARHGEF40) is a RhoA-targeting guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) involved in cyclical stretch–induced human endothelial cell reorientation and convergent extension cell movement in zebrafish gastrula. In this study, we show that Solo binds to keratin-8/keratin-18 (K8/K18) intermediate filaments through multiple sites. Solo overexpression promotes the formation of thick actin stress fibers and keratin bundles, whereas knockdown of Solo, expression of a GEF-inactive mutant of Solo, or inhibition of ROCK suppresses stress fiber formation and leads to disorganized keratin networks, indicating that the Solo-RhoA-ROCK pathway serves to precisely organize keratin networks, as well as to promote stress fibers. Of importance, knockdown of Solo or K18 or overexpression of GEF-inactive or deletion mutants of Solo suppresses tensile force–induced stress fiber reinforcement. Furthermore, knockdown of Solo or K18 suppresses tensile force-induced RhoA activation. These results strongly suggest that the interplay between Solo and K8/K18 filaments plays a crucial role in tensile force–induced RhoA activation and consequent actin cytoskeletal reinforcement. PMID:26823019

  1. Interplay between Solo and keratin filaments is crucial for mechanical force-induced stress fiber reinforcement.

    PubMed

    Fujiwara, Sachiko; Ohashi, Kazumasa; Mashiko, Toshiya; Kondo, Hiroshi; Mizuno, Kensaku

    2016-03-15

    Mechanical force-induced cytoskeletal reorganization is essential for cell and tissue remodeling and homeostasis; however, the underlying cellular mechanisms remain elusive. Solo (ARHGEF40) is a RhoA-targeting guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) involved in cyclical stretch-induced human endothelial cell reorientation and convergent extension cell movement in zebrafish gastrula. In this study, we show that Solo binds to keratin-8/keratin-18 (K8/K18) intermediate filaments through multiple sites. Solo overexpression promotes the formation of thick actin stress fibers and keratin bundles, whereas knockdown of Solo, expression of a GEF-inactive mutant of Solo, or inhibition of ROCK suppresses stress fiber formation and leads to disorganized keratin networks, indicating that the Solo-RhoA-ROCK pathway serves to precisely organize keratin networks, as well as to promote stress fibers. Of importance, knockdown of Solo or K18 or overexpression of GEF-inactive or deletion mutants of Solo suppresses tensile force-induced stress fiber reinforcement. Furthermore, knockdown of Solo or K18 suppresses tensile force-induced RhoA activation. These results strongly suggest that the interplay between Solo and K8/K18 filaments plays a crucial role in tensile force-induced RhoA activation and consequent actin cytoskeletal reinforcement. PMID:26823019

  2. Transforming Growth Factor-Beta and Oxidative Stress Interplay: Implications in Tumorigenesis and Cancer Progression

    PubMed Central

    Krstić, Jelena; Trivanović, Drenka; Mojsilović, Slavko; Santibanez, Juan F.

    2015-01-01

    Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) and oxidative stress/Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) both have pivotal roles in health and disease. In this review we are analyzing the interplay between TGF-β and ROS in tumorigenesis and cancer progression. They have contradictory roles in cancer progression since both can have antitumor effects, through the induction of cell death, senescence and cell cycle arrest, and protumor effects by contributing to cancer cell spreading, proliferation, survival, and metastasis. TGF-β can control ROS production directly or by downregulating antioxidative systems. Meanwhile, ROS can influence TGF-β signaling and increase its expression as well as its activation from the latent complex. This way, both are building a strong interplay which can be taken as an advantage by cancer cells in order to increment their malignancy. In addition, both TGF-β and ROS are able to induce cell senescence, which in one way protects damaged cells from neoplastic transformation but also may collaborate in cancer progression. The mutual collaboration of TGF-β and ROS in tumorigenesis is highly complex, and, due to their differential roles in tumor progression, careful consideration should be taken when thinking of combinatorial targeting in cancer therapies. PMID:26078812

  3. Alzheimer's Proteins, Oxidative Stress, and Mitochondrial Dysfunction Interplay in a Neuronal Model of Alzheimer's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Bobba, Antonella; Petragallo, Vito A.; Marra, Ersilia; Atlante, Anna

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss the interplay between beta-amyloid (Aβ) peptide, Tau fragments, oxidative stress, and mitochondria in the neuronal model of cerebellar granule neurons (CGNs) in which the molecular events reminiscent of AD are activated. The identification of the death route and the cause/effect relationships between the events leading to death could be helpful to manage the progression of apoptosis in neurodegeneration and to define antiapoptotic treatments acting on precocious steps of the death process. Mitochondrial dysfunction is among the earliest events linked to AD and might play a causative role in disease onset and progression. Recent studies on CGNs have shown that adenine nucleotide translocator (ANT) impairment, due to interaction with toxic N-ter Tau fragment, contributes in a significant manner to bioenergetic failure and mitochondrial dysfunction. These findings open a window for new therapeutic strategies aimed at preserving and/or improving mitochondrial function. PMID:20862336

  4. Stress-related hormones and glycinebetaine interplay in protection of photosynthesis under abiotic stress conditions.

    PubMed

    Kurepin, Leonid V; Ivanov, Alexander G; Zaman, Mohammad; Pharis, Richard P; Allakhverdiev, Suleyman I; Hurry, Vaughan; Hüner, Norman P A

    2015-12-01

    Plants subjected to abiotic stresses such as extreme high and low temperatures, drought or salinity, often exhibit decreased vegetative growth and reduced reproductive capabilities. This is often associated with decreased photosynthesis via an increase in photoinhibition, and accompanied by rapid changes in endogenous levels of stress-related hormones such as abscisic acid (ABA), salicylic acid (SA) and ethylene. However, certain plant species and/or genotypes exhibit greater tolerance to abiotic stress because they are capable of accumulating endogenous levels of the zwitterionic osmolyte-glycinebetaine (GB). The accumulation of GB via natural production, exogenous application or genetic engineering, enhances plant osmoregulation and thus increases abiotic stress tolerance. The final steps of GB biosynthesis occur in chloroplasts where GB has been shown to play a key role in increasing the protection of soluble stromal and lumenal enzymes, lipids and proteins, of the photosynthetic apparatus. In addition, we suggest that the stress-induced GB biosynthesis pathway may well serve as an additional or alternative biochemical sink, one which consumes excess photosynthesis-generated electrons, thus protecting photosynthetic apparatus from overreduction. Glycinebetaine biosynthesis in chloroplasts is up-regulated by increases in endogenous ABA or SA levels. In this review, we propose and discuss a model describing the close interaction and synergistic physiological effects of GB and ABA in the process of cold acclimation of higher plants. PMID:25823797

  5. Interplay between Ubiquitin, SUMO, and Poly(ADP-Ribose) in the Cellular Response to Genotoxic Stress

    PubMed Central

    Pellegrino, Stefania; Altmeyer, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    Cells employ a complex network of molecular pathways to cope with endogenous and exogenous genotoxic stress. This multilayered response ensures that genomic lesions are efficiently detected and faithfully repaired in order to safeguard genome integrity. The molecular choreography at sites of DNA damage relies heavily on post-translational modifications (PTMs). Protein modifications with ubiquitin and the small ubiquitin-like modifier SUMO have recently emerged as important regulatory means to coordinate DNA damage signaling and repair. Both ubiquitylation and SUMOylation can lead to extensive chain-like protein modifications, a feature that is shared with yet another DNA damage-induced PTM, the modification of proteins with poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR). Chains of ubiquitin, SUMO, and PAR all contribute to the multi-protein assemblies found at sites of DNA damage and regulate their spatio-temporal dynamics. Here, we review recent advancements in our understanding of how ubiquitin, SUMO, and PAR coordinate the DNA damage response and highlight emerging examples of an intricate interplay between these chain-like modifications during the cellular response to genotoxic stress. PMID:27148359

  6. Circadian adaptation to cell injury stresses: a crucial interplay of BMAL1 and HSF1.

    PubMed

    Tamaru, Teruya; Ikeda, Masaaki

    2016-07-01

    The circadian clock system confers daily anticipatory physiological processes with the ability to be reset by environmental cues. This "circadian adaptation system" (CAS), driven by cell-autonomous molecular clocks, orchestrates various rhythmic physiological processes in the entire body. Hence, the dysfunction of these clocks exacerbates various diseases, which may partially be due to the impairment of protective pathways. If this is the case, how does the CAS respond to cell injury stresses that are critical in maintaining health and life by evoking protective pathways? To address this question, here we review and discuss recent evidence revealing life-protective (pro-survival) molecular networks between clock (e.g., BMAL1, CLOCK, and PER2) and adaptation (e.g., HSF1, Nrf2, NF-κB, and p53) pathways, which are evoked by various cell injury stresses (e.g., heat, reactive oxygen species, and UV). The CK2 protein kinase-integrated interplay of the BMAL1 (clock) and HSF1 (heat-shock response) pathways is one of the crucial events in CAS. PMID:26910317

  7. The interplay between reproductive social stimuli and adult olfactory bulb neurogenesis.

    PubMed

    Peretto, Paolo; Schellino, Roberta; De Marchis, Silvia; Fasolo, Aldo

    2014-01-01

    Adult neurogenesis is a striking form of structural plasticity that adapts the brain to the changing world. Accordingly, new neuron production is involved in cognitive functions, such as memory, learning, and pattern separation. Recent data in rodents indicate a close link between adult neurogenesis and reproductive social behavior. This provides a key to unravel the functional meaning of adult neurogenesis in biological relevant contexts and, in parallel, opens new perspectives to explore the way the brain is processing social stimuli. In this paper we will summarize some of the major achievements on cues and mechanisms modulating adult neurogenesis during social behaviors related to reproduction and possible role/s played by olfactory newborn neurons in this context. We will point out that newborn interneurons in the accessory olfactory bulb (AOB) represent a privileged cellular target for social stimuli that elicit reproductive behaviors and that such cues modulate adult neurogenesis at two different levels increasing both proliferation of neuronal progenitors in the germinative regions and integration of newborn neurons into functional circuits. This dual mechanism provides fresh neurons that can be involved in critical activities for the individual fitness, that is, the processing of social stimuli driving the parental behavior and partner recognition. PMID:25140258

  8. The Interplay between Reproductive Social Stimuli and Adult Olfactory Bulb Neurogenesis

    PubMed Central

    De Marchis, Silvia; Fasolo, Aldo

    2014-01-01

    Adult neurogenesis is a striking form of structural plasticity that adapts the brain to the changing world. Accordingly, new neuron production is involved in cognitive functions, such as memory, learning, and pattern separation. Recent data in rodents indicate a close link between adult neurogenesis and reproductive social behavior. This provides a key to unravel the functional meaning of adult neurogenesis in biological relevant contexts and, in parallel, opens new perspectives to explore the way the brain is processing social stimuli. In this paper we will summarize some of the major achievements on cues and mechanisms modulating adult neurogenesis during social behaviors related to reproduction and possible role/s played by olfactory newborn neurons in this context. We will point out that newborn interneurons in the accessory olfactory bulb (AOB) represent a privileged cellular target for social stimuli that elicit reproductive behaviors and that such cues modulate adult neurogenesis at two different levels increasing both proliferation of neuronal progenitors in the germinative regions and integration of newborn neurons into functional circuits. This dual mechanism provides fresh neurons that can be involved in critical activities for the individual fitness, that is, the processing of social stimuli driving the parental behavior and partner recognition. PMID:25140258

  9. The Interplay between Parental Beliefs about Children's Emotions and Parental Stress Impacts Children's Attachment Security

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stelter, Rebecca L.; Halberstadt, Amy G.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated how parental beliefs about children's emotions and parental stress relate to children's feelings of security in the parent-child relationship. Models predicting direct effects of parental beliefs and parental stress, and moderating effects of parental stress on the relationship between parental beliefs and children's…

  10. The Interplay of Perceived Stress, Self-Determination and School Engagement in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raufelder, Diana; Kittler, Frieder; Braun, Sarah R.; Lätsch, Alexander; Wilkinson, R. Poppy; Hoferichter, Frances

    2014-01-01

    Currently, many societies are placing a greater onus on academic achievement--resulting in higher levels of stress being observed among adolescent students. Stress can have detrimental repercussions on adolescents' health and is also associated with anxiety and depression. However, since less is known about how high stress levels affect…

  11. Adult Hippocampal Neurogenesis, Fear Generalization, and Stress.

    PubMed

    Besnard, Antoine; Sahay, Amar

    2016-01-01

    The generalization of fear is an adaptive, behavioral, and physiological response to the likelihood of threat in the environment. In contrast, the overgeneralization of fear, a cardinal feature of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), manifests as inappropriate, uncontrollable expression of fear in neutral and safe environments. Overgeneralization of fear stems from impaired discrimination of safe from aversive environments or discernment of unlikely threats from those that are highly probable. In addition, the time-dependent erosion of episodic details of traumatic memories might contribute to their generalization. Understanding the neural mechanisms underlying the overgeneralization of fear will guide development of novel therapeutic strategies to combat PTSD. Here, we conceptualize generalization of fear in terms of resolution of interference between similar memories. We propose a role for a fundamental encoding mechanism, pattern separation, in the dentate gyrus (DG)-CA3 circuit in resolving interference between ambiguous or uncertain threats and in preserving episodic content of remote aversive memories in hippocampal-cortical networks. We invoke cellular-, circuit-, and systems-based mechanisms by which adult-born dentate granule cells (DGCs) modulate pattern separation to influence resolution of interference and maintain precision of remote aversive memories. We discuss evidence for how these mechanisms are affected by stress, a risk factor for PTSD, to increase memory interference and decrease precision. Using this scaffold we ideate strategies to curb overgeneralization of fear in PTSD. PMID:26068726

  12. Stressful Social Interactions Experienced by Adults with Mild Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartley, Sigan L.; MacLean, William E., Jr.

    2009-01-01

    Adults with intellectual disability are vulnerable to stressful social interactions. We determined frequency and severity of various stressful social interactions, identified the social partners in these interactions, and examined the specific interpersonal skill difficulties of 114 adults with mild intellectual disability. Participants'…

  13. The Interplay Between Parental Beliefs about Children's Emotions and Parental Stress Impacts Children's Attachment Security.

    PubMed

    Stelter, Rebecca L; Halberstadt, Amy G

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated how parental beliefs about children's emotions and parental stress relate to children's feelings of security in the parent-child relationship. Models predicting direct effects of parental beliefs and parental stress, and moderating effects of parental stress on the relationship between parental beliefs and children's feelings of security were tested. Participants were 85 African American, European American, and Lumbee American Indian 4(th) and 5(th) grade children and one of their parents. Children reported their feelings of security in the parent-child relationship; parents independently reported on their beliefs and their stress. Parental stress moderated relationships between three of the four parental beliefs about the value of children's emotions and children's attachment security. When parent stress was low, parental beliefs accepting and valuing children's emotions were not related to children's feelings of security; when parent stress was high, however, parental beliefs accepting and valuing children's emotions were related to children's feelings of security. These findings highlight the importance of examining parental beliefs and stress together for children's attachment security. PMID:21731472

  14. Antagonistic interplay between hypocretin and leptin in the lateral hypothalamus regulates stress responses.

    PubMed

    Bonnavion, Patricia; Jackson, Alexander C; Carter, Matthew E; de Lecea, Luis

    2015-01-01

    The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis functions to coordinate behavioural and physiological responses to stress in a manner that depends on the behavioural state of the organism. However, the mechanisms through which arousal and metabolic states influence the HPA axis are poorly understood. Here using optogenetic approaches in mice, we show that neurons that produce hypocretin (Hcrt)/orexin in the lateral hypothalamic area (LHA) regulate corticosterone release and a variety of behaviours and physiological hallmarks of the stress response. Interestingly, we found that Hcrt neuronal activity and Hcrt-mediated stress responses were inhibited by the satiety hormone leptin, which acts, in part, through a network of leptin-sensitive neurons in the LHA. These data demonstrate how peripheral metabolic signals interact with hypothalamic neurons to coordinate stress and arousal and suggest one mechanism through which hyperarousal or altered metabolic states may be linked with abnormal stress responses. PMID:25695914

  15. Socio-Psychological Predictors of Acculturative Stress among Latino Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miranda, Alexis O.; Matheny, Kenneth B.

    2000-01-01

    A random sample (N=197) of two social service agencies completed a questionnaire to assess family cohesion and adaptability, acculturation, acculturative stress, and coping-resources effectiveness among Latino adults. The results suggest that acculturative stress experienced by Latinos relates to the efficacy of stress-coping resources, degree of…

  16. Role of adult hippocampal neurogenesis in stress resilience.

    PubMed

    Levone, Brunno R; Cryan, John F; O'Leary, Olivia F

    2015-01-01

    There is a growing appreciation that adult hippocampal neurogenesis plays a role in emotional and cognitive processes related to psychiatric disorders. Although many studies have investigated the effects of stress on adult hippocampal neurogenesis, most have not focused on whether stress-induced changes in neurogenesis occur specifically in animals that are more resilient or more susceptible to the behavioural and neuroendocrine effects of stress. Thus, in the present review we explore whether there is a clear relationship between stress-induced changes in adult hippocampal neurogenesis, stress resilience and antidepressant-induced recovery from stress-induced changes in behaviour. Exposure to different stressors is known to reduce adult hippocampal neurogenesis, but some stressors have also been shown to exert opposite effects. Ablation of neurogenesis does not lead to a depressive phenotype, but it can enhance responsiveness to stress and affect stress susceptibility. Monoaminergic-targeted antidepressants, environmental enrichment and adrenalectomy are beneficial for reversing stress-induced changes in behaviour and have been shown to do so in a neurogenesis-dependant manner. In addition, stress and antidepressants can affect hippocampal neurogenesis, preferentially in the ventral hippocampus. Together, these data show that adult hippocampal neurogenesis may play a role in the neuroendocrine and behavioural responses to stress, although it is not yet fully clear under which circumstances neurogenesis promotes resilience or susceptibility to stress. It will be important that future studies carefully examine how adult hippocampal neurogenesis can contribute to stress resilience/susceptibility so that it may be appropriately exploited for the development of new and more effective treatments for stress-related psychiatric disorders. PMID:27589664

  17. The interplay of frequency of volunteering and prosocial motivation on purpose in life in emerging adults.

    PubMed

    Okun, Morris A; Kim, Ga Young

    2016-01-01

    One developmental task in emerging adulthood is finding meaning and purpose in life. Volunteering has been touted as one role that fosters purpose in life. We examined whether the association between frequency of volunteering and purpose in life varies with pleasure-based prosocial motivation and pressure-based prosocial motivation in a sample of 576 undergraduates, ages 18-22 years old. In a regression analysis predicting purpose in life, the frequency of volunteering by pleasure-based prosocial motivation by pressure-based prosocial motivation interaction effect was significant (p = .042). Simple slopes analyses revealed that frequency of volunteering was not significantly (p = .478) related to purpose in life among college students who were low in both pleasure-based and pressure-based prosocial motivation. The findings of the present study highlight the importance of prosocial motivation for understanding whether emerging adults' purpose in life will be enhanced by volunteering. PMID:27064183

  18. Current Understanding of the Interplay between Phytohormones and Photosynthesis under Environmental Stress.

    PubMed

    Gururani, Mayank Anand; Mohanta, Tapan Kumar; Bae, Hanhong

    2015-01-01

    Abiotic stress accounts for huge crop losses every year across the globe. In plants, the photosynthetic machinery gets severely damaged at various levels due to adverse environmental conditions. Moreover, the reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated as a result of stress further promote the photosynthetic damage by inhibiting the repair system of photosystem II. Earlier studies have suggested that phytohormones are not only required for plant growth and development, but they also play a pivotal role in regulating plants' responses to different abiotic stress conditions. Although, phytohormones have been studied in great detail in the past, their influence on the photosynthetic machinery under abiotic stress has not been studied. One of the major factors that limits researchers from elucidating the precise roles of phytohormones is the highly complex nature of hormonal crosstalk in plants. Another factor that needs to be elucidated is the method used for assessing photosynthetic damage in plants that are subjected to abiotic stress. Here, we review the current understanding on the role of phytohormones in the photosynthetic machinery under various abiotic stress conditions and discuss the potential areas for further research. PMID:26287167

  19. Current Understanding of the Interplay between Phytohormones and Photosynthesis under Environmental Stress

    PubMed Central

    Gururani, Mayank Anand; Mohanta, Tapan Kumar; Bae, Hanhong

    2015-01-01

    Abiotic stress accounts for huge crop losses every year across the globe. In plants, the photosynthetic machinery gets severely damaged at various levels due to adverse environmental conditions. Moreover, the reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated as a result of stress further promote the photosynthetic damage by inhibiting the repair system of photosystem II. Earlier studies have suggested that phytohormones are not only required for plant growth and development, but they also play a pivotal role in regulating plants’ responses to different abiotic stress conditions. Although, phytohormones have been studied in great detail in the past, their influence on the photosynthetic machinery under abiotic stress has not been studied. One of the major factors that limits researchers fromelucidating the precise roles of phytohormones is the highly complex nature of hormonal crosstalk in plants. Another factor that needs to be elucidated is the method used for assessing photosynthetic damage in plants that are subjected to abiotic stress. Here, we review the current understanding on the role of phytohormones in the photosynthetic machinery under various abiotic stress conditions and discuss the potential areas for further research. PMID:26287167

  20. Interplay Between Residual Stresses, Microstructure, Process Variables and Engine Block Casting Integrity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lombardi, Anthony; D'Elia, Francesco; Ravindran, Comondore; Sediako, Dimitry; Murty, B. S.; MacKay, Robert

    2012-12-01

    The replacement of nodular cast iron with 319 type aluminum (Al) alloys in gasoline engine blocks is an example of the shift towards the use of lighter alloys in the automotive industry. However, excessive residual stress along the cylinder bore may lead to bore distortion, significantly reducing engine operating efficiency. In the current study, microstructure, mechanical properties and residual stress were characterized along the cylinder bridge of engine blocks following thermal sand reclamation (TSR), T7 heat treatment, and service testing of the casting. Neutron diffraction was effectively used to quantify the residual stress along both the Al cylinder bridge and the adjacent gray cast iron cylinder liners in the hoop, radial, and axial orientations with respect to the cylinder axis. The results suggest that an increase in cooling rate along the cylinder caused a significant refinement in microstructure at the bottom of the cylinder. In turn, this suggested an increase in alloy strength at the bottom of the cylinder relative to the top. This increased strength at the bottom of the cylinder likely reduced the susceptibility of the cylinder to rapid relief of residual stress at elevated temperature. In contrast, the coarse microstructure at the top of the cylinder likely triggered stress relief at an elevated temperature.

  1. The Interplay of International Students' Acculturative Stress, Social Support, and Acculturation Modes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Christopher; Kashubeck-West, Susan

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between acculturation modes (assimilation, integration, separation and marginalization), social support, and acculturative stress in undergraduate and graduate international students (N=104) at a medium-sized public university in the Midwestern United States. The study found that international students with…

  2. Stress and selective attention: the interplay of mood, cortisol levels, and emotional information processing.

    PubMed

    Ellenbogen, Mark A; Schwartzman, Alex E; Stewart, Jane; Walker, Claire-Dominique

    2002-11-01

    The effects of a stressful challenge on the processing of emotional words were examined in college students. Stress induction was achieved using a competitive computer task, where the individual either repeatedly lost or won against a confederate. Mood, attention, and cortisol were recorded during the study. There were four findings: (1) Participants in the negative stressor condition were faster to shift attention away from negative words than positive or neutral words; (2) attentional shifts away from negative words were associated with stress-induced mood lowering; (3) participants in the negative stress condition with elevated scores on the Beck Depression Inventory were slow to disengage attention from all stimuli; and (4) elevated depression scores were associated with lower cortisol change from baseline during the experimental phase, and with higher cortisol levels during the recovery phase. These findings point to information-processing strategies as a means to regulate emotion, and to atypical features of cognitive and adrenocortical function that may serve as putative risk markers of depression. PMID:12462500

  3. Early Life Stress Effects on Glucocorticoid—BDNF Interplay in the Hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Daskalakis, Nikolaos P.; De Kloet, Edo Ronald; Yehuda, Rachel; Malaspina, Dolores; Kranz, Thorsten M.

    2015-01-01

    Early life stress (ELS) is implicated in the etiology of multiple psychiatric disorders. Important biological effects of ELS are manifested in stress-susceptible regions of the hippocampus and are partially mediated by long-term effects on glucocorticoid (GC) and/or neurotrophin signaling pathways. GC-signaling mediates the regulation of stress response to maintain homeostasis, while neurotrophin signaling plays a key role in neuronal outgrowth and is crucial for axonal guidance and synaptic integrity. The neurotrophin and GC-signaling pathways co-exist throughout the central nervous system (CNS), particularly in the hippocampus, which has high expression levels of glucocorticoid-receptors (GR) and mineralocorticoid-receptors (MR) as well as brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and its receptor, tropomyosin-related kinase receptor B (TrkB). This review addresses the effects of ELS paradigms on GC- and BDNF-dependent mechanisms and their crosstalk in the hippocampus, including potential implications for the pathogenesis of common stress-related disorders. PMID:26635521

  4. Early Life Stress Effects on Glucocorticoid-BDNF Interplay in the Hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Daskalakis, Nikolaos P; De Kloet, Edo Ronald; Yehuda, Rachel; Malaspina, Dolores; Kranz, Thorsten M

    2015-01-01

    Early life stress (ELS) is implicated in the etiology of multiple psychiatric disorders. Important biological effects of ELS are manifested in stress-susceptible regions of the hippocampus and are partially mediated by long-term effects on glucocorticoid (GC) and/or neurotrophin signaling pathways. GC-signaling mediates the regulation of stress response to maintain homeostasis, while neurotrophin signaling plays a key role in neuronal outgrowth and is crucial for axonal guidance and synaptic integrity. The neurotrophin and GC-signaling pathways co-exist throughout the central nervous system (CNS), particularly in the hippocampus, which has high expression levels of glucocorticoid-receptors (GR) and mineralocorticoid-receptors (MR) as well as brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and its receptor, tropomyosin-related kinase receptor B (TrkB). This review addresses the effects of ELS paradigms on GC- and BDNF-dependent mechanisms and their crosstalk in the hippocampus, including potential implications for the pathogenesis of common stress-related disorders. PMID:26635521

  5. Predicting Developmental Changes in Internalizing Symptoms: Examining the Interplay Between Parenting and Neuroendocrine Stress Reactivity

    PubMed Central

    Kuhlman, Kate R.; Olson, Sheryl L.; Lopez-Duran, Nestor L.

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we examined whether parenting and HPA-axis reactivity during middle childhood predicted increases in internalizing symptoms during the transition to adolescence, and whether HPA-axis reactivity mediated the impact of parenting on internalizing symptoms. The study included 65 children (35 boys) who were assessed at age 5, 7, and 11. Parenting behaviors were assessed via parent report at age 5 and 11. The child’s HPA-axis reactivity was measured at age 7 via a stress task. Internalizing symptoms were measured via teacher reports at age 5 and 11. High maternal warmth at age 5 predicted lower internalizing symptoms at age 11. Also, high reported maternal warmth and induction predicted lower HPA-axis reactivity. Additionally, greater HPA-axis reactivity at age 7 was associated with greater increases in internalizing symptoms from age 5 to 11. Finally, the association between age 5 maternal warmth and age 11 internalizing symptoms was partially mediated by lower cortisol in response to the stress task. Thus, parenting behaviors in early development may influence the physiological stress response system and therefore buffer the development of internalizing symptoms during preadolescence when risk for disorder onset is high. PMID:24009085

  6. Interplay of stress, temperature, and giant magnetoimpedance in amorphous soft magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurniawan, M.; Roy, R. K.; Panda, A. K.; Greve, D. W.; Ohodnicki, P. R.; McHenry, M. E.

    2014-12-01

    Giant Magnetoimpedance (GMI)-based sensing devices have attracted attention from both academia and industry due to their low cost, flexibility, and excellent sensitivity. Potential applications range widely from current and stress sensors, navigation systems, magnetic recording, to more demanding ones such as field sensors for deep drilling and oil fracking at elevated temperature. To realize the latter, the temperature dependence of GMI effect must be well understood. Herein, we report a study on the GMI effect in a Cobalt-based amorphous microwire under temperature cycles between 20 °C-560 °C. The GMI ratio was observed to decrease from 126.1% at 20 °C to 68.5% at 230 °C, rapidly drop at ˜290 °C and reach a near zero value above 320 °C in the first half of the measurement where the temperature was increased. Upon cooling down from 560 °C to 20 °C, the GMI ratio exhibits little variation at ˜95% in the 260 °C-20 °C regime. Similarly, the anisotropy-temperature profile was also observed to change irreversibly during the temperature cycle. Previous work has found the correlation between internal stress, anisotropy, permeability, and GMI effect. We hypothesize that irreversibility in GMI-temperature and anisotropy-temperature profiles stem from internal relief in the amorphous structure, which is locked in during the rapid cooling. In the subsequent temperature cycles, the GMI-temperature and anisotropy-temperature profiles show little variation, thus supporting the notion that the internal stress relief is complete after the first temperature cycle.

  7. Mechanical Stress Changes the Complex Interplay Between HO-1, Inflammation and Fibrosis, During Excisional Wound Repair

    PubMed Central

    Cremers, Niels A. J.; Suttorp, Maarten; Gerritsen, Marlous M.; Wong, Ronald J.; van Run-van Breda, Coby; van Dam, Gooitzen M.; Brouwer, Katrien M.; Kuijpers-Jagtman, Anne Marie; Carels, Carine E. L.; Lundvig, Ditte M. S.; Wagener, Frank A. D. T. G.

    2015-01-01

    Mechanical stress following surgery or injury can promote pathological wound healing and fibrosis, and lead to functional loss and esthetic problems. Splinted excisional wounds can be used as a model for inducing mechanical stress. The cytoprotective enzyme heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is thought to orchestrate the defense against inflammatory and oxidative insults that drive fibrosis. Here, we investigated the activation of the HO-1 system in a splinted and non-splinted full-thickness excisional wound model using HO-1-luc transgenic mice. Effects of splinting on wound closure, HO-1 promoter activity, and markers of inflammation and fibrosis were assessed. After seven days, splinted wounds were more than three times larger than non-splinted wounds, demonstrating a delay in wound closure. HO-1 promoter activity rapidly decreased following removal of the (epi)dermis, but was induced in both splinted and non-splinted wounds during skin repair. Splinting induced more HO-1 gene expression in 7-day wounds; however, HO-1 protein expression remained lower in the epidermis, likely due to lower numbers of keratinocytes in the re-epithelialization tissue. Higher numbers of F4/80-positive macrophages, αSMA-positive myofibroblasts, and increased levels of the inflammatory genes IL-1β, TNF-α, and COX-2 were present in 7-day splinted wounds. Surprisingly, mRNA expression of newly formed collagen (type III) was lower in 7-day wounds after splinting, whereas, VEGF and MMP-9 were increased. In summary, these data demonstrate that splinting delays cutaneous wound closure and HO-1 protein induction. The pro-inflammatory environment following splinting may facilitate higher myofibroblast numbers and increase the risk of fibrosis and scar formation. Therefore, inducing HO-1 activity against mechanical stress-induced inflammation and fibrosis may be an interesting strategy to prevent negative effects of surgery on growth and function in patients with orofacial clefts or in patients with

  8. Adult attachment as a predictor of posttraumatic stress and dissociation.

    PubMed

    Sandberg, David A

    2010-01-01

    This study examined whether K. Bartholomew's (1990) self-report dimensions of adult attachment (secure, dismissing, preoccupied, and fearful) mediate or moderate links from victimization/abuse to posttraumatic stress and dissociation. Participants were 199 college women with and without a history of childhood physical abuse, childhood sexual victimization, and adolescent/adult sexual victimization. Path analysis revealed no significant mediation effects for attachment; however, hierarchical multiple linear regression indicated that dismissing attachment moderated the link between victimization/abuse and posttraumatic stress (i.e., the relationship was strongest for women with high dismissing scores). All 4 attachment dimensions uniquely predicted posttraumatic stress, whereas only fearful attachment uniquely predicted dissociation. PMID:20603764

  9. Stress Modulates Reinforcement Learning in Younger and Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Lighthall, Nichole R.; Gorlick, Marissa A.; Schoeke, Andrej; Frank, Michael J.; Mather, Mara

    2012-01-01

    Animal research and human neuroimaging studies indicate that stress increases dopamine levels in brain regions involved in reward processing and stress also appears to increase the attractiveness of addictive drugs. The current study tested the hypothesis that stress increases reward salience, leading to more effective learning about positive than negative outcomes in a probabilistic selection task. Changes to dopamine pathways with age raise the question of whether stress effects on incentive-based learning differ by age. Thus, the present study also examined whether effects of stress on reinforcement learning differed for younger (age 18–34) and older participants (age 65–85). Cold pressor stress was administered to half of the participants in each age group and salivary cortisol levels were used to confirm biophysiological response to cold stress. Following the manipulation, participants completed a probabilistic learning task involving positive and negative feedback. In both younger and older adults, stress enhanced learning about cues that predicted positive outcomes. In addition, during the initial learning phase, stress diminished sensitivity to recent feedback across age groups. These results indicate that stress affects reinforcement learning in both younger and older adults and suggests that stress exerts different effects on specific components of reinforcement learning depending on their neural underpinnings. PMID:22946523

  10. Type 2 Diabetes and Breast Cancer: The Interplay between Impaired Glucose Metabolism and Oxidant Stress

    PubMed Central

    Ferroni, Patrizia; Riondino, Silvia; Buonomo, Oreste; Palmirotta, Raffaele; Guadagni, Fiorella; Roselli, Mario

    2015-01-01

    Metabolic disorders, especially type 2 diabetes and its associated complications, represent a growing public health problem. Epidemiological findings indicate a close relationship between diabetes and many types of cancer (including breast cancer risk), which regards not only the dysmetabolic condition, but also its underlying risk factors and therapeutic interventions. This review discusses the advances in understanding of the mechanisms linking metabolic disorders and breast cancer. Among the proposed mechanisms to explain such an association, a major role is played by the dysregulated glucose metabolism, which concurs with a chronic proinflammatory condition and an associated oxidative stress to promote tumour initiation and progression. As regards the altered glucose metabolism, hyperinsulinaemia, both endogenous due to insulin-resistance and drug-induced, appears to promote tumour cell growth through the involvement of innate immune activation, platelet activation, increased reactive oxygen species, exposure to protumorigenic and proangiogenic cytokines, and increased substrate availability to neoplastic cells. In this context, understanding the relationship between metabolic disorders and cancer is becoming imperative, and an accurate analysis of these associations could be used to identify biomarkers able to predict disease risk and/or prognosis and to help in the choice of proper evidence-based diagnostic and therapeutic protocols. PMID:26171112

  11. Adult hippocampal neurogenesis buffers stress responses and depressive behaviour.

    PubMed

    Snyder, Jason S; Soumier, Amélie; Brewer, Michelle; Pickel, James; Cameron, Heather A

    2011-08-25

    Glucocorticoids are released in response to stressful experiences and serve many beneficial homeostatic functions. However, dysregulation of glucocorticoids is associated with cognitive impairments and depressive illness. In the hippocampus, a brain region densely populated with receptors for stress hormones, stress and glucocorticoids strongly inhibit adult neurogenesis. Decreased neurogenesis has been implicated in the pathogenesis of anxiety and depression, but direct evidence for this role is lacking. Here we show that adult-born hippocampal neurons are required for normal expression of the endocrine and behavioural components of the stress response. Using either transgenic or radiation methods to inhibit adult neurogenesis specifically, we find that glucocorticoid levels are slower to recover after moderate stress and are less suppressed by dexamethasone in neurogenesis-deficient mice than intact mice, consistent with a role for the hippocampus in regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Relative to controls, neurogenesis-deficient mice also showed increased food avoidance in a novel environment after acute stress, increased behavioural despair in the forced swim test, and decreased sucrose preference, a measure of anhedonia. These findings identify a small subset of neurons within the dentate gyrus that are critical for hippocampal negative control of the HPA axis and support a direct role for adult neurogenesis in depressive illness. PMID:21814201

  12. The complex interplay of iron metabolism, reactive oxygen species, and reactive nitrogen species: insights into the potential of various iron therapies to induce oxidative and nitrosative stress.

    PubMed

    Koskenkorva-Frank, Taija S; Weiss, Günter; Koppenol, Willem H; Burckhardt, Susanna

    2013-12-01

    Production of minute concentrations of superoxide (O2(*-)) and nitrogen monoxide (nitric oxide, NO*) plays important roles in several aspects of cellular signaling and metabolic regulation. However, in an inflammatory environment, the concentrations of these radicals can drastically increase and the antioxidant defenses may become overwhelmed. Thus, biological damage may occur owing to redox imbalance-a condition called oxidative and/or nitrosative stress. A complex interplay exists between iron metabolism, O2(*-), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and NO*. Iron is involved in both the formation and the scavenging of these species. Iron deficiency (anemia) (ID(A)) is associated with oxidative stress, but its role in the induction of nitrosative stress is largely unclear. Moreover, oral as well as intravenous (iv) iron preparations used for the treatment of ID(A) may also induce oxidative and/or nitrosative stress. Oral administration of ferrous salts may lead to high transferrin saturation levels and, thus, formation of non-transferrin-bound iron, a potentially toxic form of iron with a propensity to induce oxidative stress. One of the factors that determine the likelihood of oxidative and nitrosative stress induced upon administration of an iv iron complex is the amount of labile (or weakly-bound) iron present in the complex. Stable dextran-based iron complexes used for iv therapy, although they contain only negligible amounts of labile iron, can induce oxidative and/or nitrosative stress through so far unknown mechanisms. In this review, after summarizing the main features of iron metabolism and its complex interplay with O2(*-), H2O2, NO*, and other more reactive compounds derived from these species, the potential of various iron therapies to induce oxidative and nitrosative stress is discussed and possible underlying mechanisms are proposed. Understanding the mechanisms, by which various iron formulations may induce oxidative and nitrosative stress, will help us

  13. Predictive Accuracy of Exercise Stress Testing the Healthy Adult.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamont, Linda S.

    1981-01-01

    Exercise stress testing provides information on the aerobic capacity, heart rate, and blood pressure responses to graded exercises of a healthy adult. The reliability of exercise tests as a diagnostic procedure is discussed in relation to sensitivity and specificity and predictive accuracy. (JN)

  14. The Nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, Stress and Aging: Identifying the Complex Interplay of Genetic Pathways Following the Treatment with Humic Substances

    PubMed Central

    Menzel, Ralph; Menzel, Stefanie; Swain, Suresh C.; Pietsch, Kerstin; Tiedt, Sophie; Witczak, Jördis; Stürzenbaum, Stephen R.; Steinberg, Christian E. W.

    2012-01-01

    Low concentrations of the dissolved leonardite humic acid HuminFeed® (HF) prolonged the lifespan and enhanced the thermal stress resistance of the model organism Caenorhabditis elegans. However, growth was impaired and reproduction delayed, effects which have also been identified in response to other polyphenolic monomers, including Tannic acid, Rosmarinic acid, and Caffeic acid. Moreover, a chemical modification of HF, which increases its phenolic/quinonoid moieties, magnified the biological impact on C. elegans. To gain a deep insight into the molecular basis of these effects, we performed global transcriptomics on young adult (3 days) and old adult (11 days) nematodes exposed to two different concentrations of HF. We also studied several C. elegans mutant strains in respect to HF derived longevity and compared all results with data obtained for the chemically modified HF. The gene expression pattern of young HF-treated nematodes displayed a significant overlap to other conditions known to provoke longevity, including various plant polyphenol monomers. Besides the regulation of parts of the metabolism, transforming growth factor-beta signaling, and Insulin-like signaling, lysosomal activities seem to contribute most to HF’s and modified HF’s lifespan prolonging action. These results support the notion that the phenolic/quinonoid moieties of humic substances are major building blocks that drive the physiological effects observed in C. elegans. PMID:22529848

  15. The Nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, Stress and Aging: Identifying the Complex Interplay of Genetic Pathways Following the Treatment with Humic Substances.

    PubMed

    Menzel, Ralph; Menzel, Stefanie; Swain, Suresh C; Pietsch, Kerstin; Tiedt, Sophie; Witczak, Jördis; Stürzenbaum, Stephen R; Steinberg, Christian E W

    2012-01-01

    Low concentrations of the dissolved leonardite humic acid HuminFeed(®) (HF) prolonged the lifespan and enhanced the thermal stress resistance of the model organism Caenorhabditis elegans. However, growth was impaired and reproduction delayed, effects which have also been identified in response to other polyphenolic monomers, including Tannic acid, Rosmarinic acid, and Caffeic acid. Moreover, a chemical modification of HF, which increases its phenolic/quinonoid moieties, magnified the biological impact on C. elegans. To gain a deep insight into the molecular basis of these effects, we performed global transcriptomics on young adult (3 days) and old adult (11 days) nematodes exposed to two different concentrations of HF. We also studied several C. elegans mutant strains in respect to HF derived longevity and compared all results with data obtained for the chemically modified HF. The gene expression pattern of young HF-treated nematodes displayed a significant overlap to other conditions known to provoke longevity, including various plant polyphenol monomers. Besides the regulation of parts of the metabolism, transforming growth factor-beta signaling, and Insulin-like signaling, lysosomal activities seem to contribute most to HF's and modified HF's lifespan prolonging action. These results support the notion that the phenolic/quinonoid moieties of humic substances are major building blocks that drive the physiological effects observed in C. elegans. PMID:22529848

  16. Embryonic oxidative stress results in reproductive impairment for adult zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Newman, Trent A.C.; Carleton, Catherine R.; Leeke, Bryony; Hampton, Mark B.; Horsfield, Julia A.

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to environmental stressors during embryo development can have long-term effects on the adult organism. This study used the thioredoxin reductase inhibitor auranofin to investigate the consequences of oxidative stress during zebrafish development. Auranofin at low doses triggered upregulation of the antioxidant genes gstp1 and prdx1. As the dose was increased, acute developmental abnormalities, including cerebral hemorrhaging and jaw malformation, were observed. To determine whether transient disruption of redox homeostasis during development could have long-term consequences, zebrafish embryos were exposed to a low dose of auranofin from 6–24 hours post fertilization, and then raised to adulthood. The adult fish were outwardly normal in their appearance with no gross physical differences compared to the control group. However, these adult fish had reduced odds of breeding and a lower incidence of egg fertilization. This study shows that a suboptimal early life environment can reduce the chances of reproductive success in adulthood. PMID:26584358

  17. Gene–environment interplay in Drosophila melanogaster: Chronic food deprivation in early life affects adult exploratory and fitness traits

    PubMed Central

    Burns, James Geoffrey; Svetec, Nicolas; Rowe, Locke; Mery, Frederic; Dolan, Michael J.; Boyce, W. Thomas; Sokolowski, Marla B.

    2012-01-01

    Early life adversity has known impacts on adult health and behavior, yet little is known about the gene–environment interactions (GEIs) that underlie these consequences. We used the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster to show that chronic early nutritional adversity interacts with rover and sitter allelic variants of foraging (for) to affect adult exploratory behavior, a phenotype that is critical for foraging, and reproductive fitness. Chronic nutritional adversity during adulthood did not affect rover or sitter adult exploratory behavior; however, early nutritional adversity in the larval period increased sitter but not rover adult exploratory behavior. Increasing for gene expression in the mushroom bodies, an important center of integration in the fly brain, changed the amount of exploratory behavior exhibited by sitter adults when they did not experience early nutritional adversity but had no effect in sitters that experienced early nutritional adversity. Manipulation of the larval nutritional environment also affected adult reproductive output of sitters but not rovers, indicating GEIs on fitness itself. The natural for variants are an excellent model to examine how GEIs underlie the biological embedding of early experience. PMID:23045644

  18. High self-perceived stress and poor coping in intellectually able adults with autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Hirvikoski, Tatja; Blomqvist, My

    2015-08-01

    Despite average intellectual capacity, autistic traits may complicate performance in many everyday situations, thus leading to stress. This study focuses on stress in everyday life in intellectually able adults with autism spectrum disorders. In total, 53 adults (25 with autism spectrum disorder and 28 typical adults from the general population) completed the Perceived Stress Scale. Autistic traits were assessed using the Autism Spectrum Quotient. Adults with autism spectrum disorder reported significantly higher subjective stress and poorer ability to cope with stress in everyday life, as compared to typical adults. Autistic traits were associated with both subjective stress/distress and coping in this cross-sectional series. The long-term consequences of chronic stress in everyday life, as well as treatment intervention focusing on stress and coping, should be addressed in future research as well as in the clinical management of intellectually able adults with autism spectrum disorder. PMID:25073750

  19. Global perceived stress predicts cognitive change among older adults.

    PubMed

    Munoz, Elizabeth; Sliwinski, Martin J; Scott, Stacey B; Hofer, Scott

    2015-09-01

    Research on stress and cognitive aging has primarily focused on examining the effects of biological and psychosocial indicators of stress, with little attention provided to examining the association between perceived stress and cognitive aging. We examined the longitudinal association between global perceived stress (GPS) and cognitive change among 116 older adults (M(age) = 80, SD = 6.40, range = 67-96) in a repeated measurement burst design. Bursts of 6 daily cognitive assessments were repeated every 6 months over a 2-year period, with self-reported GPS assessed at the start of every burst. Using a double-exponential learning model, 2 parameters were estimated: (a) asymptotic level (peak performance), and (b) asymptotic change (the rate at which peak performance changed across bursts). We hypothesized that greater GPS would predict slowed performance in tasks of attention, working memory, and speed of processing and that increases in GPS across time would predict cognitive slowing. Results from latent growth curve analyses were consistent with our first hypothesis and indicated that level of GPS predicted cognitive slowing across time. Changes in GPS did not predict cognitive slowing. This study extends previous findings by demonstrating a prospective association between level of GPS and cognitive slowing across a 2-year period, highlighting the role of psychological stress as a risk factor for poor cognitive function. PMID:26121285

  20. High Self-Perceived Stress and Poor Coping in Intellectually Able Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirvikoski, Tatja; Blomqvist, My

    2015-01-01

    Despite average intellectual capacity, autistic traits may complicate performance in many everyday situations, thus leading to stress. This study focuses on stress in everyday life in intellectually able adults with autism spectrum disorders. In total, 53 adults (25 with autism spectrum disorder and 28 typical adults from the general population)…

  1. Cumulative Childhood Stress and Autoimmune Diseases in Adults

    PubMed Central

    Dube, Shanta R.; Fairweather, DeLisa; Pearson, William S.; Felitti, Vincent J.; Anda, Robert F.; Croft, Janet B.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To examine whether childhood traumatic stress increased the risk of developing autoimmune diseases as an adult. Methods Retrospective cohort study of 15,357 adult health maintenance organization members enrolled in the Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs) Study from 1995 to 1997 in San Diego, California, and eligible for follow-up through 2005. ACEs included childhood physical, emotional, or sexual abuse; witnessing domestic violence; growing up with household substance abuse, mental illness, parental divorce, and/or an incarcerated household member. The total number of ACEs (ACE Score range = 0–8) was used as a measure of cumulative childhood stress. The outcome was hospitalizations for any of 21 selected autoimmune diseases and 4 immunopathology groupings: T- helper 1 (Th1) (e.g., idiopathic myocarditis); T-helper 2 (Th2) (e.g., myasthenia gravis); Th2 rheumatic (e.g., rheumatoid arthritis); and mixed Th1/Th2 (e.g., autoimmune hemolytic anemia). Results Sixty-four percent reported at least one ACE. The event rate (per 10,000 person-years) for a first hospitalization with any autoimmune disease was 31.4 in women and 34.4 in men. First hospitalizations for any autoimmune disease increased with increasing number of ACEs (p < .05). Compared with persons with no ACEs, persons with ≥2 ACEs were at a 70% increased risk for hospitalizations with Th1, 80% increased risk for Th2, and 100% increased risk for rheumatic diseases (p < .05). Conclusions Childhood traumatic stress increased the likelihood of hospitalization with a diagnosed autoimmune disease decades into adulthood. These findings are consistent with recent biological studies on the impact of early life stress on subsequent inflammatory responses. PMID:19188532

  2. The Interplay Between Parental Beliefs about Children’s Emotions and Parental Stress Impacts Children’s Attachment Security

    PubMed Central

    Stelter, Rebecca L.; Halberstadt, Amy G.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated how parental beliefs about children’s emotions and parental stress relate to children’s feelings of security in the parent-child relationship. Models predicting direct effects of parental beliefs and parental stress, and moderating effects of parental stress on the relationship between parental beliefs and children’s feelings of security were tested. Participants were 85 African American, European American, and Lumbee American Indian 4th and 5th grade children and one of their parents. Children reported their feelings of security in the parent-child relationship; parents independently reported on their beliefs and their stress. Parental stress moderated relationships between three of the four parental beliefs about the value of children’s emotions and children’s attachment security. When parent stress was low, parental beliefs accepting and valuing children’s emotions were not related to children’s feelings of security; when parent stress was high, however, parental beliefs accepting and valuing children’s emotions were related to children’s feelings of security. These findings highlight the importance of examining parental beliefs and stress together for children’s attachment security. PMID:21731472

  3. 20-Hydroxyecdysone prevents oxidative stress damage in adult Pyrrhocoris apterus.

    PubMed

    Krishnan, Natraj; Vecera, Josef; Kodrík, Dalibor; Sehnal, Frantisek

    2007-07-01

    Injections of 38 pmol paraquat (1,1'-dimethyl-4,4'-bypyridilium) into adult Pyrrhocoris apterus (average body weight 29.6 mg in males and 36.9 mg in females) caused a significant elevation of lipid peroxidation and protein carbonylation and a decline of membrane fluidity in the microsomal brain fraction. Another manifestation of oxidative stress was a depletion of the reduced glutathione pool and reduction of the gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase activity in the brain extracts. The damaging action of paraquat on the brain was counteracted by simultaneous injection of 1 pmol 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E). 20E restrained lipid peroxidation and the formation of protein carbonyls, ameliorated changes in microsomal membrane fluidity, enhanced the level of reduced glutathione, and upregulated the activity of gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase. At the organismic level, 20E curtailed three detrimental effects caused by paraquat injection: the disappearance of a blood protein, the suppression of fecundity and egg hatchability, and the shortening of adult life span. The data showed that 20E provided a systemic antioxidant protection but the significance of endogenous ecdysteroids in the management of oxidative stress remains to be shown. PMID:17570141

  4. The Interplay Between Interpersonal Stress and Psychological Intimate Partner Violence Over Time for Young At-Risk Couples

    PubMed Central

    Capaldi, Deborah M.; Kim, Hyoun K.; Tiberio, Stacey S.

    2013-01-01

    The substantial number of young people in romantic relationships that involve intimate partner violence, a situation deleterious to physical and mental health, has resulted in increased attention to understanding the links between risk factors and course of violence. The current study examined couples’ interpersonal stress related to not liking partners’ friends and not getting along with parents as contextual factors associated with couples’ psychological partner violence and determined whether and when couples’ friend and parent stress increased the likelihood of couples’ psychological partner violence. A linear latent growth curve modeling approach was used with multiwave measures of psychological partner violence, friend stress, parent stress, and relationship satisfaction obtained from 196 men at risk for delinquency and their women partners over a 12-year period. At the initial assessment, on average, the men were age 21.5 years and the women were age 21 years. Findings indicated that couples experiencing high levels of friend and parent stress were more likely to engage in high levels of psychological partner violence and that increases in couples’ friend stress predicted increases in couples’ partner violence over time, even when accounting for the couples’ relationship satisfaction, marital status, children in the home, and financial strain. Interactive effects were at play when the couples were in their early 20s, with couples being most at risk for increases in psychological partner violence if they experienced both high friend stress and low relationship satisfaction. Couples’ friend stress had the greatest effect on psychological partner violence when the couples were in their early to mid 20s when levels of friend stress were high. As the couples reached their 30s, low relationship satisfaction became the leading predictor of couples’ psychological partner violence. PMID:23358887

  5. The interplay between interpersonal stress and psychological intimate partner violence over time for young at-risk couples.

    PubMed

    Shortt, Joann Wu; Capaldi, Deborah M; Kim, Hyoun K; Tiberio, Stacey S

    2013-04-01

    The substantial number of young people in romantic relationships that involve intimate partner violence, a situation deleterious to physical and mental health, has resulted in increased attention to understanding the links between risk factors and course of violence. The current study examined couples' interpersonal stress related to not liking partners' friends and not getting along with parents as contextual factors associated with couples' psychological partner violence and determined whether and when couples' friend and parent stress increased the likelihood of couples' psychological partner violence. A linear latent growth curve modeling approach was used with multiwave measures of psychological partner violence, friend stress, parent stress, and relationship satisfaction obtained from 196 men at risk for delinquency and their women partners over a 12-year period. At the initial assessment, on average, the men were age 21.5 years and the women were age 21 years. Findings indicated that couples experiencing high levels of friend and parent stress were more likely to engage in high levels of psychological partner violence and that increases in couples' friend stress predicted increases in couples' partner violence over time, even when accounting for the couples' relationship satisfaction, marital status, children in the home, and financial strain. Interactive effects were at play when the couples were in their early 20s, with couples being most at risk for increases in psychological partner violence if they experienced both high friend stress and low relationship satisfaction. Couples' friend stress had the greatest effect on psychological partner violence when the couples were in their early to mid 20s when levels of friend stress were high. As the couples reached their 30s, low relationship satisfaction became the leading predictor of couples' psychological partner violence. PMID:23358887

  6. Low maternal care exacerbates adult stress susceptibility in the chronic mild stress rat model of depression.

    PubMed

    Henningsen, Kim; Dyrvig, Mads; Bouzinova, Elena V; Christiansen, Sofie; Christensen, Trine; Andreasen, Jesper T; Palme, Rupert; Lichota, Jacek; Wiborg, Ove

    2012-12-01

    In the present study we report the finding that the quality of maternal care, in early life, increased the susceptibility to stress exposure in adulthood, when rats were exposed to the chronic mild stress paradigm. Our results indicate that high, as opposed to low maternal care, predisposed rats to a differential stress-coping ability. Thus rats fostered by low maternal care dams became more prone to adopt a stress-susceptible phenotype developing an anhedonic-like condition. Moreover, low maternal care offspring had lower weight gain and lower locomotion, with no additive effect of stress. Subchronic exposure to chronic mild stress induced an increase in faecal corticosterone metabolites, which was only significant in rats from low maternal care dams. Examination of glucocorticoid receptor exon 17 promoter methylation in unchallenged adult, maternally characterized rats, showed an insignificant tendency towards higher total cytosine methylation in rats from low maternal care dams. Assessment of methylation in the resilient versus anhedonic-like rat phenotypes, revealed only minor differences. Thus, maternal care status seems to be a strong predictor or trait marker for the behavioural phenotype. PMID:23075705

  7. The interplay between attentional strategies and language processing in high-functioning adults with autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Koolen, Sophieke; Vissers, Constance Th W M; Hendriks, Angelique W C J; Egger, Jos I M; Verhoeven, Ludo

    2012-05-01

    This study examined the hypothesis of an atypical interaction between attention and language in ASD. A dual-task experiment with three conditions was designed, in which sentences were presented that contained errors requiring attentional focus either at (a) low level, or (b) high level, or (c) both levels of language. Speed and accuracy for error detection were measured from 16 high-functioning adults with ASD, and 16 matched controls. For controls, there was an attentional cost of dual level processing for low level performance but not for high level performance. For participants with ASD, there was an attentional cost both for low level and for high level performance. These results suggest a compensatory strategic use of attention during language processing in ASD. PMID:21691865

  8. Blockade of Interplay between IL-17A and Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Attenuates LPS-Induced Lung Injury

    PubMed Central

    Kim, So Ri; Kim, Hee Jung; Kim, Dong Im; Lee, Kyung Bae; Park, Hae Jin; Jeong, Jae Seok; Cho, Seong Ho; Lee, Yong Chul

    2015-01-01

    IL-17 is a cytokine mainly from IL-17-producing T cells, which are one of subsets of CD4+ T cells and play a role in adaptive immune system. Recent studies have demonstrated that IL-17A can act rapidly as an innate immune responder during infection before the onset of its classic adaptive immune response. This role of IL-17A in innate immune response is implicated in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced lung inflammation. Very recently, we have reported that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is involved in LPS-induced lung inflammation in vivo and in vitro. This study aimed to elucidate the role of IL-17A in LPS-induced lung injury, focusing on the link with ER stress. We treated a murine model of LPS-induced lung injury with IL-17A neutralizing antibody and 4-phenylbutyrate (4-PBA), a representative ER stress inhibitor. In addition, we evaluated the effects of IL-17A on ER stress in LPS-stimulated bronchial epithelial cells. Our results showed that inhibition of IL-17A decreased LPS-induced pulmonary neutrophilia, vascular leakage, nuclear translocation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), infiltration of dendritic cells, increased expression of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), activation of NLRP3 inflammasome, and increased ER stress in the lung. 4-PBA or TAK-242, a TLR4 inhibitor attenuated expression of IL-17A thereby improving LPS-induced lung inflammation. Intriguingly, we observed that stimulation with LPS increased expression of IL-17A in airway epithelial cells and co-stimulation with IL-17A further increased ER stress and NF-κB activation. This study indicates that the interrelationship between IL-17A and ER stress plays an important role in LPS-induced injury showing a positive feedback in airway epithelial cells and suggests that targeting their interaction can be a potential therapeutic approach to overcome one of severe refractory pulmonary disorders. PMID:26516372

  9. Seasonal Patterns of Hormones, Macroparasites, and Microparasites in Wild African Ungulates: The Interplay among Stress, Reproduction, and Disease

    PubMed Central

    Cizauskas, Carrie A.; Turner, Wendy C.; Pitts, Neville; Getz, Wayne M.

    2015-01-01

    Sex hormones, reproductive status, and pathogen load all affect stress. Together with stress, these factors can modulate the immune system and affect disease incidence. Thus, it is important to concurrently measure these factors, along with their seasonal fluctuations, to better understand their complex interactions. Using steroid hormone metabolites from fecal samples, we examined seasonal correlations among zebra and springbok stress, reproduction, gastrointestinal (GI) parasite infections, and anthrax infection signatures in zebra and springbok in Etosha National Park (ENP), Namibia, and found strong seasonal effects. Infection intensities of all three GI macroparasites examined (strongyle helminths, Strongyloides helminths, and Eimeria coccidia) were highest in the wet season, concurrent with the timing of anthrax outbreaks. Parasites also declined with increased acquired immune responses. We found hormonal evidence that both mares and ewes are overwhelmingly seasonal breeders in ENP, and that reproductive hormones are correlated with immunosuppression and higher susceptibility to GI parasite infections. Stress hormones largely peak in the dry season, particularly in zebra, when parasite infection intensities are lowest, and are most strongly correlated with host mid-gestation rather than with parasite infection intensity. Given the evidence that GI parasites can cause host pathology, immunomodulation, and immunosuppression, their persistence in ENP hosts without inducing chronic stress responses supports the hypothesis that hosts are tolerant of their parasites. Such tolerance would help to explain the ubiquity of these organisms in ENP herbivores, even in the face of their potential immunomodulatory trade-offs with anti-anthrax immunity. PMID:25875647

  10. Seasonal patterns of hormones, macroparasites, and microparasites in wild African ungulates: the interplay among stress, reproduction, and disease.

    PubMed

    Cizauskas, Carrie A; Turner, Wendy C; Pitts, Neville; Getz, Wayne M

    2015-01-01

    Sex hormones, reproductive status, and pathogen load all affect stress. Together with stress, these factors can modulate the immune system and affect disease incidence. Thus, it is important to concurrently measure these factors, along with their seasonal fluctuations, to better understand their complex interactions. Using steroid hormone metabolites from fecal samples, we examined seasonal correlations among zebra and springbok stress, reproduction, gastrointestinal (GI) parasite infections, and anthrax infection signatures in zebra and springbok in Etosha National Park (ENP), Namibia, and found strong seasonal effects. Infection intensities of all three GI macroparasites examined (strongyle helminths, Strongyloides helminths, and Eimeria coccidia) were highest in the wet season, concurrent with the timing of anthrax outbreaks. Parasites also declined with increased acquired immune responses. We found hormonal evidence that both mares and ewes are overwhelmingly seasonal breeders in ENP, and that reproductive hormones are correlated with immunosuppression and higher susceptibility to GI parasite infections. Stress hormones largely peak in the dry season, particularly in zebra, when parasite infection intensities are lowest, and are most strongly correlated with host mid-gestation rather than with parasite infection intensity. Given the evidence that GI parasites can cause host pathology, immunomodulation, and immunosuppression, their persistence in ENP hosts without inducing chronic stress responses supports the hypothesis that hosts are tolerant of their parasites. Such tolerance would help to explain the ubiquity of these organisms in ENP herbivores, even in the face of their potential immunomodulatory trade-offs with anti-anthrax immunity. PMID:25875647

  11. Interplay Between Expression of Sulfur Assimilation Pathway Genes and Zn(2+) and Pb(2+) Stress in Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Chunli; Chen, Minjie; Wang, Dan; Zhang, Li; Wang, JianYing; Zhang, Xuefeng

    2016-10-01

    We have previously demonstrated that in Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans, resistance to the highly toxic divalent cation Cd(2+) is mediated in part by the sulfur assimilation pathway (SAP) and enhanced intracellular concentrations of cysteine and glutathione(GSH) (Zheng et al., Extremophiles 19:429-436, 2015). In this paper, we investigate the interplay between Zn(2+) and Pb(2+) resistances, SAP gene expression, and thiol-containing metabolite levels. Cells grown in the presence of 300 mM Zn(2+) had enhanced activities of the following enzymes: adenosylphosphosulphate reductase (APR, 40-fold), serine acetyltransferase (SAT, 180-fold), and O-acetylserine (thiol) lyase (OAS-TL, 230-fold). We investigated the concentrations of mRNA transcripts of the genes encoding these enzymes in cells grown in the presence of 600 mM Zn(2+): transcripts for 4 SAP genes-ATPS(ATP sulphurylase), APR, SiR(sulfite reductase), SAT, and OAS-TL-each showed a more than three-fold increase in concentration. At the metabolite level, concentrations of intracellular cysteine and glutathione (GSH) were nearly doubled. When cells were grown in the presence of 10 mM Pb(2+), SAP gene transcript concentrations, cysteine, and GSH concentrations were all decreased, as were SAP enzyme activities. These results suggested that Zn(2+) induced SAP pathway gene transcription, while Pb(2+) inhibited SAP gene expression and enzyme activities compared to the pathway in most organisms. Because of the detoxification function of thiol pool, the results also suggested that the high resistance of A. ferrooxidans to Zn(2+) may also be due to regulation of GSH and the cysteine synthesis pathway. PMID:27376536

  12. The Interplay between Interpersonal Stress and Psychological Intimate Partner Violence over Time for Young At-Risk Couples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shortt, Joann Wu; Capaldi, Deborah M.; Kim, Hyoun K.; Tiberio, Stacey S.

    2013-01-01

    The substantial number of young people in romantic relationships that involve intimate partner violence, a situation deleterious to physical and mental health, has resulted in increased attention to understanding the links between risk factors and course of violence. The current study examined couples' interpersonal stress related to not liking…

  13. Basal brain oxidative and nitrative stress levels are finely regulated by the interplay between superoxide dismutase 2 and p53.

    PubMed

    Barone, Eugenio; Cenini, Giovanna; Di Domenico, Fabio; Noel, Teresa; Wang, Chi; Perluigi, Marzia; St Clair, Daret K; Butterfield, D Allan

    2015-11-01

    Superoxide dismutases (SODs) are the primary reactive oxygen species (ROS)-scavenging enzymes of the cell and catalyze the dismutation of superoxide radicals O2- to H2O2 and molecular oxygen (O2). Among the three forms of SOD identified, manganese-containing SOD (MnSOD, SOD2) is a homotetramer located wholly in the mitochondrial matrix. Because of the SOD2 strategic location, it represents the first mechanism of defense against the augmentation of ROS/reactive nitrogen species levels in the mitochondria for preventing further damage. This study seeks to understand the effects that the partial lack (SOD2(-/+) ) or the overexpression (TgSOD2) of MnSOD produces on oxidative/nitrative stress basal levels in different brain isolated cellular fractions (i.e., mitochondrial, nuclear, cytosolic) as well as in the whole-brain homogenate. Furthermore, because of the known interaction between SOD2 and p53 protein, this study seeks to clarify the impact that the double mutation has on oxidative/nitrative stress levels in the brain of mice carrying the double mutation (p53(-/-) × SOD2(-/+) and p53(-/-) × TgSOD2). We show that each mutation affects mitochondrial, nuclear, and cytosolic oxidative/nitrative stress basal levels differently, but, overall, no change or reduction of oxidative/nitrative stress levels was found in the whole-brain homogenate. The analysis of well-known antioxidant systems such as thioredoxin-1 and Nrf2/HO-1/BVR-A suggests their potential role in the maintenance of the cellular redox homeostasis in the presence of changes of SOD2 and/or p53 protein levels. PMID:26251011

  14. Coping Strategies of Adults with Mild Intellectual Disability for Stressful Social Interactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartley, Sigan L.; MacLean, William E., Jr.

    2008-01-01

    Adults with mild intellectual disability (ID) experience stressful social interactions and often utilize maladaptive coping strategies to manage these interactions. We investigated the specific types of "Active and Avoidant" coping strategies reported by 114 adults with mild ID to deal with stressful social interactions. Open-ended responses to a…

  15. Is Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder a Helpful Concept for Adults with Intellectual Disability?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, A.; Clegg, J.

    2005-01-01

    Research using the concept of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) with adults with intellectual disability (ID)assumes they perceive and react to traumatic events in a similar way to non-disabled adults. Reactions to trauma displayed by children may be relevant to adults with ID as well. Two focus groups were held with professionals and…

  16. Stressful and Satisfying Links between Young-Adult Daughters, Their Parents and Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watts, Janine A.

    The interpersonal linkages between adult children, their parents, and society are complex. In order to measure the levels of stress and satisfaction present in the relationship of young-adult daughters and their mothers, the Parent-Adult Child Relationships Inventory was administered to 163 mother-daughter pairs. The daughters were 18 to 25 years…

  17. Developing a dynamic framework to examine the interplay between environmental stress, stakeholder participation processes and hydrological systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carr, G.; Blöschl, G.; Loucks, D. P.

    2014-09-01

    Stakeholder participation is increasingly discussed as essential for sustainable water resource management. Yet detailed understanding of the factors driving its use, the processes by which it is employed, and the outcomes or achievements it can realise remains highly limited, and often contested. This understanding is essential to enable water policy to be shaped for efficient and effective water management. This research proposes and applies a dynamic framework that can explore in which circumstances environmental stress events, such as floods, droughts or pollution, drive changes in water governance towards a more participatory approach, and how this shapes the processes by which participation or stakeholder engagement takes place, and the subsequent water management outcomes that emerge. The framework is able to assess the extent to which environmental events in combination with favourable contextual factors (e.g. institutional support for participatory activities) lead to good participatory processes (e.g. well facilitated and representative) that then lead to good outcomes (e.g. improved ecological conditions). Through applying the framework to case studies from the literature it becomes clear that environmental stress events can stimulate participatory governance changes, when existing institutional conditions promote participatory approaches. The work also suggests that intermediary outcomes, which may be tangible (such as reaching an agreement) or non-tangible (such as developing shared knowledge and understanding among participants, or creating trust), may provide a crucial link between processes and resource management outcomes. If this relationship can be more strongly confirmed, the presence or absence of intermediary outcomes may even be used as a valuable proxy to predict future resource management outcomes.

  18. ADULT ANXIETY DISORDERS IN RELATION TO TRAIT ANXIETY AND PERCEIVED STRESS IN CHILDHOOD.

    PubMed

    Mundy, Elizabeth A; Weber, Mareen; Rauch, Scott L; Killgore, William D S; Simon, Naomi M; Pollack, Mark H; Rosso, Isabelle M

    2015-10-01

    It is well established that objective early life stressors increase risk for anxiety disorders and that environmental stressors interact with dispositional factors such as trait anxiety. There is less information on how subjective perception of stress during childhood relates to later clinical anxiety. This study tested whether childhood perceived stress and trait anxiety were independently and interactively associated with adult anxiety disorders. Forty-seven adults diagnosed with anxiety disorders (M age = 34 yr., SD = 11) and 29 healthy participants (M = 33 yr., SD = 13) completed the adult Perceived Stress Scale, the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, and the Global Perceived Early Life Events Scale as a measure of perceived stress during childhood. In a logistic regression model, high childhood perceived stress (β = 0.64) and trait anxiety (β = 0.11) were associated with significantly greater odds of adult anxiety disorder. The association between childhood perceived stress and adult anxiety remained significant when controlling for adult perceived stress. These findings suggest that children's perception of stress in their daily lives may be an important target of intervention to prevent the progression of stress into clinically significant anxiety. PMID:26340052

  19. A Structural Equation Modeling Approach to the Study of Stress and Psychological Adjustment in Emerging Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asberg, Kia K.; Bowers, Clint; Renk, Kimberly; McKinney, Cliff

    2008-01-01

    Today's society puts constant demands on the time and resources of all individuals, with the resulting stress promoting a decline in psychological adjustment. Emerging adults are not exempt from this experience, with an alarming number reporting excessive levels of stress and stress-related problems. As a result, the present study addresses the…

  20. Effects of X-radiation on lung cancer cells: the interplay between oxidative stress and P53 levels.

    PubMed

    Mendes, Fernando; Sales, Tiago; Domingues, Cátia; Schugk, Susann; Abrantes, Ana Margarida; Gonçalves, Ana Cristina; Teixo, Ricardo; Silva, Rita; Casalta-Lopes, João; Rocha, Clara; Laranjo, Mafalda; Simões, Paulo César; Ribeiro, Ana Bela Sarmento; Botelho, Maria Filomena; Rosa, Manuel Santos

    2015-12-01

    Lung cancer (LC) ranks as the most prevalent and deadliest cause of cancer death worldwide. Treatment options include surgery, chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy, depending on LC staging, without specific highlight. The aim was to evaluate the effects of X-radiation in three LC cell lines. H69, A549 and H1299 cell lines were cultured and irradiated with 0.5-60 Gy of X-radiation. Cell survival was evaluated by clonogenic assay. Cell death and the role of reactive oxygen species, mitochondrial membrane potential, BAX, BCL-2 and cell cycle were analyzed by flow cytometry. Total and phosphorylated P53 were assessed by western blotting. Ionizing radiation decreases cell proliferation and viability in a dose-, time- and cell line-dependent manner, inducing cell death preferentially by apoptosis with cell cycle arrest. These results may be related to differences in P53 expression and oxidative stress response. The results obtained indicate that sensibility and/or resistance to radiation may be dependent on molecular LC characteristics which could influence response to radiotherapy and treatment success. PMID:26582337

  1. Adult Attachment Style and Stress as Risk Factors for Early Maternal Sensitivity and Negativity.

    PubMed

    Mills-Koonce, W Roger; Appleyard, Karen; Barnett, Melissa; Deng, Min; Putallaz, Martha; Cox, Martha

    2011-05-01

    The current study examined the individual and joint effects of self-reported adult attachment style, psychological distress, and parenting stress on maternal caregiving behaviors at 6 and 12 months of child age. We proposed a diathesis-stress model to examine the potential deleterious effects of stress for mothers with insecure adult attachment styles. Data from 137 mothers were gathered by the longitudinal Durham Child Health and Development Study. Mothers provided self-reports using Hazan and Shaver's (1987) Adult Attachment Style measure, the Brief Symptom Inventory, and the Parent Stress Inventory; observations of parenting data were made from 10-minute free play interactions. Consistently avoidant mothers were less sensitive with their infants than consistently secure mothers; however, this effect was limited to avoidant mothers who experienced elevated levels of psychological distress. Results suggest that the association between insecure adult attachment style and insensitive parenting behavior is moderated by concurrent psychosocial stress. Clinical implications for these findings are discussed. PMID:24855326

  2. Impact of Adverse Childhood Experiences on Psychotic-Like Symptoms and Stress Reactivity in Daily Life in Nonclinical Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Ballespí, Sergi; Mitjavila, Mercè; Myin-Germeys, Inez; Kwapil, Thomas R.; Barrantes-Vidal, Neus

    2016-01-01

    Background There is increasing interest in elucidating the association of different childhood adversities with psychosis-spectrum symptoms as well as the mechanistic processes involved. This study used experience sampling methodology to examine (i) associations of a range of childhood adversities with psychosis symptom domains in daily life; (ii) whether associations of abuse and neglect with symptoms are consistent across self-report and interview methods of trauma assessment; and (iii) the role of different adversities in moderating affective, psychotic-like, and paranoid reactivity to situational and social stressors. Method A total of 206 nonclinical young adults were administered self-report and interview measures to assess childhood abuse, neglect, bullying, losses, and general traumatic events. Participants received personal digital assistants that signaled them randomly eight times daily for one week to complete questionnaires about current experiences, including symptoms, affect, and stress. Results Self-reported and interview-based abuse and neglect were associated with psychotic-like and paranoid symptoms, whereas only self-reported neglect was associated with negative-like symptoms. Bullying was associated with psychotic-like symptoms. Losses and general traumatic events were not directly associated with any of the symptom domains. All the childhood adversities were associated with stress reactivity in daily life. Interpersonal adversities (abuse, neglect, bullying, and losses) moderated psychotic-like and/or paranoid reactivity to situational and social stressors, whereas general traumatic events moderated psychotic-like reactivity to situational stress. Also, different interpersonal adversities exacerbated psychotic-like and/or paranoid symptoms in response to distinct social stressors. Discussion The present study provides a unique examination of how childhood adversities impact the expression of spectrum symptoms in the real world and lends support

  3. Female Adult Mouse Cardiomyocytes Are Protected Against Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Fangfei; He, Quan; Sun, Ying; Dai, Xiangguo; Yang, Xiao-Ping

    2010-01-01

    Premenopausal women have less cardiovascular disease and lower cardiovascular morbidity and mortality than men the same age. Our previous studies showed that female mice have lower mortality and better preserved cardiac function after myocardial infarction. However, the precise cellular and molecular mechanisms responsible for such a sex difference are not well established. Using cultured adult mouse cardiomyocytes (ACMs), we tested the hypothesis that the survival advantage of females stems from activated estrogen receptors (ER) and Akt survival signaling pathways. ACMs were isolated from male and female C57BL/6J mice and treated with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2, 100 μM) for 30 min. Cell survival was indicated by rod ratio (rod shaped cells/total cells) and cell death by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release and positive staining of Annexin-V (AV+, a marker for apoptosis) and propidium iodide (PI+, a marker for necrosis). In response to H2O2, female ACMs exhibited a higher rod ratio, lower LDH release and fewer AV+ and PI+ cells compared to males. Phospho-Akt was greater in females both at baseline and after H2O2 stimulation. The downstream molecule of Akt, phosphor-GSK-3β (inactivation), was also higher while caspase-3 activity was lower in females in response to H2O2. Bcl-2 did not differ between genders. ERα was the dominant isoform in females, whereas ERβ was low but similar in both genders. Our findings demonstrate that female ACMs have a greater survival advantage when challenged with oxidative stress-induced cell death. This may be attributable to activation of Akt and inhibition of GSK-3β and caspase-3 through an ERα-mediated mechanism. PMID:20212261

  4. Cortisol Response to Stress in Adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Palomar, Gloria; Ferrer, Roser; Real, Alberto; Nogueira, Mariana; Corrales, Montserrat; Casas, Miguel; Ramos-Quiroga, Josep Antoni

    2015-01-01

    Background: Differences in the cortisol response have been reported between children exhibiting the inattentive and hyperactive/impulsive subtypes of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. However, there is no such information about adults. The aim of the present study was to determine the possible differences between the combined and inattentive subtypes in the cortisol response to stress. Methods: Ninety-six adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, 38 inattentive and 58 combined, without any medical or psychiatric comorbidities and 25 healthy controls were included. The Trier Social Stress Test was used to assess physiological stress responses. Clinical data and subjective stress levels, including the Perceived Stress Scale, were also recorded. Results: No significant differences in the cortisol response to the Trier Social Stress Test were found between patients and controls. However, albeit there were no basal differences, lower cortisol levels at 15 (P=.015), 30 (P=.015), and 45 minutes (P=.045) were observed in the combined compared with the inattentive subtype after the stress induction; these differences disappeared 60 minutes after the stress. In contrast, the subjective stress responses showed significant differences between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder patients and controls (P<.001), but no differences were seen between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder subtypes. In turn, subjective stress measures, such as the Perceived Stress Scale, positively correlated with the whole cortisol stress response (P<.027). Conclusions: Both the combined and inattentive attention deficit hyperactivity disorder adults exhibited a normal cortisol response to stress when challenged. Nevertheless, the inattentive patients displayed a higher level of cortisol after stress compared with the combined patients. Despite the differences in the cortisol response, adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder reported high levels of subjective

  5. Why Do Older Men Report Low Stress Ratings? Findings from the Veterans Affairs Normative Aging Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boeninger, Daria K.; Shiraishi, Ray W.; Aldwin, Carolyn M.; Spiro, Avron, III

    2009-01-01

    We examined the interplay between three explanatory hypotheses for why older adults appear to rate their problems as less stressful than do younger adults: age-related differences in personality, in types of problems, and in the appraisal process--specifically, the number of primary stress appraisals. A sample of 1,054 men from the Normative Aging…

  6. Psychological and cortisol reactivity to experimentally induced stress in adults with ADHD.

    PubMed

    Raz, Sivan; Leykin, Dmitry

    2015-10-01

    Individuals with ADHD suffer from increased vulnerability to environmental and mental stressors and may be at increased risk for chronic stress in everyday life. The Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal (HPA) axis is a critical physiological system that mediates responses to stress. The present study seeks to examine test performance, test anxiety, self-reported psychological stress and cortisol reactivity to mental-cognitive stress in adults with ADHD when compared with healthy controls. Stress was induced by an arithmetic ability test. Psychological stress was assessed repeatedly throughout the experimental session. Salivary cortisol, an indicator of the HPA axis function, was evaluated immediately upon arrival, as well as 1 min and 20 min post-test completion. Results revealed higher levels of test anxiety and poorer performance on the test in the ADHD group. The ADHD and control groups showed no difference in base-line levels of subjective stress and in subjective stress levels 20 min after the test. In contrast, individuals with ADHD reported significantly higher levels of stress at the test anticipation phase and 1 min post-test completion. Cortisol response to stress differed according to group: in the ADHD group, 20 min post-test cortisol levels were significantly higher than base-line cortisol levels. This was not evident in the control group. These results suggest greater activation of the HPA axis in response to stress in adults with ADHD when compared with healthy controls. Adults with ADHD do not differ from controls in basal levels of subjective stress and cortisol, but do have stronger psychophysiological reactions in response to stressful challenges. The present findings are among the first to demonstrate significant alterations in cortisol reactivity to stress in adults with ADHD. PMID:26107579

  7. Interplay between circadian rhythm, time of the day and osmotic stress constraints in the regulation of the expression of a Solanum Double B-box gene

    PubMed Central

    Kiełbowicz-Matuk, Agnieszka; Rey, Pascal; Rorat, Tadeusz

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims Double B-box zinc finger (DBB) proteins are recently identified plant transcription regulators that participate in the response to sodium chloride-induced stress in arabidopsis plants. Little is known regarding their subcellular localization and expression patterns, particularly in relation to other osmotic constraints and the day/night cycle. This study investigated natural variations in the amount of a Solanum DBB protein, SsBBX24, during plant development, and also under various environmental constraints leading to cell dehydration in relation to the circadian clock and the time of day. Methods SsBBX24 transcript and protein abundance in various organs of phytotron-grown Solanum tuberosum and S. sogarandinum plants were investigated at different time points of the day and under various osmotic constraints. The intracellular location of SsBBX24 was determined by western blot analysis of subcellular fractions. Key Results Western blot analysis of SsBBX24 protein revealed that it was located in the nucleus at the beginning of the light period and in the cytosol at the end, suggesting movement (‘trafficking’) during the light phase. SsBBX24 gene expression exhibited circadian cycling under control conditions, with the highest and lowest abundances of both transcript and protein occurring 8 and 18 h after dawn, respectively. Exposing Solanum plants to low temperature, salinity and polyethylene glycol (PEG), but not to drought, disturbed the circadian regulation of SsBBX24 gene expression at the protein level. SsBBX24 transcript and protein accumulated in Solanum plants in response to salt and PEG treatments, but not in response to low temperature or water deficit. Most interestingly, the time of the day modulated the magnitude of SsBBX24 expression in response to high salt concentration. Conclusions The interplay between circadian rhythm and osmotic constraints in the regulation of the expression of a Solanum DBB transcriptional regulator is

  8. Cardiovascular Responses to Psychosocial Stress Reflect Motivation State in Adults Born at Extremely Low Birth Weight.

    PubMed

    Mathewson, Karen J; Pyhälä, Riikka; Hovi, Petteri; Räikkönen, Katri; Van Lieshout, Ryan J; Boyle, Michael H; Saigal, Saroj; Morrison, Katherine M; Kajantie, Eero; Schmidt, Louis A

    2015-01-01

    Background. Adults born extremely preterm appear to have more difficulty managing the stresses of early adulthood than their term-born peers. Objective. To examine the effects of being born at extremely low birth weight (ELBW; birth weight < 1000 g) versus at full term on cardiovascular responses to stress. Method. Cardiovascular responses were elicited during administration of a widely used laboratory stressor, the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST). Results. Term-born adults exhibited a larger decrease in total peripheral resistance and larger increase in cardiac output for TSST performance, reflecting greater resilience, than did ELBW adults. Furthermore, in ELBW participants but not controls, cardiovascular responses were correlated with anxiety, suggesting that their responses reflected feelings of stress. Conclusions. Skills-training and practice with relevant stressors may be necessary to increase the personal resources of ELBW participants for managing stress as they transition to adulthood. PMID:27335948

  9. Cardiovascular Responses to Psychosocial Stress Reflect Motivation State in Adults Born at Extremely Low Birth Weight

    PubMed Central

    Pyhälä, Riikka; Hovi, Petteri; Räikkönen, Katri; Van Lieshout, Ryan J.; Boyle, Michael H.; Saigal, Saroj; Morrison, Katherine M.; Kajantie, Eero; Schmidt, Louis A.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Adults born extremely preterm appear to have more difficulty managing the stresses of early adulthood than their term-born peers. Objective. To examine the effects of being born at extremely low birth weight (ELBW; birth weight < 1000 g) versus at full term on cardiovascular responses to stress. Method. Cardiovascular responses were elicited during administration of a widely used laboratory stressor, the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST). Results. Term-born adults exhibited a larger decrease in total peripheral resistance and larger increase in cardiac output for TSST performance, reflecting greater resilience, than did ELBW adults. Furthermore, in ELBW participants but not controls, cardiovascular responses were correlated with anxiety, suggesting that their responses reflected feelings of stress. Conclusions. Skills-training and practice with relevant stressors may be necessary to increase the personal resources of ELBW participants for managing stress as they transition to adulthood. PMID:27335948

  10. Acculturative Stress, Perceived Discrimination, and Vulnerability to Suicide Attempts among Emerging Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gomez, Judelysse; Miranda, Regina; Polanco, Lillian

    2011-01-01

    Cultural factors are often neglected in studies of suicidal behavior among emerging adults. The present study examined acculturative stress and perceived discrimination as statistical predictors of a suicide attempt history among an ethnically diverse sample of 969 emerging adults, ages 18-25 (M = 18.8). Females made up 68% of the sample, and the…

  11. Second Language Acquisition, Culture Shock and Language Stress of Adult Latina Students in New York.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buttaro, Lucia

    This study identified the second language acquisition, culture shock, and language stress of adult Latinas in New York as related to language, culture, and education. Participants were eight adult Latinas, for whom Spanish was the first language, who had come to the United States 10-15 years previously and developed some functioning English as a…

  12. Does Expressive Writing Reduce Stress and Improve Health for Family Caregivers of Older Adults?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mackenzie, Corey S.; Wiprzycka, Ursula J.; Hasher, Lynn; Goldstein, David

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: We examined whether written emotional disclosure reduces stress and improves health outcomes for family caregivers of physically frail and cognitively impaired older adults, as it has been shown to do for certain student and clinical populations. Design and Methods: Primary caregivers of older adults attending a day program were randomly…

  13. Increased Risk Taking in Relation to Chronic Stress in Adults

    PubMed Central

    Ceccato, Smarandita; Kudielka, Brigitte M.; Schwieren, Christiane

    2016-01-01

    Chronic stress is a public health problem that affects a significant part of the population. While the physiological damage it causes is under ongoing scrutiny, its behavioral effects have been overlooked. This is one of the first studies to examine the relation between chronic stress and decision-making, using a standard lottery paradigm. We measured risk taking in the gain domain through binary choices between financially incentivized lotteries. We then measured self-reported chronic stress with the Trier Inventory for the Assessment of Chronic Stress (TICS). We additionally collected hair samples in a subsample of volunteers, in order to quantify accumulation of the stress hormone cortisol. We discovered a significant positive, though modest, correlation between self-reported chronic stress and risk taking that is stronger for women than for men. This confirms part of the findings in acute stress research that show a connection between higher stress and increased risk taking. However, unlike the biologically-based results from acute stress research, we did not identify a significant relation between hair cortisol and behavior. In line with previous literature, we found a clear gender difference in risk taking and self-reports: women generally take less risk and report slightly higher stress levels than men. We conclude that perceived chronic stress can impact behavior in risky situations. PMID:26858663

  14. Stress in Parents of Adults with Intellectual Disabilities Attending Special Olympics Competitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, Jonathan A.; Diamond, Terry

    2005-01-01

    Background: It is important to determine how programmes serving the individual with intellectual disability may also help to reduce stress in parents of adult children with intellectual disabilities. The aim of this study was to test whether parents who frequently watch their children at Special Olympics (SO) competitions report less stress than…

  15. Alcohol as a Response to Stress in Older Adults: A Counseling Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunter, I. Roy; Gillen, Mark C.

    2006-01-01

    The authors explore the relationship between stress and alcohol use in older adults. The importance for the counselor to determine the client-specific role of alcohol use, whether as a stress buffer or as a coping mechanism, is discussed. (Contains 1 table and 2 figures.)

  16. Psychological Abuse Perpetration in College Dating Relationships: Contributions of Gender, Stress, and Adult Attachment Orientations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gormley, Barbara; Lopez, Frederick G.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated whether gender, stressful problems common among college students, and adult attachment orientations (anxiety and avoidance) contributed to self-reported perpetration of psychological abuse in dating relationships among 127 college students. College men's stress levels were the strongest predictor of perpetration of…

  17. Perceived Discrimination, Perceived Stress, and Mental and Physical Health among Mexican-Origin Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flores, Elena; Tschann, Jeanne M.; Dimas, Juanita M.; Bachen, Elizabeth A.; Pasch, Lauri A.; de Groat, Cynthia L.

    2008-01-01

    This study provided a test of the minority status stress model by examining whether perceived discrimination would directly affect health outcomes even when perceived stress was taken into account among 215 Mexican-origin adults. Perceived discrimination predicted depression and poorer general health, and marginally predicted health symptoms, when…

  18. Emerging Adults' Stress and Health: The Role of Parent Behaviors and Cognitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donnelly, Reesa; Renk, Kimberly; McKinney, Cliff

    2013-01-01

    Although parent behaviors and cognitions are important for stress/health outcomes throughout development, little research examines whether cognitions mediate the relationship between parent behaviors and stress/health outcomes. As a result, the current study examined the reports of 160 emerging adults regarding their mothers' and fathers'…

  19. Depression in Adults with Mild Intellectual Disability: Role of Stress, Attributions, and Coping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartley, Sigan L.; MacLean, William E., Jr.

    2009-01-01

    The experience of stressful social interactions, negative causal attributions, and the use of maladaptive coping efforts help maintain depression over time in the general population. We investigated whether a similar experience occurs among adults with mild intellectual disability. We compared the frequency and stress impact of such interactions,…

  20. Stress, Coping, and Psychological Adjustment of Adults with Sickle Cell Disease.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Robert J., Jr.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Examined psychological adjustment to sickle cell disease (SCD) among 109 African-American adults. Good psychological adjustment was associated with lower levels of perceived daily stress and stress regarding SCD illness tasks, higher efficacy expectations, less use of palliative coping methods and negative thinking/passive adherence pain-coping…

  1. Locus of Control, Field Dependence, and Stress Reactivity in Young Adult Males.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schweibinz, Janet S.

    This study examined the potential relationships between locus of control, field dependence, and stress reactivity in a sample of young adult males (N=40). Locus of control, field dependence, and stress reactivity were measured by the Rotter Locus of Control Scale, the Embedded Figures Test, and the Life Events Survey, respectively. State stress…

  2. An Investigation of Adult Attachment and Coping with Exam-Related Stress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, Katherine; Kingswell, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    Students differ in how they cope with and manage stress associated with university life. This study investigates associations between adult attachment and coping strategies for exam-related stress. Fifty-seven students at a university in the north of England completed online questionnaires to assess attachment anxiety and avoidance, helpful and…

  3. The Effectiveness of a Computerized Self-Help Stress Coping Program with Adult Males.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, James J.

    1987-01-01

    Examined whether computerized self-help stress coping program was effective in reducing stress among 30 adult male juvenile counselors. Compared to controls, subjects who participated in program showed decreases in personal strain and state anxiety and increases in personal resources. Concluded that program could provide relief for situational…

  4. Rise Time Perception and Detection of Syllable Stress in Adults with Developmental Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leong, Victoria; Hamalainen, Jarmo; Soltesz, Fruzsina; Goswami, Usha

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: The perception of syllable stress has not been widely studied in developmental dyslexia, despite strong evidence for auditory rhythmic perceptual difficulties. Here we investigate the hypothesis that perception of sound rise time is related to the perception of syllable stress in adults with developmental dyslexia. Methods: A…

  5. Dealing with the Stress of College: A Model for Adult Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kohler Giancola, Jennifer; Grawitch, Matthew J.; Borchert, Dana

    2009-01-01

    With an increase in nontraditional students attending college, there is a need to understand how work/school/life stress affects adult students. The purpose of this study is to test a comprehensive stress model that posits appraisal (cognitive evaluation) and coping as mediators between stressors/interrole conflict and psychosocial outcomes. The…

  6. Dealing with Stress. Tierra de Oportunidad Module 16. LAES: Latino Adult Education Services Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kissam, Ed; Dorsey, Holda

    This module, which may be used as the basis for a workshop or as a special topic unit in adult basic education or English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) courses, focuses on dealing with stress on the job and in daily life in the United States. Topics covered include the following: analyzing one's schedule and listing stressful times; applying four…

  7. Comparing chronic interpersonal and noninterpersonal stress domains as predictors of depression recurrence in emerging adults.

    PubMed

    Sheets, Erin S; Craighead, W Edward

    2014-12-01

    Understanding how persistent interpersonal difficulties distinctly affect the course of major depressive disorder (MDD) during emerging adulthood is critical, given that early experiences impact future coping resources and functioning. Research on stress and MDD has mostly concentrated on stressful life events, while chronic stress largely has not been explored. The present study examined interpersonal (intimate relationship, close friendships, social life, family relationships) and noninterpersonal (academic, work, financial, personal health, and family members' health) domains of chronic stress as time-varying predictors of depressive recurrence in emerging adults. Baseline assessments identified previously depressed emerging adults (N = 119), who subsequently completed 6-month, 12-month and 18-month follow-up interviews to determine chronic stress experiences and onset of new major depressive episodes. Survival analyses indicated that time-varying total chronic stress and chronic interpersonal stress predicted higher risk for depression recurrence; however, chronic noninterpersonal stress was not associated with recurrence. Intimate relationship stress, close friendship stress, family relationship stress, personal health, and family members' health independently predicted MDD recurrence, over and above well-established depression risk factors of dysfunctional cognitions and personality disorder symptoms. Evidence that interpersonal stress could have substantial impact on course of depression is consistent with theories of emerging adulthood, a time when young people are individuating from the family and experiencing significant social transition. PMID:25277497

  8. The relationship between stress and social functioning in adults with autism spectrum disorder and without intellectual disability.

    PubMed

    Bishop-Fitzpatrick, Lauren; Mazefsky, Carla A; Minshew, Nancy J; Eack, Shaun M

    2015-04-01

    Adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) face substantial challenges accomplishing basic tasks associated with daily living, which are exacerbated by their broad and pervasive difficulties with social interactions. These challenges put people with ASD at increased risk for psychophysiological distress, which likely factors heavily into social functioning for adults with ASD, as suggested by a growing literature on stress in children that indicates that children with ASD have differential responses to stress than healthy children. We hypothesized that adults with ASD and without intellectual disability (n = 38) would experience more stress than healthy volunteers (n = 37) and that there would be an inverse relationship between stress and social functioning in individuals with ASD. Baseline, semi-structured interview data from a randomized controlled trial of two treatments for adults with ASD were used to assess differences in stress between adults with ASD and healthy volunteers and to assess the relationship between stress response and social functioning in adults with ASD. Findings indicate that adults with ASD experience greater perceived and interviewer-observed stress than healthy volunteers and that stress is significantly related to social functioning in adults with ASD. These findings highlight the role of stress in adult functioning and outcomes and suggest the need to develop and assess treatments designed to target stress and coping in adults with ASD. PMID:25524571

  9. Stress trajectories, health behaviors, and the mental health of black and white young adults.

    PubMed

    Boardman, Jason D; Alexander, Kari B

    2011-05-01

    This paper uses data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health to examine the mental health of non-Hispanic black and white young adults in the US. We use latent growth curve modeling to characterize the typical stress trajectories experienced by black and white young adults spanning the bulk of their lives. We identify the following four stress trajectories: 1) relatively stress free; 2) stress peak at age 15 and a subsequent decline; 3) stress peak at age 17 and a subsequent decline; and 4) a moderately high chronic stress. Results indicate that black adolescents have significantly higher risk of being in all three of the stressful classes compared to white adolescents. Stress exposure is strongly associated with depression and the race differences in stress profiles account for a modest amount of the observed race differences in mental health. We do not observe any race differences in behavioral responses to stressors; black youth are no more likely than white youth to engage in poor health behaviors (e.g., smoking, drinking, or obesity) in response to stress. We provide tentative support for the notion that poor health behaviors partially reduce the association between stress and depression for blacks but not whites. These findings contribute to unresolved issues regarding mental and physical health disparities among blacks and whites. PMID:21514025

  10. Stress trajectories, health behaviors, and the mental health of black and white young adults

    PubMed Central

    Boardman, Jason D.; Alexander, Kari B.

    2011-01-01

    This paper uses data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health to examine the mental health of non-Hispanic black and white young adults in the US. We use latent growth curve modeling to characterize the typical stress trajectories experienced by black and white young adults spanning the bulk of their lives. We identify the following four stress trajectories: 1) relatively stress free; 2) stress peak at age 15 and a subsequent decline; 3) stress peak at age 17 and a subsequent decline; and 4) a moderately high chronic stress. Results indicate that black adolescents have significantly higher risk of being in all three of the stressful classes compared to white adolescents. Stress exposure is strongly associated with depression and the race differences in stress profiles account for a modest amount of the observed race differences in mental health. We do not observe any race differences in behavioral responses to stressors; black youth are no more likely than white youth to engage in poor health behaviors (e.g., smoking, drinking, or obesity) in response to stress. We provide tentative support for the notion that poor health behaviors partially reduce the association between stress and depression for blacks but not whites. These findings contribute to unresolved issues regarding mental and physical health disparities among blacks and whites. PMID:21514025

  11. Dopamine D3 Receptor Mediates Preadolescent Stress-Induced Adult Psychiatric Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Joon H.; Kuzhikandathil, Eldo V.

    2015-01-01

    Several studies have shown that repeated stressful experiences during childhood increases the likelihood of developing depression- and anxiety-related disorders in adulthood; however, the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. We subjected drd3-EGFP and drd3-null mice to daily, two hour restraint stress episodes over a five day period during preadolescence (postnatal day 35 to 39), followed by social isolation. When these mice reached adulthood (post-natal day > 90), we assessed locomotor behavior in a novel environment, and assessed depression-related behavior in the Porsolt Forced Swim test. We also measured the expression and function of dopamine D3 receptor in limbic brain areas such as hippocampus, nucleus accumbens and amygdala in control and stressed drd3-EGFP mice in adulthood. Adult male mice subjected to restraint stress during preadolescence exhibited both anxiety- and depression-related behaviors; however, adult female mice subjected to preadolescent restraint stress exhibited only depression-related behaviors. The development of preadolescent stress-derived psychiatric disorders was blocked by D3 receptor selective antagonist, SB 277011-A, and absent in D3 receptor null mice. Adult male mice that experienced stress during preadolescence exhibited a loss of D3 receptor expression and function in the amygdala but not in hippocampus or nucleus accumbens. In contrast, adult female mice that experienced preadolescent stress exhibited increased D3 receptor expression in the nucleus accumbens but not in amygdala or hippocampus. Our results suggest that the dopamine D3 receptor is centrally involved in the etiology of adult anxiety- and depression-related behaviors that arise from repeated stressful experiences during childhood. PMID:26619275

  12. In utero programming alters adult response to chronic mild stress: part 3 of a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Baker, Stephanie L; Mileva, Guergana; Huta, Veronika; Bielajew, Catherine

    2014-11-01

    Exposure to stress before birth may lay the foundation for the development of sensitivities or protection from psychiatric disorders while later stress exposure may trigger either their expression or suppression. This report, part three of a longitudinal study conducted in our laboratory, aimed to examine the interaction between early and adult stress and their effects on measures of anxiety and depression. In parts one and two, we reported the effects of gestational stress (GS) in Long Evans rat dams and their juvenile and young adult offspring. In this third and final installment, we evaluated the effects of GS and chronic mild stress (CMS) in the adult female offspring at 6 month and 12 month time-points. The two by two design included a combination of GS and CMS and the appropriate control groups. Using Hierarchical Linear Modeling, main effects of GS on corticosterone level at the 12 month time-point was found while main effects of CMS were seen in body weight, sucrose preference, and corticosterone, and significant interactions between group at the 6 and 12 month time-points. The GS group had the lowest sucrose preference during CMS at 6 months supporting a cumulative effect of early and later life stress. The GS/CMS group showed lower corticosterone at 12 months than the GS/noCMS group indicating a possible mismatch between prenatal programming and later life stress. These results highlight the importance of early life factors in exerting potentially protective effects in models involving later life stress. PMID:25261693

  13. Association of Perceived Stress with Atopic Dermatitis in Adults: A Population-Based Study in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hyejin; Kim, Kisok

    2016-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a widely prevalent skin disease that affects both children and adults. The aim of the study was to assess the association of perceived stress (single-item, self-reported) with AD (self-reported) in a sample of Korean adults using a cross-sectional research design. A cross-sectional study was conducted using data from 33,018 adults aged 20 years and older collected in the 2007–2012 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (KNHANES). An increased level of self-reported stress was positively associated with an increased prevalence of AD in Korean adults (p for trend <0.001). After adjusting for covariates, the odds ratios (ORs) of AD among participants reporting high and very high levels of stress were 1.81 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.22, 2.67) and 2.17 (95% CI: 1.38, 3.42), respectively, compared with those who reported low levels of stress. This study found a statistically significant association between perceived stress and AD among Korean adults. PMID:27472355

  14. Regulation of Adult Neurogenesis and Plasticity by (Early) Stress, Glucocorticoids, and Inflammation.

    PubMed

    Lucassen, Paul J; Oomen, Charlotte A; Naninck, Eva F G; Fitzsimons, Carlos P; van Dam, Anne-Marie; Czeh, Boldizsár; Korosi, Aniko

    2015-09-01

    Exposure to stress is one of the best-known negative regulators of adult neurogenesis (AN). We discuss changes in neurogenesis in relation to exposure to stress, glucocorticoid hormones, and inflammation, with a particular focus on early development and on lasting effects of stress. Although the effects of acute and mild stress on AN are generally brief and can be quickly overcome, chronic exposure or more severe forms of stress can induce longer lasting reductions in neurogenesis that can, however, in part, be overcome by subsequent exposure to exercise, drugs targeting the stress system, and some antidepressants. Exposure to stress, particularly during the sensitive period of early life, may (re)program brain plasticity, in particular, in the hippocampus. This may increase the risk to develop cognitive or anxiety symptoms, common to brain diseases like dementia and depression in which plasticity changes occur, and a normalization of neurogenesis may be required for a successful treatment response and recovery. PMID:26330520

  15. Long-term effects of neonatal stress on adult conditioned place preference (CPP) and hippocampal neurogenesis.

    PubMed

    Hays, Sarah L; McPherson, Ronald J; Juul, Sandra E; Wallace, Gerard; Schindler, Abigail G; Chavkin, Charles; Gleason, Christine A

    2012-02-01

    Critically ill preterm infants are often exposed to stressors that may affect neurodevelopment and behavior. We reported that exposure of neonatal mice to stressors or morphine produced impairment of adult morphine-rewarded conditioned place preference (CPP) and altered hippocampal gene expression. We now further this line of inquiry by examining both short- and long-term effects of neonatal stress and morphine treatment. Neonatal C57BL/6 mice were treated twice daily from postnatal day (P) 5 to P9 using different combinations of factors. Subsets received saline or morphine injections (2mg/kgs.c.) or were exposed to our neonatal stress protocol (maternal separation 8h/d × 5d+gavage feedings ± hypoxia/hyperoxia). Short-term measures examined on P9 were neuronal fluorojade B and bromodeoxyuridine staining, along with urine corticosterone concentrations. Long-term measures examined in adult mice (>P60) included CPP learning to cocaine reward (± the kappa opioid receptor (KOR) agonist U50,488 injection), and adult hippocampal neurogenesis (PCNA immunolabeling). Neonatal stress (but not morphine) decreased the cocaine-CPP response and this effect was reversed by KOR stimulation. Both neonatal stress or morphine treatment increased hippocampal neurogenesis in adult mice. We conclude that reduced learning and increased hippocampal neurogenesis are both indicators that neonatal stress desensitized mice and reduced their arousal and stress responsiveness during adult CPP testing. Reconciled with other findings, these data collectively support the stress inoculation hypothesis whereby early life stressors prepare animals to tolerate future stress. PMID:22061798

  16. Long-term Effects of Neonatal Stress on Adult Conditioned Place Preference (CPP) and Hippocampal Neurogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Hays, Sarah L; McPherson, Ronald J; Juul, Sandra E; Wallace, Gerard; Schindler, Abigail G; Chavkin, Charles; Gleason, Christine A

    2011-01-01

    Critically ill preterm infants are often exposed to stressors that may affect neurodevelopment and behavior. We reported that exposure of neonatal mice to stressors or morphine produced impairment of adult morphine-rewarded conditioned place preference (CPP) and altered hippocampal gene expression. We now further this line of inquiry by examining both short- and long-term effects of neonatal stress and morphine treatment. Neonatal C57BL/6 mice were treated twice daily from postnatal day (P) 5 to P9 using different combinations of factors. Subsets received saline or morphine injections (2 mg/kg s.c.) or were exposed to our neonatal stress protocol (maternal separation 8 h/d ×5d + gavage feedings ± hypoxia/hyperoxia). Short-term measures examined on P9 were neuronal fluorojade B and bromodeoxyuridine staining, along with urine corticosterone concentrations. Long-term measures examined in adult mice (>P60) included CPP learning to cocaine reward (± the kappa opioid receptor (KOR) agonist U50,488 injection), and adult hippocampal neurogenesis (PCNA immunolabeling). Neonatal stress (but not morphine) decreased the cocaine-CPP response and this effect was reversed by KOR stimulation. Both neonatal stress or morphine treatment increased hippocampal neurogenesis in adult mice. We conclude that reduced learning and increased hippocampal neurogenesis are both indicators that neonatal stress desensitized mice and reduced their arousal and stress responsiveness during adult CPP testing. Reconciled with other findings, these data collectively support the stress inoculation hypothesis whereby early life stressors prepare animals to tolerate future stress. PMID:22061798

  17. Tissue adaptations to gravitational stress - Newborn versus adult giraffes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hargens, Alan R; Gershuni, David H.; Danzig, Larry A.; Millard, Ronald W.; Pettersson, Knut

    1988-01-01

    Preliminary results on developmental alterations in load-bearing tissues of newborn and adult giraffes are presented. Attention is focused on vascular wall thickness in relation to local blood pressure, and on meniscal adaptations to increased load bearing in the developing giraffe. It is believed that the developing giraffe provides an excellent model for investigations of adaptive mechanisms of increased weight bearing.

  18. Stress eating and health. Findings from MIDUS, a national study of US adults.

    PubMed

    Tsenkova, Vera; Boylan, Jenifer Morozink; Ryff, Carol

    2013-10-01

    The epidemic of obesity and its related chronic diseases has provoked interest in the predictors of eating behavior. Eating in response to stress has been extensively examined, but currently unclear is whether stress eating is associated with obesity and morbidity. We tested whether self-reported stress eating was associated with worse glucose metabolism among nondiabetic adults as well as with increased odds of prediabetes and diabetes. Further, we investigated whether these relationships were mediated by central fat distribution. Participants were 1138 adults (937 without diabetes) in the Midlife in the US study (MIDUS II). Glucose metabolism was characterized by fasting glucose, insulin, insulin resistance (HOMAIR), glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), prediabetes, and diabetes status. Multivariate-adjusted analyses showed that stress eating was associated with significantly higher nondiabetic levels of glucose, insulin, insulin resistance, and HbA1c as well as higher odds of prediabetes or diabetes. Relationships between stress eating and all outcomes were no longer statistically significant once waist circumference was added to the models, suggesting that it mediates such relationships. Findings add to the growing literature on the relationships among psychosocial factors, obesity, and chronic disease by documenting associations between stress eating and objectively measured health outcomes in a national sample of adults. The findings have important implications for interventive targets related to obesity and chronic disease, namely, strategies to modify the tendency to use food as a coping response to stress. PMID:23747576

  19. OXIDATIVE STRESS CONTRIBUTES TO SEX DIFFERENCES IN BLOOD PRESSURE IN ADULT GROWTH RESTRICTED OFFSPRING

    PubMed Central

    Ojeda, Norma B.; Hennington, Bettye Sue; Williamson, Danielle T.; Hill, Melanie L.; Betson, Nicole E.E.; Sartori-Valinotti, Julio C.; Reckelhoff, Jane F.; Royals, Thomas P.; Alexander, Barbara T.

    2013-01-01

    Numerous experimental studies suggest that oxidative stress contributes to the pathophysiology of hypertension and importantly, that oxidative stress plays a more definitive role in mediating hypertension in males than in females. Intrauterine growth-restriction induced by reduced uterine perfusion initiated at day 14 of gestation in the rat programs hypertension in adult male growth-restricted offspring; yet, female growth-restricted offspring are normotensive. The mechanisms mediating sex differences in blood pressure in adult growth-restricted offspring are not clear. Thus, this study tested the hypothesis that sex specific differences in renal oxidative stress contribute to the regulation of blood pressure in adult growth-restricted offspring. A significant increase in blood pressure measured by telemetry in male growth-restricted offspring (P<0.05) was associated with a marked increase in renal markers of oxidative stress (P<0.05). Chronic treatment with the antioxidant tempol had no effect on blood pressure in male control offspring, but it normalized blood pressure (P<0.05) and renal markers of oxidative stress (P<0.05) in male growth-restricted relative to male control. Renal markers of oxidative stress were not elevated in female growth-restricted offspring; however, renal activity of the antioxidant catalase was significantly elevated relative to female control (P<0.05). Chronic treatment with tempol did not significantly alter oxidative stress or blood pressure measured by telemetry in female offspring. Thus, these data suggest that sex differences in renal oxidative stress and antioxidant activity are present in adult growth-restricted offspring, and that oxidative stress may play a more important role in modulating blood pressure in male, but not female growth-restricted offspring. PMID:22585945

  20. Two prospective studies of changes in stress generation across depressive episodes in adolescents and emerging adults.

    PubMed

    Morris, Matthew C; Kouros, Chrystyna D; Hellman, Natalie; Rao, Uma; Garber, Judy

    2014-11-01

    The stress generation hypothesis was tested in two different longitudinal studies examining relations between weekly depression symptom ratings and stress levels in adolescents and emerging adults at varied risk for depression. The participants in Study 1 included 240 adolescents who differed with regard to their mothers' history of depressive disorders. Youth were assessed annually across 6 years (Grades 6-12). Consistent with the depression autonomy model, higher numbers of prior major depressive episodes (MDEs) were associated with weaker stress generation effects, such that higher levels of depressive symptoms predicted increases in levels of dependent stressors for adolescents with two or more prior MDEs, but depressive symptoms were not significantly related to dependent stress levels for youth with three or more prior MDEs. In Study 2, the participants were 32 remitted-depressed and 36 never-depressed young adults who completed a psychosocial stress task to determine cortisol reactivity and were reassessed for depression and stress approximately 8 months later. Stress generation effects were moderated by cortisol responses to a laboratory psychosocial stressor, such that individuals with higher cortisol responses exhibited a pattern consistent with the depression autonomy model, whereas individuals with lower cortisol responses showed a pattern more consistent with the depression sensitization model. Finally, comparing across the two samples, stress generation effects were weaker for older participants and for those with more prior MDEs. The complex, multifactorial relation between stress and depression is discussed. PMID:25422968

  1. Two Prospective Studies of Changes in Stress Generation across Depressive Episodes in Adolescents and Emerging Adults

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Matthew C.; Kouros, Chrystyna D.; Hellman, Natalie; Rao, Uma; Garber, Judy

    2014-01-01

    The stress generation hypothesis was tested in two different longitudinal studies examining relations between weekly depression symptom ratings and stress levels in adolescents and emerging adults at varied risk for depression. Participants in Study 1 included 240 adolescents who differed with regard to their mother’s history of depressive disorders. Youth were assessed annually across 6 years (Grades 6 through 12). Consistent with the depression autonomy model, higher numbers of prior major depressive episodes (MDEs) were associated with weaker stress generation effects, such that higher levels of depressive symptoms predicted increases in levels of dependent stressors for adolescents with ≤ 2 prior MDEs, but depressive symptoms were not significantly related to dependent stress levels for youth with ≥ 3 prior MDEs. In Study 2, participants were 32 remitted-depressed and 36 never-depressed young adults who completed a psychosocial stress task to determine cortisol reactivity and were re-assessed for depression and stress approximately eight months later. Stress generation effects were moderated by cortisol responses to a laboratory psychosocial stressor, such that individuals with higher cortisol responses exhibited a pattern consistent with the depression autonomy model, whereas individuals with lower cortisol responses showed a pattern more consistent with the depression sensitization model. Finally, comparing across the two samples, stress generation effects were weaker for older participants and for those with more prior MDEs. The complex, multi-factorial relation between stress and depression is discussed. PMID:25422968

  2. Stress during first pregnancy increases seizure threshold in adult male offspring

    PubMed Central

    Pajand, Peyman; Elahdadi Salmani, Mahmoud; Shajiee, Hooman; Abiri, Hasan; Goudarzi, Iran; Abrari, Kataneh

    2014-01-01

    Objective(s): Stress induces many homeostatic aberrations which are followed by lifelong allostatic responses. Epilepsy is developed or influenced by different environmental factors, i.e. prenatal stress which makes many contradictory developmental changes in seizure threshold and intensity. We investigated the potential seizure response of the rat offspring to prenatal stress; the stress which was applied to their mothers. Materials and Methods: Nine day heterogeneous sequential stress (HSS) model was used before and during the first and before the second pregnancy. The kindling was induced using 13 IP injections of pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) every 48 hr to adult male Wistar rat's offspring. Results: The results of the present study demonstrated that, before pregnancy stress decreased the rate of kindling (P<0.05) in the offspring, while stress which was applied during pregnancy completely prevented kindling (P <0.001). Further, their convulsive latency was increased and tonic clonic seizure duration was decreased. In contrast, previous pregnancy and between pregnancies stress could not change kindling process. Although maternal separation stress did not change kindling development, it could increase convulsive intensities by elongating the duration of seizures (P<0.05) and reducing convulsion latency (P <0.05). Conclusion: It is concluded that stress detrimental effects could be prevented by stress which was applied around first pregnancy; however this beneficial effect is weakened by before second pregnancy stress. PMID:24592305

  3. Associations among Fluid and Crystallized Cognition and Daily Stress Processes in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Stawski, Robert S.; Mogle, Jacqueline A.; Sliwinski, Martin J.

    2013-01-01

    The current study examined associations among fluid and crystallized cognition, and daily stress processes in older adults. Older adults (N=107) completed measures of daily stressors, and affect on six occasions over two weeks, as well as measures of fluid and crystallized cognition. Higher crystallized cognition was associated with a greater likelihood of exposure to daily stressors, including arguments and avoided arguments. Higher fluid cognition was associated with diminished emotional reactivity to daily stressors for negative but not positive affect. Discussion focuses on the roles of fluid and crystallized cognition for understanding daily stress processes, daily activity and lifestyle, and health. PMID:22946522

  4. Stressful Life Events, Sexual Orientation, and Cardiometabolic Risk Among Young Adults in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Hatzenbuehler, Mark L.; Slopen, Natalie; McLaughlin, Kate A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The goal of the present study was to examine whether sexual minority young adults are more vulnerable to developing cardiometabolic risk following exposure to stressful life events than heterosexual young adults. Method Data came from the National Longitudinal Study for Adolescent Health (Shin, Edwards, & Heeren, 2009; Brummett et al., 2013), a prospective nationally representative study of U.S. adolescents followed into young adulthood. A total of 306 lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) respondents and 6,667 heterosexual respondents met inclusion criteria for this analysis. Measures of cumulative stressful life events were drawn from all 4 waves of data collection; sexual orientation and cardiometabolic biomarkers were assessed at Wave 4 (2008–2009). Results Gay/bisexual men exposed to 1–2 (β = 0.71, p = .01) and 5 + (β = 0.87, p = .01) stressful life events had a statistically significant elevation in cardiometabolic risk, controlling for demographics, health behaviors, and socioeconomic status. Moreover, in models adjusted for all covariates, lesbian/bisexual (β = 0.52, p = .046) women with 5 + stressful life events had a statistically significant elevation in cardiometabolic risk. There was no relationship between stressful life events and cardiometabolic risk among heterosexual men or women. Conclusion Stressful life events during childhood, adolescence, and young adulthood place LGB young adults at heightened risk for elevated cardiometabolic risk as early as young adulthood. The mechanisms underlying this relationship require future study. PMID:25133830

  5. Stress and coping among children of alcoholic parents through the young adult transition

    PubMed Central

    Hussong, Andrea M.; Chassin, Laurie

    2011-01-01

    The transition to young adulthood is both a time when risky health behaviors such as substance misuse peak and a time of opportunity for growth and development through the acquisition of adult roles. In this transition, coping styles include responses to the stressors and opportunities associated with the emergence of adulthood. The extent to which such coping styles are skillfully employed in part determines adjustment into adulthood. The current study used a high-risk, longitudinal design to examine the development of coping styles over adolescence, continuity in these coping styles from adolescence to adulthood, the impact of coping on adult stress and substance misuse, the ability of coping to buffer effects of stress on substance use, and differences in coping between at-risk youth (i.e., children of alcoholics [COAs]) and their peers. A sample of 340 adolescents completed four assessments over ages 11–23. We used latent trajectory models to examine interindividual and intraindividual change in coping over time. Evidence for both change and continuity in the development of coping from adolescence to adulthood was found, although adolescent coping had limited impact on stress and substance use in adulthood. Support was also found for complex stress-buffering and stress-exacerbating effects of coping on the relations between major life events and adult drug use and between stress associated with the new roles of adulthood and heavy alcohol use. Implications of these findings for development and adjustment in the transition to adulthood are discussed. PMID:15704824

  6. Cognitive and perceptual responses during passive heat stress in younger and older adults.

    PubMed

    Schlader, Zachary J; Gagnon, Daniel; Adams, Amy; Rivas, Eric; Cullum, C Munro; Crandall, Craig G

    2015-05-15

    We tested the hypothesis that attention, memory, and executive function are impaired to a greater extent in passively heat-stressed older adults than in passively heat-stressed younger adults. In a randomized, crossover design, 15 older (age: 69 ± 5 yr) and 14 younger (age: 30 ± 4 yr) healthy subjects underwent passive heat stress and time control trials. Cognitive tests (outcomes: accuracy and reaction time) from the CANTAB battery evaluated attention [rapid visual processing (RVP), choice reaction time (CRT)], memory [spatial span (SSP), pattern recognition memory (PRM)], and executive function [one touch stockings of Cambridge (OTS)]. Testing was undertaken on two occasions during each trial, at baseline and after internal temperature had increased by 1.0 ± 0.2°C or after a time control period. For tests that measured attention, reaction time during RVP and CRT was slower (P ≤ 0.01) in the older group. During heat stress, RVP reaction time improved (P < 0.01) in both groups. Heat stress had no effect (P ≥ 0.09) on RVP or CRT accuracy in either group. For tests that measured memory, accuracy on SSP and PRM was lower (P < 0.01) in the older group, but there was no effect of heat stress (P ≥ 0.14). For tests that measured executive function, overall, accuracy on OTS was lower, and reaction time was slower in the older group (P ≤ 0.05). Reaction time generally improved during heat stress, but there was no effect of heat stress on accuracy in either group. These data indicate that moderate increases in body temperature during passive heat stress do not differentially compromise cognitive function in younger and older adults. PMID:25786484

  7. Cognitive and perceptual responses during passive heat stress in younger and older adults

    PubMed Central

    Schlader, Zachary J.; Gagnon, Daniel; Adams, Amy; Rivas, Eric; Cullum, C. Munro

    2015-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that attention, memory, and executive function are impaired to a greater extent in passively heat-stressed older adults than in passively heat-stressed younger adults. In a randomized, crossover design, 15 older (age: 69 ± 5 yr) and 14 younger (age: 30 ± 4 yr) healthy subjects underwent passive heat stress and time control trials. Cognitive tests (outcomes: accuracy and reaction time) from the CANTAB battery evaluated attention [rapid visual processing (RVP), choice reaction time (CRT)], memory [spatial span (SSP), pattern recognition memory (PRM)], and executive function [one touch stockings of Cambridge (OTS)]. Testing was undertaken on two occasions during each trial, at baseline and after internal temperature had increased by 1.0 ± 0.2°C or after a time control period. For tests that measured attention, reaction time during RVP and CRT was slower (P ≤ 0.01) in the older group. During heat stress, RVP reaction time improved (P < 0.01) in both groups. Heat stress had no effect (P ≥ 0.09) on RVP or CRT accuracy in either group. For tests that measured memory, accuracy on SSP and PRM was lower (P < 0.01) in the older group, but there was no effect of heat stress (P ≥ 0.14). For tests that measured executive function, overall, accuracy on OTS was lower, and reaction time was slower in the older group (P ≤ 0.05). Reaction time generally improved during heat stress, but there was no effect of heat stress on accuracy in either group. These data indicate that moderate increases in body temperature during passive heat stress do not differentially compromise cognitive function in younger and older adults. PMID:25786484

  8. Maternal antioxidant blocks programmed cardiovascular and behavioural stress responses in adult mice

    PubMed Central

    ROGHAIR, Robert D.; WEMMIE, John A.; VOLK, Kenneth A.; SCHOLZ, Thomas D.; LAMB, Fred S.; SEGAR, Jeffrey L.

    2013-01-01

    Intra-uterine growth restriction is an independent risk factor for adult psychiatric and cardiovascular diseases. In humans, intra-uterine growth restriction is associated with increased placental and fetal oxidative stress, as well as down-regulation of placental 11β-HSD (11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase). Decreased placental 11β-HSD activity increases fetal exposure to maternal glucocorticoids, further increasing fetal oxidative stress. To explore the developmental origins of co-morbid hypertension and anxiety disorders, we increased fetal glucocorticoid exposure by administering the 11β-HSD inhibitor CBX (carbenoxolone; 12 mg · kg−1 of body weight · day−1) during the final week of murine gestation. We hypothesized that maternal antioxidant (tempol throughout pregnancy) would block glucocorticoid-programmed anxiety, vascular dysfunction and hypertension. Anxiety-related behaviour (conditioned fear) and the haemodynamic response to stress were measured in adult mice. Maternal CBX administration significantly increased conditioned fear responses of adult females. Among the offspring of CBX-injected dams, maternal tempol markedly attenuated the behavioural and cardiovascular responses to psychological stress. Compared with offspring of undisturbed dams, male offspring of dams that received daily third trimester saline injections had increased stress-evoked pressure responses that were blocked by maternal tempol. In contrast, tempol did not block CBX-induced aortic dysfunction in female mice (measured by myography and lucigenin-enhanced chemiluminescence). We conclude that maternal stress and exaggerated fetal glucocorticoid exposure enhance sex-specific stress responses, as well as alterations in aortic reactivity. Because concurrent tempol attenuated conditioned fear and stress reactivity even among the offspring of saline-injected dams, we speculate that antenatal stressors programme offspring stress reactivity in a cycle that may be broken by antenatal

  9. Anger, Hostility, and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Trauma-Exposed Adults: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orth, Ulrich; Wieland, Elias

    2006-01-01

    This meta-analysis synthesizes the available data on the strength of association between anger and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and between hostility and PTSD, covering 39 studies with trauma-exposed adults. Effect sizes did not differ for anger and hostility, which could therefore be combined; effect sizes for anger expression variables…

  10. Gender Effect According to Item Directionality on the Perceived Stress Scale for Adults with Multiple Sclerosis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gitchel, W. Dent; Roessler, Richard T.; Turner, Ronna C.

    2011-01-01

    Assessment is critical to rehabilitation practice and research, and self-reports are a commonly used form of assessment. This study examines a gender effect according to item wording on the "Perceived Stress Scale" for adults with multiple sclerosis. Past studies have demonstrated two-factor solutions on this scale and other scales measuring…

  11. Stress, Social Support, and Outcomes in Two Probability Samples of Homeless Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toro, Paul A.; Tulloch, Elizabeth; Ouellette, Nicole

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the main effects of social support measures and their stress-buffering effects in two samples of homeless adults (Ns =249 and 219) obtained in the same large county (surrounding Detroit) at different points in time over an 8-year period (1992-1994 and 2000-2002). The findings suggest that the construct of social support,…

  12. Physiological Indicators of Stress and Intellectual Performance among Anxious Older Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Kimberly S.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Older adults (n=27) concerned about declining cognitive functioning performed cognitive tasks, completed questionnaires, and were given measures of anxiety and physiological change. Negative correlations appeared between level of cortisol, a stress-related hormone, and self-efficacy on measures of fluid intelligence. Epstein-Barr virus levels were…

  13. Profiles of Reminiscence among Older Adults: Perceived Stress, Life Attitudes, and Personality Variables

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cappeliez, Philippe; O'Rourke, Norm

    2002-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to identify subgroups of older participants on the basis of unique configurations of variables among functions of reminiscence, personality traits, life attitudes, and perceived stress by means of cluster analysis. Ninety-three older adults (M = 66.7 years of age) completed the NEO-Five Factor Inventory, the Life…

  14. Outcome Benchmarks for Adaptations of Research-Supported Treatments for Adult Traumatic Stress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubin, Allen; Parrish, Danielle E.; Washburn, Micki

    2016-01-01

    This article provides benchmark data on within-group effect sizes from published randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that evaluated the efficacy of research-supported treatments (RSTs) for adult traumatic stress. Agencies can compare these benchmarks to their treatment group effect size to inform their decisions as to whether the way they are…

  15. Potentially Stressful Life Events and Emotional Closeness between Grandparents and Adult Grandchildren

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Suzanne; Liossis, Poppy

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore the variation in emotional closeness in the adult grandchild and grandparent relationship in relation to the occurrence of potentially stressful life events in childhood. A sample of university students (N = 119) completed a questionnaire measuring elements of intergenerational solidarity. Comparisons were…

  16. The Daily Heterosexist Experiences Questionnaire: Measuring Minority Stress Among Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Adults

    PubMed Central

    Balsam, Kimberly F.; Beadnell, Blair; Molina, Yamile

    2013-01-01

    The authors conducted a three-phase, mixed-methods study to develop a self-report measure assessing the unique aspects of minority stress for lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender adults. The Daily Heterosexist Experiences Questionnaire has 50 items and nine subscales with acceptable internal reliability, and construct and concurrent validity. Mean sexual orientation and gender differences were found. PMID:24058262

  17. The Impact of Stressful Life Events and Social Support on Drinking among Older Adults: A General Population Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jennison, Karen M.

    1992-01-01

    Analyzed stressful life events, buffering hypothesis, and alcohol use in 1,418 older adults. Results indicated that older adults who experienced stressful losses were significantly more likely to drink excessively than those who had not experienced such losses or who had experienced them to lesser extent. Supportive resources appeared to have…

  18. Brief Report: The Relationship between Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms and Overgeneral Autobiographical Memory in Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Sarah R.; Jobson, Laura A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and autobiographical memory specificity in older adults. Method: Older adult trauma survivors (N = 23) completed the Autobiographical Memory Test, Posttraumatic Stress Diagnostic Scale, and Addenbrooke's Cognitive…

  19. Comfort eating, psychological stress, and depressive symptoms in young adult women.

    PubMed

    Finch, Laura E; Tomiyama, A Janet

    2015-12-01

    Little is known about whether comfort eating actually functions to reduce psychological stress. In addition, the effectiveness of comfort eating may be particularly relevant in the context of depression, but no study has tested whether comfort eating processes might depend on severity of depressive symptomology. This study tested 1) whether greater comfort eating statistically buffers the relationship between adverse life events and perceived psychological stress at age 18-19, and 2) whether potential stress-buffering effects may differ by level of depressive symptoms. These relationships were examined in the NHLBI Growth and Health Study, comprising 2379 young adult women. Participants self-reported experiences with adverse life events, their perceived psychological stress, and whether they tended to eat more while experiencing certain negative emotions. As hypothesized, the relationship between adverse life events and perceived stress depended on comfort eating status (p = .033). The effect of adverse events on perceived stress was attenuated among comfort eaters compared to non-comfort eaters (p = .004), but this buffering effect was not shown in participants with an elevated level of depressive symptoms. In conclusion, among young adult women without high depressive symptoms, comfort eaters may experience reduced perceived stress compared to those who do not engage in this behavior. Intervention researchers should also consider the possible benefits of comfort eating. PMID:26192221

  20. Higher perceived stress but lower cortisol levels found among young Greek adults living in a stressful social environment in comparison with Swedish young adults.

    PubMed

    Faresjö, Åshild; Theodorsson, Elvar; Chatziarzenis, Marios; Sapouna, Vasiliki; Claesson, Hans-Peter; Koppner, Jenny; Faresjö, Tomas

    2013-01-01

    The worldwide financial crisis during recent years has raised concerns of negative public health effects. This is notably evident in southern Europe. In Greece, where the financial austerity has been especially pronounced, the prevalence of mental health problems including depression and suicide has increased, and outbreaks of infectious diseases have risen. The main objective in this study was to investigate whether different indicators of health and stress levels measured by a new biomarker based on cortisol in human hair were different amongst comparable Greek and Swedish young adults, considering that Sweden has been much less affected by the recent economic crises. In this cross-sectional comparative study, young adults from the city of Athens in Greece (n = 124) and from the city of Linkoping in Sweden (n = 112) participated. The data collection comprised answering a questionnaire with different health indicators and hair samples being analyzed for the stress hormone cortisol, a biomarker with the ability to retrospectively measure long-term cortisol exposure. The Greek young adults reported significantly higher perceived stress (p<0.0001), had experienced more serious life events (p = 0.002), had lower hope for the future (p<0.0001), and had significantly more widespread symptoms of depression (p<0.0001) and anxiety (p<0.0001) than the Swedes. But, the Greeks were found to have significantly lower cortisol levels (p<0.0001) than the Swedes, and this difference was still significant in a multivariate regression (p<0.0001), after adjustments for potential intervening variables. A variety of factors related to differences in the physical or socio-cultural environment between the two sites, might possibly explain this finding. However, a potential biological mechanism is that long-term stress exposure could lead to a lowering of the cortisol levels. This study points out a possible hypothesis that the cortisol levels of the Greek young adults might have been

  1. Stressful events and coping responses among older adults in two sociocultural groups.

    PubMed

    Chovan, M J; Chovan, W

    1985-05-01

    In this study of the way 32 men and women between the ages of 60 to 90 coped with stressful situations, two instruments were used: the Life Experiences Survey and the Ways of Coping Checklist. Overall, health-related concerns were more frequently reported by older adults than any other stressful event. When coping responses were categorized according to four modes--intrapsychic, inaction, direct action, and information seeking--the Appalachian group was found to use the information-seeking mode; the Cherokee group, the intrapsychic mode. Significant differences were found between males and females in coping modes and life-stress categories. When groups were combined, significant correlations were noted between life stress, particularly health-related stress, and the coping modes of intrapsychic and information seeking. PMID:4078770

  2. Gender-related differences in susceptibility to oxidative stress in healthy middle-aged Serbian adults.

    PubMed

    Topic, Aleksandra; Malic, Zivka; Francuski, Djordje; Stankovic, Marija; Markovic, Bojan; Soskic, Blagoje; Tomic, Branko; Ilic, Stefan; Dobrivojevic, Snezana; Drca, Sanja; Radojkovic, Dragica

    2016-03-01

    Gender-related differences in the association between polymorphism of xenobiotic-metabolising enzymes or non-genetic biomarkers and susceptibility to oxidative stress was assessed in healthy middle-aged Serbian adults, by urinary 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG/creatinine) and total antioxidant status in serum (TAOS). Females were more susceptible to oxidative stress. In both genders, positive predictor of the antioxidative protection was serum triglyceride, while BMI <25 kg/m(2) was associated with oxidative stress. Susceptibility to oxidative stress in males was associated with GSTT1*null allele and increased serum iron, but in females, it was decreased serum bilirubin. Early identification of the risk factors could be important in the prevention of oxidative stress-related diseases. PMID:26754535

  3. Environmental enrichment requires adult neurogenesis to facilitate the recovery from psychosocial stress

    PubMed Central

    Schloesser, R J; Lehmann, M; Martinowich, K; Manji, H K; Herkenham, M

    2010-01-01

    The subgranular zone of the adult hippocampal dentate gyrus contains a pool of neural stem cells that continuously divide and differentiate into functional granule cells. It has been shown that production of new hippocampal neurons is necessary for amelioration of stress-induced behavioral changes by antidepressants in animal models of depression. The survival of newly born hippocampal neurons is decreased by chronic psychosocial stress and increased by exposure to enriched environments. These observations suggest the existence of a link between hippocampal neurogenesis, stress-induced behavioral changes, and the beneficial effects of enriched environment. To show causality, we subjected transgenic mice with conditionally suppressed neurogenesis to psychosocial stress followed by environmental enrichment. First, we showed that repeated social defeat coupled with chronic exposure to an aggressor produces robust and quantifiable indices of submissive and depressive-like behaviors; second, subsequent exposure to an enriched environment led to extinction of the submissive phenotype, while animals exposed to an impoverished environment retained the submissive phenotype; and third, enrichment was not effective in reversing the submissive and depressive-like behaviors in transgenic mice lacking neurogenesis. Our data show two main findings. First, living in an enriched environment is highly effective in extinguishing submissive behavioral traits developed during chronic social stress, and second, these effects are critically dependent on adult neurogenesis, indicating that beneficial behavioral adaptations are dependent on intact adult neurogenesis. PMID:20308988

  4. Perceived Stress Is Differentially Related to Hippocampal Subfield Volumes among Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Zimmerman, Molly E.; Ezzati, Ali; Katz, Mindy J.; Lipton, Michael L.; Brickman, Adam M.; Sliwinski, Martin J.; Lipton, Richard B.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Chronic exposure to stress has been shown to impact a wide range of health-related outcomes in older adults. Despite extensive animal literature revealing deleterious effects of biological markers of stress on the dentate gyrus subfield of the hippocampus, links between hippocampal subfields and psychological stress have not been studied in humans. This study examined the relationship between perceived stress and hippocampal subfield volumes among racially/ethnically diverse older adults. Methods and Materials Between July 2011 and March 2014, 116 nondemented participants were consecutively drawn from the Einstein Aging Study, an ongoing community-based sample of individuals over the age of 70 residing in Bronx, New York. All participants completed the Perceived Stress Scale, Geriatric Depression Scale, and underwent 3.0 T MRI. FreeSurfer was used to derive total hippocampal volume, hippocampal subfield volumes (CA1, CA2/CA3, CA4/Dentate Gyrus (CA4/DG), and subiculum), entorhinal cortex volume, whole brain volume, and total intracranial volume. Results Linear regression analyses revealed that higher levels of perceived stress were associated with smaller total hippocampal volume (β = -0.20, t = -2.40, p = 0.02), smaller CA2/CA3 volumes (β = -0.18, t = -2.24, p = 0.03) and smaller CA4/DG volumes (β = -0.19, t = -2.28, p = 0.03) after controlling for total intracranial volume, age, gender, and race. These findings remained unchanged after removal of individuals with clinically significant symptoms of depression. Discussion Our findings provide evidence of a relationship between a direct indicator of psychological stress and specific hippocampal subfield volumes in elderly individuals. These results highlight the importance of clinical screening for chronic stress in otherwise healthy older adults. PMID:27144832

  5. Reinstatement of cocaine seeking induced by drugs, cues, and stress in adolescent and adult rats

    PubMed Central

    Carroll, Marilyn E.

    2010-01-01

    Rationale In human and animal studies, adolescence marks a period of increased vulnerability to the initiation and subsequent abuse of drugs. Adolescents may be especially vulnerable to relapse, and a critical aspect of drug abuse is that it is a chronically relapsing disorder. However, little is known of how vulnerability factors such as adolescence are related to conditions that induce relapse, triggered by the drug itself, drug-associated cues, or stress. Objective The purpose of this study was to compare adolescent and adult rats on drug-, cue-, and stress-induced reinstatement of cocaine-seeking behavior. Methods On postnatal days 23 (adolescents) and 90 (adults), rats were implanted with intravenous catheters and trained to lever press for i.v. infusions of cocaine (0.4 mg/kg) during two daily 2-h sessions. The rats then self-administered i.v. cocaine for ten additional sessions. Subsequently, visual and auditory stimuli that signaled drug delivery were unplugged, and rats were allowed to extinguish lever pressing for 20 sessions. Rats were then tested on cocaine-, cue-, and yohimbine (stress)-induced cocaine seeking using a within-subject multicomponent reinstatement procedure. Results Results indicated that adolescents had heightened cocaine seeking during maintenance and extinction compared to adults. During reinstatement, adolescents (vs adults) responded more following cocaine- and yohimbine injections, while adults (vs adolescents) showed greater responding following presentations of drug-associated cues. Conclusion These results demonstrated that adolescents and adults differed across several measures of drug-seeking behavior, and adolescents may be especially vulnerable to relapse precipitated by drugs and stress. PMID:19953228

  6. Bullying Victimization, Parenting Stress, and Anxiety among Adolescents and Young Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Jonathan A; Cappadocia, M Catherine; Tint, Ami; Pepler, Debra

    2015-12-01

    Bullying victimization is commonly associated with anxiety among individuals with and without Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), and both bullying victimization and anxiety are more prevalent among youth with ASD than in the general population. We explored individual and contextual factors that relate to anxiety in adolescents and young adults with ASD who also experience bullying victimization. Participants included 101 mothers of adolescents and young adults diagnosed with ASD. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses were conducted to investigate the relationship between bullying victimization and anxiety in children with ASD, as well as parenting stress as a potential moderator of that relationship. Findings indicate that parenting stress moderates the association between bullying victimization and anxiety. The severity of anxiety was most strongly associated with bullying victimization when mothers reported high levels of stress. Implications for interventions that assist parents with coping and address bullying victimization are discussed. PMID:25962561

  7. Husbandry stress exacerbates mycobacterial infections in adult zebrafish, Danio rerio (Hamilton)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ramsay, J.M.; Watral, V.; Schreck, C.B.; Kent, M.L.

    2009-01-01

    Mycobacteria are significant pathogens of laboratory zebrafish, Danio rerio (Hamilton). Stress is often implicated in clinical disease and morbidity associated with mycobacterial infections but has yet to be examined with zebrafish. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of husbandry stressors on zebrafish infected with mycobacteria. Adult zebrafish were exposed to Mycobacterium marinum or Mycobacterium chelonae, two species that have been associated with disease in zebrafish. Infected fish and controls were then subjected to chronic crowding and handling stressors and examined over an 8-week period. Whole-body cortisol was significantly elevated in stressed fish compared to non-stressed fish. Fish infected with M. marinum ATCC 927 and subjected to husbandry stressors had 14% cumulative mortality while no mortality occurred among infected fish not subjected to husbandry stressors. Stressed fish, infected with M. chelonae H1E2 from zebrafish, were 15-fold more likely to be infected than non-stressed fish at week 8 post-injection. Sub-acute, diffuse infections were more common among stressed fish infected with M. marinum or M. chelonae than non-stressed fish. This is the first study to demonstrate an effect of stress and elevated cortisol on the morbidity, prevalence, clinical disease and histological presentation associated with mycobacterial infections in zebrafish. Minimizing husbandry stress may be effective at reducing the severity of outbreaks of clinical mycobacteriosis in zebrafish facilities. ?? 2009 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  8. Childhood maltreatment, stressful life events, and alcohol craving in adult drinkers

    PubMed Central

    Kim, June H.; Martins, Silvia S.; Shmulewitz, Dvora; Santaella, Julian; Wall, Melanie M.; Keyes, Katherine M.; Eaton, Nicholas R.; Krueger, Robert; Grant, Bridget F.; Hasin, Deborah S.

    2014-01-01

    Background Little is known about the relationship of stressful life events and alcohol craving in the general population, and whether a history of childhood maltreatment sensitizes individuals to crave alcohol after adult stressors. Methods Participants were 22,147 past-year drinkers from Wave 2 (2004-2006) of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. A structured, face-to-face interview assessed past-year stressful life events, alcohol craving, and history of childhood maltreatment. Logistic regression was used to generate adjusted odds ratios (aOR) to evaluate the relationship between stressful life events and craving, adjusting for demographic characteristics and parental history of alcoholism. Interaction between stressful life events and childhood maltreatment was also assessed. Results Compared to participants with no stressful life events, those with ≥3 events had increased odds of moderate alcohol craving (aOR=3.15 [95% CI=2.30-4.33]) and severe craving (aOR=8.47 [95% CI=4.78-15.01]). Stressful life events and childhood maltreatment interacted in predicting severe craving (p=0.017); those with ≥3 events were at higher risk for craving if they had been exposed to childhood maltreatment. Conclusion A direct relationship between stressful life events and risk for alcohol craving was observed. Further, history of childhood maltreatment increased the salience of stressful life events in adulthood. Future studies should examine the role of psychiatric comorbidity in more complex models of stress sensitization and alcohol craving. PMID:24961735

  9. Perceived Injustice Predicts Stress and Pain in Adults with Sickle Cell Disease

    PubMed Central

    Molokie, Robert E.; Wilkie, Diana J.; Suarez, Marie L.; Yao, Yingwei

    2014-01-01

    Background Research evidence shows that perceived injustice is a context-based unfair treatment that has negative influence on health outcomes. Aims We examined the contribution of patients’ perceived injustice regarding interactions with healthcare providers to stress and pain in adults with sickle cell disease (SCD). Design This study was a cross-sectional correlational pilot study. Setting Included in the study were adults with SCD who received their care from a university-affiliated Comprehensive Sickle Cell Clinic. Participants/Subjects Participants were 52 adults whose mean age was 34 ±11 years (minimum [min] 20 years, maximum [max] 70 years). Most of the patients were African Americans (n = 48, 92%) and female (n = 41, 79%). Forty-eight patients (92%) reported having a high school diploma or higher. Methods Participants completed the perceived injustice questionnaire, perceived stress questionnaire, and the PAINReportIt, which includes questions to measure pain and demographics. We analyzed the data using the linear regression analyses. Results Perceived injustice from doctors was a significant predictor of perceived stress, p<.001 and pain, p=.002. Perceived injustice from nurses also was a significant predictor of perceived stress, p<.001 and pain, p=.02. The procedural, distributive, and informational domains of perceived injustice attributed to both doctors and nurses consistently predicted patients’ perceived stress, but only the procedural and distributive domains of perceived injustice consistently predicted patients’ pain. Conclusions Findings suggest that perceived injustice was negatively associated with stress and pain in adults with SCD and warrant further investigation in a larger sample. PMID:25439119

  10. Trauma, stress, health, and mental health issues among ethnically diverse older adult prisoners.

    PubMed

    Haugebrook, Sabrina; Zgoba, Kristen M; Maschi, Tina; Morgen, Keith; Brown, Derek

    2010-07-01

    The United States' older adult prison population is growing rapidly. This study identifies and describes important psychosocial characteristics, particularly trauma, life-event stressors, health, mental health, and substance abuse, among older adults in prison. Data were collected using case record reviews of 114 prisoners aged 55 or older in the New Jersey Department of Corrections. Findings revealed that the study participants are a diverse group with varied psychosocial issues and needs, including trauma and stress histories, substance use, and health and mental health issues. Most had childhood or adult trauma, such as physical or sexual abuse. Family problems were common in childhood and adulthood. Understanding the problems and needs of older adult prisoners may help improve practice, promote advocacy, and prompt research that can enhance the quality of life of this population. PMID:20472867

  11. Dietary Iron Concentration May Influence Aging Process by Altering Oxidative Stress in Tissues of Adult Rats

    PubMed Central

    Arruda, Lorena Fernandes; Arruda, Sandra Fernandes; Campos, Natália Aboudib; de Valencia, Fernando Fortes; Siqueira, Egle Machado de Almeida

    2013-01-01

    Iron is an essential element. However, in its free form, iron participates in redox-reactions, leading to the production of free radicals that increase oxidative stress and the risk of damaging processes. Living organisms have an efficient mechanism that regulates iron absorption according to their iron content to protect against oxidative damage. The effects of restricted and enriched-iron diets on oxidative stress and aging biomarkers were investigated. Adult Wistar rats were fed diets containing 10, 35 or 350 mg/kg iron (adult restricted-iron, adult control-iron and adult enriched-iron groups, respectively) for 78 days. Rats aged two months were included as a young control group. Young control group showed higher hemoglobin and hematocrit values, lower levels of iron and lower levels of MDA or carbonyl in the major studied tissues than the adult control group. Restricted-iron diet reduced iron concentrations in skeletal muscle and oxidative damage in the majority of tissues and also increased weight loss. Enriched-iron diet increased hematocrit values, serum iron, gamma-glutamyl transferase, iron concentrations and oxidative stress in the majority of tissues. As expected, young rats showed higher mRNA levels of heart and hepatic L-Ferritin (Ftl) and kidneys SMP30 as well as lower mRNA levels of hepatic Hamp and interleukin-1 beta (Il1b) and also lower levels of liver protein ferritin. Restricted-iron adult rats showed an increase in heart Ftl mRNA and the enriched-iron adult rats showed an increase in liver nuclear factor erythroid derived 2 like 2 (Nfe2l2) and Il1b mRNAs and in gut divalent metal transporter-1 mRNA (Slc11a2) relative to the control adult group. These results suggest that iron supplementation in adult rats may accelerate aging process by increasing oxidative stress while iron restriction may retards it. However, iron restriction may also impair other physiological processes that are not associated with aging. PMID:23593390

  12. Comparison of Femoral Neck Stress Fractures in Pediatric versus Young Adult Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Heyworth, Benton E.; Quinn, Bridget; Ehrlichman, Lauren; Bixby, Sarah; Ackerman, Kathryn; Yen, Yi-Meng; Boyle, Matthew John; Kim, Young-Jo; Millis, Michael B.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To compare the demographics, metabolic bone health, radiologic features, treatment approaches and recurrence rates of pediatric versus young adult athletes with femoral neck stress fractures. Methods: A retrospective review was performed on all patients <45 years-old who were diagnosed with a femoral neck stress fracture at a single tertiary-care referral center from 2003-2015. Patients who had undergone previous hip surgery or had primary bone disorders/lesions were excluded. Variables analyzed included demographics, presenting symptoms, metabolic bone health (laboratory results, Dexa scores, menstrual history, eating disorder history), imaging, treatment approach and clinical course. Results: Forty-nine patients (mean age 21.4 years, range 5-44, 78% females) met study inclusion criteria, including 28 pediatric patients (mean age 14.4 years, range 5-19 years, 71% females) and 21 young adults (mean age 30.8 years, range 20-44 years, 86% females). A higher percentage of females was seen with each increasing decade of age, with 50% of pediatric patients under 11 years-old being male. Mean BMI was lower (p=0.04) in the pediatric group (20.6 kg/m2 +/-3.42) than the adult group (21.8 kg/m2 +/-2.04). Pain was the presenting complaint in all patients, with pain localized to the groin in 80% of cases. Participation in running sports was higher for the young adult cohort (86%) than the pediatric cohort (50%), while multiple sports were played more by pediatric patients (29%) than young adults (5%). History of previous acute fractures (2%) and previous stress fractures (14%) was identical between groups. Delayed menarche was recorded in 6% of pediatric patients, and menstrual irregularity was reported in 29% and 33% of pediatric and adult females, respectively. The base of the femoral neck was most common location for fracture in both pediatric (67%) and adult (81%) groups, while transcervical fractures were more likely to occur in pediatric (29%) than adult

  13. Effect of High Glucose on Stress-Induced Senescence of Nucleus Pulposus Cells of Adult Rats

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Jae-Gwan; Lee, Donghwan; Park, Eun-Young

    2015-01-01

    Study Design In vitro cell culture model. Purpose We investigated the effect of diabetes mellitus (DM) on senescence of adult nucleus pulposus (NP) cells. Overview of Literature DM is a major public health issue worldwide, especially adult-onset (type 2) DM. DM is also thought to be an important etiological factor in disc degeneration. Hyperglycemia is considered to be a major causative factor in the development of DM-associated diseases through senescence. However, little is known about the effects of DM on senescence in adult NP cells. Methods Adult NP cells were isolated from 24-week-old rats, cultured, and placed in either 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS, normal control) and 10% FBS plus two different high glucose concentrations (0.1 M or 0.2 M; experimental conditions) for 1 or 3 days. We identified and quantified the occurrence of senescence in adult rat NP cells using senescence-associated-beta-galactosidase (SA-β-Gal) staining. We also investigated the expression of proteins related to the replicative senescence (p53-p21-pRB) and stress-induced premature senescence (p16-pRB) pathways. Results The mean SA-β-Gal-positive percentage was increased in adult rat NP cells treated with high glucose in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Both high glucose levels increased the expression of p16 and pRB proteins in adult rat NP cells. However, the levels of p53 and p21 proteins were decreased in adult rat NP cells treated with both high glucose concentrations. Conclusions The current study demonstrated that high glucose accelerated stress-induced senescence in adult rat NP cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Accelerated stress-induced senescence in adult NP cells could be an emerging risk factor for intervertebral disc degeneration in older patients with DM. These results suggest that strict blood glucose control is important in prevent or delaying intervertebral disc degeneration in older patients with DM. PMID:25901224

  14. Repeated restraint stress alters sensitivity to the social consequences of ethanol in adolescent and adult rats

    PubMed Central

    Varlinskaya, Elena I.; Doremus-Fitzwater, Tamara L.; Spear, Linda P.

    2010-01-01

    Human adolescents consume alcohol largely to enhance social interactions. Adolescent, but not adult rats likewise exhibit ethanol-induced social facilitation under low-stress circumstances. Since the relationship between stress and ethanol sensitivity across ontogeny still has yet to be well explored, the present study sought to characterize possible age-associated differences in the influence of stressor exposure on ethanol-induced changes in social behavior in adolescent [postnatal days (P) 30–36] and adult (P65-71) male and female Sprague-Dawley rats. Animals were repeatedly restrained (90 min/day) for 5 days, followed by examination of ethanol-induced (0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, or 1.0 g/kg) alterations in social behaviors on the last day. Results revealed typical age-related differences in sensitivity to ethanol among controls, with adolescents being uniquely sensitive to low-dose ethanol stimulation of social investigation and play fighting, but less sensitive than adults to the social suppression emerging at higher doses. At both ages, stressor exposure decreased sensitivity to social inhibitory effects of ethanol, while augmenting expression of ethanol’s social facilitatory effects. Ethanol also attenuated the stress-related suppression of social motivation at both ages. These results suggest that repeated stressor exposure diminishes age-related differences in the social consequences of ethanol, with stress enhancing ethanol-induced social facilitation across age. PMID:20478326

  15. Cortisol reactivity to experimentally manipulated psychosocial stress in young adults at varied risk for depression.

    PubMed

    Morris, Matthew C; Rao, Uma; Wang, Lily; Garber, Judy

    2014-01-01

    This study examined cortisol and affective reactivity to a psychosocial stress task in 102 young adults who varied in risk for depression (56 remitted depressed, 46 never depressed). Participants were randomly assigned to either a stress (i.e., social-evaluative threat) or control (i.e., no social-evaluative threat) condition. For never-depressed individuals, cortisol responses were significantly greater in the stress compared to the control condition. Moreover, cortisol responses were significantly greater for never-depressed than remitted-depressed individuals in the stress condition. For individuals with a history of depression, cortisol responses did not differ significantly between the stress and control conditions. Negative affective reactivity also was higher for never depressed, but not remitted depressed, individuals in the stress compared to the control condition. Moreover, cortisol responses were inversely related to negative affect during the recovery phase in both stress and control conditions. Findings indicate the lack of a robust cortisol response to social evaluation stress among remitted-depressed individuals as compared to that of never-depressed controls. Future studies should investigate unique and interactive links between these hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal and affective reactivity alterations and risk for subsequent depressive episodes. PMID:23606237

  16. A cascade model connecting life stress to risk behavior among rural African American emerging adults.

    PubMed

    Brody, Gene H; Chen, Yi-Fu; Kogan, Steven M

    2010-08-01

    A three-wave cascade model linking life stress to increases in risk behavior was tested with 347 African American emerging adults living in the rural South. Data analyses using structural equation modeling and latent growth curve modeling demonstrated that life stress was linked to increases in risk behavior as African Americans transitioned out of secondary school. The cascade model indicated that life stress fostered increases in negative emotions. Negative emotions, in turn, were linked to increases in affiliations with deviant peers and romantic partners; this forecast increases in risk behavior. The findings supported a stress proliferation framework, in which primary stressors affect increases in secondary stressors that carry forward to influence changes in risk behaviors that can potentially compromise mental health. PMID:20576186

  17. Specific traumatic events during childhood as risk factors for posttraumatic stress disorder development in adults.

    PubMed

    Schoedl, Aline F; Costa, Mariana P; Fossaluza, Victor; Mari, Jair J; Mello, Marcelo F

    2014-07-01

    To evaluate differences in early life events (ELE) on adult victims of severe interpersonal violence among patients who developed posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and control group. Adult victims of interpersonal violence were evaluated to diagnose the presence of PTSD and ELE. 308 subjects were included, 141 in patient's group (PTSD+) and 167 in control group (PSTD-). PTSD+ group had more severe PTSD, depressive symptoms and higher ETI scores than PTSD- group. Patients in PTSD+ group had a more frequent history of ELE. Some ELE were more significant for the development of this predisposition. PMID:23520354

  18. Differential Effects of Controllable Stress Exposure on Subsequent Extinction Learning in Adult Rats

    PubMed Central

    Hadad-Ophir, Osnat; Brande-Eilat, Noa; Richter-Levin, Gal

    2016-01-01

    Deficits in fear extinction are thought to be related to various anxiety disorders. While failure to extinguish conditioned fear may result in pathological anxiety levels, the ability to quickly and efficiently attenuate learned fear through extinction processes can be extremely beneficial for the individual. One of the factors that may affect the efficiency of the extinction process is prior experience of stressful situations. In the current study, we examined whether exposure to controllable stress, which is suggested to induce stress resilience, can affect subsequent fear extinction. Here, following prolonged two-way shuttle (TWS) avoidance training and a validation of acquired stress controllability, adult rats underwent either cued or contextual fear-conditioning (FC), followed by an extinction session. We further evaluated long lasting alterations of GABAergic targets in the medial pre-frontal cortex (mPFC), as these were implicated in FC and extinction and stress controllability. In cued, but not in contextual fear extinction, within-session extinction was enhanced following controllable stress compared to a control group. Interestingly, impaired extinction recall was detected in both extinction types following the stress procedure. Additionally, stress controllability-dependent alterations in GABAergic markers expression in infralimbic (IL), but not prelimbic (PL) cortex, were detected. These alterations are proposed to be related to the within-session effect, but not the recall impairment. The results emphasize the contribution of prior experience on coping with subsequent stressful experiences. Moreover, the results emphasize that exposure to controllable stress does not generally facilitate future stress coping as previously claimed, but its effects are dependent on specific features of the events taking place. PMID:26793083

  19. Urinary bladder hypersensitivity and dysfunction in female mice following early life and adult stress.

    PubMed

    Pierce, Angela N; Di Silvestro, Elizabeth R; Eller, Olivia C; Wang, Ruipeng; Ryals, Janelle M; Christianson, Julie A

    2016-05-15

    Early adverse events have been shown to increase the incidence of interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome in adulthood. Despite high clinical relevance and reports of stress-related symptom exacerbation, animal models investigating the contribution of early life stress to female urological pain are lacking. We examined the impact of neonatal maternal separation (NMS) on bladder sensitivity and visceral neuroimmune status both prior-to, and following, water avoidance stress (WAS) in adult female mice. The visceromotor response to urinary bladder distension was increased at baseline and 8d post-WAS in NMS mice, while colorectal sensitivity was transiently increased 1d post-WAS only in naïve mice. Bladder micturition rate and output, but not fecal output, were also significantly increased following WAS in NMS mice. Changes in gene expression involved in regulating the stress response system were observed at baseline and following WAS in NMS mice, and WAS reduced serum corticosterone levels. Cytokine and growth factor mRNA levels in the bladder, and to a lesser extent in the colon, were significantly impacted by NMS and WAS. Peripheral mRNA levels of stress-responsive receptors were differentially influenced by early life and adult stress in bladder, but not colon, of naïve and NMS mice. Histological evidence of mast cell degranulation was increased in NMS bladder, while protein levels of protease activated receptor 2 (PAR2) and transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) were increased by WAS. Together, this study provides new insight into mechanisms contributing to stress associated symptom onset or exacerbation in patients exposed to early life stress. PMID:26940840

  20. The interaction between child maltreatment, adult stressful life events and the 5-HTTLPR in major depression.

    PubMed

    Power, Robert A; Lecky-Thompson, Lucy; Fisher, Helen L; Cohen-Woods, Sarah; Hosang, Georgina M; Uher, Rudolf; Powell-Smith, Georgia; Keers, Robert; Tropeano, Maria; Korszun, Ania; Jones, Lisa; Jones, Ian; Owen, Michael J; Craddock, Nick; Craig, Ian W; Farmer, Anne E; McGuffin, Peter

    2013-08-01

    Both childhood maltreatment and adult stressful life events are established risk factors for the onset of depression in adulthood. However, the interaction between them can be viewed through two conflicting frameworks. Under a mismatch hypothesis stressful childhoods allow 'adaptive programming' for a stressful adulthood and so can be protective. Only when childhood and adulthood do not match is there a risk of behavioural problems. Alternatively, under the cumulative stress hypothesis we expect increased risk with each additional stressor. It has also been suggested that an individual's genetic background may determine the extent they undergo adaptive programming, and so which of these two hypotheses is relevant. In this study we test for an interaction between exposure to childhood maltreatment and adult stressful life events in a retrospective sample of 455 individuals, using major depression as the outcome. We also test whether this interaction differs by genotype at the 5-HTTLPR, a candidate for an individual's plasticity to adaptive programming. Early maltreatment and stressful life events in adulthood interacted to produce increased risk for depression over each individually (p = 0.055). This supports the cumulative stress hypothesis over the mismatch hypothesis, at least with respect to severe environmental risk factors. This effect was not altered by 5-HTTLPR allele, suggesting there was no difference by genotype in adaptive programming to these events. We suggest that the apparent additional vulnerability to stressful events of those who have experienced maltreatment has clinical relevance, highlighting the importance of providing support beyond the immediate aftermath of maltreatment into adulthood. PMID:23618376

  1. Early life stress affects cerebral glucose metabolism in adult rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Parr, Lisa A; Boudreau, Matthew; Hecht, Erin; Winslow, James T; Nemeroff, Charles B; Sánchez, Mar M

    2012-01-01

    Early life stress (ELS) is a risk factor for anxiety, mood disorders and alterations in stress responses. Less is known about the long-term neurobiological impact of ELS. We used [(18)F]-fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography (FDG-PET) to assess neural responses to a moderate stress test in adult monkeys that experienced ELS as infants. Both groups of monkeys showed hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis stress-induced activations and cardiac arousal in response to the stressor. A whole brain analysis detected significantly greater regional cerebral glucose metabolism (rCGM) in superior temporal sulcus, putamen, thalamus, and inferotemporal cortex of ELS animals compared to controls. Region of interest (ROI) analyses performed in areas identified as vulnerable to ELS showed greater activity in the orbitofrontal cortex of ELS compared to control monkeys, but greater hippocampal activity in the control compared to ELS monkeys. Together, these results suggest hyperactivity in emotional and sensory processing regions of adult monkeys with ELS, and greater activity in stress-regulatory areas in the controls. Despite these neural responses, no group differences were detected in neuroendocrine, autonomic or behavioral responses, except for a trend towards increased stillness in the ELS monkeys. Together, these data suggest hypervigilance in the ELS monkeys in the absence of immediate danger. PMID:22682736

  2. Early life stress is associated with anxiety, increased stress responsivity and preference for "comfort foods" in adult female rats.

    PubMed

    Machado, Tania Diniz; Dalle Molle, Roberta; Laureano, Daniela Pereira; Portella, André Krumel; Werlang, Isabel Cristina Ribas; Benetti, Carla da Silva; Noschang, Cristie; Silveira, Patrícia Pelufo

    2013-09-01

    Chronic stress increases anxiety and encourages intake of palatable foods as "comfort foods". This effect seems to be mediated by altered function of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. In the current study, litters of Wistar rats were subjected to limited access to nesting material (Early-Life Stress group - ELS) or standard care (Control group) from postnatal day 2 to 9. In adult life, anxiety was assessed using the novelty-suppressed feeding test (NSFT), and acute stress responsivity by measurement of plasma corticosterone and ACTH levels. Preference for palatable foods was monitored by a computerized system (BioDAQ, Research Diets(®)) in rats receiving only regular chow or given the choice of regular and palatable diet for 30 days. ELS-augmented adulthood anxiety in the NSFT (increased latency to eat in a new environment; decreased chow intake upon return to the home cage) and increased corticosterone (but not ACTH) secretion in response to stress. Despite being lighter and consuming less rat chow, ELS animals ate more palatable foods during chronic exposure compared with controls. During preference testing, controls receiving long-term access to palatable diet exhibited reduced preference for the diet relative to controls exposed to regular chow only, whereas ELS rats demonstrated no such reduction in preference after prolonged palatable diet exposure. The increased preference for palatable foods showed by ELS animals may result from a habit of using this type of food to ameliorate anxiety. PMID:23781957

  3. Genetic and Environmental Influences on Adult Mental Health: Evidence for Gene-Environment Interplay as a Function of Maternal and Paternal Discipline and Affection.

    PubMed

    South, Susan C; Jarnecke, Amber M

    2015-07-01

    Researchers have long theorized that genetic influence on mental health may differ as a function of environmental risk factors. One likely moderator of genetic and environmental influences on psychopathological symptoms is parenting behavior, as phenotypic research shows that negative aspects of parent-child relationships are associated with greater likelihood of mental illness in adulthood. The current study examined whether levels of reported parental discipline and affection experienced in childhood act as a trigger, or buffer, for adult mental health problems. Results from a nationwide twin sample suggest level of father's discipline and affection, as reported by now-adult twins, moderated genetic and environmental influences on internalizing symptoms in adulthood, such that heritability was greatest at the highest levels of discipline and affection. Father's affection also moderated the etiological influences on alcohol use problems, with greater heritability at the lowest levels of affection. No moderating effect was found for mothers. Findings suggest relationships with fathers in childhood can have long-lasting effects on the etiological influences on adult mental health outcomes. PMID:25842345

  4. Inborn stress reactivity shapes adult behavioral consequences of early-life maternal separation stress.

    PubMed

    Rana, Samir; Pugh, Phyllis C; Jackson, Nateka; Clinton, Sarah M; Kerman, Ilan A

    2015-01-01

    Early-life experience strongly impacts neurodevelopment and stress susceptibility in adulthood. Maternal separation (MS), an established model of early-life adversity, has been shown to negatively impact behavioral and endocrine responses to stress in adulthood. However, the impact of MS in rats with heightened inborn stress susceptibility has not been fully explored. To address this issue we conducted MS in Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats, an animal model of comorbid depression and anxiety, and Wistar rats, which share a similar genetic background with WKYs. WKY and Wistar pups experienced either 180-min daily MS or 15-min separation (neonatal handling) during the first two postnatal weeks, and were tested for depressive- and anxiety- like behaviors in adulthood. Exposure to early-life MS in WKY rats decreased anxiety- and depressive- like behaviors, leading to increased exploration on the open field test (OFT), enhanced social interaction, and diminished immobility on the forced swim test. MS had an opposite effect in Wistar offspring, leading to enhanced anxiety-like behaviors, such as reduced OFT exploration and decreased social interaction. These findings are consistent with the match/mismatch theory of disease and the predictive adaptive response, which suggests that early life stress exposure can confer adaptive value in later life within certain individuals. Our data supports this theory, showing that early-life MS has positive and perhaps adaptive effects within stress-vulnerable WKY offspring. Future studies will be required to elucidate the neurobiological underpinnings of contrasting behavioral effects of MS on WKY vs. Wistar offspring. PMID:25451726

  5. Inborn Stress Reactivity Shapes Adult Behavioral Consequences of Early-Life Maternal Separation Stress

    PubMed Central

    Rana, Samir; Pugh, Phyllis C.; Jackson, Nateka; Clinton, Sarah M.; Kerman, Ilan A.

    2015-01-01

    Early-life experience strongly impacts neurodevelopment and stress susceptibility in adulthood. Maternal separation (MS), an established model of early-life adversity, has been shown to negatively impact behavioral and endocrine responses to stress in adulthood. However, the impact of MS in rats with heightened inborn stress susceptibility has not been fully explored. To address this issue we conducted MS in Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats, an animal model of comorbid depression and anxiety, and Wistar rats, which share a similar genetic background with WKYs. WKY and Wistar pups experienced either 180-min daily MS or 15-min separation (neonatal handling) during the first two postnatal weeks, and were tested for depressive- and anxiety- like behaviors in adulthood. Exposure to early-life MS in WKY rats decreased anxiety- and depressive- like behaviors, leading to increased exploration on the open field test (OFT), enhanced social interaction, and diminished immobility on the forced swim test. MS had an opposite effect in Wistar offspring, leading to enhanced anxiety-like behaviors, such as reduced OFT exploration and decreased social interaction. These findings are consistent with the match/mismatch theory of disease and the predictive adaptive response, which suggest that early life stress exposure can confer adaptive value in later life within certain individuals. Our data supports this theory, showing that early-life MS has positive and perhaps adaptive effects within stress-vulnerable WKY offspring. Future studies will be required to elucidate the neurobiological underpinnings of contrasting behavioral effects of MS on WKY vs. Wistar offspring. PMID:25451726

  6. Psychosocial stress and changes in estimated glomerular filtration rate among adults with diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Annor, Francis B.; Masyn, Katherine E.; Okosun, Ike S.; Roblin, Douglas W.; Goodman, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Background Psychosocial stress has been hypothesized to impact renal changes, but this hypothesis has not been adequately tested. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between psychosocial stress and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and to examine other predictors of eGFR changes among persons with diabetes mellitus (DM). Methods Data from a survey conducted in 2005 by a major health maintenance organization located in the southeastern part of the United States, linked to patients’ clinical and pharmacy records (n=575) from 2005 to 2008, was used. Study participants were working adults aged 25–59 years, diagnosed with DM but without advanced microvascular or macrovascular complications. eGFR was estimated using the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease equation. A latent psychosocial stress variable was created from five psychosocial stress subscales. Using a growth factor model in a structural equation framework, we estimated the association between psychosocial stress and eGFR while controlling for important covariates. Results The psychosocial stress variable was not directly associated with eGFR in the final model. Factors found to be associated with changes in eGFR were age, race, insulin use, and mean arterial pressure. Conclusion Among fairly healthy DM patients, we did not find any evidence of a direct association between psychosocial stress and eGFR changes after controlling for important covariates. Predictors of eGFR change in our population included age, race, insulin use, and mean arterial pressure. PMID:26484039

  7. Posttraumatic stress symptoms among adults caring for orphaned children in HIV-endemic South Africa.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Caroline; Reddy, Madhavi K; Operario, Don; Cluver, Lucie; Stein, Dan J

    2013-06-01

    There is growing evidence that mental health is a significant issue among families affected by AIDS-related parental deaths. The current study examined posttraumatic stress symptoms and identified risk factors among adults caring for AIDS-orphaned and other-orphaned children in an HIV-endemic South African community. A representative community sample of adults caring for children (N = 1,599) was recruited from Umlazi Township. Of the 116 participants who reported that a traumatic event was still bothering them, 19 % reported clinically significant posttraumatic stress symptoms. Of the 116 participants, caregivers of AIDS-orphaned and other-orphaned children were significantly more likely to meet threshold criteria for PTSD (28 %) compared to caregivers of non-orphaned children (10 %). Household receipt of an old age pension was identified as a possible protective factor for PTSD symptoms among caregivers of orphaned children. Services are needed to address PTSD symptoms among caregivers of orphaned children. PMID:23539187

  8. Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms among Adults Caring for Orphaned Children in HIV-endemic South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Kuo, Caroline; Reddy, Madhavi K.; Operario, Don; Cluver, Lucie; Stein, Dan J.

    2013-01-01

    There is growing evidence that mental health is a significant issue among families affected by AIDS-related parental deaths. The current study examined posttraumatic stress symptoms and identified risk factors among adults caring for AIDS-orphaned and other-orphaned children in an HIV-endemic South African community. A representative community sample of adults caring for children (N = 1,599) was recruited from Umlazi Township. Of the 116 participants who reported that a traumatic event was still bothering them, 19% reported clinically significant posttraumatic stress symptoms. Of the 116 participants, caregivers of AIDS-orphaned and other-orphaned children were significantly more likely to meet threshold criteria for PTSD (28%) compared to caregivers of non-orphaned children (10%). Household receipt of an old age pension was identified as a possible protective factor for PTSD symptoms among caregivers of orphaned children. Services are needed to address PTSD symptoms among caregivers of orphaned children. PMID:23539187

  9. Perceived Stress and Change in Cognitive Function Among Adults Aged 65 and Older

    PubMed Central

    Aggarwal, Neelum T.; Wilson, Robert S.; Beck, Todd L.; Rajan, Kumar B.; Mendes de Leon, Carlos F.; Evans, Denis A.; Everson-Rose, Susan A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Exposure to acute and chronic stress can affect learning and memory but most evidence comes from animal studies or clinical observations. Almost no population-based studies have investigated the relation of stress to cognition or changes in cognition over time. We examined whether higher levels of perceived stress were associated with accelerated decline in cognitive function in older blacks and whites from a community-based population sample. Methods Participants included 6,207 black and white adults (65.7% black, 63.3% women) from the Chicago Health and Aging project. Two to five in-home assessments were completed over an average of 6.8 years of follow up, and included sociodemographics, health behaviors, psychosocial measures, cognitive function tests, and health history. Perceived stress was measured by a 6-item scale, and a composite measure of four tests of cognition was used to determine cognitive function at each assessment. Results Mixed effects regression models showed that increasing levels of perceived stress were related to lower initial cognitive scores (B=-0.0379, SE=0.0025, p<.001) and a faster rate of cognitive decline (stress × time interaction: B=-0.0015, SE=0.0004, p<.001). Results were similar after adjusting for demographic variables, smoking, systolic blood pressure, body mass index, chronic medical conditions, and psychosocial factors and did not vary by race, sex, age or education. Conclusion Increasing levels of stress are independently associated with accelerated declines in cognitive function in black and white adults aged 65 and above. PMID:24367123

  10. Neuropsychological functioning in posttraumatic stress disorder following forced displacement in older adults and their offspring.

    PubMed

    Jelinek, Lena; Wittekind, Charlotte E; Moritz, Steffen; Kellner, Michael; Muhtz, Christoph

    2013-12-15

    The aim of the present study was to investigate neuropsychological performance in an untried trauma sample of older adults displaced during childhood at the end of World War II (WWII) with and without posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) as well as transgenerational effects of trauma and PTSD on their offspring. Displaced older adults with (n=20) and without PTSD (n=24) and nondisplaced healthy individuals (n=11) as well as one of their respective offspring were assessed with a large battery of cognitive tests (primarily targeting memory functioning). No evidence for deficits in neuropsychological performance was found in the aging group of displaced people with PTSD. Moreover, no group difference emerged in the offspring groups. Findings may be interpreted as first evidence for a rather resilient PTSD group of older adults that is available for assessment 60 years after displacement. PMID:23896354

  11. Low Nourishment of Vitamin C Induces Glutathione Depletion and Oxidative Stress in Healthy Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Waly, Mostafa I; Al-Attabi, Zahir; Guizani, Nejib

    2015-09-01

    The present study was conducted to assess the status of vitamin C among healthy young adults in relation to serum antioxidant parameters [glutathione (GSH), thiols, and total antioxidant capacity, (TAC)], and oxidative stress markers [malondialdehyde (MDA), and nitrites plus nitrates (NN)]. A prospective study included 200 young adults, and their dietary intake was assessed by using food diaries. Fasting plasma vitamin C, serum levels of GSH, thiols, TAC, MDA, and NN were measured using biochemical assays. It was observed that 38% of the enrolled subjects, n=76, had an adequate dietary intake of vitamin C (ADI group). Meanwhile, 62%, n=124, had a low dietary intake of vitamin C (LDI group) as compared to the recommended dietary allowances. The fasting plasma level of vitamin C was significantly higher in the ADI group as compared to the LDI group. Oxidative stress in the sera of the LDI group was evidenced by depletion of GSH, low thiols levels, impairment of TAC, an elevation of MDA, and increased NN. In the ADI group, positive correlations were found between plasma vitamin C and serum antioxidant parameters (GSH, thiols, and TAC). Meanwhile, the plasma vitamin C was negatively correlated with serum MDA and NN levels. This study reveals a significant increase of oxidative stress status and reduced antioxidant capacity in sera from healthy young adults with low intake of the dietary antioxidant, vitamin C. PMID:26451357

  12. Self injurious behavior among homeless young adults: a social stress analysis.

    PubMed

    Tyler, Kimberly; Melander, Lisa; Almazan, Elbert

    2010-01-01

    Although self-mutilation has been studied from medical and individual perspectives, it has rarely been examined within a social stress context. As such, we use a social stress framework to examine risk factors for self-mutilation to determine whether status strains that are often associated with poorer health outcomes in the general population are also associated with self-mutilation among a sample of young adults in the United States who have a history of homelessness. Data are drawn from the Homeless Young Adult Project which involved interviews with 199 young adults in 3 Midwestern United States cities. The results of our path analyses revealed that numerous stressors including running away, substance use, sexual victimization, and illegal subsistence strategies were associated with more self-mutilation. In addition, we found that certain social statuses exacerbate the risk for self-mutilation beyond the respondents' current situation of homelessness. We discuss the implications of our findings for the social stress framework and offer suggestions for studying this unique population within this context. PMID:19879026

  13. Acculturative stress, perceived discrimination, and vulnerability to suicide attempts among emerging adults.

    PubMed

    Gomez, Judelysse; Miranda, Regina; Polanco, Lillian

    2011-11-01

    Cultural factors are often neglected in studies of suicidal behavior among emerging adults. The present study examined acculturative stress and perceived discrimination as statistical predictors of a suicide attempt history among an ethnically diverse sample of 969 emerging adults, ages 18-25 (M = 18.8). Females made up 68% of the sample, and the racial/ethnic composition included Asian, Latino, Black, and White (US-born and non-US-born) individuals. There were no statistically significant racial/ethnic differences in endorsement of a suicide attempt history, with an overall rate of 8% in the sample. Asian participants reported higher acculturative stress than all other racial/ethnic groups, while both Asian and Black participants reported having experienced more discrimination in the previous year, compared to other groups. Logistic regression analyses suggested that familial acculturative stress was associated with 2 times higher odds of endorsing a past suicide attempt, overall. More specifically, it was associated with over 2 times higher odds among Asian participants, over 4 times higher odds among Black participants, and over 3 times higher odds among non-US-born White participants, while social acculturative stress was associated with over 3 times higher odds of endorsing a past suicide attempt among Latino participants. Environmental acculturative stress was associated with decreased odds of endorsing a suicide attempt history, overall, but not when examined separately by racial/ethnic group. Perceived discrimination was associated with over 5 times higher odds of a suicide attempt, overall, and specifically was associated with over 3 times higher odds among Latino participants and over 10 times higher odds among White, US-born participants. These findings suggest the importance of addressing culturally-related variables in treatment with emerging adults of racially/ethnically diverse backgrounds to reduce risk for suicidal behavior. PMID:21717234

  14. Association of oxidative stress with arsenic methylation in chronic arsenic-exposed children and adults

    SciTech Connect

    Xu Yuanyuan; Wang Yi; Zheng Quanmei; Li Xin; Li Bing; Jin Yaping; Sun Xiance; Sun Guifan

    2008-10-01

    Though oxidative stress is recognized as an important pathogenic mechanism of arsenic, and arsenic methylation capacity is suggested to be highly involved in arsenic-related diseases, the association of arsenic methylation capacity with arsenic-induced oxidative stress remains unclear. To explore oxidative stress and its association with arsenic methylation, cross-sectional studies were conducted among 208 high and 59 low arsenic-exposed subjects. Levels of urinary arsenic species [inorganic arsenic (iAs), monomethylated arsenic (MMA) and dimethylated arsenic (DMA)] were determined by hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry. Proportions of urinary arsenic species, the first methylation ratio (FMR) and the secondary methylation ratio (SMR) were used as indicators for arsenic methylation capacity. Urinary 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) concentrations were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits. Reduced glutathione (GSH) levels and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in whole blood were determined to reflect anti-oxidative status. The high arsenic-exposed children and adults were significantly increased in urinary 8-OHdG concentrations but decreased in blood GSH levels compared with the low exposed children and adults. In multiple linear regression models, blood GSH levels and urinary 8-OHdG concentrations of arsenic-exposed children and adults showed strong associations with the levels of urinary arsenic species. Arsenic-exposed subjects in the lower and the upper quartiles of proportions of urinary arsenic species, FMR or SMR were significantly different in urinary 8-OHdG, blood GSH and SOD. The associations of arsenic methylation capacity with 8-OHdG, GSH and SOD were also observed in multivariate regression analyses. These results may provide linkage between arsenic methylation capacity and oxidative stress in humans and suggest that adverse health effects induced by arsenic are related to arsenic methylation through oxidative stress.

  15. Restraint Stress-Induced Morphological Changes at the Blood-Brain Barrier in Adult Rats

    PubMed Central

    Sántha, Petra; Veszelka, Szilvia; Hoyk, Zsófia; Mészáros, Mária; Walter, Fruzsina R.; Tóth, Andrea E.; Kiss, Lóránd; Kincses, András; Oláh, Zita; Seprényi, György; Rákhely, Gábor; Dér, András; Pákáski, Magdolna; Kálmán, János; Kittel, Ágnes; Deli, Mária A.

    2016-01-01

    Stress is well-known to contribute to the development of both neurological and psychiatric diseases. While the role of the blood-brain barrier is increasingly recognized in the development of neurodegenerative disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease, dysfunction of the blood-brain barrier has been linked to stress-related psychiatric diseases only recently. In the present study the effects of restraint stress with different duration (1, 3, and 21 days) were investigated on the morphology of the blood-brain barrier in male adult Wistar rats. Frontal cortex and hippocampus sections were immunostained for markers of brain endothelial cells (claudin-5, occluding, and glucose transporter-1) and astroglia (GFAP). Staining pattern and intensity were visualized by confocal microscopy and evaluated by several types of image analysis. The ultrastructure of brain capillaries was investigated by electron microscopy. Morphological changes and intensity alterations in brain endothelial tight junction proteins claudin-5 and occludin were induced by stress. Following restraint stress significant increases in the fluorescence intensity of glucose transporter-1 were detected in brain endothelial cells in the frontal cortex and hippocampus. Significant reductions in GFAP fluorescence intensity were observed in the frontal cortex in all stress groups. As observed by electron microscopy, 1-day acute stress induced morphological changes indicating damage in capillary endothelial cells in both brain regions. After 21 days of stress thicker and irregular capillary basal membranes in the hippocampus and edema in astrocytes in both regions were seen. These findings indicate that stress exerts time-dependent changes in the staining pattern of tight junction proteins occludin, claudin-5, and glucose transporter-1 at the level of brain capillaries and in the ultrastructure of brain endothelial cells and astroglial endfeet, which may contribute to neurodegenerative processes, cognitive and

  16. Effect of chronic social defeat stress on behaviors and dopamine receptor in adult mice.

    PubMed

    Huang, Guang-Biao; Zhao, Tong; Gao, Xiao-Lei; Zhang, Hong-Xing; Xu, Yu-Ming; Li, Hao; Lv, Lu-Xian

    2016-04-01

    Victims of bullying often undergo depression, low self-esteem, high anxiety and post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms. The social defeat model has become widely accepted for studying experimental animal behavior changes associated with bullying; however, differences in the effects in susceptible and unsusceptible individuals have not been well studied. The present study investigated the effects of social defeat stress on behavior and the expression of dopamine receptors D1 and D2 in the brains of adult mice. Adult mice were divided into susceptible and unsusceptible groups after 10days of social defeat stress. Behavioral tests were conducted, and protein levels in the brains were assessed by Western blotting. The results indicate that all mice undergo decreased locomotion and increased anxiety behavior. However, decreased social interaction and impaired memory performance were only observed in susceptible mice. A significantly decreased expression of D1 was observed in the prefrontal cortex and amygdala of susceptible mice only. No significant differences in D2 expression were shown between control and defeated mice in any area studied. These data indicate that depression-like behavior and cognition impairment caused by social defeat stress in susceptible mice may be related to changes in the dopamine receptor D1. PMID:26655446

  17. Resilience in the Context of Chronic Stress and Health in Adults

    PubMed Central

    Schetter, Christine Dunkel; Dolbier, Christyn

    2015-01-01

    Over the past several decades, stress research has experienced a broadening of its pathologic focus to encompass the concept of resilience. There is a wealth of research on resilience but no general consensus regarding its conceptualization. Some define resilience as attaining eventual favorable outcomes following exposure to adversity. Others define it as specific relatively short-term responses characterized by a return to homeostasis after initial disruption due to a stressor, and still others refer to resilience as resources that enable the individual to withstand or recover from major stressors. Many of the existing conceptualizations of resilience are not applicable in the context of chronic stress which is particularly harmful to health. How do adults who experience chronic stress survive, manage, and thrive, and what resources enable them to do so? In this paper, we consider these questions by reviewing traditions of research and definitions of resilience in order to inform an understanding of resilience in general, and for the study of chronic stress in adults. Based on a review of the literature, we developed a taxonomy of resilience resources that can be applied broadly, and guide future research. PMID:26161137

  18. Emerging adults' lived experience of formative family stress: the family's lasting influence.

    PubMed

    Valdez, Carmen R; Chavez, Tom; Woulfe, Julie

    2013-08-01

    In this article, we use a phenomenology framework to explore emerging adults' formative experiences of family stress. Fourteen college students participated in a qualitative interview about their experience of family stress. We analyzed the interviews using the empirical phenomenological psychology method. Participants described a variety of family stressors, including parental conflict and divorce, physical or mental illness, and emotional or sexual abuse by a family member. Two general types of parallel processes were essential to the experience of family stress for participants. First, the family stressor was experienced in shifts and progressions reflecting the young person's attempts to manage the stressor, and second, these shifts and progressions were interdependent with deeply personal psychological meanings of self, sociality, physical and emotional expression, agency, place, space, project, and discourse. We describe each of these parallel processes and their subprocesses, and conclude with implications for mental health practice and research. PMID:23771635

  19. Constitutive Interplay midst Discourse of East and West: Modernity & Postmodernity Renderings in Adult & Continuing Education. Proceedings of the International Adult & Continuing Education Conference (Seoul, Korea, May 27-28, 1996).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, Phyllis, Ed.; And Others

    This document contains 17 papers, organized in three sections, presented at a conference on Eastern and Western adult and continuing education. The following papers are included in Section I, "Ideas and Tasks of Adult Education: Views of East and West": "Imagineries of 'East and West': Slippery Curricular Signifiers in Education" (Ted T. Aoki);…

  20. Elderly Mothers of Adult Children with Intellectual Disability: An Exploration of a Stress Process Model for Caregiving Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Go-en; Chung, Soondool

    2016-01-01

    Background: This study examines the utility of Pearlin's caregiving stress model for understanding the caregiving satisfaction of elderly mothers of adult children with intellectual disability. Methods: Mothers living in Seoul, Kyonggi, and Incheon who were 55 years of age or older and providing care for adult children with intellectual disability…

  1. The Mediating Role of Socio-Motivational Relationships in the Interplay of Perceived Stress, Neuroticism, and Test Anxiety among Adolescent Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoferichter, Frances; Raufelder, Diana; Eid, Michael

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we examined whether socio-motivational relationships, such as student-student relationships (SSR) and teacher-student relationships (TSR), as well as peers as positive motivators (PPM) and teachers as positive motivators (TPM), would mediate the association of both perceived stress and neuroticism with test anxiety in 1,088 German…

  2. Nativity Status and Depressive Symptoms among Hispanic Young Adults: The Role of Stress Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Tillman, Kathryn Harker; Weiss, Ursula Keller

    2009-01-01

    Objective This article documents nativity differentials in depressive symptoms among Hispanics during their initial years of adulthood and explores how ethnicity, socio-demographic characteristics, and exposure to stressful life events and changes in social roles help to explain those differentials. Methods Data is drawn from a large-scale two-wave community study of stress, psychiatric well-being, and substance use disorders among young adults. Our analytic sample includes 553 Hispanic respondents and we employ multivariate regression techniques. Results Regardless of age at immigration, foreign-born women experience greater declines in depressive symptoms than native-born women during early adulthood. This advantage is explained by differences in perceptions of discrimination, family-based stress, and social role changes. The association between nativity and depressive symptoms is not conditioned by ethnicity, but ethnicity does condition the association between stressful events and depressive symptoms. Conclusions The findings suggest that mental health treatment and prevention efforts should focus more heavily on stress exposure. PMID:21743751

  3. Effect of agomelatine on adult hippocampus apoptosis and neurogenesis using the stress model of rats.

    PubMed

    Yucel, Atakan; Yucel, Nermin; Ozkanlar, Seckin; Polat, Elif; Kara, Adem; Ozcan, Halil; Gulec, Mustafa

    2016-04-01

    Agomelatine (AG) is an agonist of melatonin receptors and an antagonist of the 5-HT2C-receptor subtype. The chronobiotic properties of AG are of significant interest due to the disorganization of internal rhythms, which might play a role in the pathophysiology of depression. The present study was designed to assess the effects of the antidepressant-like activity of AG, a new antidepressant drug, on adult neurogenesis and apoptosis using stress-exposed rat brains. Over the period of 1 week, the rats were exposed to light stress twice a day for 1h. After a period of 1 week, the rats were given AG treatment at a dose of either 10mg/kg or 40mg/kg for 15 days. The animals were then scarified, and the obtained tissue sections were stained with immuno-histochemical anti-BrdU, Caspase-3, and Bcl-2 antibodies. Serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) concentrations were measured biochemically using a BDNF Elisa kit. Biochemical BDNF analysis revealed a high concentration of BDNF in the serum of the stress-exposed group, but the concentrations of BDNF were much lower those of the AG-treated groups. Immuno-histochemical analysis revealed that AG treatment decreased the BrdU-positive and Bcl-2-positive cell densities and increased the Caspase-3-positive cell density in the hippocampus of stress-induced rats as compared to those of the stress group. The results of the study demonstrated that AG treatment ameliorated the hippocampal apoptotic cells and increased hippocampal neurogenesis. These results also strengthen the possible relationship between depression and adult neurogenesis, which must be studied further. PMID:26970810

  4. The Impact of Perceived Stress, Social Support, and Home-Based Physical Activity on Mental Health among Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwag, Kyung Hwa; Martin, Peter; Russell, Daniel; Franke, Warren; Kohut, Marian

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated how perceived stress, social support, and home-based physical activity affected older adults' fatigue, loneliness, and depression. We also explored whether social support and physical activity mediated the relationships between stress and mental health problems. The data of 163 older participants were analyzed in this…

  5. Parenting Stress in Mothers of Adults with an Intellectual Disability: Parental Cognitions in Relation to Child Characteristics and Family Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, C.; Rose, J.

    2009-01-01

    Background: There is a body of evidence that indicates that the cognitions of parents of children with intellectual disabilities (ID) play an important role in influencing parental stress. However, there is a paucity of evidence about the experience of parents of adult children with ID. This study sought to apply a model of parenting stress to…

  6. Childhood maltreatment, juvenile disorders and adult posttraumatic stress disorder: A prospective investigation

    PubMed Central

    Breslau, Naomi; Koenen, Karestan C.; Luo, Zhehui; Agnew-Blais, Jessica; Swanson, Sonja; Houts, Renate M.; Poulton, Richie; Moffitt, Terrie E.

    2014-01-01

    Background We examine prospectively the influence of two separate but potentially interrelated factors in the etiology of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD): childhood maltreatment as conferring a susceptibility to the PTSD-response to adult trauma and juvenile disorders as precursors of adult PTSD. Method The Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study is a birth cohort (n=1037) from the general population of New Zealand's South Island, with multiple assessments up to age 38. DSM-IV PTSD was assessed among participants exposed to trauma at ages 26–38. Complete data were available on 928 participants. Results Severe maltreatment in the first decade of life, experienced by 8.5% of the sample, was associated significantly with the risk of PTSD among those exposed to adult trauma (odds ratio, (OR)=2.64, 95% CI: 1.16, 6.01), compared to no maltreatment. Moderate maltreatment, experienced by 27.2 %, was not associated significantly with that risk (OR=1.55, 95% CI: 0.85, 2.85). However, the two estimates did not differ significantly from one another. Juvenile disorders (ages 11–15), experienced by 35% of the sample, independent of childhood maltreatment, was associated significantly with the risk of PTSD-response to adult trauma (OR=2.35, 95% CI: 1.32, 4.18). Conclusions Severe maltreatment was associated with risk of PTSD-response to adult trauma, compared to no maltreatment, and juvenile disorders, independent of earlier maltreatment, was associated with that risk. The role of moderate maltreatment remained unresolved. Larger longitudinal studies are needed to assess the impact of moderate maltreatment, experienced by the majority of adult trauma victims with history of maltreatment. PMID:24168779

  7. THE ROLE OF STRESS IN PERIODONTAL DISEASE PROGRESSION IN OLDER ADULTS

    PubMed Central

    Salazar, Christian R.

    2016-01-01

    Periodontal disease is characterized by chronic inflammation of the gingiva (gum tissues) caused by infection with anaerobic bacteria. In older adults, progression of disease can lead to tooth loss, inadequate nutritional intake, and a higher risk of other chronic conditions such as cardiovascular disease and diabetes mellitus. As the proportion of older adults continues to grow over time and rates of tooth loss decline, prevalence and severity of periodontal disease will increase. While much is known about risk factors for disease onset, gaps remain in our understanding of factors that could influence disease progression. Over the past few decades, stress has been implicated as a contributory factor. This review critically examines the epidemiological and laboratory evidence and describes a conceptual framework that could help move the research forward.

  8. Reported exposure and emotional reactivity to daily stressors: the roles of adult age and global perceived stress.

    PubMed

    Stawski, Robert S; Sliwinski, Martin J; Almeida, David M; Smyth, Joshua M

    2008-03-01

    A central goal of daily stress research is to identify resilience and vulnerability factors associated with exposure and reactivity to daily stressors. The present study examined how age differences and global perceptions of stress relate to exposure and emotional reactivity to daily stressors. Sixty-seven younger (M age = 20) and 116 older (M age = 80) adults completed a daily stress diary and measures of positive and negative affect on 6 days over a 14-day period. Participants also completed a measure of global perceived stress. Results revealed that reported exposure to daily stressors is reduced in old age but that emotional reactivity to daily stressors did not differ between younger and older adults. Global perceived stress was associated with greater reported exposure to daily stressors in older adults and greater stress-related increases in negative affect in younger adults. Furthermore, across days on which daily stressors were reported, intraindividual variability in the number and severity of stressors reported was associated with increased negative affect, but only among younger adults. PMID:18361654

  9. Specific aspects of minority stress associated with depression among LDS affiliated non-heterosexual adults.

    PubMed

    Crowell, Katherine A; Galliher, Renee V; Dehlin, John; Bradshaw, William S

    2015-01-01

    A nation-wide sample of 634 previous or current members of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints (LDS), non-heterosexual adults (ages 18-33), were surveyed to examine how specific aspects of minority stress are individually and collectively associated with depression, and how such associations differ across sex, sexual orientation, and level of affiliation with the LDS church. When five stressors were examined simultaneously, need for others' acceptance (NA) was the strongest predictor of depression, followed by internalized homophobia (IH). All minority stress factors were found to be individually predictive of depression and did not differ across sex or sexual orientation subgroups. Differences were observed, however, when considering current LDS status, such that participants who were no longer affiliated with the LDS church reported stronger relationships between some minority stressors and depression. Implications of religious identity salience as a potential mediator of relationships between specific stressors and depression are discussed. PMID:25257561

  10. Neonatal stress from limited bedding elicits visceral hyperalgesia in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yumei; Wang, Zhuo; Mayer, Emeran A; Holschneider, Daniel P

    2015-01-01

    Early life stress is a risk factor for developing functional pain disorders. The 'limited bedding' (LB) model elicits psychological stress in the dam and her pups by providing minimal nesting material following delivery. Little is known about the effects of LB on visceral pain. Rats (female, male) were exposed to LB on postnatal days 2-9. Electromyographic visceromotor responses were recorded at the age of 11-12 weeks during titrated colorectal distension. LB exposure resulted in significant visceral hyperalgesia in both sexes. Sex differences were demonstrated only in nonstressed controls, with females showing a greater visceromotor response. Our results prepare the way for use of the LB model in studying the development of visceral pain in adults with functional gastrointestinal disorders. PMID:25426824

  11. Role of oxidative stress in rabies virus infection of adult mouse dorsal root ganglion neurons.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Alan C; Kammouni, Wafa; Zherebitskaya, Elena; Fernyhough, Paul

    2010-05-01

    Rabies virus infection of dorsal root ganglia (DRG) was studied in vitro with cultured adult mouse DRG neurons. Recent in vivo studies of transgenic mice that express the yellow fluorescent protein indicate that neuronal process degeneration, involving both dendrites and axons, occurs in mice infected with the challenge virus standard (CVS) strain of rabies virus by footpad inoculation. Because of the similarities of the morphological changes in experimental rabies and in diabetic neuropathy and other diseases, we hypothesize that neuronal process degeneration occurs as a result of oxidative stress. DRG neurons were cultured from adult ICR mice. Two days after plating, they were infected with CVS. Immunostaining was evaluated with CVS- and mock-infected cultures for neuron specific beta-tubulin, rabies virus antigen, and amino acid adducts of 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (4-HNE) (marker of lipid peroxidation and hence oxidative stress). Neuronal viability (by trypan blue exclusion), terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end-labeling (TUNEL) staining, and axonal growth were also assessed with the cultures. CVS infected 33 to 54% of cultured DRG neurons. Levels of neuronal viability and TUNEL staining were similar in CVS- and mock-infected DRG neurons. There were significantly more 4-HNE-labeled puncta at 2 and 3 days postinfection in CVS-infected cultures than in mock-infected cultures, and axonal outgrowth was reduced at these time points in CVS infection. Axonal swellings with 4-HNE-labeled puncta were also associated with aggregations of actively respiring mitochondria. We have found evidence that rabies virus infection in vitro causes axonal injury of DRG neurons through oxidative stress. Oxidative stress may be important in vivo in rabies and may explain previous observations of the degeneration of neuronal processes. PMID:20181692

  12. Compassion satisfaction, burnout, and secondary traumatic stress in UK therapists who work with adult trauma clients

    PubMed Central

    Sodeke-Gregson, Ekundayo A.; Holttum, Sue; Billings, Jo

    2013-01-01

    Background Therapists who work with trauma clients are impacted both positively and negatively. However, most studies have tended to focus on the negative impact of the work, the quantitative evidence has been inconsistent, and the research has primarily been conducted outside the United Kingdom. Objectives This study aimed to assess the prevalence of, and identify predictor variables for, compassion satisfaction, burnout, and secondary traumatic stress in a group of UK therapists (N=253) working with adult trauma clients. Method An online questionnaire was developed which used The Professional Quality of Life Scale (Version 5) to assess compassion satisfaction, burnout, and secondary traumatic stress and collect demographics and other pertinent information. Results Whilst the majority of therapists scored within the average range for compassion satisfaction and burnout, 70% of scores indicated that therapists were at high risk of secondary traumatic stress. Maturity, time spent engaging in research and development activities, a higher perceived supportiveness of management, and supervision predicted higher potential for compassion satisfaction. Youth and a lower perceived supportiveness of management predicted higher risk of burnout. A higher risk of secondary traumatic stress was predicted in therapists engaging in more individual supervision and self-care activities, as well as those who had a personal trauma history. Conclusions UK therapists working with trauma clients are at high risk of being negatively impacted by their work, obtaining scores which suggest a risk of developing secondary traumatic stress. Of particular note was that exposure to trauma stories did not significantly predict secondary traumatic stress scores as suggested by theory. However, the negative impact of working with trauma clients was balanced by the potential for a positive outcome from trauma work as a majority indicated an average potential for compassion satisfaction. PMID

  13. Social Capital, Trust, Economic Stress and Religion in a Cohort of 87,134 Thai Adults

    PubMed Central

    Yiengprugsawan, Vasoontara; Seubsman, Sam-ang; Lim, Lynette; Sleigh, Adrian

    2011-01-01

    Social capital includes collective features such as social trust, norms, and networks. This paper examines social capital-related variables against demographic, socioeconomic and geographic characteristics of 87,134 adult distance-learning students from Sukhothai Thammathirat Open University. We have found economic stress to be higher in non-married groups, lower income groups, and those residing in rural areas. Social trust was higher among married, especially with higher income and those in rural areas. Those who were separated, divorced or widowed and those with lower socioeconomic status had the highest economic stress and the least social trust. These groups also reported high importance of religious belief, karma and spiritual belief, along with lower income groups. Despite having high economic stress, social interaction with and support from families were found to be high among those not-married, with lower income, and in rural areas. As Thailand urbanises and progresses economically, diverse patterns of social capital have emerged and some changes might have offset others. For example, we have shown that economic stress associated with low income tends to co-occur with high social interaction and family support. This observation should be reassuring to policymakers aiming to preserve and promote social capital as Thailand continues to urbanise and modernise. PMID:22003268

  14. Evaluation of Depression, Anxiety, and Stress in Adolescents and Young Adults with Auditory Neuropathy Spectrum Disorder.

    PubMed

    Prabhu, Prashanth

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the severity of stress, anxiety, and depression using Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS) in adolescents and young adults with auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder (ANSD). DASS was administered to 20 individuals with auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder. The effect of gender on severity of anxiety, stress, and depression on DASS scores was determined. It was attempted to determine the correlation of severity of anxiety, stress, and depression with the reported onset of the problem, degree of hearing loss, and speech identification scores. The results of the study showed that individuals with ANSD had a moderate degree of depression and anxiety. The results also showed that the symptoms were more seen in females than in males. Correlation analysis revealed that DASS scores correlated with the reported onset of condition and speech identification scores (SIS) and the degree of hearing loss showed no correlation. The study concludes that individuals with ANSD experience depression and anxiety and this could be because of the inadequate management options available for individuals with ANSD. Thus, there is a need to develop appropriate management strategies for individuals with ANSD and provide appropriate referral for management of psychological issues. PMID:27579218

  15. Evaluation of Depression, Anxiety, and Stress in Adolescents and Young Adults with Auditory Neuropathy Spectrum Disorder

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the severity of stress, anxiety, and depression using Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS) in adolescents and young adults with auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder (ANSD). DASS was administered to 20 individuals with auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder. The effect of gender on severity of anxiety, stress, and depression on DASS scores was determined. It was attempted to determine the correlation of severity of anxiety, stress, and depression with the reported onset of the problem, degree of hearing loss, and speech identification scores. The results of the study showed that individuals with ANSD had a moderate degree of depression and anxiety. The results also showed that the symptoms were more seen in females than in males. Correlation analysis revealed that DASS scores correlated with the reported onset of condition and speech identification scores (SIS) and the degree of hearing loss showed no correlation. The study concludes that individuals with ANSD experience depression and anxiety and this could be because of the inadequate management options available for individuals with ANSD. Thus, there is a need to develop appropriate management strategies for individuals with ANSD and provide appropriate referral for management of psychological issues. PMID:27579218

  16. Suicide Risk, Stress Sensitivity, and Self-Esteem among Young Adults Reporting Auditory Hallucinations.

    PubMed

    DeVylder, Jordan E; Hilimire, Matthew R

    2015-08-01

    Individuals with subthreshold psychotic experiences are at increased risk for suicidal thoughts and behavior, similar to those with schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders. This may be explained by shared risk factors such as heightened stress sensitivity or low self-esteem. Understanding the nature of this relationship could inform suicide prevention in social work practice. In this study, authors examined the relationship between self-reported auditory hallucinations and suicidal thoughts, plans, and attempts, in a nonclinical sample of young adults, controlling for scores on the Psychological Stress Index and Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. Auditory hallucinations were associated with approximately double the odds of suicidal ideation and plans and four times the odds for suicide attempts. This relationship was not explained by stress sensitivity or self-esteem, which were independently related to hallucinations and suicidality, respectively. Subthreshold auditory hallucinations may be a useful indicator of suicide risk. This association may represent a clinically significant relationship that may be addressed through social work interventions intended to alleviate stress sensitivity or improve self-esteem. PMID:26285356

  17. Profiles of reminiscence among older adults: perceived stress, life attitudes, and personality variables.

    PubMed

    Cappeliez, Philippe; O'Rourke, Norm

    2002-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to identify subgroups of older participants on the basis of unique configurations of variables among functions of reminiscence, personality traits, life attitudes, and perceived stress by means of cluster analysis. Ninety-three older adults (M = 66.7 years of age) completed the NEO-Five Factor Inventory, the Life Attitude Profile-Revised, the Reminiscence Functions Scale, and the Psychological State of Stress Measure. Cluster membership was determined on the basis of intra-personal functions of reminiscence (Boredom Reduction, Death Preparation, Identity, Bitterness Revival). These groups were subsequently compared on personality traits (Neuroticism, Extraversion, Openness to experience), life attitudes (Existential Vacuum, Goal Seeking), and perceived stress. Three distinct groupings emerged. A greater tendency to ruminate about negative memories and lower extraversion characterized the negative reminiscers. Higher frequency of reminiscence related to issues of identity, life meaning and death, together with a tendency toward openness to experience, typified the meaning seekers. Lower reminiscence frequency for each of the four functions, combined with lower perceived stress and neuroticism, characterized the infrequent reminiscers. These results are interpreted in terms of differential patterns of coping and adaptation. PMID:12243446

  18. Influence of Panax ginseng on the offspring of adult rats exposed to prenatal stress

    PubMed Central

    KIM, YOUNG OCK; LEE, HWA-YOUNG; WON, HANSOL; NAH, SEONG-SU; LEE, HWA-YOUNG; KIM, HYUNG-KI; KWON, JUN-TACK; KIM, HAK-JAE

    2015-01-01

    The exposure of pregnant females to stress during a critical period of fetal brain development is an environmental risk factor for the development of schizophrenia in adult offspring. Schizophrenia is a group of common mental disorders of unclear origin, affecting approximately 1% of the global population, showing a generally young age at onset. In the present study, a repeated variable stress paradigm was applied to pregnant rats during the final week of gestation. The effects of an extract of Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer (PG) on rats exposed to prenatal stress (PNS) were investigated in terms of behavioral activity and protein expression analyses. In the behavioral tests, grooming behavior in a social interaction test, line-crossing behavior in an open-field test and swimming activity in a forced-swim test were decreased in the rats exposed to PNS compared with the non-stressed offspring; the changes in behavioral activity were reversed upon oral treatment with PG (300 mg/kg). Subsequently, western blot analysis and immunohistochemical analyses of the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus revealed that the downregulation of several neurodevelopmental genes which occurred following exposure to PNS was reversed upon treatment with PG. The current findings demonstrate that the downregulation of several genes following exposure to PNS may affect subsequent behavioral changes, and that these phenomena are reversed following treatment with PG during pregnancy. Our results suggest that oral treatment with PG reduces the incidence of psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia. PMID:25394395

  19. Voluntary exercise followed by chronic stress strikingly increases mature adult-born hippocampal neurons and prevents stress-induced deficits in 'what-when-where' memory.

    PubMed

    Castilla-Ortega, Estela; Rosell-Valle, Cristina; Pedraza, Carmen; Rodríguez de Fonseca, Fernando; Estivill-Torrús, Guillermo; Santín, Luis J

    2014-03-01

    We investigated whether voluntary exercise prevents the deleterious effects of chronic stress on episodic-like memory and adult hippocampal neurogenesis. After bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) administration, mice were assigned to receive standard housing, chronic intermittent restraint stress, voluntary exercise or a combination of both (stress starting on the seventh day of exercise). Twenty-four days later, mice were tested in a 'what-when-where' object recognition memory task. Adult hippocampal neurogenesis (proliferation, differentiation, survival and apoptosis) and c-Fos expression in the hippocampus and extra-hippocampal areas (medial prefrontal cortex, amygdala, paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus, accumbens and perirhinal cortex) were assessed after behavior. Chronic intermittent restraint stress impaired neurogenesis and the 'when' memory, while exercise promoted neurogenesis and improved the 'where' memory. The 'when' and 'where' memories correlated with c-Fos expression in CA1 and the dentate gyrus, respectively. Furthermore, analysis suggested that each treatment induced a distinct pattern of functional connectivity among the areas analyzed for c-Fos. In the animals in which stress and exercise were combined, stress notably reduced the amount of voluntary exercise performed. Nevertheless, exercise still improved memory and counteracted the stress induced-deficits in neurogenesis and behavior. Interestingly, compared with the other three treatments, the stressed exercising animals showed a larger increase in cell survival, the maturation of new neurons and apoptosis in the dentate gyrus, with a considerable increase in the number of 24-day-old BrdU+cells that differentiated into mature neurons. The interaction between exercise and stress in enhancing the number of adult-born hippocampal neurons supports a role of exercise-induced neurogenesis in stressful conditions. PMID:24333647

  20. System level analysis of cacao seed ripening reveals a sequential interplay of primary and secondary metabolism leading to polyphenol accumulation and preparation of stress resistance.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lei; Nägele, Thomas; Doerfler, Hannes; Fragner, Lena; Chaturvedi, Palak; Nukarinen, Ella; Bellaire, Anke; Huber, Werner; Weiszmann, Jakob; Engelmeier, Doris; Ramsak, Ziva; Gruden, Kristina; Weckwerth, Wolfram

    2016-08-01

    Theobroma cacao and its popular product, chocolate, are attracting attention due to potential health benefits including antioxidative effects by polyphenols, anti-depressant effects by high serotonin levels, inhibition of platelet aggregation and prevention of obesity-dependent insulin resistance. The development of cacao seeds during fruit ripening is the most crucial process for the accumulation of these compounds. In this study, we analyzed the primary and the secondary metabolome as well as the proteome during Theobroma cacao cv. Forastero seed development by applying an integrative extraction protocol. The combination of multivariate statistics and mathematical modelling revealed a complex consecutive coordination of primary and secondary metabolism and corresponding pathways. Tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle and aromatic amino acid metabolism dominated during the early developmental stages (stages 1 and 2; cell division and expansion phase). This was accompanied with a significant shift of proteins from phenylpropanoid metabolism to flavonoid biosynthesis. At stage 3 (reserve accumulation phase), metabolism of sucrose switched from hydrolysis into raffinose synthesis. Lipids as well as proteins involved in lipid metabolism increased whereas amino acids and N-phenylpropenoyl amino acids decreased. Purine alkaloids, polyphenols, and raffinose as well as proteins involved in abiotic and biotic stress accumulated at stage 4 (maturation phase) endowing cacao seeds the characteristic astringent taste and resistance to stress. In summary, metabolic key points of cacao seed development comprise the sequential coordination of primary metabolites, phenylpropanoid, N-phenylpropenoyl amino acid, serotonin, lipid and polyphenol metabolism thereby covering the major compound classes involved in cacao aroma and health benefits. PMID:27136060

  1. Effects of Unpredictable Variable Prenatal Stress (UVPS) on Bdnf DNA Methylation and Telomere Length in the Adult Rat Brain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blaze, Jennifer; Asok, A.; Moyer, E. L.; Roth, T. L.; Ronca, A. E.

    2015-01-01

    In utero exposure to stress can shape neurobiological and behavioral outcomes in offspring, producing vulnerability to psychopathology later in life. Animal models of prenatal stress likewise have demonstrated long-­-term alterations in brain function and behavioral deficits in offspring. For example, using a rodent model of unpredictable variable prenatal stress (UVPS), in which dams are exposed to unpredictable, variable stress across pregnancy, we have found increased body weight and anxiety-­-like behavior in adult male, but not female, offspring. DNA methylation (addition of methyl groups to cytosines which normally represses gene transcription) and changes in telomere length (TTAGGG repeats on the ends of chromosomes) are two molecular modifications that result from stress and could be responsible for the long-­-term effects of UVPS. Here, we measured methylation of brain-­-derived neurotrophic factor (bdnf), a gene important in development and plasticity, and telomere length in the brains of adult offspring from the UVPS model. Results indicate that prenatally stressed adult males have greater methylation in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) compared to non-­-stressed controls, while females have greater methylation in the ventral hippocampus compared to controls. Further, prenatally stressed males had shorter telomeres than controls in the mPFC. These findings demonstrate the ability of UVPS to produce epigenetic alterations and changes in telomere length across behaviorally-­-relevant brain regions, which may have linkages to the phenotypic outcomes.

  2. Meta-analysis of psychological treatments for posttraumatic stress disorder in adult survivors of childhood abuse.

    PubMed

    Ehring, Thomas; Welboren, Renate; Morina, Nexhmedin; Wicherts, Jelte M; Freitag, Janina; Emmelkamp, Paul M G

    2014-12-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is highly prevalent in adult survivors of childhood sexual and/or physical abuse. However, intervention studies focusing on this group of patients are underrepresented in earlier meta-analyses on the efficacy of PTSD treatments. The current meta-analysis exclusively focused on studies evaluating the efficacy of psychological interventions for PTSD in adult survivors of childhood abuse. Sixteen randomized controlled trials meeting inclusion criteria could be identified that were subdivided into trauma-focused cognitive behavior therapy (CBT), non-trauma-focused CBT, eye movement desensitization and reprocessing, and other treatments (interpersonal, emotion-focused). Results showed that psychological interventions are efficacious for PTSD in adult survivors of childhood abuse, with an aggregated uncontrolled effect size of g=1.24 (pre- vs. post-treatment), and aggregated controlled effect sizes of g=0.72 (post-treatment, comparison to waitlist control conditions) and g=0.50 (post-treatment, comparison with TAU/placebo control conditions), respectively. Effect sizes remained stable at follow-up. As the heterogeneity between studies was large, we examined the influence of two a priori specified moderator variables on treatment efficacy. Results showed that trauma-focused treatments were more efficacious than non-trauma-focused interventions, and that treatments including individual sessions yielded larger effect sizes than pure group treatments. As a whole, the findings are in line with earlier meta-analyses showing that the best effects can be achieved with individual trauma-focused treatments. PMID:25455628

  3. Racial discrimination, post traumatic stress, and gambling problems among urban Aboriginal adults in Canada.

    PubMed

    Currie, Cheryl L; Wild, T Cameron; Schopflocher, Donald P; Laing, Lory; Veugelers, Paul; Parlee, Brenda

    2013-09-01

    Little is known about risk factors for problem gambling (PG) within the rapidly growing urban Aboriginal population in North America. Racial discrimination may be an important risk factor for PG given documented associations between racism and other forms of addictive behaviour. This study examined associations between racial discrimination and problem gambling among urban Aboriginal adults, and the extent to which this link was mediated by post traumatic stress. Data were collected via in-person surveys with a community-based sample of Aboriginal adults living in a mid-sized city in western Canada (N = 381) in 2010. Results indicate more than 80 % of respondents experienced discrimination due to Aboriginal race in the past year, with the majority reporting high levels of racism in that time period. Past year racial discrimination was a risk factor for 12-month problem gambling, gambling to escape, and post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in bootstrapped regression models adjusted for confounders and other forms of social trauma. Elevated PTSD symptoms among those experiencing high levels of racism partially explained the association between racism and the use of gambling to escape in statistical models. These findings are the first to suggest racial discrimination may be an important social determinant of problem gambling for Aboriginal peoples. Gambling may be a coping response that some Aboriginal adults use to escape the negative emotions associated with racist experiences. Results support the development of policies to reduce racism directed at Aboriginal peoples in urban areas, and enhanced services to help Aboriginal peoples cope with racist events. PMID:22730152

  4. Untangling the Influences of Voluntary Running, Environmental Complexity, Social Housing and Stress on Adult Hippocampal Neurogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Grégoire, Catherine-Alexandra; Bonenfant, David; Le Nguyen, Adalie; Aumont, Anne; Fernandes, Karl J. L.

    2014-01-01

    Environmental enrichment (EE) exerts powerful effects on brain physiology, and is widely used as an experimental and therapeutic tool. Typical EE paradigms are multifactorial, incorporating elements of physical exercise, environmental complexity, social interactions and stress, however the specific contributions of these variables have not been separable using conventional housing paradigms. Here, we evaluated the impacts of these individual variables on adult hippocampal neurogenesis by using a novel “Alternating EE” paradigm. For 4 weeks, adult male CD1 mice were alternated daily between two enriched environments; by comparing groups that differed in one of their two environments, the individual and combinatorial effects of EE variables could be resolved. The Alternating EE paradigm revealed that (1) voluntary running for 3 days/week was sufficient to increase both mitotic and post-mitotic stages of hippocampal neurogenesis, confirming the central importance of exercise; (2) a complex environment (comprised of both social interactions and rotated inanimate objects) had no effect on neurogenesis itself, but enhanced depolarization-induced c-Fos expression (attributable to social interactions) and buffered stress-induced plasma corticosterone levels (attributable to inanimate objects); and (3) neither social isolation, group housing, nor chronically increased levels of plasma corticosterone had a prolonged impact on neurogenesis. Mouse strain, handling and type of running apparatus were tested and excluded as potential confounding factors. These findings provide valuable insights into the relative effects of key EE variables on adult neurogenesis, and this “Alternating EE” paradigm represents a useful tool for exploring the contributions of individual EE variables to mechanisms of neural plasticity. PMID:24465980

  5. Prenatal glucocorticoid exposure in rats: programming effects on stress reactivity and cognition in adult offspring.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Yan; Brydges, Nichola M; Wood, Emma R; Drake, Amanda J; Hall, Jeremy

    2015-01-01

    Human epidemiological studies have provided compelling evidence that prenatal exposure to stress is associated with significantly increased risks of developing psychiatric disorders in adulthood. Exposure to excessive maternal glucocorticoids may underlie this fetal programming effect. In the current study, we assessed how prenatal dexamethasone administration during the last week of gestation affects stress reactivity and cognition in adult offspring. Stress reactivity was assessed by evaluating anxiety-like behavior on an elevated plus maze and in an open field. In addition, to characterize the long-term cognitive outcomes of prenatal exposure to glucocorticoids, animals were assessed on two cognitive tasks, a spatial reference memory task with reversal learning and a delayed matching to position (DMTP) task. Our results suggest that prenatal exposure to dexamethasone had no observable effect on anxiety-like behavior, but affected cognition in the adult offspring. Prenatally dexamethasone-exposed animals showed a transient deficit in the spatial reference memory task and a trend to faster acquisition during the reversal-learning phase. Furthermore, prenatally dexamethasone-treated animals also showed faster learning of new platform positions in the DMTP task. These results suggest that fetal overexposure to glucocorticoids programs a phenotype characterized by cognitive flexibility and adaptability to frequent changes in environmental circumstances. This can be viewed as an attempt to increase the fitness of survival in a potentially hazardous postnatal environment, as predicted by intrauterine adversity. Collectively, our data suggest that prenatal exposure to dexamethasone in rats could be used as an animal model for studying some cognitive components of related psychiatric disorders. PMID:26383033

  6. Neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation, perceived neighborhood factors, and cortisol responses to induced stress among healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Barrington, Wendy E; Stafford, Mai; Hamer, Mark; Beresford, Shirley A A; Koepsell, Thomas; Steptoe, Andrew

    2014-05-01

    Associations between measures of neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation and health have been identified, yet work is needed to uncover explanatory mechanisms. One hypothesized pathway is through stress, yet the few studies that have evaluated associations between characteristics of deprived neighborhoods and biomarkers of stress are mixed. This study evaluated whether objectively measured neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation and individual perceived neighborhood characteristics (i.e. social control and fear of crime) impacted cortisol responses to an induced stressor among older healthy adults. Data from Heart Scan, a sub-study of the Whitehall II cohort, were used to generate multilevel piecewise growth-curve models of cortisol trajectories after a laboratory stressor accounting for neighborhood and demographic characteristics. Neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation was significantly associated with individual perceptions of social control and fear of crime in the neighborhood while an association with blunted cortisol reactivity was only evidence among women. Social control was significantly associated with greater cortisol reactivity and mediation between neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation and cortisol reactivity was suggested among women. These findings support a gender-dependent role of neighborhood in stress process models of health. PMID:24603009

  7. Older maternal age is associated with depression, anxiety, and stress symptoms in young adult female offspring.

    PubMed

    Tearne, Jessica E; Robinson, Monique; Jacoby, Peter; Allen, Karina L; Cunningham, Nadia K; Li, Jianghong; McLean, Neil J

    2016-01-01

    The evidence regarding older parental age and incidence of mood disorder symptoms in offspring is limited, and that which exists is mixed. We sought to clarify these relationships by using data from the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study. The Raine Study provided comprehensive data from 2,900 pregnancies, resulting in 2,868 live born children. A total of 1,220 participants completed the short form of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS-21) at the 20-year cohort follow-up. We used negative binomial regression analyses with log link and with adjustment for known perinatal risk factors to examine the extent to which maternal and paternal age at childbirth predicted continuous DASS-21 index scores. In the final multivariate models, a maternal age of 30-34 years was associated with significant increases in stress DASS-21 scores in female offspring relative to female offspring of 25- to 29-year-old mothers. A maternal age of 35 years and over was associated with increased scores on all DASS-21 scales in female offspring. Our results indicate that older maternal age is associated with depression, anxiety, and stress symptoms in young adult females. Further research into the mechanisms underpinning this relationship is needed. PMID:26569038

  8. Socioeconomic deprivation, perceived neighborhood factors, and cortisol responses to induced stress among healthy adults

    PubMed Central

    Barrington, Wendy E.; Stafford, Mai; Hamer, Mark; Beresford, Shirley A.A.; Koepsell, Thomas; Steptoe, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Associations between measures of neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation and health have been identified, yet work is needed to uncover explanatory mechanisms. One hypothesized pathway is through stress, yet the few studies that have evaluated associations between characteristics of deprived neighborhoods and biomarkers of stress are mixed. This study evaluated whether objectively measured neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation and individual perceived neighborhood characteristics (i.e. social control and fear of crime) impacted cortisol responses to an induced stressor among older healthy adults. Data from Heart Scan, a sub-study of the Whitehall II cohort, were used to generate multilevel piecewise growth-curve models of cortisol trajectories after a laboratory stressor accounting for neighborhood and demographic characteristics. Neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation was significantly associated with individual perceptions of social control and fear of crime in the neighborhood while an association with blunted cortisol reactivity was only evidence among women. Social control was significantly associated with greater cortisol reactivity and mediation between neighborhood deprivation and cortisol reactivity was suggested among women. These findings support a gender-dependent role of neighborhood in stress process models of health. PMID:24603009

  9. Posttraumatic Stress Related to Hyperglycemia: Prevalence in Adults with Type I Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Renna, Chelsea P; Boyer, Bret A; Prout, Maurice F; Scheiner, Gary

    2016-09-01

    Prevalence of hyperglycemia-related posttraumatic stress (PTS) was assessed in 239 adults with type 1 diabetes using the posttraumatic stress diagnostic scale (PDS; Foa, Posttraumatic stress diagnostic scale manual, National Computer Systems, Inc., Minneapolis, 1995) by an anonymous online survey. Additionally, this study aimed to identify variables related to hyperglycemia-related PTS. Over 30 % of participants reported symptoms consistent with PTSD related to hyperglycemia with standard PDS scoring, and 10 % with more conservative scoring. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses indicated that diabetes self-management behavior and perceived helplessness about hyperglycemia predicted PTSD with standard scoring. Perceived death threat, self-management behavior, helplessness about hyperglycemia, and severity of hypoglycemia in past month predicted PTSD using more conservative scoring. Perceived helplessness, hypoglycemia severity, perceived death-threat, HbA1c, and self-management behavior predicted PTS severity. When fear, helplessness, and perceived death-threat were combined to represent an overall cognitive appraisal factor, this variable was the strongest predictor of PTSD and PTS severity. Scores for PTSD symptom clusters appeared similar to data on hypoglycemia-related PTS. PMID:27469991

  10. Thymoquinone supplementation reverses lead-induced oxidative stress in adult rat testes.

    PubMed

    Mabrouk, Aymen; Ben Cheikh, Hassen

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the potential protective effect of thymoquinone (TQ), the major active ingredient of volatile oil of Nigella sativa seeds, against Pb-induced testicular oxidative stress. Adult male rats were randomized into four groups: control group which received no treatment, Pb group was exposed to 2000 ppm Pb acetate in drinking water, Pb-TQ group was co-treated with Pb plus TQ (5 mg/kg b.w./day, p.o.) and TQ group receiving only TQ (5 mg/kg b.w./day, p.o.). All treatments were applied for 5 weeks. Pb treatment induced oxidative stress status in testes as evidenced by a significant decrease in the antioxidant enzymes activities such as superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and catalase, and in the reduced glutathione content and in a significant increase in the level of malondialdehyde. Interestingly, TQ supplementation completely reversed these biochemical changes caused by Pb to the control values. In conclusion, our results suggest, for the first time, that TQ is very efficient in preventing Pb-induced testicular oxidative stress. This study will open new perspectives for the clinical use of TQ in Pb intoxication. PMID:25367764

  11. The Neuropsychological Profile of Comorbid Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder in Adult ADHD.

    PubMed

    Antshel, Kevin M; Biederman, Joseph; Spencer, Thomas J; Faraone, Stephen V

    2014-02-24

    Objective: ADHD and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are often comorbid yet despite the increased comorbidity between the two disorders, to our knowledge, no data have been published regarding the neuropsychological profile of adults with comorbid ADHD and PTSD. Likewise, previous empirical studies of the neuropsychology of PTSD did not control for ADHD status. We sought to fill this gap in the literature and to assess the extent to which neuropsychological test performance predicted psychosocial functioning, and perceived quality of life. Method: Participants were 201 adults with ADHD attending an outpatient mental health clinic between 1998 and 2003 and 123 controls without ADHD. Participants completed a large battery of self-report measures and psychological tests. Diagnoses were made using data obtained from structured psychiatric interviews (i.e., Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV, Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children Epidemiologic Version). Results: Differences emerged between control participants and participants with ADHD on multiple neuropsychological tests. Across all tests, control participants outperformed participants with ADHD. Differences between the two ADHD groups emerged on seven psychological subtests including multiple Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Third edition and Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure Test measures. These test differences did not account for self-reported quality of life differences between groups. Conclusion: The comorbidity with PTSD in adults with ADHD is associated with weaker cognitive performance on several tasks that appear related to spatial/perceptual abilities and fluency. Neuropsychological test performances may share variance with the quality of life variables yet are not mediators of the quality of life ratings. (J. of Att. Dis. XXXX; XX(X) XX-XX). PMID:24567364

  12. Effect of the Interplay between Trauma Severity and Trait Neuroticism on Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms among Adolescents Exposed to a Pipeline Explosion

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Wei; Xue, Jiao-Mei; Shao, Di; Long, Zhou-Ting; Cao, Feng-Lin

    2015-01-01

    Background While numerous studies have explored relevant factors of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, there have been few joint investigations of trauma severity and trait neuroticism on the development of PTSD symptoms. This study aims to assess the involvement and interrelationship of trauma severity and neuroticism in the expression of PTSD symptoms among adolescents exposed to an accidental explosion. Methods Six hundred and sixty-two adolescents were recruited from a junior middle school closest to the 2013 pipeline explosion site in China and were assessed using the Explosion Exposure Questionnaire, the NEO Five Factor Inventory-Neuroticism Subscale (FFI-N), and the PTSD Checklist-Civilian (PCL-C). A battery of hierarchical multiple regression analyses and two-way ANOVAs were performed to examine the effect of trauma severity and trait neuroticism on adolescent PTSD symptoms. Results Eighty-seven adolescents (13.1%) showed PTSD symptoms after the pipeline explosion. Correlation analysis showed that all the factors of explosion exposure and trait neuroticism were positively associated with adolescent PTSD symptoms. Being male and younger was linked to lower risk for PTSD symptoms. The regression models identified explosion exposure and neuroticism as independent risk factors for PTSD symptoms, and the interactions between trait neuroticism and trauma exposure (personal casualty, degree of influence, total traumatic severity) were related to PTSD symptoms. Conclusions The results highlight the role of trauma exposure and trait neuroticism as risk factors for PTSD symptoms. Therefore, the combination of these two factors should be investigated in clinical settings due to an augmented risk for more severe PTSD symptoms. PMID:25793606

  13. Stress-induced oxytocin release and oxytocin cell number and size in prepubertal and adult male and female rats.

    PubMed

    Minhas, Sumeet; Liu, Clarissa; Galdamez, Josselyn; So, Veronica M; Romeo, Russell D

    2016-08-01

    Studies indicate that adolescent exposure to stress is a potent environmental factor that contributes to psychological and physiological disorders, though the mechanisms that mediate these dysfunctions are not well understood. Periadolescent animals display greater stress-induced hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis responses than adults, which may contribute to these vulnerabilities. In addition to the HPA axis, the hypothalamo-neurohypophyseal tract (HNT) is also activated in response to stress. In adults, stress activates this system resulting in secretion of oxytocin from neurons in the supraoptic (SON) and paraventricular (PVN) nuclei. However, it is currently unknown whether a similar or different response occurs in prepubertal animals. Given the influence of these hormones on a variety of emotional behaviors and physiological systems known to change as an animal transitions into adulthood, we investigated stress-induced HPA and HNT hormonal responses before and after stress, as well as the number and size of oxytocin-containing cells in the SON and PVN of prepubertal (30d) and adult (70d) male and female rats. Though we found the well-established protracted adrenocorticotropic hormone and corticosterone response in prepubertal males and females, only adult males and prepubertal females showed a significant stress-induced increase in plasma oxytocin levels. Moreover, though we found no pubertal changes in the number of oxytocin cells, we did find a pubertal-related increase in oxytocin somal size in both the SON and PVN of males and females. Taken together, these data indicate that neuroendocrine systems can show different patterns of stress reactivity before and after adolescent development and that these responses can be further modified by sex. Given the impact of these hormones on a variety of systems, it will be imperative to further explore these changes in hormonal stress reactivity and their role in adolescent health. PMID:26972154

  14. Work-Related Goal Appraisals and Stress during the Transition from Education to Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dietrich, Julia; Jokisaari, Markku; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

    2012-01-01

    People's personal goals interact with their life situations in many ways. This study examined the appraisals of personal goals during a transition from education to work and their interplay with stress in different domains of life. Finnish young adults (N = 265, 60% female) reported on their goals in the work domain, and related appraisals of…

  15. Posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms among adult survivors of the 2008 Sichuan earthquake in China.

    PubMed

    Chan, Cecilia Lai Wan; Wang, Chong-Wen; Qu, Zhiyong; Lu, Ben Qibin; Ran, Mao-Sheng; Ho, Andy Hau Yan; Yuan, Yin; Zhang, Braven Qiang; Wang, Xiying; Zhang, Xiulan

    2011-06-01

    This study examined the estimated prevalence rate of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and associated risk factors among Chinese adult survivors 7 to 8 months after the 2008 Sichuan earthquake. The sample was recruited from 2 areas close to the epicenter but of different distances. The estimated rate of PTSD symptoms was 55.6% and 26.4% respectively in the two areas. Loss of a child was a strong predictive factor for PTSD symptoms for the parents. Other predictive factors included female gender, loss of a parent, loss of friends or neighbors, residential house damage or collapse, and proximity to the epicenter. Effective and sustainable mental health services are needed and should be directed particularly to bereaved survivors. PMID:21608035

  16. Symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder among adult survivors two months after the Wenchuan earthquake.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li; Zhang, Yuqing; Shi, Zhanbiao; Wang, Wenzhong

    2009-12-01

    This study investigated the symptoms of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and associated risk factors among adult survivors 2 mo. after the Wenchuan earthquake in China. 228 survivors completed the Chinese version of the Impact of Event Scale-Revised. The prevalence of probable PTSD was 43%. The significant predictive factors for the severity of PTSD symptoms included being female, having lower educational level, being bereaved, and witnessing death. Findings of this study suggest that PTSD is a common mental health problem among earthquake survivors in China. Given inadequate knowledge and practices concerning the mental health of disaster victims in China, the information provided by this study is useful for directing, strengthening, and evaluating disaster-related mental health needs and interventions after earthquakes. PMID:20099550

  17. Cognitive adaptations to stressful environments: When childhood adversity enhances adult executive function.

    PubMed

    Mittal, Chiraag; Griskevicius, Vladas; Simpson, Jeffry A; Sung, Sooyeon; Young, Ethan S

    2015-10-01

    Can growing up in a stressful childhood environment enhance certain cognitive functions? Drawing participants from higher-income and lower-income backgrounds, we tested how adults who grew up in harsh or unpredictable environments fared on 2 types of executive function tasks: inhibition and shifting. People who experienced unpredictable childhoods performed worse at inhibition (overriding dominant responses), but performed better at shifting (efficiently switching between different tasks). This finding is consistent with the notion that shifting, but not inhibition, is especially useful in unpredictable environments. Importantly, differences in executive function between people who experienced unpredictable versus predictable childhoods emerged only when they were tested in uncertain contexts. This catalyst suggests that some individual differences related to early life experience are manifested under conditions of uncertainty in adulthood. Viewed as a whole, these findings indicate that adverse childhood environments do not universally impair mental functioning, but can actually enhance specific types of cognitive performance in the face of uncertainty. PMID:26414842

  18. Disability, Health Insurance and Psychological Distress among US Adults: An Application of the Stress Process

    PubMed Central

    Alang, Sirry M.; McAlpine, Donna D.; Henning-Smith, Carrie E.

    2014-01-01

    Structural resources, including access to health insurance, are understudied in relation to the stress process. Disability increases the likelihood of mental health problems, but health insurance may moderate this relationship. We explore health insurance coverage as a moderator of the relationship between disability and psychological distress. A pooled sample from 2008–2010 (N=57,958) was obtained from the Integrated Health Interview Series. Chow tests were performed to assess insurance group differences in the association between disability and distress. Results indicated higher levels of distress associated with disability among uninsured adults compared to their peers with public or private insurance. The strength of the relationship between disability and distress was weaker for persons with public compared to private insurance. As the Affordable Care Act is implemented, decision-makers should be aware of the potential for insurance coverage, especially public, to ameliorate secondary conditions such as psychological distress among persons who report a physical disability. PMID:25767740

  19. Acute stress enhances adult rat hippocampal neurogenesis and activation of newborn neurons via secreted astrocytic FGF2

    PubMed Central

    Kirby, Elizabeth D; Muroy, Sandra E; Sun, Wayne G; Covarrubias, David; Leong, Megan J; Barchas, Laurel A; Kaufer, Daniela

    2013-01-01

    Stress is a potent modulator of the mammalian brain. The highly conserved stress hormone response influences many brain regions, particularly the hippocampus, a region important for memory function. The effect of acute stress on the unique population of adult neural stem/progenitor cells (NPCs) that resides in the adult hippocampus is unclear. We found that acute stress increased hippocampal cell proliferation and astrocytic fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) expression. The effect of acute stress occurred independent of basolateral amygdala neural input and was mimicked by treating isolated NPCs with conditioned media from corticosterone-treated primary astrocytes. Neutralization of FGF2 revealed that astrocyte-secreted FGF2 mediated stress-hormone-induced NPC proliferation. 2 weeks, but not 2 days, after acute stress, rats also showed enhanced fear extinction memory coincident with enhanced activation of newborn neurons. Our findings suggest a beneficial role for brief stress on the hippocampus and improve understanding of the adaptive capacity of the brain. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.00362.001 PMID:23599891

  20. Starvation stress during larval development facilitates an adaptive response in adult worker honey bees (Apis mellifera L.).

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying; Kaftanoglu, Osman; Brent, Colin S; Page, Robert E; Amdam, Gro V

    2016-04-01

    Most organisms are constantly faced with environmental changes and stressors. In diverse organisms, there is an anticipatory mechanism during development that can program adult phenotypes. The adult phenotype would be adapted to the predicted environment that occurred during organism maturation. However, whether this anticipatory mechanism is present in eusocial species is questionable because eusocial organisms are largely shielded from exogenous conditions by their stable nest environment. In this study, we tested whether food deprivation during development of the honey bee (Apis mellifera), a eusocial insect model, can shift adult phenotypes to better cope with nutritional stress. After subjecting fifth instar worker larvae to short-term starvation, we measured nutrition-related morphology, starvation resistance, physiology, endocrinology and behavior in the adults. We found that the larval starvation caused adult honey bees to become more resilient toward starvation. Moreover, the adult bees were characterized by reduced ovary size, elevated glycogen stores and juvenile hormone (JH) titers, and decreased sugar sensitivity. These changes, in general, can help adult insects survive and reproduce in food-poor environments. Overall, we found for the first time support for an anticipatory mechanism in a eusocial species, the honey bee. Our results suggest that this mechanism may play a role in honey bee queen-worker differentiation and worker division of labor, both of which are related to the responses to nutritional stress. PMID:27030775

  1. Unpredictable neonatal stress enhances adult anxiety and alters amygdala gene expression related to serotonin and GABA.

    PubMed

    Sarro, E C; Sullivan, R M; Barr, G

    2014-01-31

    Anxiety-related disorders are among the most common psychiatric illnesses, thought to have both genetic and environmental causes. Early-life trauma, such as abuse from a caregiver, can be predictable or unpredictable, each resulting in increased prevalence and severity of a unique set of disorders. In this study, we examined the influence of early unpredictable trauma on both the behavioral expression of adult anxiety and gene expression within the amygdala. Neonatal rats were exposed to unpaired odor-shock conditioning for 5 days, which produces deficits in adult behavior and amygdala dysfunction. In adulthood, we used the Light/Dark box test to measure anxiety-related behaviors, measuring the latency to enter the lit area and quantified urination and defecation. The amygdala was then dissected and a microarray analysis was performed to examine changes in gene expression. Animals that had received early unpredictable trauma displayed significantly longer latencies to enter the lit area and more defecation and urination. The microarray analysis revealed over-represented genes related to learning and memory, synaptic transmission and trans-membrane transport. Gene ontology and pathway analysis identified highly represented disease states related to anxiety phenotypes, including social anxiety, obsessive-compulsive disorders, post-traumatic stress disorder and bipolar disorder. Addiction-related genes were also overrepresented in this analysis. Unpredictable shock during early development increased anxiety-like behaviors in adulthood with concomitant changes in genes related to neurotransmission, resulting in gene expression patterns similar to anxiety-related psychiatric disorders. PMID:24240029

  2. Early adult sexual assault and disordered eating: the mediating role of posttraumatic stress symptoms.

    PubMed

    Dubosc, Auberi; Capitaine, Maud; Franko, Debra L; Bui, Eric; Brunet, Alain; Chabrol, Henri; Rodgers, Rachel F

    2012-02-01

    Although adult sexual assault has been suggested to be a risk factor for disordered eating, little is known about the pathways leading to this disorder. This study aimed to examine the mediating effect of depressive symptoms and symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), in the relationship between sexual assault and disordered eating among female students. A sample of 296 French female students completed a questionnaire assessing experiences of sexual assault from age 15, PTSD symptoms, depressive symptoms, and disordered eating. Results revealed that PTSD symptoms fully mediated the effect of early adult sexual assault on disordered eating (B = 1.10, SE = 1.64), and depressive symptoms were a partial mediator of this relationship (B = 2.64, SE = 1.28). When examining both mediators simultaneously the relationship was fully mediated and neither variable emerged as a significantly stronger mediator. Our findings highlight the complex relationship between PTSD symptoms, depressive symptoms, and disordered eating following sexual assault. Further investigation into the temporal relationships between these variables would contribute to inform prevention interventions for disordered eating. PMID:22354508

  3. Psychological treatments for adults with posttraumatic stress disorder: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Cusack, Karen; Jonas, Daniel E; Forneris, Catherine A; Wines, Candi; Sonis, Jeffrey; Middleton, Jennifer Cook; Feltner, Cynthia; Brownley, Kimberly A; Olmsted, Kristine Rae; Greenblatt, Amy; Weil, Amy; Gaynes, Bradley N

    2016-02-01

    Numerous guidelines have been developed over the past decade regarding treatments for Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, given differences in guideline recommendations, some uncertainty exists regarding the selection of effective PTSD therapies. The current manuscript assessed the efficacy, comparative effectiveness, and adverse effects of psychological treatments for adults with PTSD. We searched MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, PILOTS, Embase, CINAHL, PsycINFO, and the Web of Science. Two reviewers independently selected trials. Two reviewers assessed risk of bias and graded strength of evidence (SOE). We included 64 trials; patients generally had severe PTSD. Evidence supports efficacy of exposure therapy (high SOE) including the manualized version Prolonged Exposure (PE); cognitive therapy (CT), cognitive processing therapy (CPT), cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT)-mixed therapies (moderate SOE); eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) and narrative exposure therapy (low-moderate SOE). Effect sizes for reducing PTSD symptoms were large (e.g., Cohen's d ~-1.0 or more compared with controls). Numbers needed to treat (NNTs) were <4 to achieve loss of PTSD diagnosis for exposure therapy, CPT, CT, CBT-mixed, and EMDR. Several psychological treatments are effective for adults with PTSD. Head-to-head evidence was insufficient to determine these treatments' comparative effectiveness, and data regarding adverse events was absent from most studies. PMID:26574151

  4. Differential effects of alprazolam and clonazepam on the immune system and blood vessels of non-stressed and stressed adult male albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Elmesallamy, Ghada E.; Abass, Marwa A.; Ahmed Refat, Nahla A.G.; Atta, Amal H.

    2011-01-01

    Benzodiazepines belongs to one of the most commonly used anxiolytic and anticonvulsant drugs in the world. Full description of toxic effects on different organs is lacking for nearly all the current benzodiazepines. The aim of the current work was to study the immunologic and vascular changes induced by sub-chronic administration of alprazolam and clonazepam in non-stressed and stressed adult male albino rats. Forty-two adult male albino rats were divided into 6 groups (I): (Ia) Negative control rats, (Ib): Positive control rats received distilled water, (II): Stressed rats, (III): Non-stressed rats received daily oral dose of clonazepam (0.5 mg/kg), (IV): Stressed rats received daily oral dose of clonazepam (0.5 mg/kg), (V): Non-stressed rats received daily oral dose of alprazolam (0.3 mg/kg). (VI): Stressed rats received daily oral dose of alprazolam (0.3 mg/kg). At the end of the 4th week, total leukocyte count (WBCs) and differential count were determined, anti-sheep RBC antibody (Anti-SRBC) titer and interleukin-2 (IL-2) level were assessed, thymus glands, lymph nodes, spleens and abdominal aortae were submitted to histopathological examination. Alprazolam was found to induce a significant increase in neutrophil count and a significant decrease in lymphocytes, anti-SRBC titer and IL-2 level with severe depletion of the splenic, thymal and nodal lymphocytes, accompanied by congestion and eosinophilic vasculitis of all organs tested in comparison to clonazepam treated rats. Stress enhanced the toxic effects. It was concluded that the immune system and blood vessels can be adversely affected to a greater extent by short-term chronic administration of alprazolam than by clonazepam, and these toxic effects are aggravated by stress. PMID:22058654

  5. [Relationships between biomarkers of oxidative stress and nutritional status in adults, Ecuador].

    PubMed

    Salazar-Lugo, Raquel; Barahona, Amparito; Santamaria, Manuel; Salas, Hilda; Oleas, Mariana; Bermeo, Bélgica

    2014-12-01

    In this work it was evaluated the relationship between oxidative stress biomarkers (uric acid, bilirubin and C-reactive protein) with nutritional status in 321 adults of Ecuador, belonging to administrative staff of of the Universidad Tècnica del Norte, aged 43 ± 10 years old (46 30% female and 53.61% male). Socio demographic and epidemiological information and lifestyle were obtained through a survey; The Body Mass Index (BMI) and body fat and body water percentages were calculated; waist circumference (WC) and blood pressure was measured. Determinations of uric acid, bilirubin, and serum C-reactive protein (PCR) were performed. 17.9% of the populations were obese and 51.72% overweight. The highest values of uric acid were found in obese, hypertensive and physical activity groups. The total direct and indirect bilirubin were found in upper limits in abdominal obesity and physical activity groups. The CRP level was influenced by % fat and % water in the low body fat group and in females. In male, BMI and WC were associated with CRP. Uric acid showed relationship with % fat and WC in overweight, high body fat and PHT groups, uric acid was associated with the % water and BMI in obese. Finally, uric acid was associated with % water and the WC in the abdominal obesity, and HT groups'. The body water percentage is an important indicator to development of oxidative stress in this population. PMID:26336722

  6. Decreased Default Network Connectivity is Associated with Early Life Stress in Medication-Free Healthy Adults

    PubMed Central

    Philip, Noah S.; Sweet, Lawrence H.; Tyrka, Audrey R.; Price, Lawrence H.; Bloom, Rachel F.; Carpenter, Linda L.

    2012-01-01

    Early life stress (ELS) is a significant risk factor for psychopathology, although there are few functional imaging studies investigating its effects. Previous literature suggests that ELS is associated with changes in structure and function in the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC), which forms the main anterior node of the default network (DN). This study investigated the impact of ELS history on resting state DN connectivity, using seed-based correlation analyses (SCA) involving the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC). Data were analyzed from 22 adult subjects without psychiatric or medical illness (13 with and 9 without ELS); none were taking psychotropic medication. Relative to controls, the ELS group had significant decreases in DN connectivity, observed between the PCC seed and the MPFC and inferior temporal cortex. Further analyses revealed a trend-level increase in connectivity between the amygdala and MPFC associated with ELS history. In conclusion, this study found that subjects with ELS, in the absence of psychiatric illness and medication exposure, demonstrated decreased DN connectivity, and trend-level increases in connectivity between the amygdala and MPFC. These findings suggest that altered resting state connectivity is a correlate of stress exposure, rather than a product of medication or psychiatric morbidity. PMID:23141153

  7. INCREASES IN ANXIETY-LIKE BEHAVIOR INDUCED BY ACUTE STRESS ARE REVERSED BY ETHANOL IN ADOLESCENT BUT NOT ADULT RATS

    PubMed Central

    Varlinskaya, Elena I.; Spear, Linda P.

    2011-01-01

    Repeated exposure to stressors has been found to increase anxiety-like behavior in laboratory rodents, with the social anxiety induced by repeated restraint being extremely sensitive to anxiolytic effects of ethanol in both adolescent and adult rats. No studies, however, have compared social anxiogenic effects of acute stress or the capacity of ethanol to reverse this anxiety in adolescent and adult animals. Therefore, the present study was designed to investigate whether adolescent [postnatal day (P35)] Sprague-Dawley rats differ from their adult counterparts (P70) in the impact of acute restraint stress on social anxiety and in their sensitivity to the social anxiolytic effects of ethanol. Animals were restrained for 90 min, followed by examination of stress- and ethanol-induced (0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, and 1 g/kg) alterations in social behavior using a modified social interaction test in a familiar environment. Acute restraint stress increased anxiety, as indexed by reduced levels of social investigation at both ages, and decreased social preference among adolescents. These increases in anxiety were dramatically reversed among adolescents by acute ethanol. No anxiolytic-like effects of ethanol emerged following restraint stress in adults. The social suppression seen in response to higher doses of ethanol was reversed by restraint stress in animals of both ages. To the extent that these data are applicable to humans, the results of the present study provide some experimental evidence that stressful life events may increase the attractiveness of alcohol as an anxiolytic agent for adolescents. PMID:22024161

  8. The effects of early-life predator stress on anxiety- and depression-like behaviors of adult rats.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lu-jing; Shen, Bing-qing; Liu, Dan-dan; Li, Sheng-tian

    2014-01-01

    Childhood emotional trauma contributes significantly to certain psychopathologies, such as post-traumatic stress disorder. In experimental animals, however, whether or not early-life stress results in behavioral abnormalities in adult animals still remains controversial. Here, we investigated both short-term and long-term changes of anxiety- and depression-like behaviors of Wistar rats after being exposed to chronic feral cat stress in juvenile ages. The 2-week predator stress decreased spontaneous activities immediately following stress but did not increase depression- or anxiety-like behaviors 4 weeks after the stimulation in adulthood. Instead, juvenile predator stress had some protective effects, though not very obvious, in adulthood. We also exposed genetic depression model rats, Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats, to the same predator stress. In WKY rats, the same early-life predator stress did not enhance anxiety- or depression-like behaviors in both the short-term and long-term. However, the stressed WKY rats showed slightly reduced depression-like behaviors in adulthood. These results indicate that in both normal Wistar rats and WKY rats, early-life predator stress led to protective, rather than negative, effects in adulthood. PMID:24839560

  9. The Effects of Early-Life Predator Stress on Anxiety- and Depression-Like Behaviors of Adult Rats

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Lu-jing; Shen, Bing-qing; Liu, Dan-dan; Li, Sheng-tian

    2014-01-01

    Childhood emotional trauma contributes significantly to certain psychopathologies, such as post-traumatic stress disorder. In experimental animals, however, whether or not early-life stress results in behavioral abnormalities in adult animals still remains controversial. Here, we investigated both short-term and long-term changes of anxiety- and depression-like behaviors of Wistar rats after being exposed to chronic feral cat stress in juvenile ages. The 2-week predator stress decreased spontaneous activities immediately following stress but did not increase depression- or anxiety-like behaviors 4 weeks after the stimulation in adulthood. Instead, juvenile predator stress had some protective effects, though not very obvious, in adulthood. We also exposed genetic depression model rats, Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats, to the same predator stress. In WKY rats, the same early-life predator stress did not enhance anxiety- or depression-like behaviors in both the short-term and long-term. However, the stressed WKY rats showed slightly reduced depression-like behaviors in adulthood. These results indicate that in both normal Wistar rats and WKY rats, early-life predator stress led to protective, rather than negative, effects in adulthood. PMID:24839560

  10. Sensitization to early life stress and response to chemical odors in older adults.

    PubMed

    Bell, I R; Schwartz, G E; Amend, D; Peterson, J M; Stini, W A

    1994-06-01

    This study examined the hypothesis that older persons who currently report illness from environmental chemical odors (cacosmia) may have experienced higher levels of stress early in life than did noncacosmic controls. The hypothesis derives from a time-dependent sensitization (TDS) model for cacosmia (Bell et al 1992) that predicts a relative interchangeability of stress and chemicals in inducing and eliciting sensitized responses in vulnerable individuals. Subjects were selected from those in the top 24% (cacosmic) and bottom 27% (noncacosmic) of a sample of 192 older adults (mean age 73.8 years) for self-reported frequency of illness form the odors of pesticide, car exhaust, paint, perfume, and new carpet. As in previous investigations, cacosmics were younger, more depressed, and more shy; cacosmics also included a higher proportion of women (83% versus 61%). As predicted, cacosmics rated themselves higher in stress for the first four decades of their lives, but not the recent past or present, even after controlling for depression, anxiety, hostility, shyness, age, and gender. Cacosmics reported increased prevalence of physician-diagnosed nasal allergies, breast cysts, hypothyroidism, sinusitis, food sensitivities, irritable bowel, and migraine headache. Only 4% of the overall sample (including 9% of the cacosmics) acknowledged the controversial physician diagnosis of "chemical sensitivity." The replicated observation of greater shyness in cacosmics is consistent with the ability of hyperreactivity to novelty to predict enhanced susceptibility to TDS from low levels of pharmacological agents in animals. The findings support a TDS model for cacosmia and suggest that cacosmia as a symptom identifies a large subset of the nonindustrial population with significant psychophysiological health problems that merit further objective examination. PMID:8054408

  11. Child Sexual Abuse, Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder, and Substance Use: Predictors of Revictimization in Adult Sexual Assault Survivors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ullman, Sarah E.; Najdowski, Cynthia J.; Filipas, Henrietta H.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the unique effects of child sexual abuse simultaneously with post-traumatic stress disorder symptom clusters, problem drinking, and illicit drug use in relation to sexual revictimization in a community sample of female adult sexual assault victims. Participants (N = 555) completed two surveys a year apart. Child sexual abuse…

  12. Integrating Art into Group Treatment for Adults with Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder from Childhood Sexual Abuse: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Carol-Lynne J.

    2015-01-01

    Current research supports the use of exposure-based treatments for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and integrated treatments show potential for enhanced symptom reduction. This pilot study developed a manualized group treatment integrating art interventions with exposure, grounding, and narrative therapy for five adults with PTSD who were…

  13. The Relationship between Word and Stress Pattern Recognition Ability and Hearing Level in Hearing-Impaired Young Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Pamela; Kelly-Ballweber, Denise

    1986-01-01

    The relationship between word and stress pattern recognition ability and hearing level was explored by administering the Children's Auditory Test to hearing-impaired young adults (N=27). For word recognition, subjects with average hearing loss between 85 and 100 decibels demonstrated a wide range of performance not predictable from their…

  14. Stressful Life Event Experiences of Homeless Adults: A Comparison of Single Men, Single Women, and Women with Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zugazaga, Carole

    2004-01-01

    This article describes stressful life events experienced by a multi-shelter sample of 162 homeless adults in the Central Florida area. Participants included homeless single men (n = 54), homeless single women (n = 54), and homeless women with children (n = 54). Subjects were interviewed with a modified version of the List of Threatening…

  15. Still Stressed but Feeling Better: Well-Being in Autism Spectrum Disorder Families as Children Become Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pozo, Pilar; Sarriá, Encarnación

    2015-01-01

    The transition to adulthood and adulthood itself have been identified as times of stress for parents of individuals with autism spectrum disorder. Longitudinal studies, however, show improvements in the well-being of mothers of adolescents and young adults with autism spectrum disorder. This article presents a cross-sectional study of 102 Spanish…

  16. Variation in adult life history and stress resistance across five species of Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Sharmila Bharathi, N; Prasad, N G; Shakarad, Mallikarjun; Joshi, Amitabh

    2003-12-01

    species. In terms of overall performance, the laboratory population of D. melanogaster was clearly superior, under laboratory conditions, to the other four species if adult lifespan, lifetime fecundity, average daily fecundity, and absolute starvation and desiccation resistance are considered. This finding is contrary to several recent reports of substantially higher adult lifespan and stress resistance in recently wild-caught flies, relative to flies maintained for a long time in discrete-generation laboratory cultures. Possible explanations for these apparent anomalies are discussed in the context of the differing selection pressures likely to be experienced by Drosophila populations in laboratory versus wild environments. PMID:15133195

  17. Adult Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms, Perceived Stress, and Well-Being: The Role of Early Maladaptive Schemata.

    PubMed

    Miklósi, Mónika; Máté, Orsolya; Somogyi, Klára; Szabó, Marianna

    2016-05-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most prevalent chronic neuropsychiatric disorders, severely affecting the emotional well-being of children as well as of adults. It has been suggested that individuals who experience symptoms of ADHD develop maladaptive schemata of failure, impaired self-discipline, social isolation, and shame. These schemata may then contribute to impaired emotional well-being by increasing unhelpful responses to stressful life events. However, to date, no empirical research has tested this theoretical proposition. In a sample of 204 nonclinical adults, we conducted a serial multiple mediator analysis, which supported the proposed model. More severe ADHD symptoms were associated with higher levels of perceived stress both directly and indirectly through stronger maladaptive schemata, which, in turn, were related to lower levels of emotional well-being. Results suggest that identifying and modifying maladaptive schemata may be an important addition to psychotherapy for adult ADHD patients. PMID:26825377

  18. Prenatal stress induces vulnerability to nicotine addiction and alters D2 receptors' expression in the nucleus accumbens in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Said, N; Lakehayli, S; El Khachibi, M; El Ouahli, M; Nadifi, S; Hakkou, F; Tazi, A

    2015-09-24

    Prenatal stress (PS) can induce several long-lasting behavioral and molecular abnormalities in rats. It can also be considered as a risk factor for many psychiatric diseases like schizophrenia, depression or PTSD and predispose to addiction. In this study, we investigated the effect of prenatal stress on the reinforcing properties of nicotine in the CPP paradigm. Then, we examined the mRNA expression of the D2 dopaminergic receptors using the quantitative real-time PCR technique in the nucleus accumbens (NAcc). We found that prenatally stressed rats exhibited a greater place preference for the nicotine-paired compartment than the control rats. Moreover, we observed an overexpression of the DRD2 gene in adult offspring stressed in utero and a downregulation in the PS NIC group (PS rats treated with nicotine) compared with their control counterparts (C NIC). These data suggest that maternal stress can permanently alter the offspring's addictive behavior and D2 receptors' expression. PMID:26192093

  19. Prenatal stress alters diazepam withdrawal syndrome and 5HT1A receptor expression in the raphe nuclei of adult rats.

    PubMed

    Lakehayli, S; Said, N; El Khachibi, M; El Ouahli, M; Nadifi, S; Hakkou, F; Tazi, A

    2016-08-25

    Early-life events have long-term effects on brain structures and cause behavioral alterations that persist into adulthood. The present experiments were designed to investigate the effects of prenatal stress on diazepam-induced withdrawal syndrome and serotonin-1A (5HT1A) receptor expression in the raphe nuclei of adult offspring. The results of the present study reveal that maternal exposure to chronic footshock stress increased the anxiety-like behavior in the prenatally stressed (PS) animals withdrawn from chronic diazepam (2.5mg/kg/day i.p for 1week). Moreover, prenatal stress induced a down-regulation of 5HT1A mRNA in the raphe nuclei of adult offspring. To our knowledge, this study is the first to demonstrate that maternal exposure to chronic footshock stress enhances diazepam withdrawal symptoms and alters 5HT1A receptor gene expression in the raphe nuclei of adult offspring. Thus, more studies are needed to clarify the mechanisms underlying the decrease of 5HT1A receptors expression in the raphe nuclei of PS rats. PMID:27235743

  20. Chronic early postnatal scream sound stress induces learning deficits and NMDA receptor changes in the hippocampus of adult mice.

    PubMed

    Hu, Lili; Han, Bo; Zhao, Xiaoge; Mi, Lihua; Song, Qiang; Wang, Jue; Song, Tusheng; Huang, Chen

    2016-04-13

    Chronic scream sounds during adulthood affect spatial learning and memory, both of which are sexually dimorphic. The long-term effects of chronic early postnatal scream sound stress (SSS) during postnatal days 1-21 (P1-P21) on spatial learning and memory in adult mice as well as whether or not these effects are sexually dimorphic are unknown. Therefore, the present study examines the performance of adult male and female mice in the Morris water maze following exposure to chronic early postnatal SSS. Hippocampal NR2A and NR2B levels as well as NR2A/NR2B subunit ratios were tested using immunohistochemistry. In the Morris water maze, stress males showed greater impairment in spatial learning and memory than background males; by contrast, stress and background females performed equally well. NR2B levels in CA1 and CA3 were upregulated, whereas NR2A/NR2B ratios were downregulated in stressed males, but not in females. These data suggest that chronic early postnatal SSS influences spatial learning and memory ability, levels of hippocampal NR2B, and NR2A/NR2B ratios in adult males. Moreover, chronic early stress-induced alterations exert long-lasting effects and appear to affect performance in a sex-specific manner. PMID:27015584

  1. Honey bee workers that are pollen stressed as larvae become poor foragers and waggle dancers as adults.

    PubMed

    Scofield, Hailey N; Mattila, Heather R

    2015-01-01

    The negative effects on adult behavior of juvenile undernourishment are well documented in vertebrates, but relatively poorly understood in invertebrates. We examined the effects of larval nutritional stress on the foraging and recruitment behavior of an economically important model invertebrate, the honey bee (Apis mellifera). Pollen, which supplies essential nutrients to developing workers, can become limited in colonies because of seasonal dearths, loss of foraging habitat, or intensive management. However, the functional consequences of being reared by pollen-stressed nestmates remain unclear, despite growing concern that poor nutrition interacts with other stressors to exacerbate colony decline. We manipulated nurse bees' access to pollen and then assessed differences in weight, longevity, foraging activity, and waggle-dance behavior of the workers that they reared (who were co-fostered as adults). Pollen stress during larval development had far-reaching physical and behavioral effects on adult workers. Workers reared in pollen-stressed colonies were lighter and shorter lived than nestmates reared with adequate access to pollen. Proportionally fewer stressed workers were observed foraging and those who did forage started foraging sooner, foraged for fewer days, and were more likely to die after only a single day of foraging. Pollen-stressed workers were also less likely to waggle dance than their unstressed counterparts and, if they danced, the information they conveyed about the location of food was less precise. These performance deficits may escalate if long-term pollen limitation prevents stressed foragers from providing sufficiently for developing workers. Furthermore, the effects of brief pollen shortages reported here mirror the effects of other environmental stressors that limit worker access to nutrients, suggesting the likelihood of their synergistic interaction. Honey bees often experience the level of stress that we created, thus our findings

  2. Honey Bee Workers That Are Pollen Stressed as Larvae Become Poor Foragers and Waggle Dancers as Adults

    PubMed Central

    Scofield, Hailey N.; Mattila, Heather R.

    2015-01-01

    The negative effects on adult behavior of juvenile undernourishment are well documented in vertebrates, but relatively poorly understood in invertebrates. We examined the effects of larval nutritional stress on the foraging and recruitment behavior of an economically important model invertebrate, the honey bee (Apis mellifera). Pollen, which supplies essential nutrients to developing workers, can become limited in colonies because of seasonal dearths, loss of foraging habitat, or intensive management. However, the functional consequences of being reared by pollen-stressed nestmates remain unclear, despite growing concern that poor nutrition interacts with other stressors to exacerbate colony decline. We manipulated nurse bees’ access to pollen and then assessed differences in weight, longevity, foraging activity, and waggle-dance behavior of the workers that they reared (who were co-fostered as adults). Pollen stress during larval development had far-reaching physical and behavioral effects on adult workers. Workers reared in pollen-stressed colonies were lighter and shorter lived than nestmates reared with adequate access to pollen. Proportionally fewer stressed workers were observed foraging and those who did forage started foraging sooner, foraged for fewer days, and were more likely to die after only a single day of foraging. Pollen-stressed workers were also less likely to waggle dance than their unstressed counterparts and, if they danced, the information they conveyed about the location of food was less precise. These performance deficits may escalate if long-term pollen limitation prevents stressed foragers from providing sufficiently for developing workers. Furthermore, the effects of brief pollen shortages reported here mirror the effects of other environmental stressors that limit worker access to nutrients, suggesting the likelihood of their synergistic interaction. Honey bees often experience the level of stress that we created, thus our findings

  3. The Scars of Childhood Adversity: Minor Stress Sensitivity and Depressive Symptoms in Remitted Recurrently Depressed Adult Patients

    PubMed Central

    Burger, Huibert; Elgersma, Hermien; Riper, Heleen; Cuijpers, Pim; Dekker, Jack; Smit, Filip; Bockting, Claudi

    2014-01-01

    Background Childhood adversity may lead to depressive relapse through its long-lasting influence on stress sensitivity. In line with the stress sensitization hypothesis, minor (daily) stress is associated with depressive relapse. Therefore, we examine the impact of childhood adversity on daily stress and its predictive value on prospectively assessed depressive symptoms in recurrently depressed patients. Method Daily stress was assessed in recurrently depressed adult patients, enrolled into two randomized trials while remitted. The reported intensity and frequency of dependent and independent daily stress was assessed at baseline. Independent stress is externally generated, for example an accident happening to a friend, while dependent stress is internally generated, for example getting into a fight with a neighbor. Hierarchical regression analyses were performed with childhood adversity, independent and dependent daily stress as predictor variables of prospectively measured depressive symptoms after three months of follow-up (n = 138). Results We found that childhood adversity was not significantly associated with a higher frequency and intensity of daily stress. The intensity of both independent and dependent daily stress was predictive of depressive symptom levels at follow-up (unadjusted models respectively: B = 0.47, t = 2.05, p = 0.041, 95% CI = 0.02–0.92; B = 0.29, t = 2.20, p = 0.028, 95% CI = 0.03–0.55). No associations were found between childhood adversity and depressive symptoms at follow-up. Conclusion No evidence was found supporting stress sensitization due to the experience of childhood adversity in this recurrently depressed but remitted patient group. Nevertheless, our research indicates that daily stress might be a target for preventive treatment. Trial Registration Trial A: Nederlands Trial Register NTR1907 Trial B: Nederlands Trial Register NTR2503 PMID:25393812

  4. AMNESIA FOR EARLY LIFE STRESS DOES NOT PRECLUDE THE ADULT DEVELOPMENT OF PTSD SYMPTOMS IN RATS

    PubMed Central

    Poulos, Andrew M.; Reger, Maxine; Mehta, Nehali; Zhuravka, Irina; Sterlace, Sarah S.; Gannam, Camille; Hovda, David A.; Giza, Christopher C.; Fanselow, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Background Traumatic experience can result in life-long changes in the ability to cope with future stressors and emotionally salient events. These experiences, particularly during early development are a significant risk factor for later life anxiety disorders such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, because traumatic experience typically results in strong episodic memories, it is not known whether such long-term memories are necessary for particular features of PTSD such as enhanced fear and anxiety. Here we used a fear conditioning procedure in juvenile rats prior to maturation of the neural systems supporting declarative memory to assess the necessity of early memory to the later life development of PTSD related symptoms. Methods Nineteen-day old rats were exposed to unpredictable and inescapable footshocks and fear memory for the shock context was assessed during adulthood. Thereafter, adult animals were either exposed to single-trial fear conditioning, elevated plus-maze or sacrificed for basal diurnal corticosterone and quantification of neuronal glucocorticoid (G-R) and Neuropeptide Y receptors. Results Early trauma exposed rats displayed stereotypic footshock reactivity, yet by adulthood, hippocampus-dependent contextual fear related memory was absent. However, adult rats showed sensitized fear learning, aberrant basal circadian fluctuations of corticosterone, increased amygdalar G-R, decreased time spent in the open arm of an elevated plus maze and an odor aversion associated with early-life footshocks. Conclusions These results suggest that traumatic experience during developmental periods of hippocampal immaturity can promote lifelong changes in symptoms and neuropathology associated with human PTSD even if there is no explicit memory of the early trauma. PMID:24231200

  5. 6-gingerol ameliorates gentamicin induced renal cortex oxidative stress and apoptosis in adult male albino rats.

    PubMed

    Hegazy, Ahmed M S; Mosaed, Mohammed M; Elshafey, Saad H; Bayomy, Naglaa A

    2016-06-01

    Ginger or Zingiber officinale which is used in traditional medicine has been found to possess antioxidant effect that can control the generation of free radicals. Free radicals are the causes of renal cell degeneration that leads to renal failure in case of gentamicin induced toxicity. This study was done to evaluate the possible protective effects of 6-gingerol as natural antioxidant on gentamicin-induced renal cortical oxidative stress and apoptosis in adult male albino rats. Forty adult male albino rats were used in this study and were randomly divided into four groups, control group; 6-gingerol treated group; gentamicin treated group and protected group (given simultaneous 6-gingerol and gentamicin). At the end of the study, blood samples were drawn for biochemical study. Kidney sections were processed for histological, and immunohistochemical examination for caspase-3 to detect apoptosis and anti heat shock protein 47 (HSP47) to detect oxidative damage. Gentamicin treated rats revealed a highly significant increase in renal function tests, tubular dilatation with marked vacuolar degeneration and desquamation of cells, interstitial hemorrhage and cellular infiltration. Immunohistochemically, gentamicin treated rats showed a strong positive immunoreaction for caspase-3 and anti heat shock protein 47 (HSP47). Protected rats showed more or less normal biochemical, histological, and immunohistochemical pictures. In conclusion, co-administration of 6-gingerol during gentamicin 'therapy' has a significant reno-protective effect in a rat model of gentamicin-induced renal damage. It is recommended that administration of ginger with gentamicin might be beneficial in men who receive gentamicin to treat infections. PMID:27036327

  6. FUNCTIONAL IMPAIRMENT IN ADULTS WITH PAST POSTTRAUMATIC STRESS DISORDER: FINDINGS FROM PRIMARY CARE

    PubMed Central

    Westphal, Maren; Olfson, Mark; Gameroff, Marc J.; Wickramaratne, Priya; Pilowsky, Daniel J.; Neugebauer, Richard; Lantigua, Rafael; Shea, Steven; Neria, Yuval

    2013-01-01

    Background Although many patients with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) experience a reduction in posttraumatic symptoms over time, little is currently known about the extent of their residual functional impairment. This study examines functional impairment in primary care patients with a history of PTSD as compared to patients with current PTSD, and those who never developed PTSD following exposure to trauma. Methods The sample consisted of 321 trauma-exposed low-income, predominantly Hispanic adults attending a large urban primary care practice. PTSD was assessed with the Lifetime Composite International Diagnostic Interview and other psychiatric disorders with the SCID-I. Physical and mental health-related quality of life was assessed with the Medical Outcome Health Survey (SF-12), and functional impairment with items from the Sheehan Disability Scale and Social Adjustment Scale Self-Report. Results Logistic regression analyses controlling for gender, psychiatric comorbidity, and interpersonal traumas showed that although patients with past PTSD function significantly better than patients with current PTSD, they experience persisting deficits in mental health-related quality of life compared to trauma-exposed patients who never developed PTSD. Overall, results revealed a continuum of severity in psychiatric comorbidity, functioning, and quality of life, with current PTSD associated with the most impairment, never having met criteria for PTSD with the least impairment, and history of PTSD falling in between. Conclusions In this primary care sample, adults with a history of past PTSD but no current PTSD continued to report enduring functional deficits, suggesting a need for ongoing clinical attention. PMID:21681868

  7. Dyadic adjustment and parenting stress in internationally adoptive mothers and fathers: the mediating role of adult attachment dimensions

    PubMed Central

    Salcuni, Silvia; Miconi, Diana; Altoè, Gianmarco; Moscardino, Ughetta

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has shown that a positive marital functioning represents a resource in adoptive families, leading to a decrease in parenting stress, but little is known about the factors mediating such a relationship. This study aimed to explore whether adult attachment avoidance and anxiety mediate the effect of dyadic functioning on parenting stress in 90 internationally adoptive couples (mothers and fathers) who had adopted a child (aged 3–10 years) in the last 36 months. Participants completed self-report measures of dyadic adjustment, adult attachment, and parenting stress. A series of path analyses supported the mediation hypothesis, but differentially for mothers and fathers. Among mothers, there was a direct and negative relationship between dyadic adjustment and parenting stress. In addition, a better dyadic adjustment was related to lower levels of attachment anxiety, which in turn were associated with less parenting stress. Among fathers, increased dyadic adjustment was related to lower levels of attachment avoidance, which in turn were associated with reduced parenting stress. These findings suggest the importance of including both mothers and fathers in adoption research. Adoptive parents could benefit from specific interventions aimed at reducing attachment avoidance and anxiety by supporting parental sense of competence and involvement for mothers and fathers, respectively. PMID:26388799

  8. Pre and post-natal antigen exposure can program the stress axis of adult zebra finches: evidence for environment matching.

    PubMed

    Merrill, Loren; Grindstaff, Jennifer L

    2015-03-01

    Both maternal exposure to stressors and exposure of offspring to stressors during early life can have lifelong effects on the physiology and behavior of offspring. Stress exposure can permanently shape an individual's phenotype by influencing the development of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, which is responsible for the production and regulation of glucocorticoids such as corticosterone (CORT). In this study we used captive zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) to examine the effects of matching and mismatching maternal and early post-natal exposure to one of two types of antigens or a control on HPA axis reactivity in adult offspring. Prior to breeding, adult females were injected with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) or a control. Offspring of females in each of the three treatments were themselves exposed to LPS, KLH or a control injection at 5 and 28days post-hatch. When offspring were at least 18months of age, standardized capture and restraint stress tests were conducted to determine the impact of the treatments on adult stress responsiveness. We found significant interaction effects between maternal and offspring treatments on stress-induced CORT levels, and evidence in support of the environment matching hypothesis for KLH-treated birds, not LPS-treated birds. KLH-treated offspring of KLH-treated mothers exhibited reduced stress-induced CORT levels, whereas LPS-treated or control offspring of KLH-treated mothers exhibited elevated stress-induced CORT levels. Although the treatment effects on baseline CORT were non-significant, the overall pattern was similar to the effects observed on stress-induced CORT levels. Our results highlight the complex nature of HPA axis programming, and to our knowledge, provide the first evidence that a match or mismatch between pre and post-natal antigen exposure can have life-long consequences for HPA axis function. PMID:25535860

  9. Pre and post-natal antigen exposure can program the stress axis of adult zebra finches: evidence for environment matching

    PubMed Central

    Merrill, Loren; Grindstaff, Jennifer L.

    2014-01-01

    Both maternal exposure to stressors and exposure of offspring to stressors during early life can have lifelong effects on the physiology and behavior of offspring. Stress exposure can permanently shape an individual’s phenotype by influencing the development of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, which is responsible for the production and regulation of glucocorticoids such as corticosterone (CORT). In this study we used captive zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) to examine the effects of matching and mismatching maternal and early post-natal exposure to one of two types of antigens or a control on HPA axis reactivity in adult offspring. Prior to breeding, adult females were injected with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) or a control. Offspring of females in each of the three treatments were themselves exposed to LPS, KLH or a control injection at 5 and 28 days post-hatch. When offspring were at least 18 months of age, standardized capture and restraint stress tests were conducted to determine the impact of the treatments on adult stress responsiveness. We found significant interaction effects between maternal and offspring treatments on stress-induced CORT levels, and evidence in support of the environment matching hypothesis for KLH-treated birds not LPS-treated birds. KLH-treated offspring of KLH-treated mothers exhibited reduced stress-induced CORT levels, whereas LPS-treated or control offspring of KLH-treated mothers exhibited elevated stress-induced CORT levels. Although the treatment effects on baseline CORT were non-significant, the overall pattern was similar to the effects observed on stress-induced CORT levels. Our results highlight the complex nature of HPA axis programming, and to our knowledge, provide the first evidence that a match or mismatch between pre and post-natal antigen exposure can have life-long consequences for HPA axis function. PMID:25535860

  10. Life Course Pathways of Adverse Childhood Experiences Toward Adult Psychological Well-Being: A Stress Process Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Nurius, Paula S.; Green, Sara; Logan-Greene, Patricia; Borja, Sharon

    2015-01-01

    Growing evidence suggests that toxic stressors early in life not only convey developmental impacts but also augment risk of proliferating chains of additional stressors that can overwhelm individual coping and undermine recovery and health. Examining trauma within a life course stress process perspective, we posit that early childhood adversity carries a unique capacity to impair adult psychological well-being both independent of and cumulative with other contributors, including social disadvantage and stressful adult experiences. This study uses data from a representative population-based health survey (N = 13,593) to provide one of the first multivariate assessments of unique, cumulative, and moderated effects of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) toward explaining 3 related yet distinct measures of adult mental health: perceived well-being, psychological distress, and impaired daily activities. Results demonstrate support for each set of hypothesized associations, including exacerbation and amelioration of ACEs effects by adult stress and resilience resources, respectively. Implications for services and future research are discussed. PMID:25846195