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Sample records for advanced coal-fired boilers

  1. Engineering development of advanced coal-fired low-emission boiler system

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-02-26

    The Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center of the US Department of Energy (DOE) has contracted with Combustion Engineering, Inc. (ABB CE) to perform work on the Engineering Development of Advanced Coal-Fired Low-Emission Boiler Systems'' Project and has authorized ABB CE to complete Phase I on a cost-reimbursable basis. The overall objective of the Project is the expedited commercialization of advanced coal-fired low-emission boiler systems. The specified primary objectives are: NO[sub x] emissions not greater than one-third NSPS; SO[sub x] emissions not greater than one-third NSPS; and particulate emissions not greater than one-half NSPS. The specific secondary objectives are: Improved ash disposability and reduced waste generation; reduced air toxics emissions; increased generating efficiency. The final deliverables are a design data base that will allow future coal-fired power plants to meet the stated objectives and a preliminary design of a commercial generation unit.

  2. Concept selection for advanced low-emission coal fired boiler

    SciTech Connect

    Gorrell, R.L.; Rodgers, L.W.; Farthing, G.A.

    1993-12-31

    The Babcock & Wilcox Company (B&W), under contract to the US Department of Energy (DOE) with subcontract to Physical Sciences, Inc. (PSIT), the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) and United Engineers and Constructors (UE&C) has begun development of an advanced low-emission boiler system (LEBS). The initial phase of this multi-phase program required a thorough review and assessment of potential advanced technologies and techniques for control of combustion and flue gas emissions. Results of this assessment are presented in this paper.

  3. Advanced coal-fired slagging combustor for the low-emission boiler system

    SciTech Connect

    Diehl, R.C.; Eppich, H.M.; Stankevics, J.O.A.; Reich, J.E.; Beittel, R.; Ake, T.R.

    1994-12-31

    The Department of Energy, Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center has recently initiated a major engineering development program called {open_quotes}Combustion 2000{close_quotes} which is geared toward advanced coal-fired electric utility plants. The Riley Stoker Corp. is leading one of three teams developing a Low-Emission coal-fired Boiler System (LEBS), which will be commercial by the end of this decade. The Riley team includes Textron Defense Systems, Reaction Engineering, International, Sargent & Lundy Engineers, Research Cottrell, and Tecogen. In LEBS advanced pollution control goals will lower SOx and NOx emissions to 1/3 current New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) and particulate emissions to 1/2 current NSPS. Riley`s LEBS has selected the 4500 psi 1100{degrees}F double reheat cycle, which will include a high efficiency, once through supercritical Benson boiler.

  4. Engineering development of advanced coal-fired low-emissions boiler systems. Quarterly report, April 1--June 30, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-31

    This progress report is on the project by Babcock and Wilcox Company to develop an advanced coal-fired low-emissions boiler system. The topics of the report include project management, the NO{sub x} subsystem, the SO{sub 2}/particulate/air toxics/solid by-product subsystem, boiler subsystem, balance of plant subsystem, and controls and sensors subsystems.

  5. Engineering development of advanced coal-fired low emission boiler systems

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-01

    Riley Stoker Corporation is leading an R&D program for the expedited development of a new generation of pulverized coal-fired boiler systems. The overall objective is to develop relatively near term technologies to produce Low-Emission coal-fired Boiler Systems (LEBS) ready for full scale commercial generating plants by the end of the decade. The specific goal is to develop a LEBS incorporating an advanced slagging system for improved ash management in addition to meeting the emission and performance goals. This Concept Selection Report documents an evaluation of subsystems and LEBS concepts. Priority was given to the evaluation of the boiler system, steam cycle, and advanced slagging combustor. Some findings are as follows: An ultra supercritical steam cycle is required to meet project efficiency goals. The cost of electricity (COE) for this cycle, at today`s fuel prices, and without externality costs, is slightly higher than a conventional subcritical cycle. The supercritical cycle includes a substantial contingency. Reduction of contingency, escalation of fuel cost, or inclusion of externalities all lead to a lower COE for the supercritical cycle compared to the subcritical cycle. The advanced cycle is selected for inclusion in the LEBS. The advanced slagging combustor (TVC), should it meet the projected performance goals, yields a lower COE than either a dry firing system or a more conventional slagger fitted with post combustion NO{sub x} controls. Verification and development of the advanced slagger performance is the primary focus of this project. A commercial slagging configuration know as U-firing is selected for parallel development and as a platform for adaptation to the TVC.

  6. Development of advanced NO[sub x] control concepts for coal-fired utility boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, A.; Pont, J.N.; England, G.; Seeker, W.R.

    1993-03-04

    The complete CombiNO[sub x], process has now been demonstrated at a level that is believed to be representative of a full-scale boiler in terms of mixing capabilities. A summary of the results is displayedin Figure 5-1. While firing Illinois Coal on the Reburn Tower, Advanced Reburning was capable of reducing NO[sub x], by 83 percent. The injection of methanol oxidized 50--58 percent of the existing NO to N0[sub 2]. Assuming that 85 percent of the newly formed N0[sub 2] can be scrubbed in a liquor modified wet-limestone scrubber, the CombiNO[sub x], process has been shown capable of reducing NO[sub 2], by 90--91 percent in a large pilot-scale coal-fired furnace. There is still uncertainty regarding the fate of the N0[sub 2] formed with methanol injection. Tests should be conducted to determine whether the reconversion is thermodynamic or catalytic, and what steps can be taken (such as quench rate) to prevent it from happening.

  7. Component development in support of B and W`s advanced coal-fired low-emissions boiler system

    SciTech Connect

    McDonald, D.K.; Madden, D.A.; Rodgers, L.W.; Sivy, J.L.

    1995-12-31

    Shortly after the year 2000 it is expected that new generating plants will be needed in North America to meet the growing demand for electricity and to replace the aging plants that are nearing the end of their useful service life. If coal is to remain the fuel of choice for this new and replacement power generation, the plants of the future will need to be extremely clean, highly efficient and economical. Continuing concerns over acid rain, air toxics, global climate changes, ozone depletion and solid waste disposal are expected to further tighten regulations for new coal-fired plants. To address the design issues facing new and replacement coal-fired power plants, Babcock and Wilcox (B and W), under contract to the US Department of Energy (DOE), with subcontracts to Physical Sciences Inc. (PSI) and Raytheon Engineers and Constructors (RE and C), has been developing an advanced generating plant design in DOE`s Combustion 2000 program entitled, ``Engineering Development of Advanced Coal-Fired Low-Emission Boiler System`` (LEBS). The project objective is to design a new boiler equipped with improved combustion and heat transfer subsystems and advanced environmental control technologies capable of achieving emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}), and particulates far below current New Source Performance Standards (NSPS). In Phase 1, completed in 1994, a thorough review and assessment of potential advanced technologies and techniques for the control of emissions, and a review of boiler design options were performed. In phases 2 and 3 currently underway, research and development continues to resolve design uncertainties at the pilot and subsystem scale. A preliminary design for a Proof-Of-Concept (POC) Demonstration Facility has also been completed. Results of these activities will be presented in this paper.

  8. The worldwide applicability of B and W`s advanced coal-fired low-emission boiler system

    SciTech Connect

    McDonald, D.K.; Madden, D.A.; Sivy, J.L.

    1996-12-31

    Babcock and Wilcox, under contract to the US Department of Energy (DOE), has been developing an advanced generating plant design in DOE`s Combustion 2000 program entitled, Engineering Development of Advanced Coal-Fired Low Emission Boiler System. The objective of the LEBS program is to develop an advanced pulverized coal (PC) fired power generation system for commercial application by the year 2000. Since concerns over acid rain, air toxics, global climate changes, ozone depletion and solid waste disposal are expected to further tighten regulations for new coal-fired plants, the system must achieve very low emissions and high cycle efficiency at a life cycle cost equivalent to a conventional PC plant meeting New Source Performance Standards (NSPS). B and W has coupled advanced environmental control technologies capable of achieving emissions or NO{sub x}, SO{sub x}, and particulate far below current NSPS with an advanced boiler equipped with improved combustion and heat transfer subsystems to meet this objective. The B and W LEBS plant uses conventional state-of-the-art equipment along with developing new technologies to meet the program goals. This combustion of new and proven technologies allows B and W to meet the current demands in the marketplace. This paper describes B and W`s advanced generating plant design and its relevance to both the foreign and domestic markets.

  9. Engineering development of advanced coal-fired low-emission boiler system. Technical progress report No. 1, August--December 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-02-26

    The Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center of the US Department of Energy (DOE) has contracted with Combustion Engineering, Inc. (ABB CE) to perform work on the ``Engineering Development of Advanced Coal-Fired Low-Emission Boiler Systems`` Project and has authorized ABB CE to complete Phase I on a cost-reimbursable basis. The overall objective of the Project is the expedited commercialization of advanced coal-fired low-emission boiler systems. The specified primary objectives are: NO{sub x} emissions not greater than one-third NSPS; SO{sub x} emissions not greater than one-third NSPS; and particulate emissions not greater than one-half NSPS. The specific secondary objectives are: Improved ash disposability and reduced waste generation; reduced air toxics emissions; increased generating efficiency. The final deliverables are a design data base that will allow future coal-fired power plants to meet the stated objectives and a preliminary design of a commercial generation unit.

  10. [Engineering development of advanced coal-fired low-emission boiler systems]. Technical progress report, October--December 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Wesnor, J.D.; Bakke, E.; Bender, D.J.; Kaminski, R.S.

    1995-12-31

    The overall objective of the Project is the expedited commercialization of advanced coal-fired low-emisssion boiler systems. The primary objectives are: NO{sub x} emissions, lb/million Btu; SO{sub 2} emissions, lb/million Btu; particulate emissions, lb/million Btu; and net plant efficiency, not less than 42%. The secondary objectives are: improved ash disposability; reduced waste generation; and reduced air toxics emissions. Accomplishments to date are summarized for the following tasks: task 1, project planning and management; task 7, component development and optimization; task 8, preliminary POC test facility design; task 9, subsystem test design and plan; task 10, subsystem test unit construction; and task 11, subsystem test operation and evaluation.

  11. Retrofitted coal-fired firetube boiler and method employed therewith

    DOEpatents

    Wagoner, C.L.; Foote, J.P.

    1995-07-04

    A coal-fired firetube boiler and a method for converting a gas-fired firetube boiler to a coal-fired firetube boiler are disclosed. The converted boiler includes a plurality of combustion zones within the firetube and controlled stoichiometry within the combustion zones. 19 figs.

  12. Retrofitted coal-fired firetube boiler and method employed therewith

    DOEpatents

    Wagoner, Charles L.; Foote, John P.

    1995-01-01

    A coal-fired firetube boiler and a method for converting a gas-fired firetube boiler to a coal-fired firetube boiler, the converted boiler including a plurality of combustion zones within the firetube and controlled stoichiometry within the combustion zones.

  13. The development of a combustion system for B&W`s advanced coal-fired low-emission boiler system

    SciTech Connect

    Sivy, J.L.; Kaufman, K.C.; McDonald, D.K.

    1997-07-01

    Babcock & Wilcox has been leading a team in the development of an advanced coal-fired low emission boiler system (LEBS). The project objective is to design a new pulverized coal (PC) powered generating system equipped with improved combustion and heat transfer subsystems and advanced environmental control technologies capable of achieving emissions of NO{sub x}, SO{sub x}, and particulates far below current New Source Performance Standards (NSPS). The objectives of the program are to achieve continuous NO{sub x} emissions below 0.2 lb NO{sub x}/MBtu with a specified design coal, through combustion techniques only, with a further target of 0.1 lb NO{sub x}/MBtu using supplementary advanced flue gas cleanup technologies if necessary. The SO{sub 2} limit for the project has been set at 0.1 lb SO{sub 2}/MBtu, with a particulate emission limit of 0.01 lb particulate/MBtu. The net plant efficiency is specified to be at least 42% (HHV), while overall the cost of electricity must not increase relative to a conventional plant meeting cur-rent NSPS. The B&W LEBS plant uses conventional state-of-the-art equipment along with developing new technologies to meet the program goals. To meet this goal, B&W has coupled advanced environmental control technologies capable of achieving emission of NO{sub x}, SO{sub x}, and particulate far below current NSPS with an advanced boiler equipped with improved combustion and heat transfer subsystems. Phase I of the LEBS program began with a thorough review and assessment of potential advanced technologies and techniques. Through engineering analysis, pilot-scale testing, and numerical modeling in Phases I and II, a near full-scale 100 MBtu/hr advanced NO{sub x} emissions control system was designed, fabricated, and tested. Further experimental testing and numerical modeling has continued to refine the LEBS concept.

  14. Engineering development of advanced coal-fired low-emissions boiler systems. Fourth quarterly report, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1997-02-01

    The goal of the NO{sub x} Subsystem is to achieve continuous operation of the Low Emissions Boiler System (LEBS) at NO{sub x} emissions at or below 0. 20 lb/MBtu through combustion techniques only, with a further target of 0.1 lb NO{sub x}/MBtu using supplementary advanced flue gas cleanup technologies if necessary. These goals places practical constraints that must be considered on the NO{sub x} Subsystem design. Not only must the boiler be designed to achieve time temperature mixing histories that minimize NO{sub x}, but it must also be designed to operate that way throughout its working lifetime. Therefore, NO{sub x} minimization strategies must be integrated into the control systems for every boiler component from the pulverizers to the stack. Furthermore, these goals must be met without increases in carbon loss and CO emissions from the levels achieved with current low-NO{sub x} combustion systems. Therefore, the NO{sub x} Subsystem requires not only sound mechanical designs of burners, furnace surface, and staging air/fuel injectors, but also sensors and software to allow control of their operation. Through engineering analysis, experimental testing, and numerical modeling in Phase 2, an advanced low NO{sub x} control system is being developed. The progress of these activities is presented in this report.

  15. 500 MW demonstration of advanced wall-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide emissions from coal-fired boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Sorge, J.N.; Menzies, B.; Smouse, S.M.; Stallings, J.W.

    1995-09-01

    Technology project demonstrating advanced wall-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide NOx emissions from coal-fired boilers. The primary objective of the demonstration is to determine the long-term NOx reduction performance of advanced overfire air (AOFA), low NOx burners (LNB), and advanced digital control/optimization methodologies applied in a stepwise fashion to a 500 MW boiler. The focus of this paper is to report (1) on the installation of three on-line carbon-in-ash monitors and (2) the design and results to date from the advanced digital control/optimization phase of the project.

  16. Engineering development of advanced coal-fired low-emission boiler systems. Technical progress report No. 15, April 15 1996--June 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-19

    The Pittsburgh Energy Technology center of the US Department of Energy (DOE) has contracted with Combustion Engineering; Inc. (ABB CE) to perform work on the {open_quotes}Engineering Development of Advanced Coal-Fired Low-Emission Boiler Systems{close_quote} Project and has authorized ABB CE to complete Phase I on a cost-reimbursable basis and Phases II and III on a cost-share basis.

  17. Engineering development of advanced coal-fired low-emission boiler systems. Quarterly technical progress report No. 17, October 1, 1996--December 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Regan, J.W.; Bender, D.J.; Clark, J.P.; Wesnor, J.D.

    1997-01-01

    This report describes the work performed between October 1 and December 31, 1996 by the ABB team on U.S. Department of Energy project ``Engineering Development of Advanced Coal-Fired Low-Emission Boiler Systems`` (LEBS), which is part of the DOE`s Combustion 2000 Program. The overall objective of the LEBS Project is to dramatically improve environmental performance of future coal-fired power plants without adversely impacting efficiency or the cost of electricity. Near-term technologies, i.e., advanced technologies that are partially developed, will be used to reduce NO{sub x} and SO{sub 2} emission to one-sixth current NSPS limits and particulates to one- third current NSPS limits.

  18. Advances of flue gas desulfurization technology for coal-fired boilers and strategies for sulfur dioxide pollution prevention in China

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, C.; Zeng, G.; Li, G.; Qiu, J.

    1999-07-01

    Coal is one of the most important kinds of energy resources at the present time and in the immediate future in China. Sulfur dioxide resulting from combustion of coal is one of the principle pollutants in the air. Control of SO{sub 2} discharge is still a major challenge for environmental protection in developing China. In this paper, research, development and application of technology of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) for coal-fired boilers in China will be reviewed with emphasis on cost-effective technology, and the development trends of FGD technology, as well as the strategy for SO{sub 2} discharge control in China, will be analyzed. A practical technology for middle-small-sized boilers developed by the primary author and the field investigation results will also be presented. At present, there are four major kinds of FGD technologies that are practical to be applied in China for their cost-effectiveness and efficiency to middle-small-sized boilers. An important development trend of the FGD technology for middle-small-sized boilers for the next decade is improvement of the existing cost-effective wet-type FGD technology, and in the future it will be the development of dry-type FGD technology. For middle-sized generating boilers, the development direction of the FGD technology is the spraying and drying process. For large-sized generating boilers, the wet-type limestone-plaster process will still be applied in the immediate future, and dry-type FGD technologies, such as ammonia with electron beam irradiation, will be developed in the future. State strategies for the control of SO{sub 2} discharge will involve the development and popularization of efficient coal-fired devices, extension of gas coal and liquefied coal, spreading coal washing, and centralized heating systems.

  19. Engineering development of advanced coal-fired low-emissions boiler system. Phase II subsystem test design and plan - an addendum to the Phase II RD & T Plan

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-01

    Shortly after the year 2000 it is expected that new generating plants will be needed to meet the growing demand for electricity and to replace the aging plants that are nearing the end of their useful service life. The plants of the future will need to be extremely clean, highly efficient and economical. Continuing concerns over acid rain, air toxics, global climate changes, ozone depletion and solid waste disposal are expected to further then regulations. In the late 1980`s it was commonly believed that coal-fired power plants of the future would incorporate either some form of Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) or first generation Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion (PFBS) technologies. However, recent advances In emission control techniques at reduced costs and auxiliary power requirements coupled with significant improvements In steam turbine and cycle design have clearly indicated that pulverized coal technology can continue to be competitive In both cost and performance. In recognition of the competitive potential for advanced pulverized coal-fired systems with other emerging advanced coal-fired technologies, DOE`s Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) began a research and development initiative In late 1990 named, Combustion 2000, with the intention of preserving and expanding coal as a principal fuel In the Generation of electrical power. The project was designed for two stages of commercialization, the nearer-term Low Emission Boiler System (LEBS) program, and for the future, the High Performance Power System (HIPPS) program. B&W is participating In the LEBS program.

  20. 500 MW demonstration of advanced wall-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide emissions from coal-fired boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Sorge, J.N.; Larrimore, C.L.; Slatsky, M.D.; Menzies, W.R.; Smouse, S.M.; Stallings, J.W.

    1997-12-31

    This paper discusses the technical progress of a US Department of Energy Innovative Clean Coal Technology project demonstrating advanced wall-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions from coal-fired boilers. The primary objectives of the demonstration is to determine the long-term NOx reduction performance of advanced overfire air (AOFA), low NOx burners (LNB), and advanced digital control optimization methodologies applied in a stepwise fashion to a 500 MW boiler. The focus of this paper is to report (1) on the installation of three on-line carbon-in-ash monitors and (2) the design and results to date from the advanced digital control/optimization phase of the project.

  1. Development of advanced NO sub x control concepts for coal-fired utility boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Newhall, J.; England, G.; Seeker, W.R.

    1991-12-23

    Energy and Environmental Research Corporation (EER) is currently conducting a test program to develop an advanced NO{sub x} control method utilizing reburning, promoted selective noncatalytic agent injection. The study will consist of fundamental and process testing over a large enough range of operating parameters to significantly reduce the risk of a full scale demonstration project. The test plan for the fundamental testing phase of the program is presented here.

  2. ADVANCED FLUE GAS CONDITIONING AS A RETROFIT UPGRADE TO ENHANCE PM COLLECTION FROM COAL-FIRED ELECTRIC UTILITY BOILERS

    SciTech Connect

    Kenneth E. Baldrey

    2001-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy and ADA Environmental Solutions has begun a project to develop commercial flue gas conditioning additives. The objective is to develop conditioning agents that can help improve particulate control performance of smaller or under-sized electrostatic precipitators on utility coal-fired boilers. The new chemicals will be used to control both the electrical resistivity and the adhesion or cohesivity of the flyash. There is a need to provide cost-effective and safer alternatives to traditional flue gas conditioning with SO{sub 3} and ammonia. During the third reporting quarter, the electrostatic tensiometer for laboratory determination of flyash cohesivity was completed. Modifications were made to this method to improve repeatability. In addition, a new multi-cell laboratory flyash resistivity furnace was completed. Also during this quarter an agreement was reached for the initial field trial of the new additives at the City of Ames, Iowa Municipal Power Plant.

  3. ADVANCED FLUE GAS CONDITIONING AS A RETROFIT UPGRADE TO ENHANCE PM COLLECTION FROM COAL-FIRED ELECTRIC UTILITY BOILERS

    SciTech Connect

    Kenneth E. Baldrey

    2003-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy and ADA Environmental Solutions are engaged in a project to develop commercial flue gas conditioning additives. The objective is to develop conditioning agents that can help improve particulate control performance of smaller or under-sized electrostatic precipitators on utility coal-fired boilers. The new chemicals will be used to control both the electrical resistivity and the adhesion or cohesivity of the fly ash. There is a need to provide cost-effective and safer alternatives to traditional flue gas conditioning with SO{sub 3} and ammonia. During this reporting quarter, installation of a liquid flue gas conditioning system was completed at the American Electric Power Conesville Plant, Unit 3. This plant fires a bituminous coal and has opacity and particulate emissions performance issues related to fly ash re-entrainment. Two cohesivity-specific additive formulations, ADA-44C and ADA-51, will be evaluated. In addition, ammonia conditioning will also be compared.

  4. ADVANCED FLUE GAS CONDITIONING AS A RETROFIT UPGRADE TO ENHANCE PM COLLECTION FROM COAL-FIRED ELECTRIC UTILITY BOILERS

    SciTech Connect

    C. Jean Bustard; Kenneth E. Baldrey; Richard Schlager

    2000-04-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy and ADA Environmental Solutions has begun a project to develop commercial flue gas conditioning additives. The objective is to develop conditioning agents that can help improve particulate control performance of smaller or under-sized electrostatic precipitators on utility coal-fired boilers. The new chemicals will be used to control both the electrical resistivity and the adhesion or cohesivity of the flyash. There is a need to provide cost-effective and safer alternatives to traditional flue gas conditioning with SO{sub 3} and ammonia. Preliminary testing has identified a class of common deliquescent salts that effectively control flyash resistivity on a variety of coals. A method to evaluate cohesive properties of flyash in the laboratory has been selected and construction of an electrostatic tensiometer test fixture is underway. Preliminary selection of a variety of chemicals that will be screened for effect on flyash cohesion has been completed.

  5. Engineering development of advanced coal-fired low-emission boiler systems. Technical progress report No. 11, April 1995--June 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-30

    The Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has contracted with Combustion Engineering, Inc. (ABB CE) to perform work on the {open_quotes}Engineering Development of Advanced Coal-Fired Low-Emission Boiler Systems{close_quotes} Project and has authorized ABB CE to complete Phase I on a cost-reimbursable basis and Phases II and III on a cost-share basis. The overall objective of the Project is the expedited commercialization of advanced coal-fired low-emission boiler systems. The specified primary objectives are: (1) NO{sub x} emissions not greater than one-third NSPS. (2) SO{sub x} emissions not greater than one-third NSPS. (3) Particulate emissions not greater than one-half NSPS. The specific secondary objectives are: (1) Improved ash disposability and reduced waste generation. (2) Reduced air toxics emissions. (3) Increased generating efficiency. The final deliverables are a design data base that will allow future coal-fired power plants to meet the stated objectives and a preliminary design of a Commercial Generation Unit. The work in Phase I covered a 24-month period and included system analysis, RD&T Plan formulation, component definition, and preliminary Commercial Generating Unit (CGU) design. Phase II will cover a 15-month period and will include preliminary Proof-of-Concept Test Facility (POCTF) design and subsystem testing. Phase III will cover a 9-month period and will produce a revised CGU design and a revised POCTF design, cost estimate and a test plan. Phase IV, the final Phase, will cover a 36-month period and will include POCTF detailed design, construction, testing, and evaluation.

  6. Engineering development of advanced coal-fired low-emission boiler systems. Quarterly technical progress report, October--December 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-01-28

    Preliminary subsystem designs were developed for a Low-Emission Boiler System. Key features of the NO{sub x} and Boiler Subsystem includes: deep staged combustion with advanced low NO{sub x} burners in a furnace arrangement designed to minimize NO{sub x} emission, advanced pulverizer design, advanced operating diagnostics and control integration of steam conditions, combustion, burner management, and sootblowing.

  7. ADVANCED FLUE GAS CONDITIONING AS A RETROFIT UPGRADE TO ENHANCE PM COLLECTION FROM COAL-FIRED ELECTRIC UTILITY BOILERS

    SciTech Connect

    Kenneth E. Baldrey

    2001-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy and ADA Environmental Solutions are engaged in a project to develop commercial flue gas conditioning additives. The objective is to develop conditioning agents that can help improve particulate control performance of smaller or under-sized electrostatic precipitators on utility coal-fired boilers. The new chemicals will be used to control both the electrical resistivity and the adhesion or cohesivity of the fly ash. There is a need to provide cost-effective and safer alternatives to traditional flue gas conditioning with SO{sub 3} and ammonia. During this reporting quarter, further laboratory-screening tests of additive formulations were completed. For these tests, the electrostatic tensiometer method was used for determination of fly ash cohesivity. Resistivity was measured for each screening test with a multi-cell laboratory fly ash resistivity furnace constructed for this project. Also during this quarter chemical formulation testing was undertaken to identify stable and compatible resistivity/cohesivity liquid products.

  8. ADVANCED FLUE GAS CONDITIONING AS A RETROFIT UPGRADE TO ENHANCE PM COLLECTION FROM COAL-FIRED ELECTRIC UTILITY BOILERS

    SciTech Connect

    Kenneth E. Baldrey

    2003-07-30

    The U.S. Department of Energy and ADA Environmental Solutions are engaged in a project to develop commercial flue gas conditioning additives. The objective is to develop conditioning agents that can help improve particulate control performance of smaller or under-sized electrostatic precipitators on utility coal-fired boilers. The new chemicals will be used to control both the electrical resistivity and the adhesion or cohesivity of the fly ash. There is a need to provide cost-effective and safer alternatives to traditional flue gas conditioning with SO{sub 3} and ammonia. This quarterly report summarizes project activity for the period April-June, 2003. In this period there was limited activity and no active field trials. Results of ash analysis from the AEP Conesville demonstration were received. In addition, a site visit was made to We Energies Presque Isle Power Plant and a proposal extended for a flue gas conditioning trial with the ADA-51 cohesivity additive. It is expected that this will be the final full-scale evaluation on the project.

  9. Cermet composite thermal spray coatings for erosion and corrosion protection in combustion environments of advanced coal-fired boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Levin, B.F.; DuPont, J.N.; Marder, A.R.

    1996-05-01

    Research is presently being initiated to determine the optimum ceramic/metal combination in thermally sprayed metal matrix composite coatings for erosion and corrosion resistance in new coal-fired boilers. The research will be accomplished by producing model cermet composites using powder metallurgy and electrodeposition methods in which the effect of ceramic/metal combination for the erosion and corrosion resistance will be determined. These results will provide the basis for determining the optimum hard phase constituents` size and volume percent in thermal spray coatings. Thermal spray coatings will be applied by our industrial sponsor and tested in our erosion and corrosion laboratories. During the last quarter, model Ni-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} powder cermet composites were produced at Idaho National Engineering Laboratory by the Hot Isostatic Pressing (HIP) technique. The composite samples contained 0, 21, 27, 37, and 45 volume percent of Al{sub 2}O{sub 2} in a nickel matrix with an average size of alumina particles of 12 micrometers. The increase in volume fraction of alumina in the nickel matrix from 0 to 45% led to an increase in hardness of these composites from 85 to 180 HV{sub 1000}. The experimental procedure and preliminary microstructural characterization of Ni-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} composites are presented in this progress report along with plans for the research in coming year. 3 figs.

  10. ADVANCED FLUE GAS CONDITIONING AS A RETROFIT UPGRADE TO ENHANCE PM COLLECTION FROM COAL-FIRED ELECTRIC UTILITY BOILERS

    SciTech Connect

    Kenneth E. Baldrey

    2001-05-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy and ADA Environmental Solutions has begun a project to develop commercial flue gas conditioning additives. The objective is to develop conditioning agents that can help improve particulate control performance of smaller or under-sized electrostatic precipitators on utility coal-fired boilers. The new chemicals will be used to control both the electrical resistivity and the adhesion or cohesivity of the flyash. There is a need to provide cost-effective and safer alternatives to traditional flue gas conditioning with SO{sub 3} and ammonia. During the fourth reporting quarter, laboratory-screening tests of more than 20 potential additive formulations were completed. For these tests, the electrostatic tensiometer method was used for determination of flyash cohesivity. Resistivity was measured for each screening test with a new multi-cell laboratory flyash resistivity furnace constructed for this project. An initial field trial of three additive formulations was also conducted at the City of Ames, Iowa Municipal Power Plant.

  11. Engineering development of advanced coal-fired low-emission boiler systems. Technical progress report No. 12, July--September 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-27

    The overall objective of the Project is the expedited commercialization of advanced coal-fired low-emission boiler systems. The goals for emissions and plant efficiency are: NO{sub x} emissions not greater than 0.1 lb/million Btu; SO{sub x} emissions not greater than 0.1 lb/million Btu; particulate emissions not greater than 0.01 lb/million Btu; and net plant efficiency (HHV basis) not less than 42%. Other goals include: improved ash disposability and reduced waste generation; and reduced air toxics emissions. The final deliverables are a design data base that will allow future coal-fired power plants to meet the stated objectives, and a preliminary design of a Commercial Generation Unit. The work in Phase I covered a 24- month period and included system analysis, RD&T Plan formulation, component definition, and preliminary Commercial Generating Unit (CGU) design. Phase II will cover a 15-month period and will include preliminary Proof-of-Concept Test Facility (POCTF) design and subsystem testing. Phase III will cover a 9-month period and will produce a revised CGU design and a revised POCTF design, cost estimate and a test plan. Phase IV, the final Phase, will cover a 36- month period and will include POCTF detailed design, construction, testing, and evaluation.

  12. Upgrades and enhancements for competitive coal-fired boiler systems

    SciTech Connect

    Kitto, J.B. Jr.; Bryk, S.A.; Piepho, J.M.

    1996-12-31

    Deregulation of the electric utility industry is resulting in significant opportunities and challenges for US power generators. Existing coal-fired capacity potentially offers the lowest variable cost power production option if these units are upgraded to optimize capacity, operating cost (including fuel), efficiency, and availability while also meeting today`s stringent emissions control requirements. This paper highlights a variety of boiler system upgrades and enhancements which are being utilized to make aging coal-fired boilers low cost competitors in the 1990s.

  13. Microfine coal firing results from a retrofit gas/oil-designed industrial boiler

    SciTech Connect

    Patel, R.; Borio, R.W.; Liljedahl, G.

    1995-11-01

    Under US Department of Energy, Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) support, the development of a High Efficiency Advanced Coal Combustor (HEACC) has been in progress since 1987 at the ABB Power Plant Laboratories. The initial work on this concept produced an advanced coal firing system that was capable of firing both water-based and dry pulverized coal in an industrial boiler environment.

  14. Engineering development of advanced coal-fired low-emission boiler systems: Technical progress report No. 16, July-September 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Barcikowski, G.F.; Borio, R.W.; Bozzuto, C.R.; Burr, D.H.; Cellilli, L.; Fox, J.D.; Gibbons, T.B.; Hargrove, M.J.; Jukkola, G.D.; King, A.M.

    1996-11-27

    The overall objective of the Project is the expedited commercialization of advanced coal-fired low-emission boiler systems. The Project is under budget and generally on schedule. The current status is shown in the Milestone Schedule Status Report included as Appendix A. Under Task 7--Component development and optimization, the CeraMem filter testing was completed. Due to an unacceptably high flue gas draft loss, which will not be resolved in the POCTF timeframe, a decision was made to change the design of the flue gas cleaning system from Hot SNO{sub x}{sup {trademark}} to an advanced dry scrubber called New Integrated Desulfurization (NID). However, it is recognized that the CeraMem filter still has the potential to be viable in pulverized coal systems. In Task 8-- Preliminary POCTF design, integrating and optimizing the performance and design of the boiler, turbine/generator and heat exchangers of the Kalina cycle as well as the balance of plant design were completed. Licensing activities continued. A NID system was substituted for the SNO{sub x} Hot Process.

  15. SO2 ABATEMENT FOR COAL-FIRED BOILERS IN JAPAN

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report is a compilation of information on the current status of SO2 abatement technologies for coal-fired boilers in Japan, where strict ambient air quality standards for SO2 and NOx mandate the use of various air pollution control technologies. It focuses on flue gas desulfu...

  16. Controlling the Furnace Process in Coal-Fired Boilers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shatil', A. A.; Klepikov, N. S.; Smyshlyaev, A. A.; Kudryavtsev, A. V.

    2008-01-01

    We give an outline of methods using which the furnace process in coal-fired boilers can be controlled to expand the range of loads, reduce the extent to which the furnace is contaminated with slag and the amount of harmful substances is emitted, and when a change is made to another kind of fuel.

  17. Status of phase II subsystem testing in support of B and W`s advanced coal-fired low-emission boiler system

    SciTech Connect

    McDonald, D.K.; DeVault, D.J.

    1996-12-31

    In late 1990, the anticipated need for new generating capacity shortly after the year 2000 and the belief that coal will remain the fuel of choice for much of the domestic power industry motivated the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) to begin a two-stage research initiative named Combustion 2000. The nearest term Low-Emission Boiler System (LEBS) program was intended to support development of an advanced pulverized coal (PC)-fired power generation system for commercial application by the year 2000 and the High Performance Power System (HIPPS) program was designed to address technologies which will require more time to be commercially ready. Since 1992, Babcock and Wilcox, under contract to the DOE, with a subcontract to Raytheon Engineers and Constructors (RE and C), has been developing an advanced generating plant design under the LEBS program. Driven by concerns over SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, particulate and air toxics emissions as well as solid waste disposal for coal-fired plants, very low emissions and high cycle efficiency goals were established and subsequently tightened as the project progressed. Meanwhile, the life cycle cost target remains at the cost of a conventional PC plant meeting New Source Performance Standards (NSPS). B and W has coupled advanced environmental control technologies, capable of achieving emissions of SO{sub x}, NO{sub x} and particulate far below current NSPS, with an advanced boiler, equipped with improved combustion and heat transfer subsystems, to meet this objective. This paper describes the status of and recent results from the subsystem testing presently in progress at B and W`s Clean Environment Development Facility (CEDF) located at the Alliance Research Center, development of the Commercial Generating Unit design, and provides insight into future plans.

  18. Engineering development of advanced coal-fired low emission boiler systems. Fourth quarterly technical progress report, July 1993--September 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-31

    The LEBS plant design will be based on a high-sulfur Illinois No. 6 coal. This coal meets program selection requirements of extensive reserves and production, sulfur content, and representativeness. Two alternate test coals have been selected to examine fuel effects, and to broaden the range of application of the technology being developed. The alternate coals are a medium sulfur, Pittsburgh No. 8 bituminous, and a Wyoming subbituminous coal. The efficiency goals for the LEBS are challenging, particularly with the demands environmental controls are likely to place on auxiliary power. Table 1 shows estimates of overall plant efficiencies for three steam cycles: (1) a 2400 psi subcritical single reheat cycle typical of current plants; (2) a 3500 psi supercritical single reheat cycle; and (3) an advanced 4500 psi double reheat cycle. The plant heat rates are based on maximum boiler efficiency and minimum auxiliary power requirements consistent with conventional plant design for the design and alternate coals. The aggressive efficiency goals clearly require advanced steam conditions, as well as careful management of any added auxiliary power requirements for environmental controls. The EPRI SOAPP (State-of-the-Art Power Plant) project has selected the 4500 psi cycle as maximizing plant efficiency while minimizing generating costs for a commercial plant to be constructed by the year 2000. This program will incorporate the SOAPP base case cycle. The LESS design will incorporate a high-efficiency, once-through boiler design known as the Benson. Significant improvements in availability and operating flexibility have made this boiler design the system of choice for European power generation over the last fifteen years.

  19. Development of advanced NO{sub x} control concepts for coal-fired utility boilers. Quarterly technical progress report No. 8, July 1, 1992--September 30, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, A.; Pont, J.N.; England, G.; Seeker, W.R.

    1993-03-04

    The complete CombiNO{sub x}, process has now been demonstrated at a level that is believed to be representative of a full-scale boiler in terms of mixing capabilities. A summary of the results is displayed in Figure 5-1. While firing Illinois Coal on the Reburn Tower, Advanced Reburning was capable of reducing NO{sub x}, by 83 percent. The injection of methanol oxidized 50--58 percent of the existing NO to N0{sub 2}. Assuming that 85 percent of the newly formed N0{sub 2} can be scrubbed in a liquor modified wet-limestone scrubber, the CombiNO{sub x}, process has been shown capable of reducing NO{sub 2}, by 90--91 percent in a large pilot-scale coal-fired furnace. There is still uncertainty regarding the fate of the N0{sub 2} formed with methanol injection. Tests should be conducted to determine whether the reconversion is thermodynamic or catalytic, and what steps can be taken (such as quench rate) to prevent it from happening.

  20. Cermet composite thermal spray coatings for erosion and corrosion protection in combustion environments of advanced coal-fired boilers. Semi-annual technical progress report, February 1996--July 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Banovic, S.W.; Levin, B.F.; DuPont, J.N.; Marder, A.R.

    1996-08-01

    Present coal-fired boiler environments remain hostile to the materials of choice since corrosion and erosion can be a serious problem in certain regions of the boiler. Recently, the Clean Air Act Amendment is requiring electric power plants to reduce NO{sub x}, emissions to the environment. To reduce NO{sub x}, emissions, new low NO{sub x}, combustors are utilized which burn fuel with a substoichiometric amount of oxygen (i.e., low oxygen partial pressure). In these low NO{sub x} environments, H{sub 2}S gas is a major source of sulfur. Due to the sulfidation process, corrosion rates in reducing parts of boilers have increased significantly and existing boiler tube materials do not always provide adequate corrosion resistance. Combined attack due to corrosion and erosion is a concern because of the significantly increased operating costs which result in material failures. One method to combat corrosion and erosion in coal-fired boilers is to apply coatings to the components subjected to aggressive environments. Thermal spray coatings, a cermet composite comprised of hard ceramic phases of oxide and/or carbide in a metal binder, have been used with some success as a solution to the corrosion and erosion problems in boilers. However, little is known on the effect of the volume fraction, size, and shape of the hard ceramic phase on the erosion and corrosion resistance of the thermally sprayed coatings. It is the objective of this research to investigate metal matrix composite (cermet) coatings in order to determine the optimum ceramic/metal combination that will give the best erosion and corrosion resistance in new advanced coal-fired boilers.

  1. Engineering development of advanced coal-fired low emission boiler systems. First quarterly report, FY94, January 1994--March 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-08-01

    The major task during this quarter was testing and evaluation of the 25 MBtu/hr Toroidal Vortex Combustor (TVC) at Textron Defense Systems`` (TDS) Haverhill laboratories. The tests were completed and the results are being evaluated along with other scale up and integration issues. The preliminary conclusion is that the NOx performance and current design uncertainties do not justify the development risk within the Low Emission Boiler System (LEBS) timetable. Further program effort will focus on advanced U-firing arrangements. The second major effort during the period was the engineering development of the moving bed copper oxide system for SOx/NOx control. Through application of a DOE-developed model and the team`s engineering analysis, significant progress was made on developing an improved process design. Work began on a small scale test of the moving bed concept under realistic temperature and dust loading conditions. Work continued through the quarter on finalizing the Preliminary Engineering Design, Design Deficiency Analysis, and Research, Development, and Test Plan. The Design and Development Report containing these three deliverables was released in March. Sargent & Lundy printed and distributed the report to team members, as well as to the advisory panelists. The advisory panel numbers approximately fifteen organizations as of the end of the period.

  2. Engineering development of advanced coal-fired low-emissions boiler systems. Quarterly report, April--June 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-07-01

    The paper describes the following subsystems and gives a summary of activities and key accomplishments relating to each: the NO{sub x} subsystem; SO{sub 2}/particulate/air toxics/solid by-product subsystem; the boiler system; balance of the plant subsystem; and the controls and sensors subsystem. Project management activities are also described.

  3. Biomass cofiring in full-sized coal-fired boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Plasynski, S.I.; Costello, R.; Hughes, E.; Tillman, D.

    1999-07-01

    Biomass cofiring represents one alternative for reducing greenhouse gas emissions of carbon dioxide from fossil sources. Realizing this opportunity, the Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC), a field site of the Department of Energy (DOE), along with the EPRI, initiated a Program around two-years ago to research the feasibility of coal-fired boilers in cofiring of biomass and other waste-derived fuels. The cooperative agreement between FETC and EPRI includes cofiring at six different electric utility sites and one steam generation site. Boilers include wall-fired, tangential, cyclone, and stokers ranging in size from 15 to 500 MWe. Biomass consisting of wood (usually) and switchgrass (in two cases) will be the fuel, and pulp and plastics may be used in some waste-derived fuels cofiring tests. This paper will focus only on the biomass cofired tests in electric utility boilers.

  4. FUEL LEAN BIOMASS REBURNING IN COAL-FIRED BOILERS

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffrey J. Sweterlitsch; Robert C. Brown

    2002-07-01

    This final technical report describes research conducted between July 1, 2000, and June 30, 2002, for the project entitled ''Fuel Lean Biomass Reburning in Coal-Fired Boilers,'' DOE Award No. DE-FG26-00NT40811. Fuel Lean Biomass Reburning is a method of staging fuel within a coal-fired utility boiler to convert nitrogen oxides (NOx) to nitrogen by creating locally fuel-rich eddies, which favor the reduction of NOx, within an overall fuel lean boiler. These eddies are created by injecting a supplemental fuel source, designated as the reburn fuel, downstream of the primary combustion zone. Chopped biomass was the reburn fuel for this project. Four parameters were explored in this research: the initial oxygen concentration ranged between 1%-6%, the amount of biomass used as the reburn fuel ranged between from 0%-23% of the total % energy input, the types of biomass used were low nitrogen switchgrass and high nitrogen alfalfa, and the types of carrier gases used to inject the biomass (nitrogen and steam). Temperature profiles and final flue gas species concentrations are presented in this report. An economic evaluation of a potential full-scale installation of a Fuel-Lean Biomass Reburn system using biomass-water slurry was also performed.

  5. COAL-FIRED UTILITY BOILERS: SOLVING ASH DEPOSITION PROBLEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Christopher J. Zygarlicke; Donald P. McCollor; Steven A. Benson; Jay R. Gunderson

    2001-04-01

    The accumulation of slagging and fouling ash deposits in utility boilers has been a source of aggravation for coal-fired boiler operators for over a century. Many new developments in analytical, modeling, and combustion testing methods in the past 20 years have made it possible to identify root causes of ash deposition. A concise and comprehensive guidelines document has been assembled for solving ash deposition as related to coal-fired utility boilers. While this report accurately captures the current state of knowledge in ash deposition, note that substantial research and development is under way to more completely understand and mitigate slagging and fouling. Thus, while comprehensive, this document carries the title ''interim,'' with the idea that future work will provide additional insight. Primary target audiences include utility operators and engineers who face plant inefficiencies and significant operational and maintenance costs that are associated with ash deposition problems. Pulverized and cyclone-fired coal boilers are addressed specifically, although many of the diagnostics and solutions apply to other boiler types. Logic diagrams, ash deposit types, and boiler symptoms of ash deposition are used to aid the user in identifying an ash deposition problem, diagnosing and verifying root causes, determining remedial measures to alleviate or eliminate the problem, and then monitoring the situation to verify that the problem has been solved. In addition to a step-by-step method for identifying and remediating ash deposition problems, this guideline document (Appendix A) provides descriptions of analytical techniques for diagnostic testing and gives extensive fundamental and practical literature references and addresses of organizations that can provide help in alleviating ash deposition problems.

  6. ADVANCED FLUE GAS CONDITIONING AS A RETROFIT UPGRADE TO ENHANCE PM COLLECTION FROM COAL-FIRED ELECTRIC UTILITY BOILERS

    SciTech Connect

    C. Jean Bustard

    2003-12-01

    ADA Environmental Solutions (ADA-ES) has successfully completed a research and development program granted by the Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to develop a family of non-toxic flue gas conditioning agents to provide utilities and industries with a cost-effective means of complying with environmental regulations on particulate emissions and opacity. An extensive laboratory screening of potential additives was completed followed by full-scale trials at four utility power plants. The developed cohesivity additives have been demonstrated on a 175 MW utility boiler that exhibited poor collection of unburned carbon in the electrostatic precipitator. With cohesivity conditioning, opacity spiking caused by rapping reentrainment was reduced and total particulate emissions were reduced by more than 30%. Ammonia conditioning was also successful in reducing reentrainment on the same unit. Conditioned fly ash from the process is expected to be suitable for dry or wet disposal and for concrete admixture.

  7. Update of progress for Phase II of B&W`s advanced coal-fired low-emission boiler system

    SciTech Connect

    McDonald, D.K.; Madden, D.A.; Rodgers, L.W.

    1995-11-01

    Over the past five years, advances in emission control techniques at reduced costs and auxiliary power requirements coupled with significant improvements in steam turbine and cycle design have significantly altered the governing criteria by which advanced technologies have been compared. With these advances, it is clear that pulverized coal technology will continue to be competitive in both cost and performance with other advanced technologies such as Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) or first generation Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion (PFBC) technologies for at least the next decade. In the early 1990`s it appeared that if IGCC and PFBC could achieve costs comparable to conventional pulverized coal plants, their significantly reduced NO{sub x} and SO{sub 2} emissions would make them more attractive. A comparison of current emission control capabilities shows that all three technologies can already achieve similarly low emissions levels.

  8. Corrosion probes for fireside monitoring in coal-fired boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Covino, Bernard S., Jr.; Bullard, Sophie J.; Ziomek-Moroz, M.; Holcomb, Gordon R.

    2005-01-01

    Corrosion probes are being developed and combined with an existing measurement technology to provide a tool for assessing the extent of corrosion of metallic materials on the fireside in coal-fired boilers. The successful development of this technology will provide power plant operators the ability to (1) accurately monitor metal loss in critical regions of the boiler, such as waterwalls, superheaters, and reheaters; and (2) use corrosion rates as process variables. In the former, corrosion data could be used to schedule maintenance periods and in the later, processes can be altered to decrease corrosion rates. The research approach involves laboratory research in simulated environments that will lead to field tests of corrosion probes in coal-fired boilers. Laboratory research has already shown that electrochemically-measured corrosion rates for ash-covered metals are similar to actual mass loss corrosion rates. Electrochemical tests conducted using a potentiostat show the corrosion reaction of ash-covered probes at 500?C to be electrochemical in nature. Corrosion rates measured are similar to those from an automated corrosion monitoring system. Tests of corrosion probes made with mild steel, 304L stainless steel (SS), and 316L SS sensors showed that corrosion of the sensors in a very aggressive incinerator ash was controlled by the ash and not by the alloy content. Corrosion rates in nitrogen atmospheres tended to decrease slowly with time. The addition of oxygen-containing gases, oxygen and carbon dioxide to nitrogen caused a more rapid decrease in corrosion rate, while the addition of water vapor increased the corrosion rate.

  9. Coal-fired boiler costs for industrial applications

    SciTech Connect

    Kurzius, S.C.; Barnes, R.W.

    1982-04-01

    Several of the current sources of information provide data on coal-fired steam boiler costs. As published, these data give widely varying and possibly inconsistent conclusions. This study was undertaken to determine the extent to which the differences in the various sets of published data bases could be resolved and, if possible, to arrive at more reliable cost correlations to be used in Oak Ridge Energy Demand Models. Our principal finding is that it is indeed possible to restate the costs within each data base on a more consistent basis. When this is done, reasonable engineering correlations of all the cost data versus steam plant capacity can be made over the 10,000 to 5000,000 lb/hr range.

  10. Engineering development of advanced coal-fired low-emissions boiler systems. Quarterly report, October 1994--December 1994; January 1995--March 1995; April 1995--June 1995; July 1995--September 1995; October 1995--December 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1996-04-01

    This report covers five quarters of work on the engineering development of a coal-fired low -emissions boiler systems. Contents include summaries of activities and key accomplishments for the following: project management; NO{sub x} subsystem; SO{sub 2}/particulate/air toxics/solid by-product subsystems; controls and sensors subsystems; boiler subsystem; and balance of plant subsystem.

  11. 500 MW demonstration of advanced wall-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions from coal-fired boilers. Public design report (preliminary and final)

    SciTech Connect

    1996-07-01

    This Public Design Report presents the design criteria of a DOE Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT) project demonstrating advanced wall-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of NO{sub x} emissions from coal-fired boilers. The project is being conducted at Georgia Power Company`s Plant Hammond Unit 4 (500 MW) near Rome, Georgia. The technologies being demonstrated at this site include Foster Wheeler Energy Corporation`s advanced overfire air system and Controlled Flow/Split Flame low NO{sub x} burner. This report provides documentation on the design criteria used in the performance of this project as it pertains to the scope involved with the low NO{sub x} burners, advanced overfire systems, and digital control system.

  12. Cermet composite thermal spray coatings for erosion and corrosion protection in combustion environments of advanced coal-fired boilers. Semiannual technical report, January 14, 1997--August 14, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Schorr, B.S.; Levin, B.F.; DuPont, J.N.; Marder, A.R.

    1997-08-31

    Research is presently being conducted to determine the optimum ceramic/metal combination in thermally sprayed metal matrix composite coatings for erosion and corrosion resistance in new coal-fired boilers. The research will be accomplished by producing model cermet composites using powder metallurgy and electrodeposition methods in which the effect of ceramic/metal combination for the erosion and corrosion resistance will be determined. These results will provide the basis for determining the optimum hard phase constituent size and volume percent in thermal spray coatings. Thermal spray coatings will be applied by our industrial sponsor and tested in our erosion and corrosion laboratories. Bulk powder processed Ni-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} composites were produced at Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The composite samples contained 0, 21, 27, 37, and 45 volume percent Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} with an average particle size of 12 um. Also, to deposit model Ni-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} coatings, an electrodeposition technique was developed and coatings with various volume fractions (0-35%) of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} were produced. The powder and electrodeposition processing of Ni-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} Composites provide the ability to produce two phase microstructure without changing the microstructure of the matrix material. Therefore, the effect of hard second phase particles size and volume fraction on erosion resistance could be analyzed.

  13. COST OF SELECTIVE CATALYTIC REDUCTION (SCR) APPLICATION FOR NOX CONTROL ON COAL-FIRED BOILERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report provides a methodology for estimating budgetary costs associated with retrofit applications of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology on coal-fired boilers. SCR is a postcombustion nitrogen oxides (NOx) control technology capable of providing NOx reductions >90...

  14. 500 MW demonstration of advanced wall-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from coal-fired boilers. Technical progress report, second quarter 1994, April 1994--June 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    This quarterly report discusses the technical progress of an Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT) demonstration of advanced wall-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions from coal-fired boilers. The project is being conducted at Georgia Power Company`s Plant Hammond Unit 4 located near Rome, Georgia. The primary goal of this project is the characterization of the low NOx combustion equipment through the collection and analysis of long-term emissions data. A target of achieving fifty percent NOx reduction using combustion modifications has been established for the project. The project provides a stepwise retrofit of an advanced overfire air (AOFA) system followed by low NOx burners (LNB). During each test phase of the project, diagnostic, performance, long-term, and verification testing will be performed. These tests are used to quantify the NOx reductions of each technology and evaluate the effects of those reductions on other combustion parameters. Results are described.

  15. Temporal trends and spatial variation characteristics of primary air pollutants emissions from coal-fired industrial boilers in Beijing, China.

    PubMed

    Xue, Yifeng; Tian, Hezhong; Yan, Jing; Zhou, Zhen; Wang, Junling; Nie, Lei; Pan, Tao; Zhou, Junrui; Hua, Shenbing; Wang, Yong; Wu, Xiaoqing

    2016-06-01

    Coal-fired combustion is recognized as a significant anthropogenic source of atmospheric compounds in Beijing, causing heavy air pollution events and associated deterioration in visibility. Obtaining an accurate understanding of the temporal trends and spatial variation characteristics of emissions from coal-fired industrial combustion is essential for predicting air quality changes and evaluating the effectiveness of current control measures. In this study, an integrated emission inventory of primary air pollutants emitted from coal-fired industrial boilers in Beijing is developed for the period of 2007-2013 using a technology-based approach. Future emission trends are projected through 2030 based on current energy-related and emission control policies. Our analysis shows that there is a general downward trend in primary air pollutants emissions because of the implementation of stricter local emission standards and the promotion by the Beijing municipal government of converting from coal-fired industrial boilers to gas-fired boilers. However, the ratio of coal consumed by industrial boilers to total coal consumption has been increasing, raising concerns about the further improvement of air quality in Beijing. Our estimates indicate that the total emissions of PM10, PM2.5, SO2, NOx, CO and VOCs from coal-fired industrial boilers in Beijing in 2013 are approximately 19,242 t, 13,345 t, 26,615 t, 22,965 t, 63,779 t and 1406 t, respectively. Under the current environmental policies and relevant energy savings and emission control plans, it may be possible to reduce NOx and other air pollutant emissions by 94% and 90% by 2030, respectively, if advanced flue gas purification technologies are implemented and coal is replaced with natural gas in the majority of existing boilers. PMID:27023281

  16. ANALYSIS OF LOW NOX OPERATION OF TWO PULVERIZED-COAL FIRED UTILITY BOILERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a review of the operation of two pulverized-coal-fired utility boilers subject to the 1971 New Source Performance Standard, to determine if other boilers could adopt a similar mode of operation to reduce nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions. These two boiler...

  17. Adsorbents for capturing mercury in coal-fired boiler flue gas.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hongqun; Xu, Zhenghe; Fan, Maohong; Bland, Alan E; Judkins, Roddie R

    2007-07-19

    This paper reviews recent advances in the research and development of sorbents used to capture mercury from coal-fired utility boiler flue gas. Mercury emissions are the source of serious health concerns. Worldwide mercury emissions from human activities are estimated to be 1000 to 6000 t/annum. Mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants are believed to be the largest source of anthropogenic mercury emissions. Mercury emissions from coal-fired utility boilers vary in total amount and speciation, depending on coal types, boiler operating conditions, and configurations of air pollution control devices (APCDs). The APCDs, such as fabric filter (FF) bag house, electrostatic precipitator (ESP), and wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD), can remove some particulate-bound and oxidized forms of mercury. Elemental mercury often escapes from these devices. Activated carbon injection upstream of a particulate control device has been shown to have the best potential to remove both elemental and oxidized mercury from the flue gas. For this paper, NORIT FGD activated carbon was extensively studied for its mercury adsorption behavior. Results from bench-, pilot- and field-scale studies, mercury adsorption by coal chars, and a case of lignite-burned mercury control were reviewed. Studies of brominated carbon, sulfur-impregnated carbon and chloride-impregnated carbon were also reviewed. Carbon substitutes, such as calcium sorbents, petroleum coke, zeolites and fly ash were analyzed for their mercury-adsorption performance. At this time, brominated activated carbon appears to be the best-performing mercury sorbent. A non-injection regenerable sorbent technology is briefly introduced herein, and the issue of mercury leachability is briefly covered. Future research directions are suggested. PMID:17544578

  18. Microfine coal firing results from a retrofit gas/oil-designed industrial boiler

    SciTech Connect

    Patel, R.; Borio, R.W.; Liljedahl, G.; Miller, B.G.; Scaroni, A.W.; McGowan, J.G.

    1995-12-31

    The development of a High Efficiency Advanced Coal Combustor (HEACC) has been in progress since 1987 and the ABB Power Plant Laboratories. The initial work on this concept produced an advanced coal firing system that was capable of firing both water-based and dry pulverized coal in an industrial boiler environment. Economics may one day dictate that it makes sense to replace oil or natural gas with coal in boilers that were originally designed to burn these fuels. The objective of the current program is to demonstrate the technical and economic feasibility of retrofitting a gas/oil designed boiler to burn micronized coal. In support of this overall objective, the following specific areas were targeted: A coal handling/preparation system that can meet the technical requirements for retrofitting microfine coal on a boiler designed for burning oil or natural gas; Maintaining boiler thermal performance in accordance with specifications when burning oil or natural gas; Maintaining NOx emissions at or below 0.6 lb/MBtu; Achieving combustion efficiencies of 98% or higher; and Calculating economic payback periods as a function of key variables. The overall program has consisted of five major tasks: (1) A review of current state-of-the-art coal firing system components; (2) Design and experimental testing of a prototype HEACC burner; (3) Installation and testing of a HEACC system in a commercial retrofit application; (4) Economic evaluation of the HEACC concept for retrofit applications; and (5) Long term demonstration under commercial user demand conditions. This paper will summarize the latest key experimental results (Task 3) and the economic evaluation (Task 4) of the HEACC concept for retrofit applications. 28 figs., 6 tabs.

  19. CAPSULE REPORT: PARTICULATE CONTROL BY FABRIC FILTRATION ON COAL-FIRED INDUSTRIAL BOILERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Interest in fabric filtration for boiler particulate control has increased due to the conversion of oil- and gas- to coal-fired boilers and the promulgation of more stringent particulate emission regulations. his report describes the theory, applications, performance, and economi...

  20. Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT): 500 MW demonstration of advanced wall-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from coal-fired boilers. Technical progress report, Second quarter 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-08-24

    This quarterly report discusses the technical progress of an Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT) demonstration of advanced wall-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (No{sub x}) emissions from coal-fired boilers. The project is being conducted at Georgia Power Company`s Plant Hammond Unit 4 located near Rome, Georgia. The primary goal of this project is the characterization of the low NO{sub x} combustion equipment through the collection and analysis of long-term emissions data. A target of achieving fifty percent NO{sub x} reduction using combustion modifications has been established for the project. The project provides a stepwise retrofit of an advanced overfire air (AOFA) system followed by low NO{sub x} burners (LNB). During each test phase of the project, diagnostic, performance, long-term, and verification testing will be performed. These tests are used to quantify the NO{sub x} reductions of each technology and evaluate the effects of those reductions on other combustion parameters such as particulate characteristics and boiler efficiency.

  1. Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT): 500 MW demonstration of advanced wall-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO[sub x]) emissions from coal-fired boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-08-24

    This quarterly report discusses the technical progress of an Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT) demonstration of advanced wall-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (No[sub x]) emissions from coal-fired boilers. The project is being conducted at Georgia Power Company's Plant Hammond Unit 4 located near Rome, Georgia. The primary goal of this project is the characterization of the low NO[sub x] combustion equipment through the collection and analysis of long-term emissions data. A target of achieving fifty percent NO[sub x] reduction using combustion modifications has been established for the project. The project provides a stepwise retrofit of an advanced overfire air (AOFA) system followed by low NO[sub x] burners (LNB). During each test phase of the project, diagnostic, performance, long-term, and verification testing will be performed. These tests are used to quantify the NO[sub x] reductions of each technology and evaluate the effects of those reductions on other combustion parameters such as particulate characteristics and boiler efficiency.

  2. 500 MW demonstration of advanced wall-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from coal-fired boilers. Technical progress report, second quarter 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    This quarterly report discusses the technical progress of an Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT) demonstration of advanced wall-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from coal-fired boilers. The project is being conducted at Georgia Power Company`s Plant Hammond Unit 4 located near Rome, Georgia. The primary goal of this project is the characterization of the low NO{sub x} combustion equipment through the collection and analysis of long-term emissions data. The project provides a stepwise evaluation of the following NO{sub x} reduction technologies: advanced overfire air (AOFA), low NO{sub x} burners (LNB), LNB with AOFA, and advanced digital controls and optimization strategies. The project has completed the baseline, AOFA, LNB, and LNB + AOFA test segments, fulfilling all testing originally proposed to DOE. Phase 4 of the project, demonstration of advanced control/optimization methodologies for NO{sub x} abatement, is now in progress. The methodology selected for demonstration at Hammond Unit 4 is the Generic NO{sub x} Control Intelligent System (GNOCIS), which is being developed by a consortium consisting of the Electric Power Research institute, PowerGen, Southern Company, Radian Corporation, U.K. Department of Trade and Industry, and US DOE. GNOCIS is a methodology that can result in improved boiler efficiency and reduced NO{sub x} emissions from fossil fuel fired boilers. Using a numerical model of the combustion process, GNOCIS applies an optimizing procedure to identify the best set points for the plant on a continuous basis. GNOCIS is designed to operate in either advisory or supervisory modes. Prototype testing of GNOCIS is in progress at Alabama Power`s Gaston Unit 4 and PowerGen`s Kingsnorth Unit 1.

  3. 500 MW demonstration of advanced wall-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from coal-fired boilers. Technical progress report, fourth quarter 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    This document discusses the technical progress of a US Department of Energy (DOE) Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT) Project demonstrating advanced wall-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from coal-fired boilers. The project is being conducted at Georgia Power Company`s Plant Hammond Unit 4 (500 MW) near Rome, Georgia. Specifically, the objectives of the projects are: (1) demonstrate in a logical stepwise fashion the short-term NO{sub x} reduction capabilities of the following advanced low NO{sub x} combustion technologies: advanced overfire air (AOFA); low NO{sub x} burners (LNB); LNB with AOFA; and advanced digital controls and optimization strategies; (2) determine the dynamic, long-term emissions characteristics of each of these combustion NO{sub x} reduction methods using sophisticated statistical techniques; (3) evaluate the cost effectiveness of the low NO{sub x} combustion techniques tested; and (4) determine the effects on other combustion parameters (e.g., CO production, carbon carryover, particulate characteristics) of applying the above NO{sub x} reduction methods.

  4. Nitrogen oxides emission control options for coal-fired electric utility boilers.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Ravi K; Hall, Robert E; Khan, Sikander; Culligan, Kevin; Lani, Bruce W

    2005-09-01

    Recent regulations have required reductions in emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) from electric utility boilers. To comply with these regulatory requirements, it is increasingly important to implement state-of-the-art NOx control technologies on coal-fired utility boilers. This paper reviews NOx control options for these boilers. It discusses the established commercial primary and secondary control technologies and examines what is being done to use them more effectively. Furthermore, the paper discusses recent developments in NOx controls. The popular primary control technologies in use in the United States are low-NOx burners and overfire air. Data reflect that average NOx reductions for specific primary controls have ranged from 35% to 63% from 1995 emissions levels. The secondary NOx control technologies applied on U.S. coal-fired utility boilers include reburning, selective noncatalytic reduction (SNCR), and selective catalytic reduction (SCR). Thirty-six U.S. coal-fired utility boilers have installed SNCR, and reported NOx reductions achieved at these applications ranged from 15% to 66%. Recently, SCR has been installed at >150 U.S. coal-fired utility boilers. Data on the performance of 20 SCR systems operating in the United States with low-NOx emissions reflect that in 2003, these units achieved NOx emission rates between 0.04 and 0.07 lb/10(6) Btu. PMID:16259432

  5. Engineering development of advanced coal-fired low-emissions boiler systems. Quarterly project technical status report, January 1997-- March 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-04-01

    The goal of the NO{sub x} Subsystem is to achieve continuous operation of the Low-Emssions Boiler System (LEBS) at NO{sub x} emissions at or below 0.20 lb/MBtu through combustion techniques only, with a further target of 0.1 lb NO{sub x}Mbtu using supplementary advanced flue gas cleanup technologies if necessary. These goals places practical constraints that must be considered on the NO{sub x} Subsystem design. Not only must the boiler be designed to achieve time-temperature mixing histories that minimize NO{sub x} but it must also be designed to operate that way throughout its working lifetime. Therefore, NO{sub x} minimization strategies must be integrated into the control systems for every boiler component from the pulverizers to the stack. Furthermore, these goals must be met without increases in carbon loss and CO emissions from the levels achieved with current low-NO{sub x} combustion systems. Therefore, the NO{sub x} Subsystem requires not only sound mechanical designs of burners, furnace surface, and staging air/fuel injectors, but also sensors and software to allow control of their operation. Through engineering analysis, experimental testing, and numerical modeling in Phase II, an advanced low-NO{sub x} control system is being developed. The progress of these activities is presented in this report. The results from the final series of NO{sub x} subsystem burner tests were compiled. The information obtained is also being used as a comparison to the numerical modeling predictions. The engineering design of the Proof-of-Concept (POC) Facility was revised based on the information gained through the Phase II activities.

  6. B and W`s advanced coal-fired low-emission boiler system: Preparation for and preliminary results of subsystem testing

    SciTech Connect

    McDonald, D.K.; Madden, D.A.; Sivy, J.L.

    1996-12-31

    In anticipation of the need for new generating capacity shortly after the year 2000 and with the belief that coal will remain the fuel of choice for much of the domestic power industry, the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) began a research initiative in late 1990 named Combustion 2000. The project was designed for two stages of commercialization: for the nearer term, the Low-Emissions Boiler System (LEBS) and for the longer term, the High Performance Power System (HIPPS). The LEBS program is being executed in four phases. In the first Phase, completed in 1994, a thorough review and assessment of potential advanced technologies and techniques for the control of emissions, and a review of boiler design options, was performed. The second Phase, now in progress, entails more detailed system design and subsystem testing to confirm the technologies selected, resolve design uncertainties and develop the basis for commercial design. Phase 3 involves the design and estimating of a commercial generating unit for evaluation against the program goals, and in Phase 4, the concepts will be proven by operating the subsystems in an integrated facility of significant size for several thousand hours. This paper describes B and W`s advanced generating plant design and provides current results of the subsystem testing presently in progress at B and W`s Clean Environment Development Facility (CEDF) located at the company`s Alliance Research Center.

  7. Innovative clean coal technology: 500 MW demonstration of advanced wall-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions from coal-fired boilers. Final report, Phases 1 - 3B

    SciTech Connect

    1998-01-01

    This report presents the results of a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT) project demonstrating advanced wall-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions from coal-fired boilers. The project was conducted at Georgia Power Company`s Plant Hammond Unit 4 located near Rome, Georgia. The technologies demonstrated at this site include Foster Wheeler Energy Corporation`s advanced overfire air system and Controlled Flow/Split Flame low NOx burner. The primary objective of the demonstration at Hammond Unit 4 was to determine the long-term effects of commercially available wall-fired low NOx combustion technologies on NOx emissions and boiler performance. Short-term tests of each technology were also performed to provide engineering information about emissions and performance trends. A target of achieving fifty percent NOx reduction using combustion modifications was established for the project. Short-term and long-term baseline testing was conducted in an {open_quotes}as-found{close_quotes} condition from November 1989 through March 1990. Following retrofit of the AOFA system during a four-week outage in spring 1990, the AOFA configuration was tested from August 1990 through March 1991. The FWEC CF/SF low NOx burners were then installed during a seven-week outage starting on March 8, 1991 and continuing to May 5, 1991. Following optimization of the LNBs and ancillary combustion equipment by FWEC personnel, LNB testing commenced during July 1991 and continued until January 1992. Testing in the LNB+AOFA configuration was completed during August 1993. This report provides documentation on the design criteria used in the performance of this project as it pertains to the scope involved with the low NOx burners and advanced overfire systems.

  8. COST OF SELECTIVE CATALYTIC REDUCTION (SCR) APPLICATION FOR NOX CONTROL ON COAL-FIRED BOILERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report provides a methodology for estimating budgetary costs associ-ated with retrofit applications of selec-tive catalytic reduction (SCR) technology on coal-fired boilers. SCR is a post-combustion nitrogen oxides (NOX) con-trol technology capable of providing NOX reductions...

  9. NOVEL ECONOMICAL HG(0) OXIDATION REAGENT FOR MERCURY EMISSIONS CONTROL FROM COAL-FIRED BOILERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The authors have developed a novel economical additive for elemental mercury (Hg0) removal from coal-fired boilers. The oxidation reagent was rigorously tested in a lab-scale fixed-bed column with the Norit America's FGD activated carbon (DOE's benchmark sorbent) in a typical PRB...

  10. MENU OF NOX EMISSION CONTROL OPTIONS FOR COAL-FIRED ELECTRIC UTILITY BOILERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper reviews NOx control options for coal-fired electric utility boilers. (NOTE: Acid Rain NOx regulations, the Ozone Transport Commission's NOx Budget Program, revision of the New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) for NOx emissions from utility sources, and Ozone Transpor...

  11. COMBUSTION MODIFICATION NOX CONTROLS FOR UTILITY BOILERS. VOLUME I: TANGENTIAL COAL-FIRED UNIT FIELD TEST

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of an environmental assessment field testing program on a tangential-coal-fired utility boiler. The aim of the program was to measure multimedia emissions changes as a result of applying combustion modification NOx control. Emissions of trace elements, or...

  12. LOW-NOX BURNERS FOR PULVERIZED-COAL-FIRED BOILERS IN JAPAN

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper describes nitrogen oxide (NOx) abatement by low-NOx burners (LNBs) and combustion modification (CM) for dry-bottom pulverized-coal-fired boilers in Japan. LNBs have been widely used in Japan as a simple way to reduce NOx emissions by 20-50%. NOx abatement by a LNB and C...

  13. CONTROL OF NOX EMISSIONS FROM U.S. COAL-FIRED ELECTRIC UTILITY BOILERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses the control of nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions from U.S. coal-fired electric utility boilers. (NOTE: In general, NOx control technologies are categorized as being either primary or secondary control technologies. Primary technologies reduce the amount of NOx pr...

  14. PROTOTYPE SCALE TESTING OF LIMB TECHNOLOGY FOR A PULVERIZED-COAL-FIRED BOILER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report summarizes results of an evaluation of furnace sorbent injection (FSI) to control sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions from coal-fired utility boilers. (NOTE: FSI of calcium-based sorbents has shown promise as a moderate SO2 removal technology.) The Electric Power Research I...

  15. Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT): 500 MW demonstration of advanced wall-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from coal-fired boilers. Technical progress report, Fourth quarter 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-31

    This quarterly report discusses the technical progress of an Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT) demonstration of advanced wall-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from coal-fired boilers. The primary goal of this project is the characterization of the low NO{sub x} combustion equipment through the collection and analysis of long-term emissions data. A target of achieving fifty percent NO{sub x} reduction using combustion modifications has been established for the project. The project provides a stepwise retrofit of an advanced overfire air (AOFA) system followed by low NO{sub x} burners (LNB). During each test phase of the project, diagnostic, performance, long-term, and verification testing will be performed. These tests are used to quantify the NO{sub x } reductions of each technology and evaluate the effects of those reductions on other combustion parameters such as particulate characteristics and boiler efficiency. Baseline, AOFA, and LNB without AOFA test segments have been completed. Analysis of the 94 days of LNB tong-term data collected show the full load NO{sub x} emission levels to be approximately 0.65 lb/MBtu. Flyash LOI values for the LNB configuration are approximately 8 percent at full load. Corresponding values for the AOFA configuration are 0.94 lb/MBtu and approximately 10 percent. Abbreviated diagnostic tests for the LNB+AOFA configuration indicate that at 500 MWe, NO{sub x} emissions are approximately 0.55 lb/MBtu with corresponding flyash LOI values of approximately 11 percent. For comparison, the long-term, full load, baseline NO{sub x} emission level was approximately 1.24 lb/MBtu at 5.2 percent LOI. Comprehensive testing of the LNB+AOFA configuration will be performed when the stack particulate emissions issue is resolved.

  16. 180 MW demonstration of advanced tangentially-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO sub x ) emissions from coal-fired boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    ABB CE's Low NOx Bulk Furnace Staging (LNBFS) System and Low NOx Concentric Firing System (LNCFS) are demonstrated in stepwise fashion. These systems incorporate the concept of advanced overfire air (AOFA), clustered coal nozzles, and offset air. A complete description of the installed technologies is provided in the following section. The primary objective of the Plant Lansing Smith demonstration is to determine the long-term effects of commercially available tangentially-fired low NOx combustion technologies on NOx emissions and boiler performance. Short-term tests of each technology are also being performed to provide engineering information about emissions and performance trends. A target of achieving fifty percent NOx reduction using combustion modifications has been established for the project.

  17. [Emission Characteristics of Water-Soluble Ions in Fumes of Coal Fired Boilers in Beijing].

    PubMed

    Hu, Yue-qi; Ma, Zhao-hui; Feng, Ya-jun; Wang, Chen; Chen, Yuan-yuan; He, Ming

    2015-06-01

    Selecting coal fired boilers with typical flue gas desulfurization and dust extraction systems in Beijing as the study objects, the issues and characteristics of the water-soluble ions in fumes of coal fired boilers and theirs influence factors were analyzed and evaluated. The maximum mass concentration of total water-soluble ions in fumes of coal fired boilers in Beijing was 51.240 mg x m(-3) in the benchmark fume oxygen content, the minimum was 7.186 mg x m(-3), and the issues of the water-soluble ions were uncorrelated with the fume moisture content. SO4(2-) was the primary characteristic water-soluble ion for desulfurization reaction, and the rate of contribution of SO4(2-) in total water-soluble ions ranged from 63.8% to 81.0%. F- was another characteristic water-soluble ion in fumes of thermal power plant, and the rate of contribution of F- in total water-soluble ions ranged from 22.2% to 32.5%. The fume purification technologies significantly influenced the issues and the emission characteristics of water-soluble ions in fumes of coal fired boilers. Na+ was a characteristic water-soluble ion for the desulfurizer NaOH, NH4+ and NO3+ were characteristic for the desulfurizer NH4HCO3, and Mg2+ was characteristic for the desulfurizer MgO, but the Ca2+ emission was not increased by addition of the desulfurizer CaO or CaCO3 The concentrations of NH4+ and NO3- in fumes of thermal power plant were lower than those in fumes of industrial or heating coal fired boilers. The form of water-soluble ions was significantly correlated with fume temperature. The most water-soluble ions were in superfine state at higher fume temperature and were not easily captured by the filter membrane. PMID:26387296

  18. NOx Control Options and Integration for US Coal Fired Boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Mike Bockelie; Marc Cremer; Kevin Davis; Martin Denison; Adel Sarofim; Connie Senior; Hong-Shig Shim; Dave Swenson; Bob Hurt; Eric Suuberg; Eric Eddings; Kevin Whitty; Larry Baxter; Calvin Bartholomew; William Hecker

    2006-06-30

    This is the Final Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DE-FC26-00NT40753. The goal of the project was to develop cost-effective analysis tools and techniques for demonstrating and evaluating low-NOx control strategies and their possible impact on boiler performance for boilers firing US coals. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) provided co-funding for this program. This project included research on: (1) In furnace NOx control; (2) Impacts of combustion modifications on boiler operation; (3) Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalyst testing and (4) Ammonia adsorption/removal on fly ash. Important accomplishments were achieved in all aspects of the project. Rich Reagent Injection (RRI), an in-furnace NOx reduction strategy based on injecting urea or anhydrous ammonia into fuel rich regions in the lower furnace, was evaluated for cyclone-barrel and PC fired utility boilers. Field tests successfully demonstrated the ability of the RRI process to significantly reduce NOx emissions from a staged cyclone-fired furnace operating with overfire air. The field tests also verified the accuracy of the Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) modeling used to develop the RRI design and highlighted the importance of using CFD modeling to properly locate and configure the reagent injectors within the furnace. Low NOx firing conditions can adversely impact boiler operation due to increased waterwall wastage (corrosion) and increased soot production. A corrosion monitoring system that uses electrochemical noise (ECN) corrosion probes to monitor, on a real-time basis, high temperature corrosion events within the boiler was evaluated. Field tests were successfully conducted at two plants. The Ohio Coal Development Office provided financial assistance to perform the field tests. To investigate soot behavior, an advanced model to predict soot production and destruction was implemented into an existing reacting CFD modeling tool. Comparisons between experimental data collected

  19. Engineering development of advanced coal-fired low-emission boiler systems. Quarterly technical progress report, April 1--June 30, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-07-23

    Preliminary sketches of the furnace setting with dimensions and other appropriate data was distributed to appropriate boiler design groups. The purpose of this work was to define and/or establish unique mechanical and support requirements and furnace water circulation requirements. A preliminary convection pass arrangement and heating surface requirements were established. Initial computer runs indicate, as expected, that establishing even a preliminary arrangement to meet steam duty requirements was going to be a challenge. This due to slightly lower furnace exit gas temperatures (result of NO{sub x} control conditions) and higher final steam temperatures (results increasing plant efficiency) than typical of conventional design. Work on the furnace and convection pass design for the base preliminary unit was completed only to the extent necessary to identify design deficiencies, prepare an arrangement drawing and determine budgetary cost. Engineering work has been completed to the extent planned in this subtask for the base preliminary unit, Advanced Overfire Air, including preliminary designs for the furnace, convection pass, pulverizers, airheaters, flues and ducts, preliminary general arrangement drawings, and budgetary cost estimates. Work is nearly complete on design of the LEBS unit control system based on control methods and philosophy established in the NO{sub x} Control Subsystems. All appropriate information has been forwarded to Raytheon for use in completing BOP subsystem designs, site plot plans and preliminary generating plant cost analysis and comparison to a conventional plant.

  20. NOx Control Options and Integration for US Coal Fired Boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Mike Bockelie; Kevin Davis; Temi Linjewile; Connie Senior; Eric Eddings; Kevin Whitty; Larry Baxter; Calvin Bartholomew; William Hecker; Stan Harding; Robert Hurt

    2003-12-31

    This is the fourteenth Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DEFC26-00NT40753. The goal of the project is to develop cost effective analysis tools and techniques for demonstrating and evaluating low NOx control strategies and their possible impact on boiler performance for boilers firing US coals. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is providing co-funding for this program. Using the initial CFD baseline modeling of the Gavin Station and the plant corrosion maps, six boiler locations for the corrosion probes were identified and access ports have been installed. Preliminary corrosion data obtained appear consistent and believable. In situ, spectroscopic experiments at BYU reported in part last quarter were completed. New reactor tubes have been made for BYU's CCR that allow for testing smaller amounts of catalyst and thus increasing space velocity; monolith catalysts have been cut and a small reactor that can accommodate these pieces for testing is in its final stages of construction. A poisoning study on Ca-poisoned catalysts was begun this quarter. A possible site for a biomass co-firing test of the slipstream reactor was visited this quarter. The slipstream reactor at Rockport required repair and refurbishment, and will be re-started in the next quarter. This report describes the final results of an experimental project at Brown University on the fundamentals of ammonia / fly ash interactions with relevance to the operation of advanced NOx control technologies such as selective catalytic reduction. The Brown task focused on the measurement of ammonia adsorption isotherms on commercial fly ash samples subjected to a variety of treatments and on the chemistry of dry and semi-dry ammonia removal processes.

  1. NOx CONTROL OPTIONS AND INTEGRATION FOR US COAL FIRED BOILERS

    SciTech Connect

    Mike Bockelie; Marc Cremer; Kevin Davis; Connie Senior; Bob Hurt; Eric Eddings; Larry Baxter

    2002-07-28

    This is the eighth Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DE-FC26-00NT40753. The goal of the project is to develop cost effective analysis tools and techniques for demonstrating and evaluating low NOx control strategies and their possible impact on boiler performance for firing US coals. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is providing co-funding for this program. This program contains multiple tasks and good progress is being made on all fronts. CFD modeling studies of RRI in a full scale utility boiler have been performed that provide further insight into the NOx reduction process that occurs if the furnace is not adequately staged. In situ reactivity data indicate thus far that titania sulfates under SCR conditions but there is no indication of vanadia sulfation in agreement with some, but not most literature results. Additional analysis and advanced diagnostics are under way to confirm this result and determine its accuracy. Construction of a catalyst characterization reactor system is nearly complete, with a few remaining details discussed in this report. Shakedown testing of the SCR field reactor was completed at the University of Utah pilot-scale coal furnace. The CEM system has been ordered. Talks continued with American Electric Power about hosting a demonstration at their Rockport plant.

  2. ASSESSMENT OF CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES FOR REDUCING EMISSIONS OF SO2 AND NOX FROM EXISTING COAL-FIRED UTILITY BOILERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report reviews information and estimated costs on 15 emissioncontrol technology categories applicable to existing coal-fired electric utility boilers. he categories include passive controls such as least emission dispatching, conventional processes, and emerging technologies ...

  3. [Emission characteristics of PM10 from coal-fired industrial boiler].

    PubMed

    Li, Chao; Li, Xing-Hua; Duan, Lei; Zhao, Meng; Duan, Jing-Chun; Hao, Ji-Ming

    2009-03-15

    Through ELPI (electrical low-pressure impactor) based dilution sampling system, the emission characteristics of PM10 and PM2.5 was studied experimentally at the inlet and outlet of dust catchers at eight different coal-fired industrial boilers. Results showed that a peak existed at around 0.12-0.20 microm of particle size for both number size distribution and mass size distribution of PM10 emitted from most of the boilers. Chemical composition analysis indicated that PM2.5 was largely composed of organic carbon, elementary carbon, and sulfate, with mass fraction of 3.7%-21.4%, 4.2%-24.6%, and 1.5%-55.2% respectively. Emission factors of PM10 and PM2.5 measured were 0.13-0.65 kg x t(-1) and 0.08-0.49 kg x t(-1) respectively for grate boiler using raw coal, and 0.24 kg x t(-1) and 0.22 kg x t(-1) for chain-grate boiler using briquette. In comparison, the PM2.5 emission factor of fluidized bed boiler is 1.14 kg x t(-1), much her than that of grate boiler. Due to high coal consumption and low efficiency of dust separator, coal-fired industrial boiler may become the most important source of PM10, and should be preferentially controlled in China. PMID:19432307

  4. Estimation of NO{sub x} emissions from pulverized coal-fired utility boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Wildman, D.J.; Smouse, S.M.

    1996-01-01

    The formation of nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) during pulverized-coal combustion in utility boilers is governed by many factors, including the boiler`s design characteristics and operating conditions, and coal properties. Presently, no simple, reliable method is publicly available to estimate NO{sub x} emissions from any coal-fired boiler. A neural network back-propagation algorithm was previously developed using a small data set of boiler design characteristics and operating conditions, and coal properties for tangentially fired boilers. This initial effort yielded sufficient confidence in the use of neural network data analysis techniques to expand the data base to other boiler firing modes. A new neural network-based algorithm has been developed for all major pulverized coal-firing modes (wall, opposed-wall, cell, and tangential) that accurately predicts NO{sub x} emissions using eleven readily available data inputs. A sensitivity study was completed for all major input parameters, which yielded results that agree with conventional wisdom and practical experience. This new algorithm is being used by others, including the Electric Power Research Institute who has included it in its new software for making emissions compliance decisions, the Clean Air Technology Workstation.

  5. Estimation of NO{sub x} emissions from pulverized coal-fired utility boilers. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Wildman, D.J.; Smouse, S.M.

    1995-05-01

    The formation of nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) during pulverized-coal combustion in utility boilers is governed by many factors, including the boiler`s design characteristics and operating conditions, and coal properties. Presently, no simple, reliable method is publicly available to estimate NO{sub x} emissions from any coal-fired boiler. A neural network back-propagation algorithm was previously developed using a small data set of boiler design characteristics and operating conditions, and coal properties for tangentially fired boilers. This initial effort yielded sufficient confidence in the use of neural network data analysis techniques to expand the data base to other boiler firing modes. A new neural network-based algorithm has been developed for all major pulverized coal-firing modes (wall, opposed-wall, cell, and tangential) that accurately predicts NO{sub x} emissions using 11 readily available data inputs. A sensitivity study, which was completed for all major input parameters, yielded results that agree with conventional wisdom and practical experience. This new algorithm is being used by others, including the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). EPRI has included the algorithm in its new software for making emissions compliance decisions, the Clean Air Technology Workstation.

  6. Engineering development of advanced coal-fired low-emission boiler systems. Technical progress report No. 5, October--December 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-04-06

    Work continued as planned and scheduled. Total expenditures are below budget. Task 2 is complete. Task 3 is complete except for R, D & T Plan -- Phase II. Task 4 is currently slightly behind schedule but is projected to finish on or ahead of schedule. Task 5 was started early. The following major deliverables were issued: (1) Technical Paper for `93 International Joint Power Generation Conference. (2) Technical Paper for IEA Second International Conference, and (3) Topical Report by EAR on Air Toxics. Subtask 4.1 -- Engineering Analysis in support of the CGU design is nearly complete and partial design specifications are being employed in Task 5. Subtask 4.2 -- Experimental Research efforts consisted of the first series of Drop Tube Furnace tests. Data is being analyzed. Subtask 4.3 -- Modeling work to data resulted in input files for Boiler Simulation Facility and flow pattern convergence was attained. Particle combustion is the next step. This work will be reported on at the next Quarterly Project Review meeting. Task 5 was started early to facilitate Task 6 schedule and quality. Integration of the SNO{sub x} Hot Scheme into the boiler and turbine/feedwater train was optimized and design work on the boiler and ``backend`` is underway. Cost estimating assumptions and methodology were discussed at length and finalized. The RAM analysis is nearly complete. BOP engineering is in progress. No changes to the Work Plan are anticipated for the next quarter.

  7. Performance of composite coatings in a coal-fired boiler environment

    SciTech Connect

    Nava, J.C.

    2009-09-15

    Four samples of thermal spray coatings, each made from different core wire consumables by twin wire arc spray, were exposed for 18 months in a coal-fired boiler environment. The tests are described and the performance of each coating is evaluated. Results indicated that the four consumable wire alloys showed remarkable resistance to fly ash erosion and corrosion over the period of the test.

  8. USA B and W`s IR-CFB coal-fired boiler operating experiences

    SciTech Connect

    Kavidass, S.; Maryamchik, M.; Kanoria, M.; Price, C.S.

    1998-12-31

    This paper updates operating experience of two Babcock and Wilcox (B and W) coal-fired, internal recirculation circulating fluidized-bed (IR-CFB) boilers. The first boiler is located at Southern Illinois University (SIU) in Carbondale, Illinois and is designed for 35 MWt output for cogeneration application, utilizing high sulfur, low ash Illinois coal. The second boiler is located at Kanoria Chemicals and Industries Ltd. (KCIL) in Renukoot, India and is designed for 81 MWt output for captive power requirements, firing high ash, low sulfur coal. This boiler was supplied by Thermax B and W (TBW) Ltd., a joint venture company of B and W and Thermax in India. The CFB technology is selected for these two units based on the fuel and environmental considerations. This paper discusses the various aspects of the two IR-CFB boilers` design features, performance, and operating experience including emissions.

  9. Characterization of Oxy-combustion Impacts in Existing Coal-fired Boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, Bradley R.; Fry, Andrew R.; Senior, Constance L.; Shim, Hong Shig; Otten, Brydger Van; Wendt, Jost; Shaddix, Christopher; Tree, Dale

    2010-06-01

    This report summarizes Year 2 results of a research program designed to use multi-scale experimental studies and fundamental theoretical models to characterize and predict the impacts of retrofit of existing coal-fired utility boilers for oxy-combustion. Year 2 focused extensively on obtaining experimental data from the bench-scale, lab-scale and pilot-scale reactors. These data will be used to refine and validate submodels to be implemented in CFD simulations of full-scale boiler retrofits. Program tasks are on schedule for Year 3 completion. Both Year 2 milestones were completed on schedule and within budget.

  10. ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF A COAL-FIRED CONTROLLED UTILITY BOILER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a comprehensive multimedia emissions assessment of the cyclone-fired La Cygne No. 1 boiler, equipped with SO2 and particulate emission controls. Levels 1 and 2 procedures were used to characterize pollutant emissions in gaseous, liquid, and solid proce...

  11. Residual carbon from pulverized coal fired boilers 1: Size distribution and combustion reactivity

    SciTech Connect

    Hurt, R.H.; Gibbins, J.R.

    1994-08-01

    The amount of residual, or unburned, carbon in fly ash is an important concern in the design and operation of pulverized coal-fired boilers. Char oxidation is the slowest step in the coal combustion process, and the rate at which this heterogeneous reaction-proceeds has an important effect on the degree of carbon burnout. There is an extensive literature on char combustion kinetics based on data in the early and intermediate stages of carbon conversion. A critical fundamental question is whether the small fraction of the fuel carbon that passes unreacted through a boiler is representative of the char during the main portion of the combustion process. This article addresses that question through a detailed characterization of eight carbon-containing fly ash samples acquired from commercial-scale combustion systems. The fly ash characterization included measurement-of joint carbon/size distribution and determination.of the combustion reactivity of the residual carbon. To minimize mineral matter interactions in the reactivity tests, the technique of incipient fluidization was developed for separation of carbon-rich extracts from the inorganic portion of the fly ash. Reactivity measurements were made at 1400--1800 K to represent conditions in pulverized coal fired boilers. Measurements were also made at 700--1100 K to. minimize transport effects and isolate the influence of char chemistry and microstructure. In both temperature regimes, the residual carbon extracts. were significantly less reactive than chars extracted from a laboratory-scale laminar flow reactor in the early-to-intermediate stages of combustion. It is concluded that the boiler environment deactivates chars, making high carbon burnout more difficult to achieve than is predicted by existing char combustion kinetic models that were developed from data on the laboratory chars. Finally, the results are used to discuss potential char deactivation mechanisms, both thermal and oxidative, in coal-fired boilers.

  12. Engineering development of advanced coal-fired low-emission boiler systems. Technical progress report No. 10, January 1995--March 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-17

    The project is on schedule and under budget. The current status is shown in the Milestone Schedule Report included as Appendix A. All Project Plans were updated based on the revised finding level authorized for FY95 and anticipated for FY96. Technology Transfer activities included {open_quotes}supplying{close_quotes} three executives and several team members to the LEBS Workshop, delivering a technical paper at a conference, and working on a Combustion 2000 Session for another conference. ABBES and CeraMem reached agreement concerning Task 7 work, including ownership and disposition of project-purchased equipment to be used during Task 7 and also during Task 11. A test plan was prepared. Task 7 activities for the Low-NO{sub x} Firing System included computational modeling of the firing arrangement. Reasonable comparisons to experimental data previously obtained in the Boiler Simulation Facility were achieved. A kinetic evaluation for both baseline and low NO{sub x} firing arrangements was also performed, with results indicating that the final reducing zone within the main windbox has a dominant effect on NO{sub x} reduction, with higher temperatures being more favorable for lower NO{sub x}. A week of combustion testing was completed in the Fundamental Scale Burner Facility to examine the impact of integrated fuel staging (NO{sub x} reduction via the reburn mechanism), and to explore preliminary vertical staging concepts within the main windbox region. Preliminary results from this testing demonstrated the potential of vertical air staging within the main windbox to augment overfire air. Testing was performed to quantify the coal size distribution and power requirements for one (1) conventional static and four (4) dynamic classifier designs. Results from this testing show the dynamic classifier capable of producing finer grinds of coal at lower relative power requirements.

  13. Economic aspects of advanced coal-fired gas turbine locomotives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liddle, S. G.; Bonzo, B. B.; Houser, B. C.

    1983-01-01

    Increases in the price of such conventional fuels as Diesel No. 2, as well as advancements in turbine technology, have prompted the present economic assessment of coal-fired gas turbine locomotive engines. A regenerative open cycle internal combustion gas turbine engine may be used, given the development of ceramic hot section components. Otherwise, an external combustion gas turbine engine appears attractive, since although its thermal efficiency is lower than that of a Diesel engine, its fuel is far less expensive. Attention is given to such a powerplant which will use a fluidized bed coal combustor. A life cycle cost analysis yields figures that are approximately half those typical of present locomotive engines.

  14. NOx Control Options and Integration for US Coal Fired Boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Mike Bockelie; Kevin Davis; Connie Senior; Darren Shino; Dave Swenson; Larry Baxter; Calvin Bartholomew; William Hecker; Stan Harding

    2005-03-31

    This is the nineteenth Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DEFC26-00NT40753. The goal of the project is to develop cost effective analysis tools and techniques for demonstrating and evaluating low NO{sub x} control strategies and their possible impact on boiler performance for boilers firing US coals. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is providing co-funding for this program. Refurbished corrosion probes were installed at Plant Gavin and operated for approximately 1,300 hours. This quarterly report includes further results from the BYU catalyst characterization lab and the in-situ lab, and includes the first results from a model suitable for comprehensive simulation codes for describing catalyst performance. The SCR slipstream reactor at Plant Gadsden operated for approximately 100 hours during the quarter because of ash blockage in the inlet probe.

  15. Iron aluminide weld overlay coatings for boiler tube protection in coal-fired low NOx boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Banovic, S.W.; DuPont, J.N.; Marder, A.R.

    1997-12-01

    Iron aluminide weld overlay coatings are currently being considered for enhanced sulfidation resistance in coal-fired low NO{sub x} boilers. The use of these materials is currently limited due to hydrogen cracking susceptibility, which generally increases with an increase in aluminum concentration of the deposit. The overall objective of this program is to attain an optimum aluminum content with good weldability and improved sulfidation resistance with respect to conventional materials presently in use. Research has been initiated using Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW) in order to achieve this end. Under different sets of GTAW parameters (wire feed speed, current), both single and multiple pass overlays were produced. Characterization of all weldments was conducted using light optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and electron probe microanalysis. Resultant deposits exhibited a wide range of aluminum contents (5--43 wt%). It was found that the GTAW overlays with aluminum contents above {approximately}10 wt% resulted in cracked coatings. Preliminary corrosion experiments of 5 to 10 wt% Al cast alloys in relatively simple H{sub 2}/H{sub 2}S gas mixtures exhibited corrosion rates lower than 304 stainless steel.

  16. Condensing economizers for small coal-fired boilers and furnaces

    SciTech Connect

    Butcher, T.A.; Litzke, W.

    1994-01-01

    Condensing economizers increase the thermal efficiency of boilers by recovering sensible and latent heat from exhaust gas. These economizers are currently being used commercially for this purpose in a wide range of applications. Performance is dependent upon application-specific factors affecting the utility of recovered heat. With the addition of a condensing economizer boiler efficiency improvements up to 10% are possible. Condensing economizers can also capture flue gas particulates. In this work, the potential use of condensing economizers for both efficiency improvement and control of particulate emissions from small, coal water slurry-fired boilers was evaluated. Analysis was done to predict heat transfer and particulate capture by mechanisms including: inertial impaction, interception, diffusion, thermophoretic forces, and condensation growth. Shell-and-tube geometries were considered with flue gas on the outside of Teflon-covered tubes. Experimental studies were done with both air- and water-cooled economizers refit to a small boiler. Two experimental arrangements were used including oil-firing with injection of flyash upstream of the economizer and direct coal water slurry firing. Firing rates ranged from 27 to 82 kW (92,000 to 280,000 Btu/hr). Inertial impaction was found to be the most important particulate capture mechanism and removal efficiencies to 95% were achieved. With the addition of water sprays directly on the first row of tubes, removal efficiencies increased to 98%. Use of these sprays adversely affects heat recovery. Primary benefits of the sprays are seen to be the addition of small impaction sites and future design improvements are suggested in which such small impactors are permanently added to the highest velocity regions of the economizer. Predicted effects of these added impactors on particulate removal and pressure drop are presented.

  17. Engineering development of advanced coal-fired low-emission boiler systems. Technical progress report number 14, January--March, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-05-28

    The Project is under budget and generally on schedule. The current status is shown in the Milestone Schedule Status Report included as Appendix A. Task 7--Component Development and Optimization and Task 11--Subsystem Test Operation and evaluation are shown to be slightly behind schedule. Also, addition of Kalina technology may delay completion of Task 8. However, Phase 2 will be completed on schedule. The Project and plans for the POCTF were presented to the Richmond Power and Light Board of Directors. Technology transfer activities included delivering papers at two conferences, submitting paper abstracts for two other conferences and organizing a Technical Session for a conference. Under Task 7 the 200 acfm CeraMem filter test rig was installed at Richmond Power and Light and testing commenced. Low-NO{sub x} firing system work was essentially completed. In Task 8 integrating and optimizing the performance and design of the boiler, turbine/generator and heat exchangers of the Kalina cycle is proceeding but it has required much more time than anticipated. Preliminary designs of this equipment are nearly complete. Plant design and licensing activities will restart in April. The test designs and plan created in Task 9 were previously submitted and approved, although the plan for the 5,000 acfm CeraMem filter test will be updated following completion of the 200 acfm test. Task 10 work is nearly complete. The test rig for the 5,000 acfm CeraMem test has been shipped to the fabricator`s shop, inspected, cleaned and is being modified based on input from the 200 acfm testing. Task 11 work on the CeraMem filter was delayed and is expected to be started during the next reporting period. The second series of combustion testing of the low-NO{sub x} firing system was completed and the data is being analyzed. Early review indicates that 0.1 lb of NO{sub x}/million Btu may be achievable with reasonable stoichiometry and carbon loss.

  18. Update of operating experience of B and W IR-CFB coal-fired boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Belin, F.; Kavidass, S.; Maryamchik, M.; Walker, D.J.; Mandal, A.K.; Price, C.E.

    1999-07-01

    This paper updates the operating experience of two Babcock and Wilcox (B and W) coal-fired, internal recirculation circulating fluidized-bed (IR-CFB) boilers. The first boiler is located at Southern Illinois University (SIU) in Carbondale, Illinois, USA, and is designed for 35 MW{sub th} output for cogeneration application, utilizing high sulfur, low ash Illinois coal. The second boiler is located at Kanoria Chemicals and Industries in Renukoot, India, and is designed for 81 MW{sub th} output for captive power requirement, firing high ash, low sulfur coal. This boiler was supplied by Thermax B and W Ltd., a joint venture company of B and W and Thermax of India. The choice of CFB technology was based on its fuel flexibility, cost effectiveness and environmental benefits for solid fuels. Based on the broad experience in designing utility and industrial boilers for operation worldwide, B and W has developed a cost effective and compact atmospheric pressure IR-CFB boiler. The B and W IR-CFB boiler design is distinctive in its use of U-beam particle separators. Worldwide, B and W offers IF-CFB boilers up to 175 MW{sub th}, both reheat and non-reheat, and is pursuing units up to 350 MW{sub th}. This paper reviews the general description of each IR-CFB boiler, design and performance aspects, as well as overall operating experiences. The boiler availabilities including maintenance aspects and emissions data will be presented.

  19. NOx Control Options and Integration for US Coal Fired Boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Mike Bockelie; Kevin Davis; Temi Linjewile; Connie Senior; Eric Eddings; Kevin Whitty; Larry Baxter; Calvin Bartholomew; William Hecker; Stan Harding

    2004-03-31

    This is the fifteenth Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DE-FC26-00NT40753. The goal of the project is to develop cost effective analysis tools and techniques for demonstrating and evaluating low NOx control strategies and their possible impact on boiler performance for boilers firing US coals. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is providing co-funding for this program. At AEP's Gavin Plant, data from the corrosion probes showed that corrosion rate increased as boiler load was increased. During an outage at the plant, the drop in boiler load, sensor temperature and corrosion rate could all be seen clearly. Restarting the boiler saw a resumption of corrosion activity. This behavior is consistent with previous observations made at a 600MWe utility boiler. More data are currently being examined for magnitudes of corrosion rates and changes in boiler operating conditions. Considerable progress was made this quarter in BYU's laboratory study of catalyst deactivation. Surface sulfation appears to partially suppress NO adsorption when the catalyst is not exposed to NH3; NH3 displaces surface-adsorbed NO on SCR catalysts and surface sulfation increases the amount of adsorbed NH3, as confirmed by both spectroscopy and TPD experiments. However, there is no indication of changes in catalyst activity despite changes in the amount of adsorbed NH3. A monolith test reactor (MTR), completed this quarter, provided the first comparative data for one of the fresh and field-exposed monolith SCR catalysts yet developed in this project. Measurements of activity on one of the field-exposed commercial monolith catalysts do not show significant changes in catalyst activity (within experimental error) as compared to the fresh catalyst. The exposed surface of the sample contains large amounts of Ca and Na, neither of which is present in the fresh sample, even after removal of visibly obvious fouling deposits. However, these fouling compounds do not

  20. Development of advanced NO{sub x} control concepts for coal-fired utility boilers. Quarterly technical progress report No. 2, January 1--March 31, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Newhall, J.; England, G.; Seeker, W.R.

    1991-12-23

    Energy and Environmental Research Corporation (EER) is currently conducting a test program to develop an advanced NO{sub x} control method utilizing reburning, promoted selective noncatalytic agent injection. The study will consist of fundamental and process testing over a large enough range of operating parameters to significantly reduce the risk of a full scale demonstration project. The test plan for the fundamental testing phase of the program is presented here.

  1. Urea injection NO sub X removal on a 325 MW brown coal-fired electric utility boiler in West Germany

    SciTech Connect

    Negrea, S.; Jones, D.G. ); Rose, G. ); Smith, R.A.; Shimoto, G.H. )

    1990-01-01

    An advanced urea injection system for NO{sub x} control has been installed and is providing compliance with 200 mg/Nm3 (i.e., about 100 ppm) regulatory requirements on a 325 MW brown coal-fired Block C Offleben boiler operated by Braunschweigische Kohlen-Bergwerke AG (BKB), a Wester German electric utility company. The boiler is part of BKB's Offleben plant, located near Hannover on the border with East Germany. This paper concludes that proper urea injection system design (i.e., injection nozzle parameters and nozzle locations), combined with proper operation and adjustment of automatic load-following control, has provided BKB with a reliable means of compliance with NO{sub x} control regulations. Of particular importance in this application was achieving low levels of NH{sub 3} slip, which would have otherwise combined with sulfur oxides, causing deposits and/or air preheater fouling.

  2. NOx Control Options and Integration for US Coal Fired Boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Mike Bockelie; Kevin Davis; Temi Linjewile; Connie Senior; Eric Eddings; Kevin Whitty; Larry Baxter; Calvin Bartholomew; William Hecker; Stan Harding

    2003-06-30

    This is the twelfth Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DE-FC26-00NT40753. The goal of the project is to develop cost effective analysis tools and techniques for demonstrating and evaluating low NOx control strategies and their possible impact on boiler performance for boilers firing US coals. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is providing co-funding for this program. This program contains multiple tasks and good progress is being made on all fronts. During this quarter, a new effort was begun on the development of a corrosion management system for minimizing the impacts of low NOx combustion systems on waterwalls; a kickoff meeting was held at the host site, AEP's Gavin Plant, and work commenced on fabrication of the probes. FTIR experiments for SCR catalyst sulfation were finished at BYU and indicated no vanadium/vanadyl sulfate formation at reactor conditions. Improvements on the mass-spectrometer system at BYU have been made and work on the steady state reactor system shakedown neared completion. The slipstream reactor continued to operate at AEP's Rockport plant; at the end of the quarter, the catalysts had been exposed to flue gas for about 1000 hours. Some operational problems were addressed that enable the reactor to run without excessive downtime by the end of the quarter.

  3. Metallurgical Analysis of Cracks Formed on Coal Fired Boiler Tube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kishor, Rajat; Kyada, Tushal; Goyal, Rajesh K.; Kathayat, T. S.

    2015-02-01

    Metallurgical failure analysis was carried out for cracks observed on the outer surface of a boiler tube made of ASME SA 210 GR A1 grade steel. The cracks on the surface of the tube were observed after 6 months from the installation in service. A careful visual inspection, chemical analysis, hardness measurement, detailed microstructural analysis using optical and scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy were carried out to ascertain the cause for failure. Visual inspection of the failed tube revealed the presence of oxide scales and ash deposits on the surface of the tube exposed to fire. Many cracks extending longitudinally were observed on the surface of the tube. Bulging of the tube was also observed. The results of chemical analysis, hardness values and optical micrographs did not exhibit any abnormality at the region of failure. However, detailed SEM with EDS analysis confirmed the presence of various oxide scales. These scales initiated corrosion at both the inner and outer surfaces of the tube. In addition, excessive hoop stress also developed at the region of failure. It is concluded that the failure of the boiler tube took place owing to the combined effect of the corrosion caused by the oxide scales as well as the excessive hoop stress.

  4. Novel Surface Modification Method for Ultrasupercritical Coal-Fired Boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Xiao, T. Danny

    2013-05-22

    US Department of Energy seeks an innovative coating technology for energy production to reduce the emission of SOx, NOx, and CO2 toxic gaseous species. To realize this need, Inframat Corporation (IMC) proposed an SPS thermal spray coating technique to produce ultrafine/nanocoatings that can be deposited onto the surfaces of high temperature boiler tubes, so that higher temperatures of boiler operation becomes possible, leading to significantly reduced emission of toxic gaseous species. It should be noted that the original PI was Dr. Xinqing Ma, who after 1.5 year conducting this project left Inframat in December, 2008. Thus, the PI was transferred to Dr. Danny Xiao, who originally co-authored the proposal with Dr. Ma, in order to carry the project into a completion. Phase II Objectives: The proposed technology has the following attributes, including: (1). Dispersion of a nanoparticle or alloyed particle in a solvent to form a uniform slurry feedstock; (2). Feeding of the slurry feedstock into a thermal spray flame, followed by deposition of the slurry feedstock onto substrates to form tenacious nanocoatings; (3). High coating performance: including high bonding strength, and high temperature service life in the temperature range of 760oC/1400oF. Following the above premises, our past Phase I project has demonstrated the feasibility in small scale coatings on boiler substrates. The objective of this Phase II project was to focus on scale-up the already demonstrated Phase I work for the fabrication of SPS coatings that can satisfy DOE's emission reduction goals for energy production operations. Specifically, they are: (1). Solving engineering problems to scale-up the SPS-HVOF delivery system to a prototype production sub-delivery system; (2). Produce ultrafine/nanocoatings using the scale-up prototype system; (3). Demonstrate the coated components using the scale-up device having superior properties. Proposed Phase II Tasks: In the original Phase II proposal, we have

  5. NOx Control Options and Integration for US Coal Fired Boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Mike Bockelie; Kevin Davis; Temi Linjewile; Connie Senior; Eric Eddings; Kevin Whitty; Larry Baxter; Calvin Bartholomew; William Hecker; Stan Harding

    2003-09-30

    This is the thirteenth Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DEFC26-00NT40753. The goal of the project is to develop cost effective analysis tools and techniques for demonstrating and evaluating low NO{sub x} control strategies and their possible impact on boiler performance for boilers firing US coals. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is providing co-funding for this program. This program contains multiple tasks and good progress is being made on all fronts. The corrosion probe task is proceeding: Two plant visits were made to prepare for field testing and shakedown tests for the probes were conducted at the University of Utah''s L1500 furnace. Corrosion probes will be installed at the Gavin Plant site in the next quarter. Laboratory studies of SCR catalyst continued this quarter. FTIR studies of catalyst sulfation and of adsorption of NH3 and NO were continued at BYU. NO activities have been measured for a number of samples of BYU catalyst and insights have been gained from the results. Plans are being detailed to test monolith and plate catalysts exposed in the field. In this quarter, the catalysts in the slipstream reactor at AEP's Rockport plant were exposed to the dusty flue gas for 1695 hours. Thus the cumulative catalyst exposure to flue gas rose from 980 hours last quarter to 2677 hours in this quarter. Loss of catalyst activity was noted between April (when the catalysts were fresh) and August. Further analysis of activity data will be needed.

  6. NOx CONTROL OPTIONS AND INTEGRATION FOR US COAL FIRED BOILERS

    SciTech Connect

    Mike Bockelie; Marc Cremer; Kevin Davis; Temi Linjewile; Connie Senior; Hong-Shig Shim; Bob Hurt; Eric Eddings; Larry Baxter

    2003-01-30

    This is the tenth Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DE-FC26-00NT40753. The goal of the project is to develop cost effective analysis tools and techniques for demonstrating and evaluating low NO{sub x} control strategies and their possible impact on boiler performance for firing US coals. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is providing cofunding for this program. This program contains multiple tasks and good progress is being made on all fronts. During this quarter, progress was made on the computational simulation of a full-scale boiler with the purpose of understanding the potential impacts of burner operating conditions on soot and NO{sub x} generation. Sulfation tests on both the titania support and vanadia/titania catalysts were completed using BYU's in situ spectroscopy reactor this quarter. These experiments focus on the extent to which vanadia and titania sulfate in an SO{sub 2}-laden, moist environment. Construction of the CCS reactor system is essentially complete and the control hardware and software are largely in place. A large batch of vanadia/titania catalyst in powder form has been prepared for use in poisoning tests. During this quarter, minor modifications were made to the multi-catalyst slipstream reactor and to the control system. The slipstream reactor was installed at AEP's Rockport plant at the end of November 2002. In this report, we describe the reactor system, particularly the control system, which was created by REI specifically for the reactor, as well as the installation at Rockport.

  7. NOx Control Options and Integration for US Coal Fired Boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Mike Bockelie; Kevin Davis; Temi Linjewile; Connie Senior; Eric Eddings; Kevin Whitty; Larry Baxter; Calvin Bartholomew; William Hecker; Stan Harding

    2004-06-30

    This is the sixteenth Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DEFC26-00NT40753. The goal of the project is to develop cost effective analysis tools and techniques for demonstrating and evaluating low NOx control strategies and their possible impact on boiler performance for boilers firing US coals. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is providing co-funding for this program. During an unplanned outage, damage occurred to the electrochemical noise corrosion probes installed at the AEP Gavin plant; testing is expected to resume in August. The KEMCOP corrosion coupons were not affected by the unplanned outage; the coupons were removed and sent for analysis. BYU conducted a series of tests before the ISSR lab was relocated. Ammonia adsorption experiments provided clear evidence of the types of acidic sites present on catalyst surfaces. Data collected this quarter indicate that surface sulfation decreases Lewis acid site concentrations for all catalysts thus far studied, confirming that catalytic activity under commercial coal-based SCR conditions occurs primarily on Br{o}nsted acid sites and would be susceptible to basic impurities such as alkali and alkaline earth oxides, chlorides, and sulfates. SCR activity tests based on MS analysis showed that increasing sulfation generally increases NO reduction activity for both 0% and 1% vanadia catalysts. During this quarter, the slipstream reactor at Rockport operated for 720 hours on flue gas. Catalyst exposure time reached 4500 hours since installation. The reactor is out of service at the Rockport plant and plans are being made to move it to the Gadsden Plant. At Gadsden, modifications have begun in preparation for installation of the slipstream reactor next quarter.

  8. Emissions of air toxics from coal-fired boilers: Arsenic

    SciTech Connect

    Mendelsohn, M.H.; Huang, H.S.; Livengood, C.D.

    1994-08-01

    Concerns over emissions of hazardous air pollutants (air toxics) have emerged as a major environmental issue; the authority of the US Environmental Protection Agency to regulate such pollutants has been greatly expanded through passage of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990. Arsenic and arsenic compounds are of concern mainly because of their generally recognized toxicity. Arsenic is also regarded as one of the trace elements in coal subject to significant vaporization. This report summarizes and evaluates available published information on the arsenic content of coals mined in the United States, on arsenic emitted in coal combustion, and on the efficacy of various environmental control technologies for controlling airborne emissions. Bituminous and lignite coals have the highest mean arsenic concentrations, with subbituminous and anthracite coals having the lowest. However, all coal types show very significant variations in arsenic concentrations. Arsenic emissions from coal combustion are not well-characterized, particularly with regard to determination of specific arsenic compounds. Variations in emission, rates of more than an order of magnitude have been reported for some boiler types. Data on the capture of arsenic by environmental control technologies are available primarily for systems with cold electrostatic precipitators, where removals of approximately 50 to 98% have been reported. Limited data for wet flue-gas-desulfurization systems show widely varying removals of from 6 to 97%. On the other hand, waste incineration plants report removals in a narrow range of from 95 to 99%. This report briefly reviews several areas of research that may lead to improvements in arsenic control for existing flue-gas-cleanup technologies and summarizes the status of analytical techniques for measuring arsenic emissions from combustion sources.

  9. Emissions of airborne toxics from coal-fired boilers: Mercury

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, H.S.; Livengood, C.D.; Zaromb, S.

    1991-09-01

    Concerns over emissions of hazardous air Pollutants (air toxics) have emerged as a major environmental issue, and the authority of the US Environmental Protection Agency to regulate such pollutants was greatly expanded through the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990. Mercury has been singled out for particular attention because of concerns over possible effects of emissions on human health. This report evaluates available published information on the mercury content of coals mined in the United States, on mercury emitted in coal combustion, and on the efficacy of various environmental control technologies for controlling airborne emissions. Anthracite and bituminous coals have the highest mean-mercury concentrations, with subbituminous coals having the lowest. However, all coal types show very significant variations in mercury concentrations. Mercury emissions from coal combustion are not well-characterized, particularly with regard to determination of specific mercury compounds. Variations in emission rates of more than an order of magnitude have been reported for some boiler types. Data on the capture of mercury by environmental control technologies are available primarily for systems with electrostatic precipitators, where removals of approximately 20% to over 50% have been reported. Reported removals for wet flue-gas-desulfurization systems range between 35 and 95%, while spray-dryer/fabric-filter systems have given removals of 75 to 99% on municipal incinerators. In all cases, better data are needed before any definitive judgments can be made. This report briefly reviews several areas of research that may lead to improvements in mercury control for existing flue-gas-clean-up technologies and summarizes the status of techniques for measuring mercury emissions from combustion sources.

  10. NOx CONTROL OPTIONS AND INTEGRATION FOR US COAL FIRED BOILERS

    SciTech Connect

    Mike Bockelie; Marc Cremer; Kevin Davis; Connie Senior; Bob Hurt; Eric Suuberg; Eric Eddings; Larry Baxter

    2002-01-31

    This is the sixth Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DE-FC26-00NT40753. The goal of the project is to develop cost effective analysis tools and techniques for demonstrating and evaluating low NOx control strategies and their possible impact on boiler performance for firing US coals. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is providing co-funding for this program. This program contains multiple tasks and good progress is being made on all fronts. Preliminary results from laboratory and field tests of a corrosion probe to predict waterwall wastage indicate good agreement between the electrochemical noise corrosion rates predicted by the probe and corrosion rates measured by a surface profilometer. Four commercial manufacturers agreed to provide catalyst samples to the program. BYU has prepared two V/Ti oxide catalysts (custom, powder form) containing commercially relevant concentrations of V oxide and one containing a W oxide promoter. Two pieces of experimental apparatus being built at BYU to carry out laboratory-scale investigations of SCR catalyst deactivation are nearly completed. A decision was made to carry out the testing at full-scale power plants using a slipstream of gas instead of at the University of Utah pilot-scale coal combustor as originally planned. Design of the multi-catalyst slipstream reactor was completed during this quarter. One utility has expressed interest in hosting a long-term test at one of their plants that co-fire wood with coal. Tests to study ammonia adsorption onto fly ash have clearly established that the only routes that can play a role in binding significant amounts of ammonia to the ash surface, under practical ammonia slip conditions, are those that must involve co-adsorbates.

  11. Control of mercury emissions from coal-fired boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, H.S.; Livengood, C.D.

    1992-01-01

    This project at Argonne is designed to investigate new concepts leading to advanced control technologies for fossil-energy systems. The objective of this new task on air toxics control is to develop new or improved, cost-effective control technology for the abatement of emissions of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) from fossil-fuel combustion plants and to evaluate the possible effects of any captured species on waste disposal. The HAPs to be investigated initially in this task include mercury and arsenic compounds.

  12. Control of mercury emissions from coal-fired boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, H.S.; Livengood, C.D.

    1992-09-01

    This project at Argonne is designed to investigate new concepts leading to advanced control technologies for fossil-energy systems. The objective of this new task on air toxics control is to develop new or improved, cost-effective control technology for the abatement of emissions of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) from fossil-fuel combustion plants and to evaluate the possible effects of any captured species on waste disposal. The HAPs to be investigated initially in this task include mercury and arsenic compounds.

  13. Applicability of the mixture of bituminous coal and anthracite to conventional pulverized coal firing boiler

    SciTech Connect

    Takano, Shin-Ichi; Kiga, Takashi; Miyamae, Shigehiro

    1994-12-31

    In some future, it is expected for Japanese power stations to be hard to get a high-grade coal like a bituminous coal. We conducted therefore pilot scale tests of pulverized blends of bituminous coal and anthracite using a 1.2MWt tunnel furnace in order to evaluate the applicability of the blends of bituminous coal and anthracite to conventional pulverized coal firing boilers. One kind of bituminous coal and two kinds of anthracite, one was of low ash content and another was of high ash content, were prepared for the test. Previously to pilot scale tests, coal properties and ash properties of the blends of bituminous coal and anthracite were analyzed to estimate the characteristics of combustion, ash deposition, and so on. In the test, we investigated the combustion efficiency, NOx emission, characteristics of ignition stability and grindability changing the blend rate of anthracite. Results of our study indicated that the critical restrictions on the blending rate of anthracite were unburnt carbon in fly ash and NOx emission as for coals tested. The acceptable limitation on blending rate of anthracite was 10 and 20%, respectively for two kinds of conventional pulverized coal fired boiler. Concerning to the grindability, it became worse with increasing the blending rate of anthracite from grindability test using a roller mill, while it became better estimating from HGI.

  14. The use of pulse-jet baghouses on utility coal-fired boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Grubb, W.T. ); Chang, R.L. )

    1992-01-01

    Pulse-jet fabric filters (PJFFs) are widely used in U.S. industrial boiler applications and in utility and industrial boilers abroad. The recent success of PJFFs on large utility boilers overseas has stimulated the interest of U.S. utilities. These installations demonstrate that PJFFs can operate at sizes that are 50% smaller and at 30 to 40% lower capital costs than conventional reverse-gas baghouses, yet still achieve comparable reliability and particulate emissions. There are over 300 PJFFs installed on industrial and utility coal-fired boilers worldwide. This paper summarizes key findings of a survey involving site visits to over 30 full-scale installations representing over 70 individual units in the United States, Canada, Europe, Japan and Australia. The site visits were conducted to interview technical and plant personnel involved in the design, installation and day-to-day operation of the PJFFs. The results summarized in this paper characterize the pressure drop ({Delta}P), outlet emissions and bag life performance of these PJFFs, and verify the maintainability and suitability of PJFFs for application to large utility boilers in the U.S.

  15. Cermet composite thermal spray coatings for erosion and corrosion protection in combustion environments of advanced coal-fired boilers. Semiannual technical progress report, August 14, 1996--January 14, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Levin, B.F.; DuPont, J.N.; Marder, A.R.

    1997-02-01

    Research is presently being conducted to determine the optimum ceramic/metal combination in thermally sprayed metal matrix composite coatings for erosion and corrosion resistance in new coal-fired boilers. The research will be accomplished by producing model cermet composites using powder metallurgy and electrodeposition methods in which the effect of ceramic/metal combination for the erosion and corrosion resistance will be determined. These results will provide the basis for determining the optimum hard phase constituent size and volume percent in thermal spray coatings. Thermal spray coatings will be applied by our industrial sponsor and tested in our erosion and corrosion laboratories. In the first six months of this project, bulk powder processed Ni-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} composites were produced at Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The results of microstructural characterization of these alloys were presented in the first semiannual report. The composite samples contained 0, 21, 27, 37, and 45 volume percent Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} with an average particle size of 12 um. An increase in the volume fraction of alumina in the nickel matrix from 0 to 45% led to a significant increase in hardness of these composites.

  16. INTEGRATED AIR POLLUTION CONTROL FOR COAL-FIRED UTILITY BOILERS: A COMPUTER MODEL APPROACH FOR DESIGN AND COST-ESTIMATING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper describes the Integrated Air Pollution Control System (IAPCS), a computerized program that can be used to estimate the cost and performance of pre-combustion, in situ, and post-combustion air pollution control configurations in pulverized-coal-fired utility boilers of 1...

  17. Estimation of radiative properties and temperature distributions in coal-fired boiler furnaces by a portable image processing system

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Wenhao; Lou, Chun; Sun, Yipeng; Zhou, Huaichun

    2011-02-15

    This paper presented an experimental investigation on the estimation of radiative properties and temperature distributions in a 670 t/h coal-fired boiler furnace by a portable imaging processing system. The portable system has been calibrated by a blackbody furnace. Flame temperatures and emissivities were measured by the portable system and equivalent blackbody temperatures were deduced. Comparing the equivalent blackbody temperatures measured by the portable system and the infrared pyrometer, the relative difference is less than 4%. The reconstructed pseudo-instantaneous 2-D temperature distributions in two cross-sections can disclose the combustion status inside the furnace. The measured radiative properties of particles in the furnace proved there is significant scattering in coal-fired boiler furnaces and it can provide useful information for the calculation of radiative heat transfer and numerical simulation of combustion in coal-fired boiler furnaces. The preliminary experimental results show this technology will be helpful for the combustion diagnosis in coal-fired boiler furnaces. (author)

  18. RETROFIT COSTS FOR LIME/LIMESTONE FGD AND LIME SPRAY DRYING AT COAL-FIRED UTILITY BOILERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper gives results of a research program the objective of which was to significantly improve engineering cost estimates currently being used to evaluate the economic effects of applying S02 controls to existing coal-fired utility boilers. he costs of retrofitting conventiona...

  19. FIELD TESTS OF INDUSTRIAL STOKER COAL-FIRED BOILERS FOR EMISSIONS CONTROL AND EFFICIENCY IMPROVEMENT - SITE H

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives test results on a coal-fired, overfeed, traveling-grate stoker. The boiler tested is rated at 45,000 lb/hr saturated steam at 140 psig. Measurements include gaseous emissions (O2, CO2, CO, NO, NO2, SO3, and HC), uncontrolled particulate mass loading, particle siz...

  20. FIELD TESTS OF INDUSTRIAL STOKER COAL-FIRED BOILERS FOR EMISSIONS CONTROL AND EFFICIENCY IMPROVEMENT--SITE I

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of field measurements made on a 70,000 lb steam/hr coal-fired overfeed stoker with traveling grate. The effects of various parameters on boiler emissions and efficiency were studied. Parameters include overfire air, excess oxygen, grate heat release, and ...

  1. FIELD TESTS OF INDUSTRIAL STOKER COAL-FIRED BOILERS FOR EMISSIONS CONTROL AND EFFICIENCY IMPROVEMENT - SITE K

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of field measurements made on a 50,000 lb stream/hr coal-fired overfeed stoker with traveling grate. The effects of various parameters on boiler emissions and efficiency were studied. Parameters include overfire air, excess oxygen, grate heat release, and...

  2. ANALYSIS OF LONG-TERM NO EMISSION DATA FROM PULVERIZED COAL-FIRED UTILITY BOILERS. VOLUME II. APPENDICES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of an analysis of long-term NO emission monitoring data from nine pulverized-coal-fired utility boilers. These data were in the form of hourly averaged NO, O2 (or CO2), and load: NO and O2/CO2 were measured with certified continuous emission analyzers. Th...

  3. ANALYSIS OF LONG-TERM NO EMISSION DATA FROM PULVERIZED COAL-FIRED UTILITY BOILERS. VOLUME I. TECHNICAL ANALYSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of an analysis of long-term NO emission monitoring data from nine pulverized-coal-fired utility boilers. These data were in the form of hourly averaged NO, O2 (or CO2), and load: NO and O2/CO2 were measured with certified continuous emission analyzers. Th...

  4. DISPOSAL, RECYCLE, AND UTILIZATION OF MODIFIED FLY ASH FROM HYDRATED LIME INJECTION INTO COAL-FIRED UTILITY BOILERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper gives results of an assessment of the disposal, utilization, and recycle os a modified fly ash from the injection of hydrated lime into a coal-fired utility boiler. The process, developed as a low-cost alternative for achieving moderate degrees of SO2 control at coal-fi...

  5. NO{sub x} controls for coal-fired utility boilers in East Central Europe

    SciTech Connect

    Eskinazi, D.; Tavoulareas, E.S.

    1995-12-01

    Increasing environmental pressures worldwide, including East Central Europe are placing greater emphasis on NO{sub x} emission controls in utility power plants. Western Europe, Japan and the U.S. have significant experience in applying NO{sub x} controls, especially in boilers firing hard coal. Some countries in Europe (i.e., Germany and Austria), have gained experience in applying NO{sub x} controls in boilers firing low-rank coal. This experience can be applied to East Central European countries in providing the basis for planning NO{sub x} control projects, suggesting cost-effective solutions, and providing lessons learned. However, while the experience is generally applicable to East Central European countries, differences in boiler design, operation and coal characteristics also need to be considered. This paper begins with a comparison of the NO{sub x} regulations, identifies the key NO{sub x} control technologies and the worldwide experience with them, and discusses the achievable NO{sub x} reduction, O&M impacts, and retrofit costs for each technology. Emphasis is placed on retrofit applications for existing boilers, because new coal-fired power plants are not expected to be built for the next 5-10 years. This paper also focuses on technologies with relatively low cost and operational simplicity: combustion system tuning/optimization. low-NO{sub x} burners (LNB), overfire air (OFA), selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR), and reburning.

  6. Cost-effectiveness Analysis on Measures to Improve China's Coal-fired Industrial Boiler

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Liu, Manzhi; Shen, Bo; Han, Yafeng; Price, Lynn; Xu, Mingchao

    2015-08-01

    Tackling coal-burning industrial boiler is becoming one of the key programs to solve the environmental problem in China. Assessing the economics of various options to address coal-fired boiler is essential to identify cost-effective solutions. This paper discusses our work in conducting a cost-effectiveness analysis on various types of improvement measures ranging from energy efficiency retrofits to switch from coal to other fuels in China. Sensitivity analysis was also performed in order to understand the impacts of some economic factors such as discount rate and energy price on the economics of boiler improvement options. The results show that nine out ofmore » 14 solutions are cost-effective, and a lower discount rate and higher energy price will result in more energy efficiency measures being cost-effective. Both monetary and non-monetary barriers to energy-efficiency improvement are discussed and policies to tackle these barriers are recommended. Our research aims at providing a methodology to assess cost-effective solutions to boiler problems.« less

  7. Cost-effectiveness Analysis on Measures to Improve China's Coal-fired Industrial Boiler

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Manzhi; Shen, Bo; Han, Yafeng; Price, Lynn; Xu, Mingchao

    2015-08-01

    Tackling coal-burning industrial boiler is becoming one of the key programs to solve the environmental problem in China. Assessing the economics of various options to address coal-fired boiler is essential to identify cost-effective solutions. This paper discusses our work in conducting a cost-effectiveness analysis on various types of improvement measures ranging from energy efficiency retrofits to switch from coal to other fuels in China. Sensitivity analysis was also performed in order to understand the impacts of some economic factors such as discount rate and energy price on the economics of boiler improvement options. The results show that nine out of 14 solutions are cost-effective, and a lower discount rate and higher energy price will result in more energy efficiency measures being cost-effective. Both monetary and non-monetary barriers to energy-efficiency improvement are discussed and policies to tackle these barriers are recommended. Our research aims at providing a methodology to assess cost-effective solutions to boiler problems.

  8. ULTRA LOW NOx INTEGRATED SYSTEM FOR NOx EMISSION CONTROL FROM COAL-FIRED BOILERS

    SciTech Connect

    Galen H. Richards; Charles Q. Maney; Richard W. Borio; Robert D. Lewis

    2002-12-30

    ALSTOM Power Inc.'s Power Plant Laboratories, working in concert with ALSTOM Power's Performance Projects Group, has teamed with the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE NETL) to conduct a comprehensive study to develop/evaluate low-cost, efficient NOx control technologies for retrofit to pulverized coal fired utility boilers. The objective of this project was to develop retrofit NOx control technology to achieve less than 0.15 lb/MMBtu NOx (for bituminous coals) and 0.10 lb/MMBtu NOx (for subbituminous coals) from existing pulverized coal fired utility boilers at a cost which is at least 25% less than SCR technology. Efficient control of NOx is seen as an important, enabling step in keeping coal as a viable part of the national energy mix in this century, and beyond. Presently 57% of U.S. electrical generation is coal based, and the Energy Information Agency projects that coal will maintain a lead in U.S. power generation over all other fuel sources for decades (EIA 1998 Energy Forecast). Yet, coal-based power is being strongly challenged by society's ever-increasing desire for an improved environment and the resultant improvement in health and safety. The needs of the electric-utility industry are to improve environmental performance, while simultaneously improving overall plant economics. This means that emissions control technology is needed with very low capital and operating costs. This project has responded to the industry's need for low NOx emissions by evaluating ideas that can be adapted to present pulverized coal fired systems, be they conventional or low NOx firing systems. The TFS 2000{trademark} firing system has been the ALSTOM Power Inc. commercial offering producing the lowest NOx emission levels. In this project, the TFS 2000{trademark} firing system served as a basis for comparison to other low NOx systems evaluated and was the foundation upon which refinements were made to further improve NOx emissions and

  9. Characterization of Oxy-combustion Impacts in Existing Coal-fired Boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, Bradley; Davis, Kevin; Senior, Constance; Shim, Hong Shim; Otten, Brydger; Fry, Andrew; Wendt, Jost; Eddings, Eric; Paschedag, Alan; Shaddix, Christopher; Cox, William; Tree, Dale

    2013-09-30

    Reaction Engineering International (REI) managed a team of experts from University of Utah, Siemens Energy, Praxair, Vattenfall AB, Sandia National Laboratories, Brigham Young University (BYU) and Corrosion Management Ltd. to perform multi-scale experiments, coupled with mechanism development, process modeling and CFD modeling, for both applied and fundamental investigations. The primary objective of this program was to acquire data and develop tools to characterize and predict impacts of CO{sub 2} flue gas recycle and burner feed design on flame characteristics (burnout, NO{sub x}, SO{sub x}, mercury and fine particle emissions, heat transfer) and operational concerns (fouling, slagging and corrosion) inherent in the retrofit of existing coal-fired boilers for oxy-coal combustion. Experimental work was conducted at Sandia National Laboratories’ Entrained Flow Reactor, the University of Utah Industrial Combustion Research Facility, and Brigham Young University. Process modeling and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling was performed at REI. Successful completion of the project objectives resulted in the following key deliverables: 1) Multi-scale test data from 0.1 kW bench-scale, 100 kW and 200 kW laboratory-scale, and 1 MW semi-industrial scale combustors that describe differences in flame characteristics, fouling, slagging and corrosion for coal combustion under air-firing and oxygen-firing conditions, including sensitivity to oxy-burner design and flue gas recycle composition. 2) Validated mechanisms developed from test data that describe fouling, slagging, waterwall corrosion, heat transfer, char burnout and sooting under coal oxy-combustion conditions. The mechanisms were presented in a form suitable for inclusion in CFD models or process models. 3) Principles to guide design of pilot-scale and full-scale coal oxy-firing systems and flue gas recycle configurations, such that boiler operational impacts from oxy-combustion retrofits are minimized. 4

  10. Characterization of Oxy-combustion Impacts in Existing Coal-fired Boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Bradley Adams; Andrew Fry; Constance Senior; Hong Shim; Huafeng Wang; Jost Wendt; Christopher Shaddix

    2009-06-30

    This report summarizes Year 1 results of a research program designed to use multi-scale experimental studies and fundamental theoretical models to characterize and predict the impacts of retrofit of existing coal-fired utility boilers for oxy-combustion. Through the course of Year 1 activities, great progress was made toward understanding the issues associated with oxy-combustion retrofit of coal-fired boilers. All four Year 1 milestones and objectives have been, or will be, completed on schedule and within budget. Progress in the four milestone areas may be summarized as follows: • University of Utah has performed size segregated ash composition measurements in the Oxy-Fuel Combustor (OFC). These experiments indicate that oxy-combustion retrofit may impact ash aerosol mineral matter composition. Both flame temperature and flue gas composition have been observed to influence the concentration of calcium, magnesium and iron in the fine particulate. This could in turn impact boiler fouling and slagging. • Sandia National Labs has shown that char oxidation rate is dependent on particle size (for sizes between 60 and 100 microns) by performing fundamental simulations of reacting char particles. These predictions will be verified by making time-resolved optical measurements of char particle temperature, velocity and size in bench-scale experiments before the end of Year 1. • REI and Siemens have completed the design of an oxy-research burner that will be mounted on University of Utah’s pilot-scale furnace, the L1500. This burner will accommodate a wide range of O2, FGR and mixing strategies under conditions relevant for utility boiler operation. Through CFD modeling of the different burner designs, it was determined that the key factor influencing flame stabilization location is particle heat-up rate. The new oxy-research burner and associated equipment is scheduled for delivery before the end of Year 1. • REI has completed a literature survey of slagging and

  11. Combining support vector regression and ant colony optimization to reduce NOx emissions in coal-fired utility boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Ligang Zheng; Hao Zhou; Chunlin Wang; Kefa Cen

    2008-03-15

    Combustion optimization has recently demonstrated its potential to reduce NOx emissions in high capacity coal-fired utility boilers. In the present study, support vector regression (SVR), as well as artificial neural networks (ANN), was proposed to model the relationship between NOx emissions and operating parameters of a 300 MW coal-fired utility boiler. The predicted NOx emissions from the SVR model, by comparing with that of the ANN-based model, showed better agreement with the values obtained in the experimental tests on this boiler operated at different loads and various other operating parameters. The mean modeling error and the correlation factor were 1.58% and 0.94, respectively. Then, the combination of the SVR model with ant colony optimization (ACO) to reduce NOx emissions was presented in detail. The experimental results showed that the proposed approach can effectively reduce NOx emissions from the coal-fired utility boiler by about 18.69% (65 ppm). A time period of less than 6 min was required for NOx emissions modeling, and 2 min was required for a run of optimization under a PC system. The computing times are suitable for the online application of the proposed method to actual power plants. 37 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  12. Optimization of Trona/Limestone Injection for SO2 Control in Coal-Fired Boilers

    SciTech Connect

    2005-09-01

    Mobotec USA develops and markets air pollution control systems for utility boilers and other combustion systems. They have a particular interest in technologies that can reduce NOx, SOx, and mercury emissions from coal-fired boilers, and have been investigating the injection of sorbents such as limestone and trona into a boiler to reduce SOx and Hg emissions. WRI proposed to use the Combustion Test Facility (CTF) to enable Mobotec to conduct a thorough evaluation of limestone and trona injection for SO{sub 2} control. The overall goal of the project was to characterize the SO{sub 2} reductions resulting from the injection of limestone and trona into the CTF when fired with a high-sulfur eastern bituminous coal used in one of Mobotec's Midwest installations. Results revealed that when limestone was injected at Ca:S molar ratios of 1.5 to 3.0, the resulting SO{sub 2} reductions were 35-55%. It is believed that further reductions can be attained with improved mixing of the sorbent with the combustion gases. When limestone was added to the coal, at Ca:S molar ratios of 0.5 to 1.5, the SO{sub 2} reductions were 13-21%. The lower reductions were attributed to dead-burning of the sorbent in the high temperature flame zone. In cases where limestone was both injected into the furnace and added to the coal, the total SO{sub 2} reductions for a given Ca:S molar ratio were similar to the reductions for furnace injection only. The injection of trona into the mid-furnace zone, for Na:S molar ratios of 1.4 to 2.4, resulted in SO{sub 2} reductions of 29-43%. Limestone injection did not produce any slag deposits on an ash deposition probe while trona injection resulted in noticeable slag deposition.

  13. A summary of SNCR applications to two coal-fired wet bottom boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Himes, R.; Hubbard, D.; West, Z.

    1996-01-01

    In response to NO{sub x} reductions mandated under Title I of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA), Public Service Electric & Gas and Atlantic Electric of New Jersey evaluated Selective Non-Catalytic Reduction (SNCR) for NO{sub x} control under separate programs at Mercer Station and B.L. England Station, respectively. Mercer Station is comprised of twin 321 MW Foster Wheeler coal-fired wet bottom boilers, with natural gas capability up to 100% load. B.L. England Station has three units, two of which are cyclone boilers of 136 MW and 163 MW. These furnace designs are of particular interest in that nominally 23,000 MW of cyclone boiler capacity and 6,900 MW of wall- or turbo-fired wet bottom boiler capacity will be faced with NO{sub x} reductions to be mandated under Title IV - Phase II for Group II boilers. Both stations evaluated Nalco Fuel Tech`s SNCR system using a portable test skid, with urea as the reducing chemical. The Mercer Unit 2 demonstration was performed with a low sulfur coal (nominally 0.8%), while the B.L. England Unit 1 demonstration utilized a medium sulfur coal (nominally 2.4%), and also re-injects fly ash back into the cyclones for ultimate collection and removal as slag. To address concerns over potential Ljungstrom air heater fouling, due to reactions between ammonia and SO{sub 3} in the air heater, and fly ash salability at Mercer Station, both sites targeted no greater than 5-10 ppmv ammonia emissions at the economizer exit. At Mercer Unit 2, air heater fouling was only experienced during system start-up when the ammonia emissions at the economizer exit were estimated at levels approaching 60 ppmv. B.L. England Unit 1, however, experienced frequent fouling of the air heater. NO{sub x} reductions achieved at both sites ranged between 30%-40% from nominal baseline NO{sub x} levels of 1.1-1.6 lb/MMBtu. Each site is currently undergoing installation of commercial SNCR systems.

  14. Evaluation of activated carbon for control of mercury from coal-fired boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, S.; Laudal, D.; Dunham, G.

    1995-11-01

    The ability to remove mercury from power plant flue gas may become important because of the Clean Air Act amendments` requirement that the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) assess the health risks associated with these emissions. One approach for mercury removal, which may be relatively simple to retrofit, is the injection of sorbents, such as activated carbon, upstream of existing particulate control devices. Activated carbon has been reported to capture mercury when injected into flue gas upstream of a spray dryer baghouse system applied to waste incinerators or coal-fired boilers. However, the mercury capture ability of activated carbon injected upstream of an electrostatic precipitator (ESP) or baghouse operated at temperatures between 200{degrees} and 400{degrees}F is not well known. A study sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy and the Electric power Research Institute is being conducted at the University of North Dakota Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) to evaluate whether mercury control with sorbents can be a cost-effective approach for large power plants. Initial results from the study were reported last year. This paper presents some of the recent project results. Variables of interest include coal type, sorbent type, sorbent addition rate, collection media, and temperature.

  15. Pulse-jet fabric filters for coal-fired utility and industrial boilers: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Dean, A.H.; Cushing, K.M.

    1987-09-01

    Pulse-jet fabric filters rely on the filtration of dirty flue gas by the outside surface of the bags, which are then cleaned by a shock wave from an air pulse entering each bag from the top. The shock wave travels down each bag, flexing the bag and dislodging dustcake as it travels the length of the bag downward and then upward. A venturi may or may not be used to enhance the pulse, and cleaning may be on-line or off-line. This study provides a convenient and versatile information base about pulse-jet fabric filters on coal-fired boilers. Features include an overview of the pulse-jet concept, a discussion of the advantages and disadvantages of pulse-jet cleaning, a survey of vendors and design and hardware features of pulse-jet installations, discussion of these design and hardware characteristics for several vendors, case histories of a wide variety of installations as examples, and a list of pertinent references. The most important part of the study is an exhaustive table of pulse-jet installations and their features, sorted several different ways for accessibility. Predominant features of the installations in the list are analyzed and presented in graphic form.

  16. Cogeneration Technology Alternatives Study (CTAS). Volume 6: Computer data. Part 1: Coal-fired nocogeneration process boiler, section A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knightly, W. F.

    1980-01-01

    Various advanced energy conversion systems (ECS) are compared with each other and with current technology systems for their savings in fuel energy, costs, and emissions in individual plants and on a national level. About fifty industrial processes from the largest energy consuming sectors were used as a basis for matching a similar number of energy conversion systems that are considered as candidates which can be made available by the 1985 to 2000 time period. The sectors considered included food, textiles, lumber, paper, chemicals, petroleum, glass, and primary metals. The energy conversion systems included steam and gas turbines, diesels, thermionics, stirling, closed cycle and steam injected gas turbines, and fuel cells. Fuels considered were coal, both coal and petroleum based residual and distillate liquid fuels, and low Btu gas obtained through the on-site gasification of coal. Computer generated reports of the fuel consumption and savings, capital costs, economics and emissions of the cogeneration energy conversion systems (ECS's) heat and power matched to the individual industrial processes are presented for coal fired process boilers. National fuel and emissions savings are also reported for each ECS assuming it alone is implemented.

  17. Cogeneration Technology Alternatives Study (CTAS). Volume 6: Computer data. Part 1: Coal-fired nocogeneration process boiler, section A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knightly, W. F.

    1980-05-01

    Various advanced energy conversion systems (ECS) are compared with each other and with current technology systems for their savings in fuel energy, costs, and emissions in individual plants and on a national level. About fifty industrial processes from the largest energy consuming sectors were used as a basis for matching a similar number of energy conversion systems that are considered as candidates which can be made available by the 1985 to 2000 time period. The sectors considered included food, textiles, lumber, paper, chemicals, petroleum, glass, and primary metals. The energy conversion systems included steam and gas turbines, diesels, thermionics, stirling, closed cycle and steam injected gas turbines, and fuel cells. Fuels considered were coal, both coal and petroleum based residual and distillate liquid fuels, and low Btu gas obtained through the on-site gasification of coal. Computer generated reports of the fuel consumption and savings, capital costs, economics and emissions of the cogeneration energy conversion systems (ECS's) heat and power matched to the individual industrial processes are presented for coal fired process boilers. National fuel and emissions savings are also reported for each ECS assuming it alone is implemented.

  18. TOXECON RETROFIT FOR MERCURY AND MULTI-POLLUTANT CONTROL ON THREE 90 MW COAL FIRED BOILERS

    SciTech Connect

    Richard E. Johnson

    2004-07-30

    With the Nation's coal-burning utilities facing tighter controls on mercury pollutants, the U.S. Department of Energy is supporting projects that could offer power plant operators better ways to reduce these emissions at much lower costs. Sorbent injection technology represents one of the simplest and most mature approaches to controlling mercury emissions from coal-fired boilers. It involves injecting a solid material such as powdered activated carbon into the flue gas. The gas-phase mercury in the flue gas contacts the sorbent and attaches to its surface. The sorbent with the mercury attached is then collected by a particle control device along with the other solid material, primarily fly ash. WE Energies has over 3,700 MW of coal-fired generating capacity and supports an integrated multi-emission control strategy for SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x} and mercury emissions while maintaining a varied fuel mix for electric supply. The primary goal of this project is to reduce mercury emissions from three 90 MW units that burn Powder River Basin coal at the WE Energies Presque Isle Power Plant. Additional goals are to reduce nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}), sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), and particulate matter (PM) emissions, allow for reuse and sale of fly ash, demonstrate a reliable mercury continuous emission monitor (CEM) suitable for use in the power plant environment, and demonstrate a process to recover mercury captured in the sorbent. To achieve these goals, WE Energies (the Participant) will design, install, and operate a TOXECON{trademark} (TOXECON) system designed to clean the combined flue gases of units 7, 8, and 9 at the Presque Isle Power Plant. TOXECON is a patented process in which a fabric filter system (baghouse) installed down stream of an existing particle control device is used in conjunction with sorbent injection for removal of pollutants from combustion flue gas. For this project, the flue gas emissions will be controlled from the three units using a single

  19. Retrofit costs for lime/limestone FGD and lime spray drying at coal-fired utility boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Emmel, T.E.; Jones, J.W.

    1990-01-01

    The paper gives results of a research program the objective of which was to significantly improve engineering cost estimates currently being used to evaluate the economic effects of applying SO2 controls to existing coal-fired utility boilers. The costs of retrofitting conventional lime/limestone wet flue gas desulfurization (L/LS FGD) and lime spray drying (LSD) FGD at 100-200 coal-fired power plants are being estimated under this program. The retrofit capital cost estimating procedures used for L/LS FGD and LSD FGD make two cost adjustments to current procedures used to estimate FGD costs: cost adders (for items not normally included in FGD system costs; e.g., demolition and relocation of existing facilities) and cost multipliers (to adjust capital costs for site access, congestion, and underground obstructions).

  20. Development of Erosion-Corrosion-Resistant Cold-Spray Nanostructured Ni-20Cr Coating for Coal-Fired Boiler Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, M.; Singh, H.; Singh, N.; Chavan, N. M.; Kumar, S.; Joshi, S. V.

    2015-12-01

    The erosion-corrosion (E-C) behavior of a cold-spray nanostructured Ni-20Cr coating was studied under cyclic conditions in a coal-fired boiler. This study was done for 15 cycles (1500 h), in which each cycle comprised 100 h of heating in the boiler environment, followed by 1 h of cooling under ambient air conditions. The E-C extent was evaluated in terms of thickness loss data of the samples. The eroded-corroded samples were characterized using XRD, SEM/EDS, and x-ray mapping analyses. The nanostructured coating offered excellent E-C protection to boiler tube material (SA 516 steel) under harsh live conditions of the boiler. This E-C resistance offered by investigated coating may be attributed to the presence of protective NiO and Cr2O3 phases in its oxide scale and its superior as-sprayed microhardness.

  1. A NOVEL SENSOR AND MEASUREMENT SYSTEM FOR FIRESIDE CORROSION MONITORING IN COAL-FIRED BOILERS

    SciTech Connect

    Heng Ban; Zuoping Li

    2003-03-01

    Fireside corrosion in coal-fired power plants is a major obstacle to increase the overall efficiency for power producers. The increased use of opportunity fuels and low emission combustion modes have aggravated the corrosion on boiler tube walls in power plants. Corrosion-induced equipment failure could lead to catastrophic damage and inflict significant loss of production and cost for repair. Monitoring fireside corrosion in a reliable and timely manner can provide significant benefits to the plant operation. Current corrosion inspection and measurement are typically performed during scheduled maintenance outages, which is often after the damage is done. In the past, there have been many attempts to develop real time continuous corrosion monitoring technologies. However, there is still no short-term, online corrosion monitoring system commercially available for fireside corrosion to date due to the extremely harsh combustion environment. This report describes the results of a laboratory feasibility study on the development effort of a novel sensor for on-line fireside corrosion monitoring. A novel sensor principle and thin-film technologies were employed in the corrosion sensor design and fabrication. The sensor and the measurement system were experimentally studied using laboratory muffle furnaces. The results indicated that an accurate measure of corrosion rate could be made with high sensitivity using the new sensor. The investigation proved the feasibility of the concept and demonstrated the sensor design, sensor fabrication, and measurement instrumentation at the laboratory scale. An uncertainty analysis of the measurement system was also performed to provide a basis for further improvement of the system for future pilot or full scale testing.

  2. Multiplexed Optical Fiber Sensors for Coal Fired Advanced Fossil Energy Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Anbo; Pickrell, Gary

    2012-03-31

    This report summarizes technical progress on the program Multiplexed Optical Fiber Sensors for Coal Fired Advanced Fossil Energy Systems funded by the National Energy Technology Laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, and performed jointly by the Center for Photonics Technology of the Bradley Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering and the Department of Materials Science and Engineering at Virginia Tech. This three-year project started on October 1, 2008. In the project, a fiber optical sensing system based on intrinsic Fabry-Perot Interferometer (IFPI) was developed for strain and temperature measurements for Ultra Supercritical boiler condition assessment. Investigations were focused on sensor design, fabrication, attachment techniques and novel materials for high temperature and strain measurements. At the start of the project, the technical requirements for the sensing technology were determined together with our industrial partner Alstom Power. As is demonstrated in Chapter 4, all the technical requirements are successfully met. The success of the technology extended beyond laboratory test; its capability was further validated through the field test at DOE NETL, in which the sensors yielded distributed temperature mapping of a testing coupon installed in the turbine test rig. The measurement results agreed well with prior results generated with thermocouples. In this project, significant improvements were made to the IFPI sensor technology by splicing condition optimization, transmission loss reduction, sensor signal demodulation and sensor system design.

  3. Evaluation of air toxic emissions from advanced and conventional coal-fired power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, P.; Epstein, M.; Gould, L.; Botros, P.

    1995-12-31

    This paper evaluates the air toxics measurements at three advanced power systems and a base case conventional fossil fuel power plant. The four plants tested include a pressurized fluidized bed combustor, integrated gasification combined cycle, circulating fluidized bed combustor, and a conventional coal-fired plant.

  4. Demonstration tests of new burner diagnostic system on a 650 MW coal-fired utility boiler

    SciTech Connect

    Khesin, M.; Quenan, D.; Jesikiewicz, T.; Kenien, D.; Girvan, R.

    1997-09-01

    Forney Corporation, MK Engineering (MKE) and NYSEG jointly conducted extensive testing of a new Burner Diagnostic System (BDS) based on analysis of flame turbulence in the burner ignition zone. Tests were conducted on the 700 MW coal-fired unit at NYSEG Kintigh Station with the objective to evaluate the new system`s capabilities and its potential for improvements in combustion efficiency and NO{sub x} reduction. The overall objectives in creating this new product included the following: develop and test a set of advanced algorithms correlating flame signatures with combustion parameters, such as air-fuel ratio, combustion efficiency, flame stability, CO and NO{sub x} emissions; develop a new generation of flame sensors with improved flame detection and burner management capabilities; develop new advanced combustion optimization strategies and systems, and to equip the operator with an effective new tool to improve combustion performance; and evaluate the new system feasibility and to compare the data with results of the NYSEG`s SMG-10 application (which provides precision measurements of coal and primary air flows to each burner).

  5. High Temperature Behavior of Cr3C2-NiCr Coatings in the Actual Coal-Fired Boiler Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhatia, Rakesh; Sidhu, Hazoor Singh; Sidhu, Buta Singh

    2015-03-01

    Erosion-corrosion is a serious problem observed in steam-powered electricity generation plants, and industrial waste incinerators. In the present study, four compositions of Cr3C2-(Ni-20Cr) alloy coating powder were deposited by high-velocity oxy-fuel spray technique on T-91 boiler tube steel. The cyclic studies were performed in a coal-fired boiler at 1123 K ± 10 K (850 °C ± 10 °C). X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray analysis and elemental mapping analysis techniques were used to analyze the corrosion products. All the coatings deposited on T-91 boiler tube steel imparted hot corrosion resistance. The 65 pctCr3C2 -35 pct (Ni-20Cr)-coated T-91 steel sample performed better than all other coated samples in the given environment.

  6. Evaluation of the behavior of shrouded plasma spray coatings in the platen superheater of coal-fired boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Sidhu, B.S.; Prakash, S.

    2006-06-15

    Nickel- and cobalt-based coatings were formulated by a shrouded plasma spray process on boiler tube steels, namely, ASTM-SA210-grade A1 (GrA1), ASTM-SA213-T-11 (T11), and ASTM-SA213-T-22 (T22). The Ni-22Cr-10A1-1Y alloy powder was sprayed as a bond in each case before the final coating. The degradation behavior of the bared and coated steels was studied in the platen superheater of the coal-fired boiler. The samples were inserted through the soot blower dummy points with the help of stainless steel wires. The coatings were found to be effective in increasing resistance to degradation in the given boiler environment. The maximum protection was observed in the case of Stellite-6 (St-6) coating.

  7. 180 MW demonstration of advanced tangentially-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from coal-fired boilers. Technical progress report second quarter, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-12-31

    ABB CE`s Low NOx Bulk Furnace Staging (LNBFS) System and Low NOx Concentric Firing System (LNCFS) are demonstrated in stepwise fashion. These systems incorporate the concept of advanced overfire air (AOFA), clustered coal nozzles, and offset air. A complete description of the installed technologies is provided in the following section. The primary objective of the Plant Lansing Smith demonstration is to determine the long-term effects of commercially available tangentially-fired low NOx combustion technologies on NOx emissions and boiler performance. Short-term tests of each technology are also being performed to provide engineering information about emissions and performance trends. A target of achieving fifty percent NOx reduction using combustion modifications has been established for the project.

  8. Economic comparison of fabric filters and electrostatic precipitators for particulate control on coal-fired utility boilers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cukor, P. M.; Chapman, R. A.

    1978-01-01

    The uncertainties and associated costs involved in selecting and designing a particulate control device to meet California's air emission regulations are considered. The basic operating principles of electrostatic precipitators and fabric filters are discussed, and design parameters are identified. The size and resulting cost of the control device as a function of design parameters is illustrated by a case study for an 800 MW coal-fired fired utility boiler burning a typical southwestern subbituminous coal. The cost of selecting an undersized particulate control device is compared with the cost of selecting an oversized device.

  9. Coal-fired power materials - Part II

    SciTech Connect

    Viswanathan, V.; Purgert, R.; Rawls, P.

    2008-09-15

    Part 1 discussed some general consideration in selection of alloys for advanced ultra supercritical (USC) coal-fired power plant boilers. This second part covers results reported by the US project consortium, which has extensively evaluated the steamside oxidation, fireside corrosion, and fabricability of the alloys selected for USC plants. 3 figs.

  10. Optimization of high efficiency and low pollution of coal fired boilers for new and retrofit applications

    SciTech Connect

    Kaneko, S.; Kinoshita, M.; Morii, A.

    1994-12-31

    The Japanese government regulation of NOx emissions from thermal power stations has been amended four times since it was first introduced in 1973 and has become more strict each time as shown. Especially in the last decade, the regulation on pulverized coal firing has been strengthened, and a low NOx level close to that of oil firing is now being required. Reduction of NOx emissions generally meant a decrease of combustion efficiency, as has been the case for cars. In coal fired units, reducing NOx emissions caused an increase of unburnt carbon and resulted in a decrease of efficiency of the unit.

  11. A mathematical model of slagging of the furnace of the pulverized-coal-firing boiler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chernetskii, M. Yu.; Alekhnovich, A. N.; Dekterev, A. A.

    2012-08-01

    The mathematical model of furnace slagging integrated into the Sigma-Flow program system of computational hydrodynamics has been developed; this system makes it possible to calculate aerodynamics, processes of heat-and-mass exchange, and combustion processes in complex technological facilities, including pulverized-coal-firing furnaces.

  12. Control of mercury emissions from coal fired electric uitlity boilers: An update

    EPA Science Inventory

    Coal-fired power plants in the U.S. are known to be the major anthropogenic source of domestic mercury emissions. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has recently proposed to reduce emissions of mercury from these plants. In March 2005, EPA plans to promulgate final regulat...

  13. Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT): 500 MW demonstration of advanced wall-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from coal-fired boilers. Technical progress report: First quarter 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-31

    This quarterly report discusses the technical progress of an Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT) demonstration being conducted at Georgia Power Company`s Plant Hammond Unit 4 located near Rome, Georgia. The primary goal of this project is the characterization of the low NO{sub x} combustion equipment through the collection and analysis of long-term emissions data. A target of achieving fifty percent NO{sub x} reduction using combustion modifications has been established for the project. The project provides a stepwise retrofit of an advanced overfire air (AOFA) system followed by low NO{sub x} burners (LNB). During each test phase of the project, diagnostic, performance, long-term, and verification testing will be performed. These tests are used to quantify the NO{sub x} reductions of each technology and evaluate the effects of those reductions on other combustion parameters such as particulate characteristics and boiler efficiency. During this quarter, long-term testing of the LNB + AOFA configuration continued and no parametric testing was performed. Further full-load optimization of the LNB + AOFA system began on March 30, 1993. Following completion of this optimization, comprehensive testing in this configuration will be performed including diagnostic, performance, verification, long-term, and chemical emissions testing. These tests are scheduled to start in May 1993 and continue through August 1993. Preliminary engineering and procurement are progressing on the Advanced Low NOx Digital Controls scope addition to the wall-fired project. The primary activities during this quarter include (1) refinement of the input/output lists, (2) procurement of the distributed digital control system, (3) configuration training, and (4) revision of schedule to accommodate project approval cycle and change in unit outage dates.

  14. MINIMIZATION OF NO EMISSIONS FROM MULTI-BURNER COAL-FIRED BOILERS

    SciTech Connect

    E.G. Eddings; A. Molina; D.W. Pershing; A.F. Sarofim; T.H. Fletcher; H. Zhang; K.A. Davis; M. Denison; H. Shim

    2002-01-01

    The focus of this program is to provide insight into the formation and minimization of NO{sub x} in multi-burner arrays, such as those that would be found in a typical utility boiler. Most detailed studies are performed in single-burner test facilities, and may not capture significant burner-to-burner interactions that could influence NO{sub x} emissions. Thus, investigations of such interactions were made by performing a combination of single and multiple burner experiments in a pilot-scale coal-fired test facility at the University of Utah, and by the use of computational combustion simulations to evaluate full-scale utility boilers. In addition, fundamental studies on nitrogen release from coal were performed to develop greater understanding of the physical processes that control NO formation in pulverized coal flames--particularly under low NO{sub x} conditions. A CO/H{sub 2}/O{sub 2}/N{sub 2} flame was operated under fuel-rich conditions in a flat flame reactor to provide a high temperature, oxygen-free post-flame environment to study secondary reactions of coal volatiles. Effects of temperature, residence time and coal rank on nitrogen evolution and soot formation were examined. Elemental compositions of the char, tar and soot were determined by elemental analysis, gas species distributions were determined using FTIR, and the chemical structure of the tar and soot was analyzed by solid-state {sup 13}C NMR spectroscopy. A laminar flow drop tube furnace was used to study char nitrogen conversion to NO. The experimental evidence and simulation results indicated that some of the nitrogen present in the char is converted to nitric oxide after direct attack of oxygen on the particle, while another portion of the nitrogen, present in more labile functionalities, is released as HCN and further reacts in the bulk gas. The reaction of HCN with NO in the bulk gas has a strong influence on the overall conversion of char-nitrogen to nitric oxide; therefore, any model that

  15. Demonstration of Selective Catalytic Reduction Technology to Control Nitrogen Oxide Emissions From High-Sulfur, Coal-Fired Boilers: A DOE Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Federal Energy Technology Center

    1999-12-01

    The goal of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Clean Coal Technology (CCT) program is to furnish the energy marketplace with a number of advanced, more efficient, and environmentally responsible coal utilization technologies through demonstration projects. These projects seek to establish the commercial feasibility of the most promising advanced coal technologies that have developed beyond the proof-of-concept stage. This document serves as a DOE post-project assessment of a project selected in CCT Round 2. The project is described in the report ''Demonstration of Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) Technology for the Control of Nitrogen Oxide (NO{sub x}) Emissions from High-Sulfur, Coal-Fired Boilers'' (Southern Company Services 1990). In June 1990, Southern Company Services (Southern) entered into a cooperative agreement to conduct the study. Southern was a cofunder and served as the host at Gulf Power Company's Plant Crist. Other participants and cofunders were EPRI (formerly the Electric Power Research Institute) and Ontario Hydro. DOE provided 40 percent of the total project cost of $23 million. The long-term operation phase of the demonstration was started in July 1993 and was completed in July 1995. This independent evaluation is based primarily on information from Southern's Final Report (Southern Company Services 1996). The SCR process consists of injecting ammonia (NH{sub 3}) into boiler flue gas and passing the 3 flue gas through a catalyst bed where the NO{sub x} and NH{sub 3} react to form nitrogen and water vapor. The objectives of the demonstration project were to investigate: Performance of a wide variety of SCR catalyst compositions, geometries, and manufacturing methods at typical U.S. high-sulfur coal-fired utility operating conditions; Catalyst resistance to poisoning by trace metal species present in U.S. coals but not present, or present at much lower concentrations, in fuels from other countries; and Effects on the balance-of-plant equipment

  16. 500 MW demonstration of advanced wall-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from coal fired boilers. Second quarterly technical progress report, [April--June 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-31

    The primary goal of this project is the characterization of the low NO{sub x} combustion equipment through the collection and analysis of long-term emissions data. A target of achieving fifty percent NO{sub x} reduction using combustion modifications has been established for the project. The project provides a stepwise retrofit of an advanced overfire air (AOFA) system followed by low NO{sub x} burners (LNB). During each test phase of the project, diagnostic, performance, long-term and verification testing will be performed. These tests are used to quantify the NO{sub x} reductions of each technology and evaluate the effects of those reductions on other combustion parameters such as particulate characteristics and boiler efficiency. Baseline, AOFA, and LNB without AOFA test segments have been completed. Analysis of the 94 days of LNB long-term data collected show the full-load NO{sub x} emission levels to be approximately 0.65 lb/MBtu with flyash LOI values of approximately 8 percent. Corresponding values for the AOFA configuration are 0.94 lb/MBtu and approximately 10 percent. For comparison, the long-term full-load, baseline NO{sub x} emission level was approximately 1.24 lb/MBtu at 5.2 percent LOI. Comprehensive testing of the LNB plus AOFA configuration began in May 1993 and is scheduled to end during August 1993. As of June 30, the diagnostic, performance, chemical emissions tests segments for this configuration have been conducted and 29 days of long-term, emissions data collected. Preliminary results from the May--June 1993 tests of the LNB plus AOFA system show that the full load NO{sub x} emissions are approximately 0.42 lb/MBtu with corresponding fly ash LOI values near 8 percent. This is a substantial improvement in both NO{sub x} emissions and LOI values when compared to the results obtained during the February--March 1992 abbreviated testing of this system.

  17. 40 CFR Appendix A to Part 76 - Phase I Affected Coal-Fired Utility Units With Group 1 or Cell Burner Boilers

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Phase I Affected Coal-Fired Utility Units With Group 1 or Cell Burner Boilers A Appendix A to Part 76 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) ACID RAIN NITROGEN OXIDES...

  18. 40 CFR Appendix A to Part 76 - Phase I Affected Coal-Fired Utility Units With Group 1 or Cell Burner Boilers

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Phase I Affected Coal-Fired Utility Units With Group 1 or Cell Burner Boilers A Appendix A to Part 76 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) ACID RAIN NITROGEN OXIDES...

  19. 40 CFR Appendix A to Part 76 - Phase I Affected Coal-Fired Utility Units With Group 1 or Cell Burner Boilers

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Phase I Affected Coal-Fired Utility Units With Group 1 or Cell Burner Boilers A Appendix A to Part 76 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) ACID RAIN NITROGEN OXIDES...

  20. 40 CFR Appendix A to Part 76 - Phase I Affected Coal-Fired Utility Units With Group 1 or Cell Burner Boilers

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Phase I Affected Coal-Fired Utility Units With Group 1 or Cell Burner Boilers A Appendix A to Part 76 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) ACID RAIN NITROGEN OXIDES...

  1. 40 CFR Appendix A to Part 76 - Phase I Affected Coal-Fired Utility Units With Group 1 or Cell Burner Boilers

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Phase I Affected Coal-Fired Utility Units With Group 1 or Cell Burner Boilers A Appendix A to Part 76 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) ACID RAIN NITROGEN OXIDES EMISSION REDUCTION PROGRAM Pt. 76, App. A Appendix A to Part...

  2. Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT): 180 MW demonstration of advanced tangentially-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from coal-fired boilers. Phase 1, Baseline tests

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    The primary objective of the project is to investigate the long-term effects of commercially available tangentially-fired low NO{sub x} combustion technologies on NOx emissions and boiler performance on Unit 2 at Gulf Power Company`s Plant Lansing Smith located near Lynn Haven, Florida. The project will characterize emissions and performance of a tangentially-fired boiler operating in the following configurations: Baseline ``as-found`` configuration: Phase 1; retrofitted low NO{sub x} concentric firing system (LNCFS) Level 2 and simulated low NO{sub x} bulk furnace staging (LNBFS): Phase 2; retrofitted low NO{sub x} concentric firing system (LNCFS) Level 3, Phase 3a and simulated LNCFS Level 1, Phase 3b.

  3. Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT): 180 MW demonstration of advanced tangentially-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO sub x ) emissions from coal-fired boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    The primary objective of the project is to investigate the long-term effects of commercially available tangentially-fired low NO{sub x} combustion technologies on NOx emissions and boiler performance on Unit 2 at Gulf Power Company's Plant Lansing Smith located near Lynn Haven, Florida. The project will characterize emissions and performance of a tangentially-fired boiler operating in the following configurations: Baseline as-found'' configuration: Phase 1; retrofitted low NO{sub x} concentric firing system (LNCFS) Level 2 and simulated low NO{sub x} bulk furnace staging (LNBFS): Phase 2; retrofitted low NO{sub x} concentric firing system (LNCFS) Level 3, Phase 3a and simulated LNCFS Level 1, Phase 3b.

  4. Least Square Fast Learning Network for modeling the combustion efficiency of a 300WM coal-fired boiler.

    PubMed

    Li, Guoqiang; Niu, Peifeng; Wang, Huaibao; Liu, Yongchao

    2014-03-01

    This paper presents a novel artificial neural network with a very fast learning speed, all of whose weights and biases are determined by the twice Least Square method, so it is called Least Square Fast Learning Network (LSFLN). In addition, there is another difference from conventional neural networks, which is that the output neurons of LSFLN not only receive the information from the hidden layer neurons, but also receive the external information itself directly from the input neurons. In order to test the validity of LSFLN, it is applied to 6 classical regression applications, and also employed to build the functional relation between the combustion efficiency and operating parameters of a 300WM coal-fired boiler. Experimental results show that, compared with other methods, LSFLN with very less hidden neurons could achieve much better regression precision and generalization ability at a much faster learning speed. PMID:24373896

  5. Advanced coal-fired glass melting development program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-05-01

    The objective of Phase 1 of the current contract was to verify the technical feasibility and economic benefits of Vortec's advanced combustion/melting technology using coal as the fuel of choice. The objective of the Phase 2 effort was to improve the performance of the primary components and demonstrate the effective operation of a subscale process heater system integrated with a glass separator/reservoir. (VC)

  6. Pilot-Scale Demonstration of ALTA for NOx Control in Pulverized Coal-Fired Boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Andrew Fry; Devin Davis; Marc Cremer; Bradley Adams

    2008-04-30

    This report describes computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling and pilot-scale testing conducted to demonstrate the ability of the Advanced Layered Technology Approach (ALTA) to reduce NO{sub x} emissions in a pulverized coal (PC) boiler. Testing specifically focused on characterizing NO{sub x} behavior with deep burner staging combined with Rich Reagent Injection (RRI). Tests were performed in a 4 MBtu/hr pilot-scale furnace at the University of Utah. Reaction Engineering International (REI) led the project team which included the University of Utah and Combustion Components Associates (CCA). Deep burner staging and RRI, combined with selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR), make up the Advanced Layered Technology Approach (ALTA) for NO{sub x} reduction. The application of ALTA in a PC environment requires homogenization and rapid reaction of post-burner combustion gases and has not been successfully demonstrated in the past. Operation of the existing low-NO{sub x} burner and design and operation of an application specific ALTA burner was guided by CFD modeling conducted by REI. Parametric pilot-scale testing proved the chemistry of RRI in a PC environment with a NOx reduction of 79% at long residence times and high baseline NOx rate. At representative particle residence times, typical operation of the dual-register low-NO{sub x} burner provided an environment that was unsuitable for NO{sub x} reduction by RRI, showing no NOx reduction. With RRI, the ALTA burner was able to produce NO{sub x} emissions 20% lower than the low-NO{sub x} burner, 76 ppmv vs. 94 ppmv, at a burner stoichiometric ratio (BSR) of 0.7 and a normalized stoichiometric ratio (NSR) of 2.0. CFD modeling was used to investigate the application of RRI for NO{sub x} control on a 180 MW{sub e} wall-fired, PC boiler. A NO{sub x} reduction of 37% from baseline (normal operation) was predicted using ALTA burners with RRI to produce a NO{sub x} emission rate of 0.185 lb/MBtu at the horizontal nose of

  7. DEVELOPMENT OF ANALYTICAL METHODS FOR THE QUANTIFICATION OF THE CHEMICAL FORMS OF MERCURY AND OTHER TARGET POLLUTANTS IN COAL-FIRED BOILER FLUE GAS

    SciTech Connect

    Terence J. McManus, Ph.D.

    1999-06-30

    Since approximately 55% of the electrical power produced in the U. S. is generated by coal-based power utility plants, there is serious concern about the massive amounts of coal combustion products emitted into the atmosphere annually. Furthermore, Title III of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) requires the measurement and inventory of a possible 189 hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) from any stationary source producing more than 10 tons per year of any one pollutant or more than 25 tons per year of total pollutants. Although power utilities are not presently included on the list of source categories, the CAAA requires the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency to carry out a study of emissions from electricity generation using fossil fuels. Since many of these HAPs are known to be present in coal derived flue gas, coal-fired electric power utilities may be subject to regulation following these studies if Congress considers it necessary. In a cooperative effort with the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) through its Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC) initiated such a study in 1991. DOE-FETC commissioned five primary contractors to conduct emission studies at eight different coal-fired electric utilities. The eight sites represented a cross section of feed coal type, boiler designs, and particulate and gaseous pollutant control technologies. The major goal of these studies was to determine the sampling and analytical methodologies that could be used efficiently to perform these emission tests while producing representative and reliable emission data. The successful methodology could then be recommended to the EPA for use in compliance testing in the event the regulation of air toxic emissions from coal-fired power plants is implemented. A secondary purpose of the testing was to determine the effectiveness of the control technologies in reducing target hazardous air pollutants. Advanced Technology Systems, Inc

  8. Assessment of control technologies for reducing emissions of SO sub 2 and NOx from existing coal-fired utility boilers. Final report, January 1987-December 1989

    SciTech Connect

    White, D.M.; Maibodi, M.

    1990-09-01

    The report reviews available information and estimated costs on 15 emission control technology categories applicable to existing coal-fired electric utility boilers. The categories include passive controls such as least emission dispatching, conventional processes, and emerging technologies still undergoing pilot scale and commercial demonstration. The status of each technology is reviewed relative to four elements: Description--how the technology works; Applicability--its applicability to existing plants; Performance--the expected emissions reduction; and Costs--the capital cost, busbar cost, and cost per ton of SO2 and NOx removed. Costs are estimated for new and retrofit applications for various boiler sizes, operating characteristics, fuel qualities, and boiler retrofit difficulties.

  9. Full operating range robust hybrid control of a coal-fired boiler/turbine unit - article no. 041011

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, K.; Bentsman, J.; Taft, C.W.

    2008-07-15

    Multi-input-multi-output robust controllers recently designed for the megawatt output/throttle pressure control in a coal-fired power plant boiler/turbine unit have demonstrated performance robustness noticeably superior to that of the currently employed nonlinear PID-based controller. These controllers, however, have been designed only for the range of 150-185 MW around the 185 MW nominal operating point, exhibiting a significant loss of performance in the lower range of 120-150 MW. Through system identification, the reason for this performance loss is demonstrated in the current work to be a pronounced dependence of the boiler/turbine unit steady state gains on the operating point. This problem is addressed via a hybrid control law consisting of two robust controllers and a robust switch between them activated by the set point change. The controllers are designed to cover the corresponding half-ranges of the full operating range. This permits attainment of the desired overall performance as well as reduction of modeling uncertainty induced by the operating point change to approximately 25% of that associated with the previous designs. Robust switching is accomplished through a novel hybrid mode of behavior-robustly controlled discrete transition.

  10. COMBUSTION MODIFICATION EFFECTS ON NOX EMISSIONS FROM GAS-, OIL-, AND COAL-FIRED UTILITY BOILERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report represents the conclusion of 4 years of analysis of large quantities of emissions, operating conditions, and boiler configuration data from full-scale multiple-burner, electric-generating boilers firing natural gas, oil, and coal fuels. The overall objective of the stu...

  11. ANALYSIS TEST DATA FOR NOX CONTROL IN COAL-FIRED UTILITY BOILERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes the analyses of a large quantity of emissions, operating conditions, and boiler configuration data from full-scale, multiple-burner, electric-generating boilers firing coal fuel. Objectives of the study include: (1) evaluation of the effects of combustion mod...

  12. Evaluation of BOC'S Lotox Process for the Oxidation of Elemental Mercury in Flue Gas from a Coal-Fired Boiler

    SciTech Connect

    Khalid Omar

    2008-04-30

    Linde's Low Temperature Oxidation (LoTOx{trademark}) process has been demonstrated successfully to remove more than 90% of the NOx emitted from coal-fired boilers. Preliminary findings have shown that the LoTOx{trademark} process can be as effective for mercury emissions control as well. In the LoTOx{trademark} system, ozone is injected into a reaction duct, where NO and NO{sub 2} in the flue gas are selectively oxidized at relatively low temperatures and converted to higher nitrogen oxides, which are highly water soluble. Elemental mercury in the flue gas also reacts with ozone to form oxidized mercury, which unlike elemental mercury is water-soluble. Nitrogen oxides and oxidized mercury in the reaction duct and residual ozone, if any, are effectively removed in a wet scrubber. Thus, LoTOx{trademark} appears to be a viable technology for multi-pollutant emission control. To prove the feasibility of mercury oxidation with ozone in support of marketing LoTOx{trademark} for multi-pollutant emission control, Linde has performed a series of bench-scale tests with simulated flue gas streams. However, in order to enable Linde to evaluate the performance of the process with a flue gas stream that is more representative of a coal-fired boiler; one of Linde's bench-scale LoTOx{trademark} units was installed at WRI's combustion test facility (CTF), where a slipstream of flue gas from the CTF was treated. The degree of mercury and NOx oxidation taking place in the LoTOx{trademark} unit was quantified as a function of ozone injection rates, reactor temperatures, residence time, and ranks of coals. The overall conclusions from these tests are: (1) over 80% reduction in elemental mercury and over 90% reduction of NOx can be achieved with an O{sub 3}/NO{sub X} molar ratio of less than two, (2) in most of the cases, a lower reactor temperature is preferred over a higher temperature due to ozone dissociation, however, the combination of both low residence time and high temperature

  13. Potentials of Biomass Co-Combustion in Coal-Fired Boilers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werther, J.

    The present work provides a survey on the potentials of co-combustion of biomass and biogenic wastes in large-scale coal-fired power plants. This allows an energetic utilization at a high level of efficiency which is not obtainable in small-scale dedicated biomass combustors. Co-firing at low percentages of the thermal power (typically below 5-10 %) avoids the characteristic operating problems of biomass combustion, i.e. ash sintering and fouling of heat transfer surfaces. Co-firing of biogenic wastes is already widely practiced in Germany, non-waste biomass like forest residues are for subsidy reasons combusted in small dedicated mono-combustion plants. A future increase of co-combustion may be associated with the upgrading of biogenic wastes with high water content to biofuels by drying. Such biofuels could substitute more expensive coal and save on CO2 emission certificates. In the more distant future biomass co-combustion may help in the CO2 scrubbing process by lowering the target level of CO2 absorption efficiency.

  14. Coal-fired boiler houses in Cracow present state and possibilities to improve their efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Cyklis, P.; Butcher, T.A.

    1995-12-31

    A significant amount of heat energy both for heating and process purposes is generated in Cracow, Poland in small-and medium size local boiler houses. The operating procedure of these boiler houses is most often economically and ecologically ineffective because of the bad condition of boilers and lack of funds to install automation, control and measurement equipment. Within the Polish-American Program of Elimination of Low Emission Sources financed by the US Department of Energy, the ENERGOEKSPERT Co., Ltd. investigated chosen boiler houses in Cracow, commissioned by the Cracow Development Office. The results of these investigations were subject of engineering analysis carried out at the Institute of Industrial Equipment and Power Engineering, Technical University, Cracow. The analysis proved that the low-cost improvement of economic efficiency and reduction of air pollutant emission is feasible for combustion of coal fuels.

  15. Neural network predictions of slagging and fouling in pulverized coal-fired utility boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Wildman, D.; Smouse, S.; Chi, R.

    1996-12-31

    Feed-forward back-propagation neural networks were trained to relate the occurrence and characteristics of troublesome slagging and fouling deposits in utility boilers to coal properties, boiler design features, and boiler operating conditions. The data used in this effort were from a survey of utility boilers conducted by Battelle Columbus Laboratories in an Electric Power Research Institute project. Two networks were developed in this study, one for slagging and one for fouling, to predict ash deposition in various types of boilers (wall-, opposed wall-, tangentially, and cyclone-fired) that fire bituminous and sub-bituminous coals. Both networks predicted the frequency of deposition problems, physical nature (or state) of the deposit, and the thickness of the deposit. Since deposit characteristics vary with boiler location and operating conditions, the worst documented cases of ash deposition were used to train the neural networks. Comparison of actual and predicted deposition showed very good agreement in general. The relative importance of some of the input variables on the predicted deposit characteristics were assessed in a sensitivity analysis. Also, the slagging and fouling characteristics of a blend of two coals with significant different deposition characteristics were predicted to demonstrate a practical application of developed neural networks.

  16. [Predicting low NOx combustion property of a coal-fired boiler].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Hao; Mao, Jianbo; Chi, Zuohe; Jiang, Xiao; Wang, Zhenhua; Cen, Kefa

    2002-03-01

    More attention was paid to the low NOx combustion property of the high capacity tangential firing boiler, but the NOx emission and unburned carbon content in fly ash of coal burned boiler were complicated, they were affected by many factors, such as coal character, boiler's load, air distribution, boiler style, burner style, furnace temperature, excess air ratio, pulverized coal fineness and the uniformity of the air and coal distribution, etc. In this paper, the NOx emission property and unburned carbon content in fly ash of a 600 MW utility tangentially firing coal burned boiler was experimentally investigated, and taking advantage of the nonlinear dynamics characteristics and self-learning characteristics of artificial neural network, an artificial neural network model on low NOx combustion property of the high capacity boiler was developed and verified. The results illustrated that such a model can predicate the NOx emission concentration and unburned carbon content under various operating conditions, if combined with the optimization algorithm, the operator can find the best operation condition of the low NOx combustion. PMID:12048812

  17. Cogeneration Technology Alternatives Study (CTAS). Volume 6: Computer data. Part 1: Coal-fired nocogeneration process boiler, section A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knightly, W. F.

    1980-01-01

    About fifty industrial processes from the largest energy consuming sectors were used as a basis for matching a similar number of energy conversion systems that are considered as candidate which can be made available by the 1985 to 2000 time period. The sectors considered included food, textiles, lumber, paper, chemicals, petroleum, glass, and primary metals. The energy conversion systems included steam and gas turbines, diesels, thermionics, stirling, closed cycle and steam injected gas turbines, and fuel cells. Fuels considered were coal, both coal and petroleum based residual and distillate liquid fuels, and low Btu gas obtained through the on site gasification of coal. Computer generated reports of the fuels consumption and savings, capital costs, economics and emissions of the cogeneration energy conversion systems (ECS's) heat and power matched to the individual industrial processes are presented. National fuel and emissions savings are also reported for each ECS assuming it alone is implemented. Two nocogeneration base cases are included: coal fired and residual fired process boilers.

  18. Gas-phase mercury reduction to measure total mercury in the flue gas of a coal-fired boiler.

    PubMed

    Meischen, Sandra J; Van Pelt, Vincent J; Zarate, Eugene A; Stephens, Edward A

    2004-01-01

    Gaseous elemental and total (elemental + oxidized) mercury (Hg) in the flue gas from a coal-fired boiler was measured by a modified ultraviolet (UV) spectrometer. Challenges to Hg measurement were the spectral interferences from other flue gas components and that UV measures only elemental Hg. To eliminate interference from flue gas components, a cartridge filled with gold-coated sand removed elemental Hg from a flue gas sample. The Hg-free flue gas was the reference gas, eliminating the spectral interferences. To measure total Hg by UV, oxidized Hg underwent a gas-phase, thermal-reduction in a quartz cell heated to 750 degrees C. Simultaneously, hydrogen was added to flash react with the oxygen present forming water vapor and preventing Hg re-oxidation as it exits the cell. Hg concentration results are in parts per billion by volume Hg at the flue gas oxygen concentration. The modified Hg analyzer and the Ontario Hydro method concurrently measured Hg at a field test site. Measurements were made at a 700-MW steam turbine plant with scrubber units and selective catalytic reduction. The flue gas sampled downstream of the selective catalytic reduction contained 2100 ppm SO2 and 75 ppm NOx. Total Hg measured by the Hg analyzer was within 20% of the Ontario Hydro results. PMID:14871013

  19. Cogeneration Technology Alternatives Study (CTAS). Volume 6: Computer data. Part 1: Coal-fired nocogeneration process boiler, section B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knightly, W. F.

    1980-01-01

    About fifty industrial processes from the largest energy consuming sectors were used as a basis for matching a similar number of energy conversion systems that are considered as candidate which can be made available by the 1985 to 2000 time period. The sectors considered included food, textiles, lumber, paper, chemicals, petroleum, glass, and primary metals. The energy conversion systems included steam and gas turbines, diesels, thermionics, stirling, closed cycle and steam injected gas turbines, and fuel cells. Fuels considered were coal, both coal and petroleum based residual and distillate liquid fuels, and low Btu gas obtained through the on site gasification of coal. Computer generated reports of the fuel consumption and savings, capital costs, economics and emissions of the cogeneration energy conversion systems (ECS's) heat and power matched to the individual industrial processes are presented. National fuel and emissions savings are also reported for each ECS assuming it alone is implemented. Two nocogeneration base cases are included: coal fired and residual fired process boilers.

  20. Relative accuracy testing of an X-ray fluorescence-based mercury monitor at coal-fired boilers.

    PubMed

    Hay, K James; Johnsen, Bruce E; Ginochio, Paul R; Cooper, John A

    2006-05-01

    The relative accuracy (RA) of a newly developed mercury continuous emissions monitor, based on X-ray fluorescence, was determined by comparing analysis results at coal-fired plants with two certified reference methods (American Society for Testing and Materials [ASTM] Method D6784-02 and U.S. Environment Protection Agency [EPA] Method 29). During the first determination, the monitor had an RA of 25% compared with ASTM Method D6784-02 (Ontario Hydro Method). However, the Ontario Hydro Method performed poorly, because the mercury concentrations were near the detection limit of the reference method. The mercury in this exhaust stream was primarily elemental. The second test was performed at a U.S. Army boiler against EPA Reference Method 29. Mercury and arsenic were spiked because of expected low mercury concentrations. The monitor had an RA of 16% for arsenic and 17% for mercury, meeting RA requirements of EPA Performance Specification 12a. The results suggest that the sampling stream contained significant percentages of both elemental and oxidized mercury. The monitor was successful at measuring total mercury in particulate and vapor forms. PMID:16739803

  1. Behavior of fluorine and chlorine in Spanish coal fired power plants with pulverized coal boilers and fluidized bed boiler.

    PubMed

    López-Vilariño, J M; Fernández-Martínez, G; Turnes-Carou, I; Muinategui-Lorenzo, S; López-Mahía, P; Prada-Rodríguez, D

    2003-06-01

    Behavior and contents of fluorine and chlorine in coal feedstock, combustion wastes (slag and fly ash) and emissions were studied in five conventional coal fired power plants and in a fluidized bed coal power plant. The halide levels found in the used coal were quite low. Mass balances and emission factors were calculated. The volatility of these elements makes the gaseous emission the main target between the residues. The influence of combustion parameters is not clearly established. Several analytical techniques (ion selective electrodes, capillary electrophoresis and ion chromatography) are employed to determinate the halide concentration in the different samples taken in the power plants studied (coal, slag, fly ash and flue gases). PMID:12868523

  2. Demonstration of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology for the control of nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions from high-sulfur coal-fired boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-11-01

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate and evaluate commercially available Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalysts from US, Japanese and European catalyst suppliers on a high-sulfur US coal-fired boiler. SCR is a post-combustion nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) control technology that involves injecting ammonia into the flue gas generated from coal combustion in an electric utility boiler. The flue gas containing ammonia is then passed through a reactor that contains a specialized catalyst. In the presence of the catalyst, the ammonia reacts with NO{sub x} to convert it to nitrogen and water vapor.

  3. CALCINATION OF CALCIUM-BASED SORBENTS FOR CONTROL OF SO2 EMISSIONS FROM COAL FIRED BOILERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper summarizes the results of an experimental study that focused on the production of high surface area materials from various sorbents. (NOTE: Injecting calcium-based sorbents into coal burning utility boilers to control SO2 emissions is being considered by the EPA as an a...

  4. Reduction of Nitrogen Oxides Emissions from a Coal-Fired Boiler Unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuikov, Andrey V.; Feoktistov, Dmitry V.; Koshurnikova, Natalya N.; Zlenko, Lyudmila V.

    2016-02-01

    During combustion of fossil fuels a large amount of harmful substances are discharged into the atmospheres of cities by industrial heating boiler houses. The most harmful substances among them are nitrogen oxides. The paper presents one of the most effective technological solutions for suppressing nitrogen oxides; it is arrangement of circulation process with additional mounting of the nozzle directed into the bottom of the ash hopper. When brown high-moisture coals are burnt in the medium power boilers, generally fuel nitrogen oxides are produced. It is possible to reduce their production by two ways: lowering the temperature in the core of the torch or decreasing the excess-air factor in the boiler furnace. Proposed solution includes the arrangement of burning process with additional nozzle installed in the lower part of the ash hopper. Air supply from these nozzles creates vortex involving large unburned fuel particles in multiple circulations. Thereby time of their staying in the combustion zone is prolonging. The findings describe the results of the proposed solution; and recommendations for the use of this technological method are given for other boilers.

  5. Demonstration of Orimulsion{reg{underscore}sign} reburning on a coal-fired utility boiler

    SciTech Connect

    Rostorfer, C.R.; Krueger, S.; Payne, R.

    1998-07-01

    This paper provides a summary of the Orimulsion Reburn Demonstration Project recently conducted at Illinois Power's Hennepin Power Station during September through November 1997. The demonstration consisted of three major activities: Modify the Hennepin Station Unit 1 boiler for Orimulsion reburn; Deliver Orimulsion fuel to the Station on the Illinois River via double-hulled barge; and Conduct the demonstration through a series of parametric and duration tests. Hennepin Station Unit 1 was selected to host the demonstration because it had been the site of a US DOE Clean Coal Technology (CCT) Program involving natural gas reburn in the early 1990s. Consequently, the modifications required for the Orimulsion reburn system were relatively minor since penetrations in the boiler walls existed and overfire air and flue gas recirculation fans and ducts were still in place. The reburn fuel system was designed and installed to transfer the Orimulsion from the barge and inject it into the boiler. A double-hulled barge was used to transport about 16,500 barrels of Orimulsion to the plant on the Mississippi and Illinois Rivers and served as the storage facility during the testing. Illinois bituminous coal provided approximately 80% of the unit's heat input, with Orimulsion providing approximately 20%. The objective of the project was to demonstrate NO{sub x} reductions of up to 65% from the original baseline levels with no unexpected impacts on boiler performance or operation.

  6. DEMONSTRATION OF SORBENT INJECTION TECHNOLOGY ON A TANGENTIALLY COAL-FIRED UTILITY BOILER (YORKTOWN LIMB DEMONSTRATION)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report summarizes activities conducted and results achieved in an EPA-sponsored program to demonstrate Limestone Injection Multistage Burner (LIMB) technology on a tangentially fired coal-burning utility boiler, Virginia Power's 180-MWe Yorktown Unit No. 2. his successfully d...

  7. Development of Cost Effective Oxy-Combustion Retrofitting for Coal-Fired Boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Hamid Farzan

    2010-12-31

    The overall objective of this project is to further develop the oxy-combustion technology for commercial retrofit in existing wall-fired and Cyclone boilers by 2012. To meet this goal, a research project was conducted that included pilot-scale testing and a full-scale engineering and economic analysis.

  8. TOXECON RETROFIT FOR MERCURY AND MULTI-POLLUTANT CONTROL ON THREE 90-MW COAL-FIRED BOILERS

    SciTech Connect

    Richard E. Johnson

    2006-01-25

    With the Nation's coal-burning utilities facing tighter controls on mercury pollutants, the U.S. Department of Energy is supporting projects that could offer power plant operators better ways to reduce these emissions at much lower costs. Sorbent injection technology represents one of the simplest and most mature approaches to controlling mercury emissions from coal-fired boilers. It involves injecting a solid material such as powdered activated carbon into the flue gas. The gas-phase mercury in the flue gas contacts the sorbent and attaches to its surface. The sorbent with the mercury attached is then collected by a particulate control device along with the other solid material, primarily fly ash. We Energies has over 3,200 MW of coal-fired generating capacity and supports an integrated multi-emission control strategy for SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, and mercury emissions while maintaining a varied fuel mix for electric supply. The primary goal of this project is to reduce mercury emissions from three 90-MW units that burn Powder River Basin coal at the We Energies Presque Isle Power Plant. Additional goals are to reduce nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}), sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), and particulate matter (PM) emissions, allow for reuse and sale of fly ash, demonstrate a reliable mercury continuous emission monitor (CEM) suitable for use in the power plant environment, and demonstrate a process to recover mercury captured in the sorbent. To achieve these goals, We Energies (the Participant) will design, install, and operate a TOXECON{trademark} system designed to clean the combined flue gases of Units 7, 8, and 9 at the Presque Isle Power Plant. TOXECON{trademark} is a patented process in which a fabric filter system (baghouse) installed downstream of an existing particle control device is used in conjunction with sorbent injection for removal of pollutants from combustion flue gas. For this project, the flue gas emissions will be controlled from the three units using a single

  9. TOXECON RETROFIT FOR MERCURY AND MULTI-POLLUTANT CONTROL ON THREE 90-MW COAL-FIRED BOILERS

    SciTech Connect

    Steven T. Derenne

    2006-04-28

    With the Nation's coal-burning utilities facing tighter controls on mercury pollutants, the U.S. Department of Energy is supporting projects that could offer power plant operators better ways to reduce these emissions at much lower costs. Sorbent injection technology represents one of the simplest and most mature approaches to controlling mercury emissions from coal-fired boilers. It involves injecting a solid material such as powdered activated carbon into the flue gas. The gas-phase mercury in the flue gas contacts the sorbent and attaches to its surface. The sorbent with the mercury attached is then collected by a particulate control device along with the other solid material, primarily fly ash. We Energies has over 3,200 MW of coal-fired generating capacity and supports an integrated multi-emission control strategy for SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, and mercury emissions while maintaining a varied fuel mix for electric supply. The primary goal of this project is to reduce mercury emissions from three 90-MW units that burn Powder River Basin coal at the We Energies Presque Isle Power Plant. Additional goals are to reduce nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}), sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), and particulate matter (PM) emissions, allow for reuse and sale of fly ash, demonstrate a reliable mercury continuous emission monitor (CEM) suitable for use in the power plant environment, and demonstrate a process to recover mercury captured in the sorbent. To achieve these goals, We Energies (the Participant) will design, install, and operate a TOXECON{trademark} system designed to clean the combined flue gases of Units 7, 8, and 9 at the Presque Isle Power Plant. TOXECON{trademark} is a patented process in which a fabric filter system (baghouse) installed downstream of an existing particle control device is used in conjunction with sorbent injection for removal of pollutants from combustion flue gas. For this project, the flue gas emissions will be controlled from the three units using a single

  10. TOXECON RETROFIT FOR MERCURY AND MULTI-POLLUTANT CONTROL-ON THREE 90 MW COAL FIRED BOILERS

    SciTech Connect

    Richard E. Johnson

    2004-10-26

    With the Nation's coal-burning utilities facing tighter controls on mercury pollutants, the U.S. Department of Energy is supporting projects that could offer power plant operators better ways to reduce these emissions at much lower costs. Sorbent injection technology represents one of the simplest and most mature approaches to controlling mercury emissions from coal-fired boilers. It involves injecting a solid material such as powdered activated carbon into the flue gas. The gas-phase mercury in the flue gas contacts the sorbent and attaches to its surface. The sorbent with the mercury attached is then collected by a particle control device along with the other solid material, primarily fly ash. We Energies has over 3,200 MW of coal-fired generating capacity and supports an integrated multi-emission control strategy for SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x} and mercury emissions while maintaining a varied fuel mix for electric supply. The primary goal of this project is to reduce mercury emissions from three 90 MW units that burn Powder River Basin coal at the We Energies Presque Isle Power Plant. Additional goals are to reduce nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}), sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), and particulate matter (PM) emissions, allow for reuse and sale of fly ash, demonstrate a reliable mercury continuous emission monitor (CEM) suitable for use in the power plant environment, and demonstrate a process to recover mercury captured in the sorbent. To achieve these goals, We Energies (the Participant) will design, install, and operate a TOXECON{trademark} (TOXECON) system designed to clean the combined flue gases of units 7, 8, and 9 at the Presque Isle Power Plant. TOXECON is a patented process in which a fabric filter system (baghouse) installed down stream of an existing particle control device is used in conjunction with sorbent injection for removal of pollutants from combustion flue gas. For this project, the flue gas emissions will be controlled from the three units using a single

  11. Full scale measurements to validate mathematical models and to monitor the combustion behavior of bituminous and brown coal-fired boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Maier, J.; Kluger, F.; Heinzel, T.; Spliethoff, H.; Hein, K.R.G.

    1999-07-01

    In recent years, the Institute for Process Engineering and Power Plant Technology (IVD) carried out measurement campaigns on three full-scale-bituminous- and brown-coal-fired boilers between 80 and 500 MW{sub el}. One boiler was designed as a boxer firing system, configured with swirl burner, and the other two were tangentially fired with jet burner. Aim of the measurement campaigns was to evaluate the suitability of bituminous- and brown-coal-fired boilers (500 and 320 MW {sub el}) for alternative coals and their blends. To monitor changes in the combustion and emission behavior, suction probes to measure flue gas concentrations and temperatures along the furnace were inserted. Shifts in heat transfer between the radiative and convective part of the boiler were correlated with the kind of coal, the injected water mass flow in the superheater steam and the flue gas temperature. Also changes with the unburned carbon and of the NO{sub x}, SO{sub 2} and CO emission behavior were measured and correlated with coal types and their variable share. The second objective of the measurement campaigns in the bituminous-coal-fired boilers (500 MW{sub el} and 80 MW{sub el}) was the acquisition of combustion data to validate the mathematical combustion model AIOLOS, which has been successfully developed by the IVD during the last ten years. For this purpose flue-gas-concentration and temperature measurements have been carried out at IVD in the near burner zone and in front of the superheaters. Furthermore, the suitability of 3-color pyrometry, thermocouples and acoustic temperature measurement systems will be compared and discussed in this paper.

  12. CONDENSING ECONOMIZERS FOR SMALL COAL-FIRED BOILERS AND FURNACES PROJECT REPORT - JANUARY 1994

    SciTech Connect

    BUTCHER,T.A.

    1994-01-04

    Condensing economizers increase the thermal efficiency of boilers by recovering sensible and latent heat from exhaust gas. These economizers are currently being used commercially for this purpose in a wide range of applications. Performance is dependent upon application-specific factors affecting the utility of recovered heat. With the addition of a condensing economizer boiler efficiency improvements up to 10% are possible. Condensing economizers can also capture flue gas particulates. In this work, the potential use of condensing economizers for both efficiency improvement and control of particulate emissions from small, coal water slurry-fired boilers was evaluated. Analysis was done to predict heat transfer and particulate capture by mechanisms including: inertial impaction, interception, diffusion, thermophoretic forces, and condensation growth. Shell-and-tube geometries were considered with flue gas on the outside of Teflon-covered tubes. Experimental studies were done with both air- and water-cooled economizers refit to a small boiler. Two experimental arrangements were used including oil-firing with injection of flyash upstream of the economizer and direct coal water slurry firing. Firing rates ranged from 27 to 82 kW (92,000 to 280,000 Btu/hr). Inertial impaction was found to be the most important particulate capture mechanism and removal efficiencies to 95% were achieved. With the addition of water sprays directly on the first row of tubes, removal efficiencies increased to 98%. Use of these sprays adversely affects heat recovery. Primary benefits of the sprays are seen to be the addition of small impaction sites and future design improvements are suggested in which such small impacts are permanently added to the highest velocity regions of the economizer. Predicted effects of these added impactors on particulate removal and pressure drop are presented.

  13. A new coordinated control strategy for boiler-turbine system of coal-fired power plant

    SciTech Connect

    Li, S.Y.; Liu, H.B.; Cai, W.J.; Soh, Y.C.; Xie, L.H.

    2005-11-01

    This paper presents the new development of the boiler-turbine coordinated control strategy using fuzzy reasoning and autotuning techniques. The boiler-turbine system is a very complex process that is a multivariable, nonlinear, slowly time-varying plant with large settling time and a lot of uncertainties. As there exist strong couplings between the main steam pressure control loop and the power output control loop in the boiler-turbine unit with large time-delay and uncertainties, automatic coordinated control of the two loops is a very challenging problem. This paper presents a new coordinated control strategy (CCS) which is organized into two levels: a basic control level and a high supervision level. Proportional-integral derivative (PID) type controllers are used in the basic level to perform basic control functions while the decoupling between two control loops can be realized in the high level. A special subclass of fuzzy inference systems, called the Gaussian partition with evenly (GPE) spaced midpoints systems, is used to self-tune the main steam pressure PID controller's parameters online based on the error signal and its first difference, aimed at overcoming the uncertainties due to changing fuel calorific value, machine wear, contamination of the boiler heating surfaces and plant modeling errors. For the large variation of operating condition, a supervisory control level has been developed by autotuning technique. The developed CCS has been implemented in a power plant in China, and satisfactory industrial operation results demonstrate that the proposed control strategy has enhanced the adaptability and robustness of the process. Indeed, better control performance and economic benefit have been achieved.

  14. Use of multiple opportunity fuels in coal-fired cyclone boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Tillman, D.A.; Hus, P.; Hughes, E.

    1999-07-01

    Northern Indiana Public Service Company (NIPSCO), with support from USDOE-EERE, the USDOE Federal Energy Technology Center, and EPRI, is installing a materials handling system to fire a combination of wood waste and petroleum coke with the base coal in the No.7 boiler of Bailly Generating Station. The No.7 boiler is a 160 MW{sub e} (net) unit fired with four cyclones. It is typically fired with a blend of Illinois coal and Western coal. The gaseous combustion products from this boiler are ducted to a precipitator and then to a Pure Air scrubber for sulfur oxides removal. The Pure Air scrubber converts the SO{sub 2} into artificial gypsum. Typically the unit burns about 70 tons/hr of coal at full load. The Bailly Generating Station program, being implemented by Foster Wheeler Development Corporation, involves blending petroleum coke and wood waste with coal for combination opportunity fuel firing. Multiple fuel firing is intended to capture the advantages of each fuel: high volatility of biofuels and high Btu content of petroleum coke are among these characteristics. The objective of the program, then, is to reduce fuel costs at the station while improving combustion. The program involves constructing a fuel handling and blending system, and then testing the impacts of individual opportunity fuels with coal plus blends of opportunity fuels with coal. This paper reviews the program concept, the combustion modeling, the blending system design, and the results of baseline and laboratory testing to date.

  15. Transformations and affinities for sulfur of Chinese Shenmu coal ash in a pulverized coal-fired boiler

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, J.; Zhou, J.H.; Liu, J.Z.; Cao, X.Y.; Cen, K.F.

    2009-07-01

    The self-desulfurization efficiency of Shenmu coal with a high initial Ca/S molar ratio of 2.02 was measured in a 1,025 t/h pulverized coal-fired boiler. It increases from 29% to 32% when the power capacity decreases from 100% to 70%. About 60% of the mineral matter and calcium element fed into the furnace is retained in the fly ash, while less than 10% is retained in the bottom ash. About 70% of the sulfur element fed into the furnace is emitted as SO{sub 2} in the flue gas, while less than 10% is retained in the fly ash and less than 1% is retained in the bottom ash. The mineralogical compositions of feed coal, fly ash, and bottom ash were obtained by X-ray diffraction analysis. It is found that the initial amorphous phase content is 91.17% and the initial CaCO{sub 3} phase content is 2.07% in Shenmu coal. The vitreous phase and sulfation product CaSO{sub 4} contents are, respectively, 70.47% and 3.36% in the fly ash obtained at full capacity, while the retained CaCO{sub 3} and CaO contents are, respectively, 4.73% and 2.15%. However, the vitreous phase content is only 25.68% and no CaSO{sub 4} is detected in the bottom ash obtained at full capacity. When the power capacity decreases from 100% to 70%, the vitreous phase content in fly ash decreases from 70.47% to 67.41% and that in bottom ash increases from 25.68% to 28.10%.

  16. Integrated process and apparatus for control of pollutants in coal-fired boilers

    DOEpatents

    Hunt, Terry G.; Offen, George R.

    1992-01-01

    A method and apparatus for reducing SO.sub.x and NO.sub.x levels in flue gases generated by the combustion of coal in a boiler in which low NO.sub.x burners and air staging ports are utilized to inhibit the amount of NO.sub.x initially produced in the combustion of the coal, a selected concentration of urea is introduced downstream of the combustion zone after the temperature has been reduced to the range of 1300.degree. F. to 2000.degree. F., and a sodium-based reagent is introduced into the flue gas stream after further reducing the temperature of the stream to the range of 200.degree. F. to 900.degree. F. Under certain conditions, calcium injection may be employed along with humidification of the flue gas stream for selective reduction of the pollutants.

  17. Mercury Emission Measurement in Coal-Fired Boilers by Continuous Mercury Monitor and Ontario Hydro Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Yanqun; Zhou, Jinsong; He, Sheng; Cai, Xiaoshu; Hu, Changxin; Zheng, Jianming; Zhang, Le; Luo, Zhongyang; Cen, Kefa

    2007-06-01

    The mercury emission control approach attaches more importance. The accurate measurement of mercury speciation is a first step. Because OH method (accepted method) can't provide the real-time data and 2-week time for results attained, it's high time to seek on line mercury continuous emission monitors(Hg-CEM). Firstly, the gaseous elemental and oxidized mercury were conducted to measure using OH and CEM method under normal operation conditions of PC boiler after ESP, the results between two methods show good consistency. Secondly, through ESP, gaseous oxidized mercury decrease a little and particulate mercury reduce a little bit, but the elemental mercury is just the opposite. Besides, the WFGD system achieved to gaseous oxidized mercury removal of 53.4%, gaseous overall mercury and elemental mercury are 37.1% and 22.1%, respectively.

  18. Integrated process and apparatus for control of pollutants in coal-fired boilers

    DOEpatents

    Hunt, T.G.; Offen, G.R.

    1992-11-24

    A method and apparatus are described for reducing SO[sub x] and NO[sub x] levels in flue gases generated by the combustion of coal in a boiler in which low NO[sub x] burners and air staging ports are utilized to inhibit the amount of NO[sub x] initially produced in the combustion of the coal. A selected concentration of urea is introduced downstream of the combustion zone after the temperature has been reduced to the range of 1300 F to 2000 F, and a sodium-based reagent is introduced into the flue gas stream after further reducing the temperature of the stream to the range of 200 F to 900 F. Under certain conditions, calcium injection may be employed along with humidification of the flue gas stream for selective reduction of the pollutants. 7 figs.

  19. Capacity mapping for optimum utilization of pulverizers for coal fired boilers - article no. 032201

    SciTech Connect

    Bhattacharya, C.

    2008-09-15

    Capacity mapping is a process of comparison of standard inputs with actual fired inputs to assess the available standard output capacity of a pulverizer. The base capacity is a function of grindability; fineness requirement may vary depending on the volatile matter (VM) content of the coal and the input coal size. The quantity and the inlet will change depending on the quality of raw coal and output requirement. It should be sufficient to dry pulverized coal (PC). Drying capacity is also limited by utmost PA fan power to supply air. The PA temperature is limited by air preheater (APH) inlet flue gas temperature; an increase in this will result in efficiency loss of the boiler. The higher PA inlet temperature can be attained through the economizer gas bypass, the steam coiled APH, and the partial flue gas recirculation. The PS/coal ratioincreases with a decrease in grindability or pulverizer output and decreases with a decrease in VM. The flammability of mixture has to be monitored on explosion limit. Through calibration, the PA flow and efficiency of conveyance can be verified. The velocities of coal/air mixture to prevent fallout or to avoid erosion in the coal carrier pipe are dependent on the PC particle size distribution. Metal loss of grinding elements inversely depends on the YGP index of coal. Variations of dynamic loading and wearing of grinding elements affect the available milling capacity and percentage rejects. Therefore, capacity mapping in necessary to ensure the available pulverizer capacity to avoid overcapacity or undercapacity running of the pulverizing system, optimizing auxiliary power consumption. This will provide a guideline on the distribution of raw coal feeding in different pulverizers of a boiler to maximize system efficiency and control, resulting in a more cost effective heat rate.

  20. Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT): 500-MW demonstration of advanced wall-fired cmbustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from coal-fired boilers. Field chemical emissions monitoring, Overfire air and overfire air/low NO{sub x} burner operation: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    This report summarizes data gathered by Radian Corporation at a coal-fired power plant, designated Site 16, for a program sponsored by the United States Department of Energy (DOE), Southern Company Services (SCS), and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). Concentrations of selected inorganic and organic substances were measured in the process and discharge streams of the plant operating under two different types of combustion modifications: overfire air (OFA) and a combination of overfire air with low-NO{sub x} burners (OFA/LNB). Information contained in this report will allow DOE and EPRI to determine the effects of low-NO{sub x} modifications on plant emissions and discharges. Sampling was performed on an opposed wall-fired boiler burning medium-sulfur bituminous coal. Emissions were controlled by electrostatic precipitators (ESPs). The testing was conducted in two distinct sampling periods, with the OFA test performed in March of 1991 and the OFA/LNB test performed in May of 1993. Specific objectives were: to quantify emissions of target substances from the stack; to determine the efficiency of the ESPs for removing the target substances; and to determine the fate of target substances in the various plant discharge streams.

  1. Proceedings of the coal-fired power systems 94: Advances in IGCC and PFBC review meeting. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    McDaniel, H.M.; Staubly, R.K.; Venkataraman, V.K.

    1994-06-01

    The Coal-Fired Power Systems 94 -- Advances in IGCC and PFBC Review Meeting was held June 21--23, 1994, at the Morgantown Energy Center (METC) in Morgantown, West Virginia. This Meeting was sponsored and hosted by METC, the Office of Fossil Energy, and the US Department of Energy (DOE). METC annually sponsors this conference for energy executives, engineers, scientists, and other interested parties to review the results of research and development projects; to discuss the status of advanced coal-fired power systems and future plans with the industrial contractors; and to discuss cooperative industrial-government research opportunities with METC`s in-house engineers and scientists. Presentations included industrial contractor and METC in-house technology developments related to the production of power via coal-fired Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) and Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion (PFBC) systems, the summary status of clean coal technologies, and developments and advancements in advanced technology subsystems, such as hot gas cleanup. A keynote speaker and other representatives from the electric power industry also gave their assessment of advanced power systems. This meeting contained 11 formal sessions and one poster session, and included 52 presentations and 24 poster presentations. Volume I contains papers presented at the following sessions: opening commentaries; changes in the market and technology drivers; advanced IGCC systems; advanced PFBC systems; advanced filter systems; desulfurization system; turbine systems; and poster session. Selected papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  2. Erosion-corrosion of as-plasma-sprayed and laser-remelted NiCrAlY bond coats in working conditions of a coal-fired boiler

    SciTech Connect

    Sidhu, B.S.; Prakash, S.

    2008-01-15

    Ni-22Cr-10Al-1Y plasma spray coating has been formulated on boiler tube steels. namely, low-carbon steel ASTM SA210-Grade A1. 1Cr-0.5Mo steel ASTM SA213-T-11, and 2.25Cr-1Mo steel ASTM SA213-T-22. The coated steels also have been laser-remelted using a Nd:YAG laser. The degradation behavior of as-sprayed and laser-remelted coatings have been evaluated in actual conditions in a coal-fired boiler for 1,000 h at 755{sup o}C. The laser remelting has been found to be effective to increase the degradation resistance of plasma-sprayed boiler steels. ASTM SA213-T-22-coated and laser-remelted steel has proved to be most effective in resistance to degrading species.

  3. Measurements of the flame emissivity and radiative properties of particulate medium in pulverized-coal-fired boiler furnaces by image processing of visible radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Chun Lou; Huai-Chun Zhou; Peng-Feng Yu; Zhi-Wei Jiang

    2007-07-01

    Due to the complicated processes for coal particles burning in industrial furnaces, their radiative properties, such as the absorption and scattering coefficients, which are essential to make reliable calculation of radiative transfer in combustion computation, are hard to be given exactly by the existing methods. In this paper, multiple color image detectors were used to capture approximately red, green, and blue monochromatic radiative intensity images in the visible wavelength region, and the flame emissivity and the radiative properties of the particulate media in three pulverized-coal-fired boiler furnaces were got from the flame images. It was shown that as the load increased, the flame emissivity and the radiative properties increased too; these radiative parameters had the largest values near the burner zone, and decreased along the combustion process. Compared with the combustion medium with a low-volatile anthracite coal burning in a 670 t/h boiler, the emissivity and the absorption coefficient of the medium with a high-volatile bituminous coal burning in a 1025 t/h boiler were smaller near the outlet zone, but were larger near the burner zone of the furnace, due to the significant contribution of soot to the radiation. This work will be of practical importance in modeling and calculating the radiative heat transfer in combustion processes, and improving the technology for in situ, multi-dimensional visualization of large-scale combustion processes in coal-fired furnaces of power plants. 18 refs., 10 figs., 8 tabs.

  4. Proceedings of the coal-fired power systems 94: Advances in IGCC and PFBC review meeting. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    McDaniel, H.M.; Staubly, R.K.; Venkataraman, V.K.

    1994-06-01

    The Coal-Fired Power Systems 94 -- Advances in IGCC and PFBC Review Meeting was held June 21--23, 1994, at the Morgantown Energy Center (METC) in Morgantown, West Virginia. This Meeting was sponsored and hosted by METC, the Office of Fossil Energy, and the US Department of Energy (DOE). METC annually sponsors this conference for energy executives, engineers, scientists, and other interested parties to review the results of research and development projects; to discuss the status of advanced coal-fired power systems and future plans with the industrial contractors; and to discuss cooperative industrial-government research opportunities with METC`s in-house engineers and scientists. Presentations included industrial contractor and METC in-house technology developments related to the production of power via coal-fired Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) and Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion (PFBC) systems, the summary status of clean coal technologies, and developments and advancements in advanced technology subsystems, such as hot gas cleanup. A keynote speaker and other representatives from the electric power industry also gave their assessment of advanced power systems. This meeting contained 11 formal sessions and one poster session, and included 52 presentations and 24 poster presentations. Volume II contains papers presented at the following sessions: filter technology issues; hazardous air pollutants; sorbents and solid wastes; and membranes. Selected papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  5. Variations of emission characterization of PAHs emitted from different utility boilers of coal-fired power plants and risk assessment related to atmospheric PAHs.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ruwei; Liu, Guijian; Zhang, Jiamei

    2015-12-15

    Coal-fired power plants (CFPPs) represent important source of atmospheric PAHs, however, their emission characterization are still largely unknown. In this work, the concentration, distribution and gas-particle partitioning of PM10- and gas-phase PAHs in flue gas emitted from different coal-fired utility boilers were investigated. Moreover, concentration and distribution in airborne PAHs from different functional areas of power plants were studied. People's inhalatory and dermal exposures to airborne PAHs at these sites were estimated and their resultant lung cancer and skin cancer risks were assessed. Results indicated that the boiler capacity and operation conditions have significant effect on PAH concentrations in both PM10 and gas phases due to the variation of combustion efficiency, whereas they take neglected effect on PAH distributions. The wet flue gas desulphurization (WFGD) takes significant effect on the scavenging of PAH in both PM10 and gas phases, higher scavenging efficiency were found for less volatile PAHs. PAH partitioning is dominated by absorption into organic matter and accompanied by adsorption onto PM10 surface. In addition, different partitioning mechanism is observed for individual PAHs, which is assumed arising from their chemical affinity and vapor pressure. Risk assessment indicates that both inhalation and dermal contact greatly contribute to the cancer risk for CFPP workers and nearby residents. People working in workshop are exposed to greater inhalation and dermal exposure risk than people living in nearby vicinity and working office. PMID:26298851

  6. Application of a boiler performance model to evaluate low-rank coal fired subcritical and supercritical boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Ahn, Y.K.; Buchanan, T.L.; Zaharchuk, R.

    1995-12-31

    A number of thermal drying processes that could be used to dry and upgrade Low-Rank Coals (LRCs) are under development. G/C evaluated these processes and selected the SynCoal process as the optimum process to dry the LRC. Initially, the evaluation was made on the basis of the cost of dried LRC, delivered to Korea, and later the evaluation was made on a cost-of-electricity (COE) basis. Two cases were evaluated: firing the dried LRC in an existing subcritical PC plant and in a new supercritical boiler. For the existing PC plant, Korea Electric Power Corporation`s (KEPCO`s) 270 MWe Honam plant was selected. A Boiler Performance Model (BPM) was used to evaluate performances of both subcritical and supercritical units for firing various coals. The results showed that upgraded Usibelli coal was marginally competitive due to its high mine-mouth cost, but Rosebud coal was very competitive due to its low mine-mouth cost. In these cases the coals were upgraded by using the SynCoal process. This report investigates the impact of tax incentives resulting from the Energy Policy Act of 1992 on the competitiveness of the upgraded Alaska Usibelli and Montana Rosebud coals for application to PC plants. The SynCoal process has been qualified by the Internal Revenue Service for tax benefits derived from the Energy Policy Act. The economic analyses include costs and sensitivity analyses for alternative ways of selling fines produced during the SynCoal process: briquetting fines and adding them to the finished product, or cooling fines and selling them to users at the same price as SynCoal product in the domestic market. These analyses included the effects of tax incentive when applicable.

  7. CONTROL OF MERCURY EMISSIONS FROM COAL-FIRED ELECTRIC UTILITY BOILERS: INTERIM REPORT (EPA/600/R-01/109)

    EPA Science Inventory

    In December 2000, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) announced its intent to regulate mercury emissions from coal-fired electric utility steam generating plants. This report, produced by EPA fs Office of Research and Development (ORD), National Risk Management Resea...

  8. Estimation of Scale Deposition in the Water Walls of an Operating Indian Coal Fired Boiler: Predictive Modeling Approach Using Artificial Neural Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumari, Amrita; Das, Suchandan Kumar; Srivastava, Prem Kumar

    2016-04-01

    Application of computational intelligence for predicting industrial processes has been in extensive use in various industrial sectors including power sector industry. An ANN model using multi-layer perceptron philosophy has been proposed in this paper to predict the deposition behaviors of oxide scale on waterwall tubes of a coal fired boiler. The input parameters comprises of boiler water chemistry and associated operating parameters, such as, pH, alkalinity, total dissolved solids, specific conductivity, iron and dissolved oxygen concentration of the feed water and local heat flux on boiler tube. An efficient gradient based network optimization algorithm has been employed to minimize neural predictions errors. Effects of heat flux, iron content, pH and the concentrations of total dissolved solids in feed water and other operating variables on the scale deposition behavior have been studied. It has been observed that heat flux, iron content and pH of the feed water have a relatively prime influence on the rate of oxide scale deposition in water walls of an Indian boiler. Reasonably good agreement between ANN model predictions and the measured values of oxide scale deposition rate has been observed which is corroborated by the regression fit between these values.

  9. Compliance testing of Grissom Air Force Base Central Heating Plant coal-fired boilers 3, 4, and 5, Grissom Air Force Base, Indiana. Final technical report, 3-21 Feb 92

    SciTech Connect

    Cintron-Ocasio, R.A.

    1992-06-01

    A source emission testing for particulate matter and visible emissions was conducted on coal-fired boilers at the Grissom AFB Central Heating Plant during 3-21 February 1992 by the Air Quality Function of Armstrong Laboratory. The survey was conducted to determine compliance with regard to Indiana Administration Code, Title 325 Pollution Control Board, Article 5, Opacity Regulations, and Article 6, Particulate Regulations. All boilers were tested through the bypass stack. Results indicated that boilers 3 and 4 met applicable, visible, and particulate matter emissions standards. Boiler 5 exceeded the particulate standard.

  10. Advanced intelligent coordinated control of coal fired power plant based on fuzzy reasoning and auto-tuning

    SciTech Connect

    Li, S.Y.; Liu, H.B.; Cai, W.J.; Soh, Y.C.; Xie, L.H.

    2004-07-01

    The load following operation of coal-fired boiler-turbine unit in power plants can lead to changes in operating points, and it results in nonlinear variations of the plant variables and parameters. As there exist strong couplings between the main steam pressure control loop and the power output control loop in the boiler-turbine unit with large time-delay and uncertainties, automatic coordinated control of the two loops is a very challenging problem. This paper presents a new coordinated control strategy (CCS) which is organized into two levels: a basic control level and a high supervision level. PID-type controllers are used in the basic level to perform basic control functions while the decoupling between two control loops can be realized in the high level. Moreover, PID-type controllers can be auto-tuned to achieve a better control performance in the whole operating range and to reject the unmeasurable disturbances. A special subclass of fuzzy inference systems, namely the Gaussian partition system with evenly spaced midpoints, is also proposed to auto-tune the PID controller in the main steam pressure loop based on the error signal and its first difference to overcome uncertainties caused by changing fuel calorific value, machine wear, contamination of the boiler heating surfaces and plant modeling errors, etc. The developed CCS has been implemented in a power plant in China, and satisfactory industrial operation results demonstrate that the proposed control strategy has enhanced the adaptability and robustness of the process.

  11. Summary of workshop on materials issues in low emission boilers and high efficiency coal-fired cycles

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-01

    The purpose of the workshop was to review with experts in the field the materials issues associated with two of the primary coal power systems being developed by the DOE Office of Fossil Energy. The DOE-FE Advanced Power Systems Program includes natural gas-based and coal-based power systems. Major activities in the natural gas-based power systems area include the Advanced Turbine Systems (ATS) Program, the Fuel Cells Program, and Hybrid Cycles. The coal-based power systems projects include the Low Emissions Boiler Systems (LEBS) Program, the High-Performance Power Systems Program (HIPPS), the Integrated (Coal) Gasification Combined-Cycle Program, and the Fluidized-Bed Combustion Program. This workshop focused on the materials issues associated with the LEBS and HIPPS technologies.

  12. Development of technical solutions on a coal-fired boiler for a power plant unit of 800 MW with steam parameters of 35 MPa and 700/720°C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shvarts, A. L.; Verbovetsky, E. Kh.; Somova, E. V.; Smolin, A. V.

    2015-12-01

    Development of a coal-fired boiler for a power plant unit of 800 MW with advanced ultra-supercritical steam parameters of 35 MPa and 700/720°C is presented. The main technical solutions providing the reliability, profitability, and low emissions of harmful substances in the atmosphere are given. The fuel is the black coal of (Taldinskoye field, Kuznetsk basin). The gross efficiency of the boiler is 94%. The U-shaped configuration of a boiler is chosen, which allows the reduction of the capital expenditure for steam turbine piping made of expensive nickel alloys. The horizontal connection flue of the boiler, where the primary and reheat steam screens are located, is equipped with two cold funnels. The upper section of the convection shaft is separated with a vertical screen wall into two parallel "split tail" flues, which allows one to control the reheat steam temperature by redistributing the flue gas between the gas flues. The URS screens are two-stage with a lifting motion of the medium and a partial bypassing of the first stage. The lower radiant section is two-stage. To reduce the temperature of screen walls at the fire chamber outlet, the lowering motion of the working medium and combustion gases is used. The hydrodynamics of the screens with the lowering motion of the medium for preventing the aperiodic instability in the start regimes is analyzed. Besides the stepwise combustion of coal dust providing the improved environmental parameters, the boiler plant is equipped with a selective catalytic reduction (SCR) system, an ash collector (an electric filter combined with a filter bag), and a desulphurization device.

  13. FIELD TESTS OF INDUSTRIAL STOKER COAL-FIRED BOILERS FOR EMISSIONS CONTROL AND EFFICIENCY IMPROVEMENT - SITE D

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of field measurements made on a 90,000 lb/hr vibrating-grate-stoker boiler. The effect of various parameters on boiler emissions and efficiency was studied. Parameters included overfire air, excess air, boiler load, and fuel properties. Measurements inclu...

  14. FIELD TESTS OF INDUSTRIAL STOKER COAL-FIRED BOILERS FOR EMISSIONS CONTROL AND EFFICIENCY IMPROVEMENT - SITE B

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of field measurements made on a 200,000 lb/hr spreader stoker boiler. The effect of various parameters on boiler emissions and efficiency was studied. Parameters studied included overfire air, flyash reinjection, excess air, boiler load, and fuel properti...

  15. FIELD TESTS OF INDUSTRIAL STOKER COAL-FIRED BOILERS FOR EMISSIONS CONTROL AND EFFICIENCY IMPROVEMENT - SITE C

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of field measurements made on a 182,5000 lb/hr spreader stoker boiler. The effect of various parameters on boiler emissions and efficiency was studied. Parameters included overfire air, flyash reinjection, excess air, boiler load, and fuel properties. Mea...

  16. Retrofitting the operating coal-fired TP-87 and BKZ-320 boilers for vortex fuel combustion technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salomatov, V. V.

    2013-06-01

    Scientific and technical problems concerned with retrofitting the TP-87 boiler installed at the Novokemerovo cogeneration station and operating on Grade 2SS Kuznetsk coal and the BKZ-320 boiler installed at the Novosibirsk TETs-3 cogeneration station and operating on Berezovo coal from the Kansk-Achinsk coal field for vortex combustion technology are addressed. A conclusion is drawn that low-cost retrofitting of obsolete boilers at thermal power stations with retaining the existing boiler unit infrastructure is presently the most reasonable strategy of their further use.

  17. Development of a Novel Oxygen Supply Process and its Integration with an Oxy-Fuel Coal-Fired Boiler

    SciTech Connect

    2006-12-31

    BOC, the world's second largest industrial gas company, has developed a novel high temperature sorption based technology referred to as CAR (Cyclic Autothermal Recovery) for oxygen production and supply to oxy-fuel boilers with flue gas recycle. This technology is based on sorption and storage of oxygen in a fixed bed containing mixed ionic and electronic conductor materials. The objective of the proposed work was to construct a CAR PDU that was capable of producing 10-scfm of oxygen, using steam or recycled flue gas as the sweep gas, and install it in the Combustion Test Facility. The unit was designed and fabricated at BOC/The Linde Group, Murray Hill, New Jersey. The unit was then shipped to WRI where the site had been prepared for the unit by installation of air, carbon dioxide, natural gas, nitrogen, computer, electrical and infrastructure systems. Initial experiments with the PDU consisted of flowing air into both sides of the absorption systems and using the air heaters to ramp up the bed temperatures. The two beds were tested individually to operational temperatures up to 900 C in air. The cycling process was tested where gases are flowed alternatively from the top then bottom of the beds. The PDU unit behaved properly with respect to flow, pressure and heat during tests. The PDU was advanced to the point where oxygen production testing could begin and integration to the combustion test facility could occur.

  18. Proceedings of the joint contractors meeting: FE/EE Advanced Turbine Systems conference FE fuel cells and coal-fired heat engines conference

    SciTech Connect

    Geiling, D.W.

    1993-08-01

    The joint contractors meeting: FE/EE Advanced Turbine Systems conference FEE fuel cells and coal-fired heat engines conference; was sponsored by the US Department of Energy Office of Fossil Energy and held at the Morgantown Energy Technology Center, P.O. Box 880, Morgantown, West Virginia 26507-0880, August 3--5, 1993. Individual papers have been entered separately.

  19. THE SCALE-UP OF LARGE PRESSURIZED FLUIDIZED BEDS FOR ADVANCED COAL FIRED PROCESSES

    SciTech Connect

    Leon Glicksman; Hesham Younis; Richard Hing-Fung Tan; Michel Louge; Elizabeth Griffith; Vincent Bricout

    1998-04-30

    Pressurized fluidization is a promising new technology for the clean and efficient combustion of coal. Its principle is to operate a coal combustor at high inlet gas velocity to increase the flow of reactants, at an elevated pressure to raise the overall efficiency of the process. Unfortunately, commercialization of large pressurized fluidized beds is inhibited by uncertainties in scaling up units from the current pilot plant levels. In this context, our objective is to conduct a study of the fluid dynamics and solid capture of a large pressurized coal-fired unit. The idea is to employ dimensional similitude to simulate in a cold laboratory model the flow in a Pressurized Circulating Fluid Bed ''Pyrolyzer,'' which is part of a High Performance Power System (HIPPS) developed by Foster Wheeler Development Corporation (FWDC) under the DOE's Combustion 2000 program.

  20. The evolution of particles in the plume from a large coal-fired boiler with flue gas desulfurization.

    PubMed

    Imhoff, R E; Tanner, R L; Valente, R J; Luria, M

    2000-07-01

    Airborne measurements were made of gaseous and particulate species in the plume of a large coal-fired power plant after flue gas desulfurization (FGD) controls were installed. These measurements were compared with measurements made before the controls were installed. The light scattering and number and volume distributions of plume excess particles were determined by nephelometry and optical particle counting techniques. The plume impact based on optical techniques was much lower than that observed in earlier measurements. Indeed, plume excess volumes as a function of particle size were of the same magnitude as the variability of the background volume distribution. In situ excess plume scattering actually decreased with distance from the source, in contrast to pre-FGD conditions. The upper limit for the dry rate of SO2-to-SO4(2-) conversion was estimated from plume excess volume measurements to be about 4% hr-1. This is slightly greater than the upper limit, 3.5% hr-1, estimated by earlier researchers, but the same as that estimated using the present technique with the earlier data. The cross-plume profile of volume suggests SO2-to-SO4(2-) conversion is highest at the plume edges. The greatest benefit of SO2 reduction on plume excess volume and visibility appears to occur far down-wind of the source. PMID:10939213

  1. Airborne arsenic and urinary excretion of arsenic metabolites during boiler cleaning operations in a Slovak coal-fired power plant.

    PubMed Central

    Yager, J W; Hicks, J B; Fabianova, E

    1997-01-01

    Little information is available on the relationship between occupational exposure to inorganic arsenic in coal fly ash and urinary excretion of arsenic metabolites. This study ws undertaken in a coal-fired power plant in Slovakia during a routine maintenance outage. Arsenic was measured in the breathing zone of workers during 5 consecutive workdays, and urine samples were obtained for analysis of arsenic metabolites--inorganic arsenic (Asi), monomethylarsonic acid (MMA), and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA)--prior to the start of each shift. Results from a small number of cascade impactor air samples indicated that approximately 90% of total particle mass and arsenic was present in particle size fractions >/= 3.5 micron. The 8-hr time-weighted average (TWA) mean arsenic air concentration was 48.3 microg/m3 (range 0.17-375.2) and the mean sum of urinary arsenic (SigmaAs) metabolites was 16.9 microg As/g creatinine (range 2.6-50.8). For an 8-hr TWA of 10 microg/m3 arsenic from coal fly ash, the predicted mean concentration of the SigmaAs urinary metabolites was 13.2 microg As/G creatinine [95% confidence interval (CI), 10.1-16.3). Comparisons with previously published studies of exposure to arsenic trioxide vapors and dusts in copper smelters suggest that bioavailability of arsenic from airborne coal fly ash (as indicated by urinary excretion) is about one-third that seen in smelters and similar settings. Arsenic compound characteristics, matrix composition, and particle size distribution probably play major roles in determining actual uptake of airborne arsenic. Images Figure 1. A Figure 1. B Figure 2. PMID:9347899

  2. Airborne arsenic and urinary excretion of arsenic metabolites during boiler cleaning operations in a Slovak coal-fired power plant.

    PubMed

    Yager, J W; Hicks, J B; Fabianova, E

    1997-08-01

    Little information is available on the relationship between occupational exposure to inorganic arsenic in coal fly ash and urinary excretion of arsenic metabolites. This study ws undertaken in a coal-fired power plant in Slovakia during a routine maintenance outage. Arsenic was measured in the breathing zone of workers during 5 consecutive workdays, and urine samples were obtained for analysis of arsenic metabolites--inorganic arsenic (Asi), monomethylarsonic acid (MMA), and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA)--prior to the start of each shift. Results from a small number of cascade impactor air samples indicated that approximately 90% of total particle mass and arsenic was present in particle size fractions >/= 3.5 micron. The 8-hr time-weighted average (TWA) mean arsenic air concentration was 48.3 microg/m3 (range 0.17-375.2) and the mean sum of urinary arsenic (SigmaAs) metabolites was 16.9 microg As/g creatinine (range 2.6-50.8). For an 8-hr TWA of 10 microg/m3 arsenic from coal fly ash, the predicted mean concentration of the SigmaAs urinary metabolites was 13.2 microg As/G creatinine [95% confidence interval (CI), 10.1-16.3). Comparisons with previously published studies of exposure to arsenic trioxide vapors and dusts in copper smelters suggest that bioavailability of arsenic from airborne coal fly ash (as indicated by urinary excretion) is about one-third that seen in smelters and similar settings. Arsenic compound characteristics, matrix composition, and particle size distribution probably play major roles in determining actual uptake of airborne arsenic. PMID:9347899

  3. A study of toxic emissions from a coal-fired power plant: Niles Station Boiler No. 2. Volume 1, Sampling/results/special topics: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    This study was one of a group of assessments of toxic emissions from coal-fired power plants, conducted for US Department of Energy, Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (DOE-PETC) during 1993. The motivation for those assessments was the mandate in the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments that a study be made of emissions of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) from electrical utilities. The results of this study will be used by the US Environmental Protection Agency to evaluate whether regulation of HAPs emissions from utilities is warranted. This report is organized in two volumes. Volume 1: Sampling/Results/Special Topics describes the sampling effort conducted as the basis for this study, presents the concentration data on toxic chemicals in the several power plant streams, and reports the results of evaluations and calculations conducted with those data. The Special Topics section of Volume 1 reports on issues such as comparison of sampling methods and vapor/particle distributions of toxic chemicals. Volume 2: Appendices include field sampling data sheets, quality assurance results, and uncertainty calculations. The chemicals measured at Niles Boiler No. 2 were the following: five major and 16 trace elements, including mercury, chromium, cadmium, lead, selenium, arsenic, beryllium, and nickel; acids and corresponding anions (HCl, HF, chloride, fluoride, phosphate, sulfate); ammonia and cyanide; elemental carbon; radionuclides; volatile organic compounds (VOC); semivolatile compounds (SVOC) including polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), and polychlorinated dioxins and furans; and aldehydes.

  4. Demonstration of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology for the control of nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions from high-sulfur coal-fired boilers. Quarterly report No. 5, July--September 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-11-01

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate and evaluate commercially available Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalysts from US, Japanese and European catalyst suppliers on a high-sulfur US coal-fired boiler. SCR is a post-combustion nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) control technology that involves injecting ammonia into the flue gas generated from coal combustion in an electric utility boiler. The flue gas containing ammonia is then passed through a reactor that contains a specialized catalyst. In the presence of the catalyst, the ammonia reacts with NO{sub x} to convert it to nitrogen and water vapor.

  5. Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT). Demonstration of Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) technology for the control of Nitrogen Oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from high-sulfur coal-fired boilers. Technical progress report, third and fourth quarters 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1996-05-01

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate and evaluate commercially available Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalysts from U.S., Japanese, and European catalyst suppliers on a high-sulfur U.S. coal-fired boiler. SCR is a post-combustion nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) control technology that involves injecting ammonia into the flue gas generated from coal combustion in an electric utility boiler. The flue gas containing ammonia is then passed through a reactor that contains a specialized catalyst. In the presence of the catalyst, the ammonia reacts with NO{sub x} to convert it to nitrogen and water vapor.

  6. Toxecon Retrofit for Mercury and Mulit-Pollutant Control on Three 90-MW Coal-Fired Boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Steven Derenne; Robin Stewart

    2009-09-30

    This U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Clean Coal Power Initiative (CCPI) project was based on a cooperative agreement between We Energies and the DOE Office of Fossil Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to design, install, evaluate, and demonstrate the EPRI-patented TOXECON{trademark} air pollution control process. Project partners included Cummins & Barnard, ADA-ES, and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). The primary goal of this project was to reduce mercury emissions from three 90-MW units that burn Powder River Basin coal at the We Energies Presque Isle Power Plant in Marquette, Michigan. Additional goals were to reduce nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}), sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), and particulate matter emissions; allow reuse and sale of fly ash; advance commercialization of the technology; demonstrate a reliable mercury continuous emission monitor (CEM) suitable for use at power plants; and demonstrate recovery of mercury from the sorbent. Mercury was controlled by injection of activated carbon upstream of the TOXECON{trademark} baghouse, which achieved more than 90% removal on average over a 44-month period. During a two-week test involving trona injection, SO{sub 2} emissions were reduced by 70%, although no coincident removal of NOx was achieved. The TOXECON{trademark} baghouse also provided enhanced particulate control, particularly during startup of the boilers. On this project, mercury CEMs were developed and tested in collaboration with Thermo Fisher Scientific, resulting in a reliable CEM that could be used in the power plant environment and that could measure mercury as low as 0.1 {micro}g/m{sup 3}. Sorbents were injected downstream of the primary particulate collection device, allowing for continued sale and beneficial use of captured fly ash. Two methods for recovering mercury using thermal desorption on the TOXECON{trademark} PAC/ash mixture were successfully tested during this program. Two methods for using the TOXECON

  7. FIELD EVALUATION OF A LOW-NO(SUB X) FIRING SYSTEM FOR TANGENTIALLY COAL-FIRED UTILITY BOILERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a full-scale utility demonstration of Combustion Engineering's Low-NOx Concentric Firing System (LNCFS), conducted at Utah Power and Light's 400 MWe Hunter No. 2 boiler. This program was implemented to investigate and evaluate the effectiveness of usin...

  8. EFFECTS OF SORBENT INJECTION FOR SULFUR DIOXIDE REMOVAL ON PARTICULATE CONTROL SYSTEMS FOR COAL-FIRED BOILERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes studies undertaken to quantify the effects of dry SO2 sorbent injection on electrostatic precipitator (ESP) operation with a coal-burning utility boiler. The specific operation of interest was EPA's limestone injection, multistage burners (LIMB) process. The ...

  9. FIELD TESTS OF INDUSTRIAL STOKER COAL-FIRED BOILERS FOR EMISSIONS CONTROL AND EFFICIENCY IMPROVEMENT - SITES L1-L7

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of field measurements to determine particulate emission rate and particle size distribution for seven institutional-type stoker-fired boilers firing bituminous coals. Operational data were recorded during the tests to provide information for evaluating bo...

  10. A bottom-up method to develop pollution abatement cost curves for coal-fired utility boilers

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper illustrates a new method to create supply curves for pollution abatement using boiler-level data that explicitly accounts for technology costs and performance. The Coal Utility Environmental Cost (CUECost) model is used to estimate retrofit costs for five different NO...

  11. Integrating low-NO{sub x} burners, overfire air, and selective non-catalytic reduction on a utility coal-fired boiler

    SciTech Connect

    Hunt, T.; Muzio, L.; Smith, R.

    1995-05-01

    Public Service Company of Colorado (PSCo), in cooperation with the US Department of Energy (DOE) and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), is testing the Integrated Dry NO{sub x}/SO{sub 2} Emissions Control system. This system combines low-NO{sub x} burners, overfire air, selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR), and dry sorbent injection with humidification to reduce by up to 70% both NO{sub x} and SO{sub 2} emissions from a 100 MW coal-fired utility boiler. The project is being conducted at PSCo`s Arapahoe Unit 4 located in Denver, Colorado as part of the DOE`s Clean Coal Technology Round 3 program. The urea-based SNCR system, supplied by Noell, Inc., was installed in late 1991 and was tested with the unmodified boiler in 1992. At full load, it reduced NO{sub x} emissions by about 35% with an associated ammonia slip limit of 10 ppm. Babcock & Wilcox XLS{reg_sign} burners and a dual-zone overfire air system were retrofit to the top-fired boiler in mid-1992 and demonstrated a NO{sub x} reduction of nearly 70% across the load range. Integrated testing of the combustion modifications and the SNCR system were conducted in 1993 and showed that the SNCR system could reduce NO{sub x} emissions by an additional 45% while maintaining 10 ppm of ammonia slip limit at full load. Lower than expect4ed flue-gas temperatures caused low-load operation to be less effective than at high loads. NO{sub x} reduction decreased to as low as 11% at 60 MWe at an ammonia slip limit of 10 ppm. An ammonia conversion system was installed to improve performance at low loads. Other improvements to increase NO{sub x} removal at low-loads are planned. The combined system of combustion modifications and SNCR reduced NO{sub x} emissions by over 80% from the original full-load baseline. 11 figs.

  12. Synergistic Utilization of Coal Fines and Municipal Solid Waste in Coal-Fired Boilers. Phase I Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    V. Zamansky; P. Maly; M. Klosky

    1998-06-12

    A feasibility study was performed on a novel concept: to synergistically utilize a blend of waste coal fines with so-called E-fuel for cofiring and reburning in utility and industrial boilers. The E-fuel is produced from MSW by the patented EnerTech's slurry carbonization process. The slurry carbonization technology economically converts MSW to a uniform, low-ash, low-sulfur, and essentially chlorine-free fuel with energy content of about 14,800 Btu/lb.

  13. Demonstration of SCR technology for the control of NOx emissions from high-sulfur coal-fired utility boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Hinton, W.S.; Maxwell, J.D.; Healy, E.C.; Hardman, R.R.; Baldwin, A.L.

    1997-12-31

    This paper describes the completed Innovative Clean Coal Technology project which demonstrated SCR technology for reduction of flue gas NO{sub x} emissions from a utility boiler burning US high-sulfur coal. The project was sponsored by the US Department of Energy, managed and co-funded by Southern Company Services, Inc. on behalf of the Southern Company, and also co-funded by the Electric Power Research Institute and Ontario Hydro. The project was located at Gulf Power Company`s Plant Crist Unit 5 (a 75 MW tangentially-fired boiler burning US coals that had a sulfur content ranging from 2.5--2.9%), near Pensacola, Florida. The test program was conducted for approximately two years to evaluate catalyst deactivation and other SCR operational effects. The SCR test facility had nine reactors: three 2.5 MW (5,000 scfm), and operated on low-dust flue gas. The reactors operated in parallel with commercially available SCR catalysts obtained from suppliers throughout the world. Long-term performance testing began in July 1993 and was completed in July 1995. A brief test facility description and the results of the project are presented in this paper.

  14. Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT): Demonstration of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology for the control of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from high-sulfur coal-fired boilers. Technical progress report, October 1993--December 1993

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-01

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate and evaluate commercially available Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalysts from U.S., Japanese and European catalyst suppliers on a high-sulfur U.S. coal-fired boiler. SCR is a post-combustion nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) control technology that involves injecting ammonia into the flue gas generated from coal combustion in an electric utility boiler. The flue gas containing ammonia is then passed through a reactor that contains a specialized catalyst. In the presence of the catalyst, the ammonia reacts with NO{sub x} to convert it to nitrogen and water vapor. Although SCR is widely practiced in Japan and Europe on gas-, oil-, and low-sulfur coal-fired boilers, there are several technical uncertainties associated with applying SCR to U.S. coals. These uncertainties include: (1) potential catalyst deactivation due to poisoning by trace metal species present in U.S. coals that are not present in other fuels; (2) performance of the technology and effects on the balance-of-plant equipment in the presence of high amounts of SO{sub 2} and SO{sub 3}; and (3) performance of a wide variety of SCR catalyst compositions, geometries and methods of manufacture under typical high-sulfur coal-fired utility operating conditions. These uncertainties are being explored by operating a series of small-scale SCR reactors and simultaneously exposing different SCR catalysts to flue gas derived from the combustion of high sulfur U.S. coal.

  15. Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT): Demonstration of selective catalytic reduction technology for the control of nitrogen oxide emissions from high-sulfur coal-fired boilers. First and second quarterly technical progress reports, [January--June 1995]. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate and evaluate commercially available Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalysts from US, Japanese and European catalyst suppliers on a high-sulfur US coal-fired boiler. SCR is a post-combustion nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) control technology that involves injecting ammonia (NH{sub 3}) into the flue gas generated from coal combustion in an electric utility boiler. The flue gas containing ammonia is then passed through a reactor containing a specialized catalyst. In the presence of the catalyst, the ammonia reacts with NO{sub x} to convert it to nitrogen and water vapor. Although SCR is widely practiced in Japan and Europe on gas-, oil-, and low-sulfur coal-fired boilers, there are several technical uncertainties associated with applying SCR to US coals. These uncertainties include: (1) potential catalyst deactivation due to poisoning by trace metal species present in US coals that are not present in other fuels. (2) performance of the technology and effects on the balance-of-plant equipment in the presence of high amounts of SO{sub 2} and SO{sub 3}. (3) performance of a wide variety of SCR catalyst compositions, geometries, and methods of manufacture under typical high-sulfur coal-fired utility operating conditions. These uncertainties are being explored by operating a series of small-scale SCR reactors and simultaneously exposing different SCR catalysts to flue gas derived from the combustion of high sulfur US coal. The demonstration is being performed at Gulf Power Company`s Plant Crist Unit No. 5 (75 MW nameplate capacity) near Pensacola, Florida. The project is funded by the US Department of Energy (DOE), Southern Company Services, Inc. (SCS on behalf of the entire Southern electric system), the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), and Ontario Hydro. SCS is the participant responsible for managing all aspects of this project.

  16. Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT). Demonstration of Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) technology for the control of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from high-sulfur coal-fired boilers: Volume 1. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-10-01

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate and evaluate commercially available Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalysts from U.S., Japanese and European catalyst suppliers on a high-sulfur U.S. coal-fired boiler. SCR is a post-combustion nitrogen oxide (NO.) control technology that involves injecting ammonia into the flue gas generated from coal combustion in an electric utility boiler. The flue gas containing ammonia is then passed through a reactor that contains a specialized catalyst. In the presence of the catalyst, the ammonia reacts with NO. to convert it to nitrogen and water vapor. Although SCR is widely practiced in Japan and Europe on gas-, oil-, and low-sulfur coal- fired boilers, there are several technical uncertainties associated with applying SCR to U.S. coals. These uncertainties include: 1) potential catalyst deactivation due to poisoning by trace metal species present in U.S. coals that are not present in other fuels. 2) performance of the technology and effects on the balance-of- plant equipment in the presence of high amounts of SO{sub 2} and SO{sub 3}. 3) performance of a wide variety of SCR catalyst compositions, geometries and methods of manufacturer under typical high-sulfur coal-fired utility operating conditions. These uncertainties were explored by operating nine small-scale SCR reactors and simultaneously exposing different SCR catalysts to flue gas derived from the combustion of high sulfur U.S. coal. In addition, the test facility operating experience provided a basis for an economic study investigating the implementation of SCR technology.

  17. Optical fiber evanescent wave adsorption sensors for high-temperature gas sensing in advanced coal-fired power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Buric, M.; Ohodnicky, P.; Duy, J.

    2012-01-01

    Modern advanced energy systems such as coal-fired power plants, gasifiers, or similar infrastructure present some of the most challenging harsh environments for sensors. The power industry would benefit from new, ultra-high temperature devices capable of surviving in hot and corrosive environments for embedded sensing at the highest value locations. For these applications, we are currently exploring optical fiber evanescent wave absorption spectroscopy (EWAS) based sensors consisting of high temperature core materials integrated with novel high temperature gas sensitive cladding materials. Mathematical simulations can be used to assist in sensor development efforts, and we describe a simulation code that assumes a single thick cladding layer with gas sensitive optical constants. Recent work has demonstrated that Au nanoparticle-incorporated metal oxides show a potentially useful response for high temperature optical gas sensing applications through the sensitivity of the localized surface plasmon resonance absorption peak to ambient atmospheric conditions. Hence, the simulation code has been applied to understand how such a response can be exploited in an optical fiber based EWAS sensor configuration. We demonstrate that interrogation can be used to optimize the sensing response in such materials.

  18. THE SCALE-UP OF LARGE PRESSURIZED FLUIDIZED BEDS FOR ADVANCED COAL-FIRED POWER PROCESSES

    SciTech Connect

    Leon R. Glicksman; Michael Louge; Hesham F. Younis; Richard Tan; Mathew Hyre; Mark Torpey

    2003-11-24

    This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government nor an agency thereof, nor any of the their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, A combined-cycle High Performance Power System (HIPPS) capable of overall cycle efficiencies approaching 50% has been proposed and designed by Foster Wheeler Development Corporation (FWDC). A pyrolyzer in the first stage of the HIPPS process converts a coal feedstock into fuel gas and char at an elevated pressure of 1.4 Map. (206 psia) and elevated temperature of 930 C (1700 F). The generated char serves as the feedstock for a Pulverized Coal (PC) boiler operating at atmospheric pressure, and the fuel gas is directly fired in a gas turbine. The hydrodynamic behavior of the pyrolyzer strongly influences the quality of both the fuel gas and the generated char, the energy split between the gas turbine and the steam turbine, and hence the overall efficiency of the system. By utilizing a simplified set of scaling parameters (Glicksman et al.,1993), a 4/7th labscale cold model of the pyrolyzer operating at ambient temperature and pressure was constructed and tested. The scaling parameters matched include solid to gas density ratio, Froude number, length to diameter ratio; dimensionless superficial gas velocity and solid recycle rate, particle sphericity and particle size distribution (PSD).

  19. Innovative clean coal technology (ICCT): Demonstration of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology for the control of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from high-sulfur coal-fired boilers. Fourth quarterly progress report

    SciTech Connect

    1992-12-31

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate and evaluate commercially available Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalysts from US, Japanese and European catalyst suppliers on a high-sulfur US coal-fired boiler. SCR is a post-combustion nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) control technology that involves injecting ammonia into the flue gas generated from coal combustion in an electric utility boiler. The flue gas containing ammonia is then passed through a reactor that contains a specialized catalyst. In the presence of the catalyst, the ammonia reacts with NO{sub x} to convert it to nitrogen and water vapor. Although SCR is widely practiced in Japan and Europe, there are numerous technical uncertainties include: (1) potential catalyst deactivation due to poisoning by trace metal species present in US coals that are not present in other fuels; (2) performance of the technology and effects on the balance-of-plant equipment in the presence of high amounts of SO{sub 2} and SO{sub 3}; and (3) performance of a wide variety of SCR catalyst compositions, geometries and methods of manufacture under typical high-sulfur coal-fired utility operating conditions. These uncertainties will be explored by constructing a series of small-scale SCR reactors and simultaneously exposing different SCR catalysts to flue gas derived from the combustion of high sulfur US coal.

  20. Ways to Improve Russian Coal-Fired Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Tumanovskii, A. G. Olkhovsky, G. G.

    2015-07-15

    Coal is an important fuel for the electric power industry of Russia, especially in Ural and the eastern part of the country. It is fired in boilers of large (200 – 800 MW) condensing power units and in many cogeneration power plants with units rated at 50 – 180 MW. Many coal-fired power plants have been operated for more than 40 – 50 years. Though serviceable, their equipment is obsolete and does not comply with the current efficiency, environmental, staffing, and availability standards. It is urgent to retrofit and upgrade such power plants using advanced equipment, engineering and business ideas. Russian power-plant engineering companies have designed such advanced power units and their equipment such as boilers, turbines, auxiliaries, process and environmental control systems similar to those produced by the world’s leading manufacturers. Their performance and ways of implementation are discussed.

  1. Behavior of Mercury Emissions from a Commercial Coal-Fired Utility Boiler: TheRelationship Between Stack Speciation and Near-Field Plume Measurements

    EPA Science Inventory

    The reduction of divalent gaseous mercury (HgII) to elemental gaseous mercury (Hg0) in a commercial coal-fired power plant (CFPP)exhaust plume was investigated by simultaneous measurement in-stack and in-plume as part of a collaborative study among the U.S....

  2. Development of an advanced high efficiency coal combustor for boiler retrofit. Summary report

    SciTech Connect

    LaFlesh, R.C.; Rini, M.J.; McGowan, J.G.; Beer, J.M.; Toqan, M.A.

    1990-04-01

    The objective of the program was to develop an advanced coal combustion system for firing beneficiated coal fuels (BCFs) capable of being retrofitted to industrial boilers originally designed for firing natural gas. The High Efficiency Advanced Coal Combustor system is capable of firing microfine coal-water fuel (MCWF), MCWF with alkali sorbent (for SO{sub 2} reduction), and dry microfine coal. Design priorities for the system were that it be simple to operate and offer significant reductions in NO{sub x}, SO{sub x}, and particulate emissions as compared with current coal-fired combustor technology. (VC)

  3. Development of an advanced high efficiency coal combustor for boiler retrofit

    SciTech Connect

    LaFlesh, R.C.; Rini, M.J.; McGowan, J.G.; Beer, J.M.; Toqan, M.A.

    1990-04-01

    The objective of the program was to develop an advanced coal combustion system for firing beneficiated coal fuels (BCFs) capable of being retrofitted to industrial boilers originally designed for firing natural gas. The High Efficiency Advanced Coal Combustor system is capable of firing microfine coal-water fuel (MCWF), MCWF with alkali sorbent (for SO{sub 2} reduction), and dry microfine coal. Design priorities for the system were that it be simple to operate and offer significant reductions in NO{sub x}, SO{sub x}, and particulate emissions as compared with current coal-fired combustor technology. (VC)

  4. PARTICULATE CHARACTERIZATION AND ULTRA LOW-NOx BURNER FOR THE CONTROL OF NO{sub x} AND PM{sub 2.5} FOR COAL FIRED BOILERS

    SciTech Connect

    Ralph Bailey; Hamid Sarv; Jim Warchol; Debi Yurchison

    2001-09-30

    In response to the serious challenge facing coal-fired electric utilities with regards to curbing their NO{sub x} and fine particulate emissions, Babcock and Wilcox and McDermott Technology, Inc. conducted a project entitled, ''Particulate Characterization and Ultra Low-NO{sub x} Burner for the Control of NO{sub x} and PM{sub 2.5} for Coal Fired Boilers.'' The project included pilot-scale demonstration and characterization of technologies for removal of NO{sub x} and primary PM{sub 2.5} emissions. Burner development and PM{sub 2.5} characterization efforts were based on utilizing innovative concepts in combination with sound scientific and fundamental engineering principles and a state-of-the-art test facility. Approximately 1540 metric tonnes (1700 tons) of high-volatile Ohio bituminous coal were fired. Particulate sampling for PM{sub 2.5} emissions characterization was conducted in conjunction with burner testing. Based on modeling recommendations, a prototype ultra low-NO{sub x} burner was fabricated and tested at 100 million Btu/hr in the Babcock and Wilcox Clean Environment Development Facility. Firing the unstaged burner with a high-volatile bituminous Pittsburgh 8 coal at 100 million Btu/hr and 17% excess air achieved a NO{sub x} goal of 0.20 lb NO{sub 2}/million Btu with a fly ash loss on ignition (LOI) of 3.19% and burner pressure drop of 4.7 in H{sub 2}O for staged combustion. With the burner stoichiometry set at 0.88 and the overall combustion stoichiometry at 1.17, average NO{sub x} and LOI values were 0.14 lb NO{sub 2}/million Btu and 4.64% respectively. The burner was also tested with a high-volatile Mahoning 7 coal. Based on the results of this work, commercial demonstration is being pursued. Size classified fly ash samples representative of commercial low-NO{sub x} and ultra low-NO{sub x} combustion of Pittsburgh 8 coal were collected at the inlet and outlet of an ESP. The mass of size classified fly ash at the ESP outlet was sufficient to evaluate

  5. A coal-fired combustion system for industrial processing heating applications. Quarterly technical progress report, January 1995--March 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-04-01

    PETC has implemented a number of advanced combustion research projects that will lead to the establishment of a broad, commercially acceptable engineering data base for the advancement of coal as the fuel of choice for boilers, furnaces, and process heaters. Vortec Corporation`s Phase III development contract DE-AC22-91PC91161 for a {open_quotes}Coal-Fired Combustion System for Industrial Process Heating Applications{close_quotes} is a project funded under the DOE/PETC advanced combustion program. This advanced combustion system research program is for the development of innovative coal-fired process heaters which can be used for high temperature melting, smelting and waste vitrification processes. The process heater systems to be developed have multiple use applications; however, the Phase III research effort is being focused on the development of a process heater system to be used for producing value added vitrified glass products from boiler/incinerator ashes and industrial wastes. The primary objective of the Phase III project is to develop and integrate all the system components, from fuel through total system controls, and then test the complete system in order to evaluate its potential marketability. The test program consisted of one test run, with a duration of 100 hours at a nominal feed rate of 1000 lbs/hr. Throughout the test, the CMS was fired with coal and a coal by-product (i.e. coal-fired boiler fly ash) as the primary fuels. Natural gas was used as an auxiliary fuel as necessary to provide process trim. The feedstock consisted of a coal-fired utility boiler fly ash and dolomite and produced a stable, fully-reacted vitrified product. The fly ash, supplied by PENELEC, contained between 6 and 12% by weight of carbon because of the low NOx burners on the PENELEC boilers. Therefore, a substantial portion of the required thermal input came from the fly ash.

  6. Engineering development of advanced coal-fired low-emission boiler systems

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-22

    Project Work Plan was developed with joint participation by all subsystem teams. Comprehensive overall project activity schedules were developed for all individual B W groups and subcontractors with participation in Phase I.

  7. Performance and operating results from the demonstration of advanced combustion techniques for wall-fired boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Sorge, J.N.; Baldwin, A.L.

    1993-11-01

    This paper discusses the technical progress of a US Department of Energy Innovative Clean Coal Technology project demonstrating advanced wall-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from coal-fired boilers. The primary objective of the demonstration is to determine the long-term performance of advanced overfire air and low NO{sub x} burners applied in a stepwise fashion to a 500 MW boiler. A 50 percent NO{sub x} reduction target has been established for the project. The focus of this paper is to present the effects of excess oxygen level and burner settings on NO{sub x} emissions and unburned carbon levels and recent results from the phase of the project when low NO{sub x} burners were used in conjunction with advanced overfire air.

  8. Executive roundtable on coal-fired generation

    SciTech Connect

    2009-09-15

    Power Engineering magazine invited six industry executives from the coal-fired sector to discuss issues affecting current and future prospects of coal-fired generation. The executives are Tim Curran, head of Alstom Power for the USA and Senior Vice President and General Manager of Boilers North America; Ray Kowalik, President and General Manager of Burns and McDonnell Energy Group; Jeff Holmstead, head of Environmental Strategies for the Bracewell Giuliani law firm; Jim Mackey, Vice President, Fluor Power Group's Solid Fuel business line; Tom Shelby, President Kiewit Power Inc., and David Wilks, President of Energy Supply for Excel Energy Group. Steve Blankinship, the magazine's Associate Editor, was the moderator. 6 photos.

  9. Subsystem selection for advanced low emission boiler system

    SciTech Connect

    Rodgers, L.W.; Farthing, G.A.; Gorrell, R.L.

    1993-12-31

    In 1992 the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) initiated a new program called Combustion 2000. The purpose of the program was to address the design issues facing new and replacement coal-fired power plants. The work presented in this paper was conducted under the low-emission boiler system (LEBS) portion of the program. LEBS major goals are: NO{sub x} - No more than 0.20 lbs per million Btu of fuel input firing bituminous coal; SO{sub x} -- no more than 0.2 lbs of SO{sub 2} per million Btu firing coal with at least 3 lbs of sulfur per million btu; Particulate -- no more than 0.015 lbs per million Btu of fuel input; Waste and Air Toxics -- reduced; and Plant Efficiency -- no less than 38%. Other objectives include reducing waste generation, producing usable by-products, improving ash disposability, and increasing plant thermal efficiency while keeping the cost of electricity comparable to a state-of-the-art plant. The Babcock and Wilcox Company has completed the first year of work toward the development of an advanced low-emission boiler system (LEBS). The results of this work have led to a preliminary engineering design and a plan to address remaining technical uncertainties. This was accomplished by conducting a thorough technical assessment and performing a concept selection analysis. A summary of the results of this work is presented in this paper.

  10. EVALUATION OF NOX EMISSIONS FROM TVA COAL-FIRED POWER PLANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper gives results of a preliminary evaluation of nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions from 11 Tennessee Valley authority (TVA) coal-fired power plants. urrent EPA AP-42 emission factors for NOx from coal-fired utility boilers do not account for variations either in these emission...

  11. A coal-fired combustion system for industrial process heating applications

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-10-30

    This advanced combustion system research program is for the development of innovative coal-fired process heaters which can be used for high temperature melting, smelting and waste vitrification processes. The process heater concepts to be developed are based on advanced glass melting and ore smelting furnaces developed and patented by Vortec Corporation. The process heater systems to be developed have multiple use applications; however, the Phase III research effort is being focused on the development of a process heater system to be used for producing value added vitrified glass products from boiler/incinerator ashesand industrial wastes. ne primary objective of the Phase III project is to develop and integrate all the system components, from fuel through total system controls, and then test the complete system in order toevaluate its potential marketability. During the current reporting period, three preliminary coal-fired tests were successfully completed. These tests used industrial boiler flyash, sewer sludge ash, and waste glass collet as feedstocks. The coal-fired ash vitrification tests are considered near term potential commercial applications of the CMS technology. The waste glass cullet provided necessary dam on the effect of coal firing with respect to vitrified product oxidation state. Engineering and design activities in support of the Phase III proof of concept are continuing, and modifications to the existing test system configuration to allow performance of the proof-of-concept tests are continuing. The economic evaluation of commercial scale CMS processes is continuing. Preliminary designs for 15, 25, 100 and 400 ton/day systems are in progress. This dam will serve as input data to the life cycle cost analysis which will be-an integral part of the CMS commercialization plan.

  12. MAGNESIA SCRUBBING APPLIED TO A COAL-FIRED POWER PLANT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a full-size demonstration of the magnesia wet-scrubbing system for flue gas desulfurization (FGD) on a coal-fired utility boiler. The system was designed to desulfurize half the flue gas from a 190-MW rated capacity generating unit firing 3.5% sulfur c...

  13. Steam conservation and boiler plant efficiency advancements

    SciTech Connect

    Fiorino, D.P.

    1999-07-01

    This paper examines several cost-effective steam conservation and boiler plant efficiency advancements that were implemented during a recently completed central steam boiler plant replacement project at a very large semiconductor manufacturing complex. They were: (1) Reheating of dehumidified clean room makeup air with heat extracted during precooling; (2) Preheating of deionization feedwater with refrigerant heat of condensation; (3) Preheating of boiler combustion air with heat extracted from boiler flue gas; (4) Preheating of boiler feedwater with heat extracted from gas turbine exhaust; (5) Variable-speed operation of boiler feedwater pumps and forced-draft fans; and (6) Preheating of boiler makeup water with heat extracted from boiler surface blow-down. The first two advancements (steam conservation measures) saved about $1,010,000 per year by using recovered waste heat rather than steam-derived heat at selected heating loads. The last four advancements (boiler plant efficiency measures) reduced the cost of steam produced by about 13%, or $293,500 per year, by reducing use of natural gas and electricity at the steam boiler plant. These advancements should prove of interest to industrial energy users faced with replacement of aging, inefficient boiler plants, rising fuel and power prices, and increasing pressures to reduce operating costs in order to enhance competitiveness.

  14. A study of toxic emissions from a coal-fired power plant: Niles Station Boiler No. 2. Volume 2, Appendices: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    Volume 2 contains appendices for: process data log sheets from Nile boiler 2; auditing; sampling protocol; field sampling data sheets; quality assurance/quality control; analytical protocol; and uncertainty analysis.

  15. Compliance testing of the Clear AFS Power Plant, coal-fired boiler 1, Clear AFS, Alaska. Final report, 18-23 April 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, P.T.

    1989-10-01

    The 13 MWS/DE through HQ AFSPACECOM/SG requested AFOEHL Quality Function conduct source emission testing of the Clear AFS Power Plant to determine compliance with applicable Alaska Air Quality Control Codes. The Alaska Department of Environmental Conservation required testing of one representative boiler for permit compliance and to determine operating limitations for each boiler. At 80,000 lbs steam/hour particulate emission were within emission limits allowed by the State of Alaska.

  16. Boiler Optimization Using Advance Machine Learning Techniques. Final Report for period September 30, 1995 - September 29, 2000

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, S.

    2005-08-01

    The purpose of this effort was to investigate methods for improving the predictability, and ultimately the controllability, of the emissions generated by coal-fired boilers such as those used in power generation.

  17. Technical and Energy Performance of an Advanced, Aqueous Ammonia-Based CO2 Capture Technology for a 500 MW Coal-Fired Power Station.

    PubMed

    Li, Kangkang; Yu, Hai; Feron, Paul; Tade, Moses; Wardhaugh, Leigh

    2015-08-18

    Using a rate-based model, we assessed the technical feasibility and energy performance of an advanced aqueous-ammonia-based postcombustion capture process integrated with a coal-fired power station. The capture process consists of three identical process trains in parallel, each containing a CO2 capture unit, an NH3 recycling unit, a water separation unit, and a CO2 compressor. A sensitivity study of important parameters, such as NH3 concentration, lean CO2 loading, and stripper pressure, was performed to minimize the energy consumption involved in the CO2 capture process. Process modifications of the rich-split process and the interheating process were investigated to further reduce the solvent regeneration energy. The integrated capture system was then evaluated in terms of the mass balance and the energy consumption of each unit. The results show that our advanced ammonia process is technically feasible and energy-competitive, with a low net power-plant efficiency penalty of 7.7%. PMID:26208135

  18. Bench-scale Development of an Advanced Solid Sorbent-based CO2 Capture Process for Coal-fired Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, Thomas; Kataria, Atish; Soukri, Mustapha; Farmer, Justin; Mobley, Paul; Tanthana, Jak; Wang, Dongxiang; Wang, Xiaoxing; Song, Chunshan

    2015-12-31

    It is increasingly clear that CO2 capture and sequestration (CCS) must play a critical role in curbing worldwide CO2 emissions to the atmosphere. Development of these technologies to cost-effectively remove CO2 from coal-fired power plants is very important to mitigating the impact these power plants have within the world’s power generation portfolio. Currently, conventional CO2 capture technologies, such as aqueous-monoethanolamine based solvent systems, are prohibitively expensive and if implemented could result in a 75 to 100% increase in the cost of electricity for consumers worldwide. Solid sorbent CO2 capture processes – such as RTI’s Advanced Solid Sorbent CO2, Capture Process – are promising alternatives to conventional, liquid solvents. Supported amine sorbents – of the nature RTI has developed – are particularly attractive due to their high CO2 loadings, low heat capacities, reduced corrosivity/volatility and the potential to reduce the regeneration energy needed to carry out CO2 capture. Previous work in this area has failed to adequately address various technology challenges such as sorbent stability and regenerability, sorbent scale-up, improved physical strength and attrition-resistance, proper heat management and temperature control, proper solids handling and circulation control, as well as the proper coupling of process engineering advancements that are tailored for a promising sorbent technology. The remaining challenges for these sorbent processes have provided the framework for the project team’s research and development and target for advancing the technology beyond lab- and bench-scale testing. Under a cooperative agreement with the US Department of Energy, and part of NETL’s CO2 Capture Program, RTI has led an effort to address and mitigate the challenges associated with solid sorbent CO2 capture. The overall objective

  19. Development of Computational Capabilities to Predict the Corrosion Wastage of Boiler Tubes in Advanced Combustion Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Kung, Steven; Rapp, Robert

    2014-08-31

    A comprehensive corrosion research project consisting of pilot-scale combustion testing and long-term laboratory corrosion study has been successfully performed. A pilot-scale combustion facility available at Brigham Young University was selected and modified to enable burning of pulverized coals under the operating conditions typical for advanced coal-fired utility boilers. Eight United States (U.S.) coals were selected for this investigation, with the test conditions for all coals set to have the same heat input to the combustor. In addition, the air/fuel stoichiometric ratio was controlled so that staged combustion was established, with the stoichiometric ratio maintained at 0.85 in the burner zone and 1.15 in the burnout zone. The burner zone represented the lower furnace of utility boilers, while the burnout zone mimicked the upper furnace areas adjacent to the superheaters and reheaters. From this staged combustion, approximately 3% excess oxygen was attained in the combustion gas at the furnace outlet. During each of the pilot-scale combustion tests, extensive online measurements of the flue gas compositions were performed. In addition, deposit samples were collected at the same location for chemical analyses. Such extensive gas and deposit analyses enabled detailed characterization of the actual combustion environments existing at the lower furnace walls under reducing conditions and those adjacent to the superheaters and reheaters under oxidizing conditions in advanced U.S. coal-fired utility boilers. The gas and deposit compositions were then carefully simulated in a series of 1000-hour laboratory corrosion tests, in which the corrosion performances of different commercial candidate alloys and weld overlays were evaluated at various temperatures for advanced boiler systems. Results of this laboratory study led to significant improvement in understanding of the corrosion mechanisms operating on the furnace walls as well as superheaters and reheaters in

  20. BOILER MATERIALS FOR ULTRASUPERCRITICAL COAL POWER PLANTS

    SciTech Connect

    R. Viswanathan; K. Coleman; R.W. Swindeman; J. Sarver; J. Blough; W. Mohn; M. Borden; S. Goodstine; I. Perrin

    2003-08-04

    The principal objective of this project is to develop materials technology for use in ultrasupercritical (USC) plant boilers capable of operating with 760 C (1400 F), 35 MPa (5000 psi) steam. This project has established a government/industry consortium to undertake a five-year effort to evaluate and develop of advanced materials that allow the use of advanced steam cycles in coal-based power plants. These advanced cycles, with steam temperatures up to 760 C, will increase the efficiency of coal-fired boilers from an average of 35% efficiency (current domestic fleet) to 47% (HHV). This efficiency increase will enable coal-fired power plants to generate electricity at competitive rates (irrespective of fuel costs) while reducing CO{sub 2} and other fuel-related emissions by as much as 29%. Success in achieving these objectives will support a number of broader goals. First, from a national prospective, the program will identify advanced materials that will make it possible to maintain a cost-competitive, environmentally acceptable coal-based electric generation option. High sulfur coals will specifically benefit in this respect by having these advanced materials evaluated in high-sulfur coal firing conditions and from the significant reductions in waste generation inherent in the increased operational efficiency. Second, from a national prospective, the results of this program will enable domestic boiler manufacturers to successfully compete in world markets for building high-efficiency coal-fired power plants.

  1. BOILER MATERIALS FOR ULTRASUPERCRITICAL COAL POWER PLANTS

    SciTech Connect

    R. Viswanathan; K. Coleman; R.W. Swindeman; J. Sarver; J. Blough; W. Mohn; M. Borden; S. Goodstine; I. Perrin

    2003-10-20

    The principal objective of this project is to develop materials technology for use in ultrasupercritical (USC) plant boilers capable of operating with 760 C (1400 F), 35 MPa (5000 psi) steam. This project has established a government/industry consortium to undertake a five-year effort to evaluate and develop of advanced materials that allow the use of advanced steam cycles in coal-based power plants. These advanced cycles, with steam temperatures up to 760 C, will increase the efficiency of coal-fired boilers from an average of 35% efficiency (current domestic fleet) to 47% (HHV). This efficiency increase will enable coal-fired power plants to generate electricity at competitive rates (irrespective of fuel costs) while reducing CO{sub 2} and other fuel-related emissions by as much as 29%. Success in achieving these objectives will support a number of broader goals. First, from a national prospective, the program will identify advanced materials that will make it possible to maintain a cost-competitive, environmentally acceptable coal-based electric generation option. High sulfur coals will specifically benefit in this respect by having these advanced materials evaluated in high-sulfur coal firing conditions and from the significant reductions in waste generation inherent in the increased operational efficiency. Second, from a national prospective, the results of this program will enable domestic boiler manufacturers to successfully compete in world markets for building high-efficiency coal-fired power plants.

  2. A coal-fired combustion system for industrial process heating applications. Quarterly technical progress report, July 1992--September 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-10-30

    This advanced combustion system research program is for the development of innovative coal-fired process heaters which can be used for high temperature melting, smelting and waste vitrification processes. The process heater concepts to be developed are based on advanced glass melting and ore smelting furnaces developed and patented by Vortec Corporation. The process heater systems to be developed have multiple use applications; however, the Phase III research effort is being focused on the development of a process heater system to be used for producing value added vitrified glass products from boiler/incinerator ashesand industrial wastes. ne primary objective of the Phase III project is to develop and integrate all the system components, from fuel through total system controls, and then test the complete system in order toevaluate its potential marketability. During the current reporting period, three preliminary coal-fired tests were successfully completed. These tests used industrial boiler flyash, sewer sludge ash, and waste glass collet as feedstocks. The coal-fired ash vitrification tests are considered near term potential commercial applications of the CMS technology. The waste glass cullet provided necessary dam on the effect of coal firing with respect to vitrified product oxidation state. Engineering and design activities in support of the Phase III proof of concept are continuing, and modifications to the existing test system configuration to allow performance of the proof-of-concept tests are continuing. The economic evaluation of commercial scale CMS processes is continuing. Preliminary designs for 15, 25, 100 and 400 ton/day systems are in progress. This dam will serve as input data to the life cycle cost analysis which will be-an integral part of the CMS commercialization plan.

  3. Computational Investigation of the Influence of Fly Ash Silica Content and Shape on the Erosion Behaviour of Indian Coal Fired Boiler Grade Steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumari, Amrita; Das, Suchandan Kumar; Srivastava, Prem Kumar

    2016-07-01

    A mathematical model has been developed to characterize the erosion behaviour of fly ash on boiler grade steel surfaces incorporating various ductile erosion mechanisms. These mechanisms constitute cutting wear, repeated plastic deformation and effect of operating temperature on the mechanical properties of the substrate. Parametric analysis has been carried out to study the erosion response of some typical steel grades as a function of particle impact parameters such as particle impact velocity, angle of impingement coupled with the effect of temperature on the tensile properties. Further, effects of fly ash properties such as hardness (silica content) and shape (angularity) on the erosion response have been also investigated along with the ballistic parameters. These investigations show that a small increment in the fly ash hardness can considerably augment the erosion rate of the steel surface under a given particle impingement condition. This vindicates that hardness of fly ash is one of the most critical parameter which has a direct impact in enhancing the erosion rate of boiler grade steels. The effect of fly ash shape on the erosion behaviour is also studied in conjunction with the particle hardness. This shows that the composite action of these parameters augment the erosion rate significantly.

  4. Guidelines for selection and application of the most cost-effective NO sub x control technologies for gas, oil and coal fired boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Czerniak, D.O.; Booth, R.B.; McDonald, B.L. ); Feenstra, D.R. )

    1991-01-01

    As a result of the new Clean Air Act, lower NO{sub x} emissions from stationary sources will be required of utilities and independent power producers that burn all fuels including gas, oil and coal. This new legislation, as well as new and more stringent NO{sub x} reduction orders imposed by state and local regulatory agencies, will require rapid evaluation, purchase, installation and start-up of a variety of control technologies. There is substantial volume of literature available discussing NO{sub x} control technologies, their control effectiveness, costs, and chemical reaction mechanisms in forming NO{sub x}. This paper, however, presents more practical aspects of developing a NO{sub x} control strategy and implementing the appropriate cost-effective control technology on a utility or industrial boiler.

  5. A coal-fired combustion system for industrial process heating applications. Quarterly technical progress report, October 1994--December 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1995-03-01

    PETC has implemented a number of advanced combustion research projects that will lead to the establishment of a broad, commercially acceptable engineering data base for the advancement of coal as the fuel of choice for boilers, furnaces, and process heaters. Vortec Corporation`s Phase III development contract DE-AC22-91PC91161 for a {open_quotes}Coal-Fired Combustion System for Industrial Process Heating Applications{close_quotes} is a project funded under the DOE/PETC advanced combustion program. This advanced combustion system research program is for the development of innovative coal-fired process heaters which can be used for high temperature melting, smelting and waste vitrification processes. The process heater systems to be developed have multiple use applications; however, the Phase III research effort is being focused on the development of a process heater system to be used for producing value added vitrified glass products from boiler/incinerator ashes and industrial wastes. The primary objective of the Phase III project is to develop and integrate all the system components, from fuel through total system controls, and then test the complete system in order to evaluate its potential marketability. During the past quarter, the major effort was concentrated on conducting the 100 hour demonstration test. The test was successfully conducted from September 12th through the 16th. The test program consisted of one test run, with a duration of 100 hours at a nominal feed rate of 1000 lbs/hr. Throughout the test, the CMS was fired with coal and a coal by-product (i.e. coal-fired boiler flyash) as the primary fuels. Natural gas was used as an auxiliary fuel as necessary to provide process trim. The feedstock consisted of a coal-fired utility boiler flyash and dolomite and produced a stable, fully-reacted vitrified product. The fly ash, supplied by PENELEC, contained between 6 and 12% by weight of carbon because of the low NO{sub x} burners on the PENELEC boilers.

  6. Development of an advanced high efficiency coal combustor for boiler retrofit

    SciTech Connect

    LaFlesh, R.C.; Rini, M.J.; McGowan, J.G.

    1989-10-01

    The overall objective of this program is to develop a high efficiency advanced coal combustor (HEACC) for coal-based fuels capable of being retrofitted to industrial boilers originally designed for firing natural gas, distillate, and/or residual oil. The HEACC system is to be capable of firing microfine coal water fuel (MCWF), MCWF with alkali sorbent (for SO{sub 2} reduction), and dry microfine coal. Design priorities for the system are that it be simple to operate and will offer significant reductions in NO{sub x}, SO{sub x}, and particulate emissions as compared with current coal fired combustor technology. The specific objective of this report is to document the work carried out under Task 1.0 of this contract, Cold Flow Burner Development''. As are detailed in the report, key elements of this work included primary air swirler development, burner register geometry design, cold flow burner model testing, and development of burner scale up criteria.

  7. Measurement of air toxic emissions from a coal-fired boiler equipped with a tangentially-fired low NOx combustion system

    SciTech Connect

    Dismukes, E.B.; Clarkson, R.J.; Hardman, R.R.; Elia, G.G.

    1993-11-01

    This paper presents the results of measurements of chemical emissions from a coal-burning, tangentially-fired, utility boiler equipped with a hot-side electrostatic precipitator and a low NOx firing system. The tests were conducted in response to Title III of the 1990 Amendments to the Clean Air Act which lists 189 chemicals to be evaluated as {open_quotes}Air Toxics.{close_quotes} The project was jointly funded by the Electric Power Research Institute and the US Department of Energy under an existing Innovative Clean Coal Technology Cooperative Agreement managed by Southern Company Services. Field chemical emissions monitoring was conducted in two phases: a baseline {open_quotes}pre-low NOx burner{close_quotes} condition in September 1991 and in the LNCFS Level III low NOx firing condition in January 1992. In addition to stack emissions measurements of both organic and inorganic chemicals, plant material balance evaluations were performed to determine the efficiency of the hot-side ESP at controlling emissions of air toxics and to determine the fate of the target chemicals in various plant process streams.

  8. Engineering development of advanced coal-fired low emission boil systems. Quarterly technical progress report, October 1993--December 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-31

    The first test run of the Toroidal Vortex Combustor (TVC) was completed on December 6. Riley was unable to witness or set up independent sampling equipment for NO{sub x} and precursor measurement for this run. A second run which we witnessed, but did not sample, was completed December 17. This was conducted almost entirely near SR = 1.0 while Textron investigated temperature-load relationships to address concerns from Run 1. A third run was completed over the December holiday break on Dorchester coal to address concerns Textron had about the Illinois test coal. All subsequent tests will use the Illinois coal. Boiler, firing system design. Elevation drawings were developed for dry wall-fired, conventional U-fired slagging, and TVC fired slagging units. We are investigating the feasibility of modifying a conventional U-fired design for low-NOx operation as an alternative to the TVC. The approach taken to I date for NOx reduction in existing U-fired units is to retrofit with delayed-mixing burners with staging air at various places, similar to the approach with dry fired units. The concept of staged fuel addition or reburning for the U-fired system is being examined as a potential combustion NOx control approach. This concept has high potential due to the high temperature and long residence time available in the stagger. Some field trials with coke oven gas reburn produced very low NOx results. Modeling of this concept was identified as a priority task. The model development will include matching field data for air staging on slagging units to the predictions. Emissions control. Selection of an SO2 control process continues to be a high priority task. Sargent & Lundy completed a cost comparison of several regenerable processes, most of which have NOx control potential as well: Active coke, NOXSO, copper oxide, SNOX, ammonia (for SO only, ammonium sulfate byproduct), and a limestone scrubber for comparison.

  9. A coal-fired combustion system for industrial process heating applications. Quarterly technical progress report, October 1993--December 1993

    SciTech Connect

    1994-01-30

    PETC has implemented a number of advanced combustion research projects that will lead to the establishment of a broad, commercially acceptable engineering data base for the advancement of coal as the fuel of choice for boilers, furnaces, and process heaters. Vortec Corporation`s Phase III development contract DE-AC22-91PC91161 for a {open_quotes}Coal-Fired Combustion System for Industrial Process Heating Applications{close_quotes} is a project funded under the DOE/PETC advanced combustion program. This advanced combustion system research program is for the development of innovative coal-fired process heaters which can be used for high temperature melting, smelting and waste vitrification processes. The process heater systems to be developed have multiple use applications; however, the Phase III research effort is being focused on the development of a process heater system to be used for producing value added vitrified glass products from boiler/incinerator ashes and industrial wastes. The primary objective of the Phase III project is to develop and integrate all the system components, from fuel through total system controls, and then test the complete system in order to evaluate its potential marketability. During the past quarter, the major effort was completing the system modification installation designs, completing the TSCA ash testing, and conducting additional industry funded testing. Final detailed installation designs for the integrated test system configuration are being completed.

  10. A coal-fired combustion system for industrial process heating applications

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-09-03

    PETC has implemented a number of advanced combustion research projects that will lead to the establishment of a broad, commercially acceptable engineering data base for the advancement of coal as the fuel of choice for boilers, furnaces, and process heaters. Vortec Corporation's Phase III development contract DE-AC22-91PC91161 for a Coal-Fired Combustion System for Industrial Process Heating Applications'' is project funded under the DOE/PETC advanced combustion program. This advanced combustion system research program is for the development of innovative coal-fired process heaters which can be used for high temperature melting, smelling and waste vitrification processes. The process heater concepts to be developed are based on advanced glass melting and ore smelting furnaces developed and patented by Vortec Corporation. The process heater systems to be developed have multiple use applications; however, the Phase III research effort is being focused on the development of a process heater system to be used for producing value added vitrified glass products from boiler/incinerator ashes and industrial wastes. The primary objective of the Phase III project is to develop and integrate all the system components, from fuel through total system controls, and then test the complete system in order to evaluate its potential marketability. During the current reporting period, approval of Vortec's Environmental Assessment (EA) required under the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) was approved. The EA approval cycle took approximately 9 months. The preliminary test program which was being held in abeyance pending approval of the EA was initiated. Six preliminary test runs were successfully competed during the period. Engineering and design activities in support of the Phase III proof of concept are continuing, and modifications to the existing test system configuration to allow performance of the preliminary tests were completed.

  11. Prediction of the furnace heat absorption by utilizing thermomechanical analysis for various kinds of coal firing

    SciTech Connect

    Ishinomori, T.; Watanabe, S.; Kiga, T.; Wall, T.F.; Gupta, R.P.; Gupta, S.K.

    1999-07-01

    In order to predict the furnace heat absorption, which is sensitive to coal properties, an attempt to make a model universally applicable for any kind of pulverized coal fired boiler is in progress. First of all, the heat absorption rates on to furnace wall were surveyed for 600MWe pulverized coal fired boiler, and they were ranked into four levels by indicating a furnace heat absorption index (FHAI). Some ash composition is relatively well related to the FHAI, while a new index from thermomechanical analysis (TMA) offers a good prediction of the furnace heat absorption.

  12. The development of a coal-fired combustion system for industrial process heating applications

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-07-16

    PETC has implemented a number of advanced combustion research projects that will lead to the establishment of a broad, commercially acceptable engineering data base for the advancement of coal as the fuel of choice for boilers, furnaces, and process heaters. Vortec Corporation's Coal-Fired Combustion System for Industrial Process Heating Applications has been selected for Phase III development under contract DE-AC22-91PC91161. This advanced combustion system research program is for the development of innovative coal-fired process heaters which can be used for high temperature melting, smelting, recycling, and refining processes. The process heater concepts to be developed are based on advanced glass melting and ore smelting furnaces developed and patented by Vortec Corporation. The process heater systems to be developed have multiple use applications; however, the Phase HI research effort is being focused on the development of a process heater system to be used for producing glass frits and wool fiber from boiler and incinerator ashes. The primary objective of the Phase III project is to develop and integrate all the system components, from fuel through total system controls, and then test the complete system in order to evaluate its potential marketability. The economic evaluation of commercial scale CMS processes has begun. In order to accurately estimate the cost of the primary process vessels, preliminary designs for 25, 50, and 100 ton/day systems have been started under Task 1. This data will serve as input data for life cycle cost analysis performed as part of techno-economic evaluations. The economic evaluations of commercial CMS systems will be an integral part of the commercialization plan.

  13. Engineering development of advanced coal-fired low-emission boiler systems. Quarterly technical progress report and monthly status report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-22

    Project Work Plan was developed with joint participation by all subsystem teams. Comprehensive overall project activity schedules were developed for all individual B&W groups and subcontractors with participation in Phase I.

  14. Development of an advanced high efficiency coal combustor for boiler retrofit. Task 1, Cold flow burner development: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    LaFlesh, R.C.; Rini, M.J.; McGowan, J.G.

    1989-10-01

    The overall objective of this program is to develop a high efficiency advanced coal combustor (HEACC) for coal-based fuels capable of being retrofitted to industrial boilers originally designed for firing natural gas, distillate, and/or residual oil. The HEACC system is to be capable of firing microfine coal water fuel (MCWF), MCWF with alkali sorbent (for SO{sub 2} reduction), and dry microfine coal. Design priorities for the system are that it be simple to operate and will offer significant reductions in NO{sub x}, SO{sub x}, and particulate emissions as compared with current coal fired combustor technology. The specific objective of this report is to document the work carried out under Task 1.0 of this contract, ``Cold Flow Burner Development``. As are detailed in the report, key elements of this work included primary air swirler development, burner register geometry design, cold flow burner model testing, and development of burner scale up criteria.

  15. Coal-fired ships reappear

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-09-01

    A situation now exists where, in many countries, coal prices are almost half those of oil, and indications point toward this trend continuing. It is not surprising, therefore, that many shipowners are planning and building the next generation of steamships with coal-fired propulsion units. Six new coal-fired ships, the first for over 25 years, are now being built in Italy, Japan, and Spain. In the forefront in technology and systems for handling coal and ash is the British company Macawber Engineering. It has developed on-board systems responding to the problems created by coal handling on a modern steamship, problems that formed a major reason for the universal changeover to oil firing in the 1950s and 1960s. The traditional method of handling coal uses mechanical systems such as belt and draglink conveyors, and bucket elevators. These methods have disadvantages that make their use on ships far from satisfactory. Pneumatic conveying systems, due to their totally enclosed construction and relative simplicity, overcome these problems. The type of pneumatic system chosen, however, has to accommodate several other constraints imposed by on-board handling of coal. (SC)

  16. Emissions of sulfur trioxide from coal-fired power plants.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, R K; Miller, C A; Erickson, C; Jambhekar, R

    2004-06-01

    Emissions of sulfur trioxide (SO3) are a key component of plume opacity and acid deposition. Consequently, these emissions need to be low enough to not cause opacity violations and acid deposition. Generally, a small fraction of sulfur (S) in coal is converted to SO3 in coal-fired combustion devices such as electric utility boilers. The emissions of SO3 from such a boiler depend on coal S content, combustion conditions, flue gas characteristics, and air pollution devices being used. It is well known that the catalyst used in the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology for nitrogen oxides control oxidizes a small fraction of sulfur dioxide in the flue gas to SO3. The extent of this oxidation depends on the catalyst formulation and SCR operating conditions. Gas-phase SO3 and sulfuric acid, on being quenched in plant equipment (e.g., air preheater and wet scrubber), result in fine acidic mist, which can cause increased plume opacity and undesirable emissions. Recently, such effects have been observed at plants firing high-S coal and equipped with SCR systems and wet scrubbers. This paper investigates the factors that affect acidic mist production in coal-fired electric utility boilers and discusses approaches for mitigating emission of this mist. PMID:15242154

  17. EPA Research Highlights: Minimizing SO3 Emissions from Coal-Fired Power Plants

    EPA Science Inventory

    There have been substantial reductions in emissions of particulate matter, nitrogen oxides, and sulfur dioxide through the application of control technologies and strategies. The installation of control technologies has added to the complexity of coal-fired boilers and their ope...

  18. FUNDAMENTAL SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING OF MERCURY CONTROL IN COAL-FIRED POWER PLANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses the existing knowledge base applicable to mercury (Hg) control in coal-fired boilers and outlines the gaps in knowledge that can be filled by experimentation and data gathering. Mercury can be controlled by existing air pollution control devices or by retrofit...

  19. EVALUATION OF LONG-TERM NOX REDUCTION ON PULVERIZED-COAL-FIRED STEAM GENERATORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of analyzing long-term nitrogen oxide (NOx) emission data from eight pulverized-coal-fired steam generators, for the purpose of quantifying the effectiveness of various combustion modifications. All boilers, but one, were modified to reduce NOx emissions....

  20. UNIVERSITY OF WASHINGTON ELECTROSTATIC SCRUBBER TESTS AT A COAL-FIRED POWER PLANT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of tests of a 1700 cu m/hr University of Washington Electrostatic Spray Scrubber pilot plant on a coal-fired boiler to demonstrate its effectiveness for controlling fine particle emissions. The multiple-pass, portable pilot plant combines oppositely charg...

  1. Coal fired powerhouse wastewater pressure filtration

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, H.L.; Diener, G.A.

    1994-05-01

    The Savannah River Site`s permit for construction of an industrial wastewater treatment facility to remove solids from the boiler blow-down and wet ash scrubber effluent of the A-Area coal fired powerhouse was rejected. Conventional clarification technology would not remove arsenic from the combined effluent sufficient to achieve human health criteria in the small receiving surface stream. Treatability studies demonstrated that an existing facility, which will no longer be needed for metal finishing wastewater, can very efficiently process the powerhouse wastewater to less than 35 {mu}g/L arsenic. Use of cationic and anionic polymers to flocculate both the wastewater and filter aid solids formed a ``bridged cake`` with exceptionally low resistance to flow. This will double the capacity of the Oberlin pressure filters with the Tyvek T-980 sub micron filter media. The affects of high sheer agitation and high temperature in the raw wastewater on the filtration process were also studied and adequate controls were demonstrated.

  2. Small, modular, low-cost coal-fired power plants for the international market

    SciTech Connect

    Zauderer, B.; Frain, B.; Borck, B.; Baldwin, A.L.

    1997-12-31

    This paper presents recent operating results of Coal Tech`s second generation, air cooled, slagging coal combustor, and its application to power plants in the 1 to 20 MW range. This 20 MMBtu/hour combustor was installed in a new demonstration plant in Philadelphia, PA in 1995. It contains the combustion components of a 1 MWe coal fired power plant, a 17,500 lb/hour steam boiler, coal storage and feed components, and stack gas cleanup components. The plant`s design incorporates improvements resulting from 2,000 hours of testing between 1987 and 1993 on a first generation, commercial scale, air cooled combustor of equal thermal rating. Since operations began in early 1996, a total of 51 days of testing have been successfully completed. Major results include durability of the combustor`s refractory wall, excellent combustion with high ash concentration in the fuel, removal of 95% to 100% of the slag in the combustor, very little ash deposition in the boiler, major reduction of in-plant parasitic power, and simplified power system control through the use of modular designs of sub-systems and computer control. Rapid fuel switching between oil, gas, and coal and turndown of up to a factor of three was accomplished. All these features have been incorporated in advanced coal fired plant designs in the 1 to 20 MWe range. Incremental capital costs are only $100 to $200/kW higher than comparable rated gas or oil fired steam generating systems. Most of its components and subsystems can be factory assembled for very rapid field installation. The low capital, low operating costs, fuel flexibility, and compatibility with very high ash fuels, make this power system very attractive in regions of the world having domestic supplies of these fuels.

  3. Coal fire extinguishing and prevention

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, J.S.

    1988-02-16

    This patent describes a formulation for use in extinguishing coal fires, without generation of substantial gases toxic to humans, for metering to the fire at about a 6-10 percent dilution rate to water. The formulation consists essentially of a mixture of: a linear alkylbenzolyate sulfonate, non-ionic detergent and lauric superamide detergent mixture comprising about 50 percent by volume of the formulation; vitamin B-6 in the amount of about 0.5-3 percent by weight of the detergent mixture; bicarbonate of soda in the amount of about 3-18 percent by weight of the detergent mixture; and water comprising about 37-47 percent by volume of the total formulation.

  4. Status of NO sub x control for coal-fired power plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teixeira, D. P.

    1978-01-01

    The status of technologies for controlling emissions of oxides of nitrogen (NOx) from coal-fired power plants is reviewed. A discussion of current technology as well as future NOx control approaches is presented. Advanced combustion approaches are included as well as post-combustion alternatives such as catalytic and noncatalytic ammonia-bases systems and wet scrubbing. Special emphasis is given to unresolved development issues as they relate to practical applications on coal-fired power plants.

  5. Carbon dioxide capture from existing coal-fired power plants

    SciTech Connect

    2006-12-15

    During 1999-2001 ALSTOM Power Inc.'s Power Plant Laboratories and others evaluated the feasibility of alternate CO{sub 2} capture technologies applied to an existing US coal-fired electric power plant. The power plant analysed was the Conesville No. 5 unit, operated by AEP of Columbus, Ohio. This unit is a nominal 450 MW, pulverized coal-fired, subcritical pressure steam plant. One of the CO{sub 2} capture concepts investigated was a post-combustion system, which used the Kerr-McGee/ABB Lummus Global, Inc.'s commercial MEA process. More than 96% of CO{sub 2} was removed, compressed, and liquefied for usage or sequestration from the flue gas. Based on results from this study a follow-up study is investigating the post-combustion capture systems with amine scrubbing as applied to the Conesville No. 5 unit. The study evaluated the technical and economic impacts of removing CO{sub 2} from a typical existing US coal-fired electric power plant using advanced amine-based post combustion CO{sub 2} capture systems. The primary impacts are quantified in terms of plant electrical output reduction, thermal efficiency, CO{sub 2} emissions, retrofit investment costs, and the incremental cost of generating electricity resulting from the addition of the CO{sub 2} capture systems. An advanced amine CO{sub 2} scrubbing system is used for CO{sub 2} removal from the flue gas stream. Four (90%, 70%, 50%, and 30%) CO{sub 2} capture levels were investigated in this study. These results indicate that the advanced amine provided significant improvement to the plant performance and economics. Comparing results with recent literature results for advanced amine based capture systems (Econamine FG{sup +} and KS-1) as applied to utility scale coal fired power plants shows very similar impacts.

  6. Controlling mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, R.

    2009-07-15

    Increasingly stringent US federal and state limits on mercury emissions form coal-fired power plants demand optimal mercury control technologies. This article summarises the successful removal of mercury emissions achieved with activated carbon injection and boiler bromide addition, technologies nearing commercial readiness, as well as several novel control concepts currently under development. It also discusses some of the issues standing in the way of confident performance and cost predictions. In testing conducted on western coal-fired units with fabric filters or TOXECON to date, ACI has generally achieved mercury removal rates > 90%. At units with ESPs, similar performance requires brominated ACI. Alternatively, units firing western coals can use boiler bromide addition to increase flue gas mercury oxidation and downstream capture in a wet scrubber, or to enhance mercury removal by ACI. At eastern bituminous fired units with ESPs, ACI is not as effective, largely due to SO{sub 3} resulting from the high sulfur content of the coal or the use of SO{sub 3} flue gas conditioning to improve ESP performance. 7 refs., 3 figs.

  7. Feasibility study for an advanced coal fired heat exchanger/gas turbine topping cycle for a high efficiency power plant. Technical report, January 1, 1993--March 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Solomon, P.R.; Zhao, Y.; Buggeln, R.C.; Shamroth, S.J.

    1993-04-01

    The overall objective of this project is to prove the feasibility of AFR`s concepts for a high efficiency coal-fired generating plant using the REACH/Exchanger concept to power an externally fired gas turbine. The computational REACH reactor was modeled with PCGC-2. The reactor geometry, inlet flow rates and configurations were investigated via modeling in order to get an optimum operation condition, with which a thorough coal and gas mixture and a required coal particle dispersion can both be achieved. This is to ensure the efficiencies of both coal combustion and aerodynamic cleaning. The aerodynamic cleaning effect of the tertiary air injection was modeled with CELMINT. Various injection schemes investigated show the dramatic impact of the tertiary air and the injection positions on the overall air flow pattern in the reactor which is one of the major influencing factors on the particle dispersion. It is clearly demonstrated that an optimum tertiary injection scheme with a reasonable flow rate is able to keep the heat exchange tubes from particle fouling.

  8. A coal-fired combustion system for industrial process heating applications. Quarterly technical progress report, April 1993--June 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-07-30

    Vortec Corporation`s Phase III development contract DE-AC22-91PC91161 for a ``Coal-Fired Combustion System for Industrial Process Heating Applications`` is project funded under the DOE/PETC advanced combustion program. This advanced combustion system research program is for the development of innovative coal-fired process heaters which can be used for high temperature melting, smelting and waste vitrification processes. The process heater systems to be developed have multiple use applications; however, the Phase III research effort is being focused on the development of a process heater system to be used for producing value added vitrified glass products from boiler/incinerator ashes and industrial wastes. The primary objective of the Phase III project is to develop and integrate all the system components, from fuel through total system controls, and then test the complete system in order to evaluate its potential marketability. During the past quarter, the designs of the remaining major components of the integrated system were completed and the equipment was ordered. DOE has elected to modify the scope of the existing R&D program being conducted under this contract to include testing of a simulated TSCA incinerator ash. The modification will be in the form of an additional Task (Task 8 -- TSCA Ash Testing) to the original Statement of Work.

  9. A coal-fired combustion system for industrial process heating applications. Quarterly technical progress report, April 1992--June 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-09-03

    PETC has implemented a number of advanced combustion research projects that will lead to the establishment of a broad, commercially acceptable engineering data base for the advancement of coal as the fuel of choice for boilers, furnaces, and process heaters. Vortec Corporation`s Phase III development contract DE-AC22-91PC91161 for a ``Coal-Fired Combustion System for Industrial Process Heating Applications`` is project funded under the DOE/PETC advanced combustion program. This advanced combustion system research program is for the development of innovative coal-fired process heaters which can be used for high temperature melting, smelling and waste vitrification processes. The process heater concepts to be developed are based on advanced glass melting and ore smelting furnaces developed and patented by Vortec Corporation. The process heater systems to be developed have multiple use applications; however, the Phase III research effort is being focused on the development of a process heater system to be used for producing value added vitrified glass products from boiler/incinerator ashes and industrial wastes. The primary objective of the Phase III project is to develop and integrate all the system components, from fuel through total system controls, and then test the complete system in order to evaluate its potential marketability. During the current reporting period, approval of Vortec`s Environmental Assessment (EA) required under the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) was approved. The EA approval cycle took approximately 9 months. The preliminary test program which was being held in abeyance pending approval of the EA was initiated. Six preliminary test runs were successfully competed during the period. Engineering and design activities in support of the Phase III proof of concept are continuing, and modifications to the existing test system configuration to allow performance of the preliminary tests were completed.

  10. Coal-fired diesel generator

    SciTech Connect

    1997-05-01

    The objective of the proposed project is to test the technical, environmental, and economic viability of a coal-fired diesel generator for producing electric power in small power generating markets. Coal for the diesel generator would be provided from existing supplies transported for use in the University`s power plant. A cleanup system would be installed for limiting gaseous and particulate emissions. Electricity and steam produced by the diesel generator would be used to supply the needs of the University. The proposed diesel generator and supporting facilities would occupy approximately 2 acres of land adjacent to existing coal- and oil-fired power plant and research laboratory buildings at the University of Alaska, Fairbanks. The environmental analysis identified that the most notable changes to result from the proposed project would occur in the following areas: power plant configuration at the University of Alaska, Fairbanks; air emissions, water use and discharge, and the quantity of solid waste for disposal; noise levels at the power plant site; and transportation of coal to the power plant. No substantive adverse impacts or environmental concerns were identified in analyzing the effects of these changes.

  11. Advanced, Low/Zero Emission Boiler Design and Operation

    SciTech Connect

    Babcock Illinois State Geological; Worley Parsons; Parsons Infrastructure /Technology Group

    2007-06-30

    In partnership with the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory, B&W and Air Liquide are developing and optimizing the oxy-combustion process for retrofitting existing boilers as well as new plants. The main objectives of the project is to: (1) demonstrate the feasibility of the oxy-combustion technology with flue gas recycle in a 5-million Btu/hr coal-fired pilot boiler, (2) measure its performances in terms of emissions and boiler efficiency while selecting the right oxygen injection and flue gas recycle strategies, and (3) perform technical and economic feasibility studies for application of the technology in demonstration and commercial scale boilers. This document summarizes the work performed during the period of performance of the project (Oct 2002 to June 2007). Detailed technical results are reported in corresponding topical reports that are attached as an appendix to this report. Task 1 (Site Preparation) has been completed in 2003. The experimental pilot-scale O{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} combustion tests of Task 2 (experimental test performance) has been completed in Q2 2004. Process simulation and cost assessment of Task 3 (Techno-Economic Study) has been completed in Q1 2005. The topical report on Task 3 has been finalized and submitted to DOE in Q3 2005. The calculations of Task 4 (Retrofit Recommendation and Preliminary Design of a New Generation Boiler) has been completed in 2004. In Task 6 (engineering study on retrofit applications), the engineering study on 25MW{sub e} unit has been completed in Q2, 2008 along with the corresponding cost assessment. In Task 7 (evaluation of new oxy-fuel power plants concepts), based on the design basis document prepared in 2005, the design and cost estimate of the Air Separation Units, the boiler islands and the CO{sub 2} compression and trains have been completed, for both super and ultra-supercritical case study. Final report of Task-7 is published by DOE in Oct 2007.

  12. A coal-fired combustion system for industrial process heating applications. Quarterly technical progress report, July 1993--September 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-01-30

    The Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) of the US Department of Energy awarded Vortec Corporation this Phase III contract (No. DE-AC22-91PC91161) for the development of {open_quotes}A Coal-Fired Combustion System for Industrial Process Heating Applications{close_quotes}. The effective contrast start date was September 3, 1991. The contract period of performance is 36 months. This advanced combustion system research program is for the development of innovative coal-fired process heaters which can be used for high temperature melting, smelting and waste vitrification processes. The process heater systems to be developed have multiple use applications; however, the Phase III research effort is being focused on the development of a process heater system to be used for producing value added vitrified glass products from boiler/incinerator ashes and industrial wastes. The primary objective of the Phase III project is to develop and integrate all the system components, from fuel through total system controls, and then test the complete system in order to evaluate its potential marketability. Final detailed installation designs for the integrated test system configuration are being completed. The equipment is being fabricated and deliveries have begun. The industry funded testing consisted of vitrifying Spent Aluminum Potliner (SPL) which is a listed hazardous waste. This testing has verified that SPL can be vitrified into a safe recyclable glass product.

  13. Comparative assessment of industrial-boiler options relative to air-emission regulations

    SciTech Connect

    Klepper, O.H.; Delene, J.G.; Drago, J.P.; Fox, E.C.; Kahl, W.K.; Thomas, J.F.

    1983-07-01

    The purpose of this work was to assist the DOE in its efforts to further advance environmental control technologies in the industrial coal use sector. A number of near-term technologies applicable to new boilers were evaluated to determine their technical and economic merits, and to identify needed research and development. In addition, sets of capital cost data were developed for the industrial steam supply options. The steam supply options comprise conventional pulverized-coal and stoker-fired boilers, atmospheric fluidized bed boilers, and low- and medium-Btu gas fueled units. Oil-fired boilers were included for comparison purposes. The consequences of potential future alterations of EPA's regulation of stack gas pollutants (NO/sub 2/, particulates, and SO/sub x/) were evaluated by analyzing the potential impact of ranges of emission levels for each of the DOE Regions. In each DOE region investigated, the steam from new coal-fired boilers is costlier than from oil for small size systems or those with a small capacity factor. The implication is that if coal is to displace oil/gas for new industrial boilers under free market conditions, then research and development should focus on developing small, low cost, direct combustion coal-fired systems. Development of lower cost emission controls appropriate for small boilers with moderate control requirements would be an important facet of this endeavor. For medium to large applications in regions using subbituminous, low-sulfur coal, demonstration and full commercialization of AFBCs would yield steam costs about 10% lower than for conventional coal-fired boilers. Central gasification may be useful for a group of small industrial users - the cost of medium-Btu gas approaches the cost of oil in some regions. On-site gasification is clearly uneconomic relative to direct coal firing.

  14. ADVANCED, LOW/ZERO EMISSION BOILER DESIGN AND OPERATION

    SciTech Connect

    Fabienne Chatel-Pelage

    2003-10-01

    This document reviews the work performed during the quarter July--September 2003. Significant progress has been made in Task 1 (Site Preparation), Task 2 (Test performance) and Task 3 (Techno-Economic Study) of the project: the site preparation has been completed, two weeks of tests have been performed and the power generating units to be compared from an economical standpoint have been selected and accurately described. In the experimental part of this effort (task1), the partners in this project demonstrated the feasibility of 100% air replacement with O{sub 2}-enriched flue gas on 1.5MW coal-fired boiler. The air infiltration have been reduced to approximately 5% of the stoichiometry, enabling to reach around 70% of CO{sub 2} in the flue gases. Higher air in-leakage reduction is expected using alternative boiler operating procedure in order to achieve higher CO{sub 2} concentration in flue gas for further sequestration or reuse. The NO{sub x} emissions have been shown considerably lower in O{sub 2}-fired conditions than in air-baseline, the reduction rate averaging 70%. An additional week of tests is scheduled mid October 2003 for combustion parameter optimization, and some more days of operation will be dedicated to mercury emission measurement and heat transfer characterization. Out of the $485k already allocated in this project, $300k has been spent and reported to date, mainly in site preparation ({approx}$215k) and test performance ({approx}$85k). In addition to DOE allocated funds, to date approximately $240k has been cost-shared by the participants, bringing the total project cost up to $540k as on September 30, 2003.

  15. Coal-fired high performance power generating system. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-31

    As a result of the investigations carried out during Phase 1 of the Engineering Development of Coal-Fired High-Performance Power Generation Systems (Combustion 2000), the UTRC-led Combustion 2000 Team is recommending the development of an advanced high performance power generation system (HIPPS) whose high efficiency and minimal pollutant emissions will enable the US to use its abundant coal resources to satisfy current and future demand for electric power. The high efficiency of the power plant, which is the key to minimizing the environmental impact of coal, can only be achieved using a modern gas turbine system. Minimization of emissions can be achieved by combustor design, and advanced air pollution control devices. The commercial plant design described herein is a combined cycle using either a frame-type gas turbine or an intercooled aeroderivative with clean air as the working fluid. The air is heated by a coal-fired high temperature advanced furnace (HITAF). The best performance from the cycle is achieved by using a modern aeroderivative gas turbine, such as the intercooled FT4000. A simplified schematic is shown. In the UTRC HIPPS, the conversion efficiency for the heavy frame gas turbine version will be 47.4% (HHV) compared to the approximately 35% that is achieved in conventional coal-fired plants. This cycle is based on a gas turbine operating at turbine inlet temperatures approaching 2,500 F. Using an aeroderivative type gas turbine, efficiencies of over 49% could be realized in advanced cycle configuration (Humid Air Turbine, or HAT). Performance of these power plants is given in a table.

  16. COSTEAM expansion and improvements: design of a coal-fired atmospheric fluidized bed submodel, an oil-fired submodel and input/output improvements

    SciTech Connect

    Reierson, James D.; Rosenberg, Joseph I.; Murphy, Mary B.; Lethi, Minh- Triet

    1980-10-01

    COSTEAM is an interactive computer model designed to estimate the cost of industrial steam produced by various steam plant technologies. At the end of Phase I development, the COSTEAM model included only one submodel to calculate the capital and operating costs of a conventional coal-fired boiler plant with environmental control systems. This report describes the results of Phase II development. Two new submodels are added which calculate costs for steam produced by coal-fired atmospheric fluidized bed boilers and by oil-fired boilers. COSTEAM input/output capabilities are also improved.

  17. ADVANCED, LOW/ZERO EMISSION BOILER DESIGN AND OPERATION

    SciTech Connect

    Fabienne Chatel-Pelage

    2004-01-01

    This document reviews the work performed during the quarter October-December 2003. Task 1 (Site Preparation) had been completed in the previous reporting period. In this reporting period, one week of combustion parameters optimization has been performed in Task 2 (experimental test performance) of the project. Under full-oxy conditions (100% air replacement with O{sub 2}-enriched flue gas) in 1.5MW{sub th} coal-fired boiler, the following parameters have been varied and their impact on combustion characteristics measured: the recirculated flue gas flow rate has been varied from 80% to 95% of total flue gas flow, and the total oxygen flow rate into the primary air zone of the boiler has been set to levels ranging from 15% to 25% of the total oxygen consumption in the overall combustion. In current reporting period, significant progress has also been made in Task 3 (Techno-Economic Study) of the project: mass and energy balance calculations and cost assessment have been completed on plant capacity of 533MW{sub e} gross output while applying the methodology described in previous reporting periods. Air-fired PC Boiler and proposed Oxygen-fired PC Boiler have been assessed, both for retrofit application and new unit. The current work schedule is to review in more details the experimental data collected so far as well as the economics results obtained on the 533MWe cases, and to develop a work scope for the remainder of the project. Approximately one week of pilot testing is expected during the first quarter of 2004, including mercury emission measurement and heat transfer characterization. The project was on hold from mid-November through December 2003 due to non-availability of funds. Out of the {approx}$785k allocated DOE funds in this project, $497k have been spent to date ($480 reported so far), mainly in site preparation, test performance and economics assessment. In addition to DOE allocated funds, to date approximately $330k has been cost-shared by the

  18. Options for reducing a coal-fired plant's carbon footprint, Part II

    SciTech Connect

    Zachary, J.

    2008-07-15

    Part 1 of this article detailed and quantified the impacts of postcoming CO{sub 2} capture on a coal plant's net output and efficiency. Part II deals with four other CO{sub 2} reduction techniques: oxy-fuel combustion, using higher-temperature and higher-pressure boilers, cofiring biomass, and replacing some coal-fired capacity with renewable capacity. 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  19. Mathematical modelling of coal fired fluidized bed combustors

    SciTech Connect

    Selcuk, N.; Siddall, R.G.; Sivrioglu, U.

    1980-12-01

    A system model of continuous fluidized bed combustors burning coal of wide size distribution has been derived, and applied to the investigation of the effect of excess air and recycle on bed concentration and temperature profiles and combustion efficiency of a pilot scale coal fired fluidized combustor. To demonstrate the effect of recycling, the behaviour of the fluidized combustor has been predicted for two extreme cases of recycle: complete and no recycle of elutriated char particles, the former was chosen to determine the behaviour of the model in the absence of elutriation, and the latter corresponds to the actual operating conditions of the fluidized combustor. Expected trends for concentration and temperature profiles and combustion efficiency are predicted correctly for both cases. The predictive ability and the flexibility of the model for incorporation of refinements such as a correlation for bubble growth and a detailed combustion mechanism, makes the model a promising one for the evaluation of performance of the fluid bed industrial boilers.

  20. Repowering a small coal-fired power plant

    SciTech Connect

    Miell, R.

    2007-11-15

    The Arkansas River Power Authority (ARPA) Lamar Repowering Project is moving forward. The new generator, capable of producing 18 MW of electricity, is scheduled to be online in June 2008 bringing the total generation to 43 MW. New coal handling equipment, with infrared fire detectors, is almost complete. The new 18 MW steam turbine will be cooled by an air-cooled condenser. Coal will be delivered in a railroad spur to an unloading site then be unloaded onto a conveyor under the tracks and conveyed to two storage domes each holding 6000 tons of coal. It will be drawn out of these through an underground conveyor system, brought into a crusher, conveyed through overhead conveyors and fed into the new coal- fired fluidized bed boilers. 1 photo.

  1. Coal-fired generation staging a comeback. 2nd ed.

    SciTech Connect

    2007-07-01

    The report is an overview of the renewed U.S. market interest in coal-fired power generation. It provides a concise look at what is driving interest in coal-fired generation, the challenges faced in implementing coal-fired generation projects, and the current and future state of coal-fired generation. Topics covered in the report include: An overview of coal-fired generation including its history, the current market environment, and its future prospects; An analysis of the key business factors that are driving renewed interest in coal-fired generation; An analysis of the challenges that are hindering the implementation of coal-fired generation projects; A description of coal-fired generation technologies; A review of the economic drivers of coal-fired generation project success; An evaluation of coal-fired generation versus other generation technologies; A discussion of the key government initiatives supporting new coal-fired generation; and A listing of planned coal-fired generation projects. 13 figs., 12 tabs., 1 app.

  2. Development and testing of a high efficiency advanced coal combustor Phase III industrial boiler retrofit. Quarterly technical progress report, July 1, 1995--September 30, 1995 No. 16

    SciTech Connect

    Borio, R.W.

    1995-12-15

    The objective of this project is to retrofit a burner, capable of firing microfine coal, to a standard gas/oil designed industrial boiler to assess the technical and economic viability of displacing premium fuels with microfine coal. This report documents the technical aspects of this project during the sixteenth quarter (July `95 through September `95) of the program. The overall program has consisted of five major tasks: (1) A review of current state-of-the-art coal firing system components. (2) Design and experimental testing of a prototype HEACC (High Efficiency Advanced Coal Combustor) burner. (3) Installation and testing of a prototype HEACC system in a commercial retrofit application. (4) Economics evaluation of the HEACC concept for retrofit applications. (5) Long term demonstration under commercial user demand conditions.

  3. Membrane Process to Capture CO{sub 2} from Coal-Fired Power Plant Flue Gas

    SciTech Connect

    Merkel, Tim; Wei, Xiaotong; Firat, Bilgen; He, Jenny; Amo, Karl; Pande, Saurabh; Baker, Richard; Wijmans, Hans; Bhown, Abhoyjit

    2012-03-31

    degradation in Polaris membrane performance during two months of continuous operation in a simulated flue gas environment containing up to 1,000 ppm SO{sub 2}. A successful slipstream field test at the APS Cholla power plant was conducted with commercialsize Polaris modules during this project. This field test is the first demonstration of stable performance by commercial-sized membrane modules treating actual coal-fired power plant flue gas. Process design studies show that selective recycle of CO{sub 2} using a countercurrent membrane module with air as a sweep stream can double the concentration of CO{sub 2} in coal flue gas with little energy input. This pre-concentration of CO{sub 2} by the sweep membrane reduces the minimum energy of CO{sub 2} separation in the capture unit by up to 40% for coal flue gas. Variations of this design may be even more promising for CO{sub 2} capture from NGCC flue gas, in which the CO{sub 2} concentration can be increased from 4% to 20% by selective sweep recycle. EPRI and WP conducted a systems and cost analysis of a base case MTR membrane CO{sub 2} capture system retrofitted to the AEP Conesville Unit 5 boiler. Some of the key findings from this study and a sensitivity analysis performed by MTR include: The MTR membrane process can capture 90% of the CO{sub 2} in coal flue gas and produce high-purity CO{sub 2} (>99%) ready for sequestration. CO{sub 2} recycle to the boiler appears feasible with minimal impact on boiler performance; however, further study by a boiler OEM is recommended. For a membrane process built today using a combination of slight feed compression, permeate vacuum, and current compression equipment costs, the membrane capture process can be competitive with the base case MEA process at 90% CO{sub 2} capture from a coal-fired power plant. The incremental LCOE for the base case membrane process is about equal to that of a base case MEA process, within the uncertainty in the analysis. With advanced membranes (5,000 gpu for

  4. DOE/NETL's field tests of mercury control technologies for coal-fired power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas Feeley; James Murphy; Lynn Brickett; Andrew O'Palko

    2005-08-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE/NETL) is conducting a comprehensive research and development program directed at advancing the performance and economics of mercury control technologies for coal-fired power plants. This article presents results from ongoing full-scale and slipstream field tests of several mercury control technologies. 15 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  5. Micronized coal-fired retrofit system for SO{sub x} reduction - Krakow Clean Fossil Fuels and Energy Efficiency Program.

    SciTech Connect

    1996-09-30

    the project proposes to install a new TCS micronized coal-fired heating plant for the Produkcja I Hodowla Roslin Ogrodniczych (PHRO) Greenhouse Complex, Krzeszowice, Poland (about 20 miles west of Krakow). PHRO currently utilizes 14 heavy oil-fired boilers to produce heat for its greenhouse facilities and also home heating to several adjacent apartment housing complexes. The boilers currently burn a high-sulfur content heavy crude oil, called Mazute. The micronized coal fired boiler would (1) provide a significant portion of the heat for PHRO and a portion of the adjacent apartment housing complexes, (2) dramatically reduce sulfur dioxide air pollution emission, while satisfying new Polish air regulations, and (3) provide attractive savings to PHRO, based on the quantity of displaced oil.

  6. 2200 MW SCR installation on new coal-fired utility project

    SciTech Connect

    Tonn, D.P.; Uysal, T.A.

    1998-12-31

    NO{sub x} regulations in Germany and Japan in the mid-1980s resulted in the mandatory retrofit of Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) technology on many utility installations. The early 1990s brought SCR technology to small, single unit new coal fired installations around the world. This paper describes the application of high NO{sub x} reduction SCR technology to the first large scale, coal fired, multiple unit new installation. By integrating the SCR design into the initial boiler equipment arrangement and design, significant simplification of equipment arrangement resulted in project cost savings. The four 550 MW units at Taiwan Power`s Taichung 5--8 Power Plant were installed, commissioned (Unit 8 went on line in early 1997), and tested demonstrating the low NO{sub x} emission capabilities of SCR technology.

  7. PFB coal fired combined cycle development program. Advanced hot gas cleanup concept evaluation (Task 4. 3). Volume B. Developmental cyclone evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-02-01

    This report summarizes the results of cold flow model testing of a conventional reverse-flow cyclone containing several developmental features designed to improve its separative performance. The four advanced features evaluated were: Outlet Scroll Skimming - to remove particles from the high dust concentration region at the periphery of the outlet dust; Base Purge - to reduce reentrainment of dust from the disengagement hopper; Increased Outlet Duct Engagement - to reduce short-circuiting of the inlet dust into the outlet; and Vortex Shield - to stabilize the point of vortex attachment at the cyclone base and thus reduce base pickup. A schematic of the advanced cyclone, showing the various developmental features, is provided. The results of the cold flow experiments showed that substantial improvement (approximately 30% reduction in exhaust emission) could be obtained from outlet skimming or from increased engagement of the exhaust dust. Furthermore, the effects of these features are additive so that about 60% overall reduction in emissions could be achieved by incorporating both of these elements. On the other hand, the vortex shield and the base purge had little effect on the separative performance. Almost all of the experimental results exhibited strong electrostatic influence. At high flowrates, the separative performance of the cyclone decreased as the flowrate was reduced, as expected from cyclone theory. Although the improvements obtained with the developmental cyclone are significant, further improvements appear possible with the Air Shield cyclone and the Electrocyclone. Consequently, subsequent efforts under the CFCC program were focused on these concepts.

  8. CeraMem NO{sub x} catalytic filter 5000 ACFM field demonstration test plan: Engineering development of a coal-fired low emissions boiler system: Subtask 9.2, Subsystem test plan

    SciTech Connect

    1996-06-18

    As a deliverable of the project, ABB Environmental Systems has written this subsystem test plan to outline and detail activities to be undertaken in Tasks 10 and 11 of the Low Emissions Boiler System project. This subsystem test plan includes the budget and schedule for the construction, modification and operation of the subsystem test unit. This subsystem test plan also discusses securing of all applicable construction and operating permits, completing all necessary agreements with any host facilities, management procedures for monitoring and controlling all procurement and construction activities, implementation of Quality Assurance/Quality Control (QA/QC) measures, data acquisition during operations, data analysis, and the startup and shutdown procedures of the test unit. The subsystem test plan is part of the updated Phase II RD&T Plan.

  9. Innovative clean coal technology (ICCT): Demonstration of Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) technology for the control of nitrogen oxide (NO sub x ) emissions from high-sulfur coal-fired boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-11-01

    This project's objective is to demonstrate the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) process that removes nitrogen oxides (NOx) from the flue gas of boilers that burn US high-sulfur coal. The SCR technology involves the catalytic reduction of NH{sub 3} which is injected into the flue gas to react with NOx contained in the flue gas to produce molecular nitrogen (N{sub 2}) and water vapor. This quarter, work was initiated on the pilot plant ductwork layout, flue gas distribution and flow control concepts and preliminary pilot plant reactor designs concepts. Conceptual designs were produced for flue gas flow distribution and control philosophy that includes a variable speed fan, dampers, full-flow venturi and reactor bypass ducting to ensure proper control and distribution among all the reactors. 23 figs., 16 tabs.

  10. The development of a coal-fired combustion system for industrial process heating applications. Quarterly technical progress report, January 1992--March 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-07-16

    PETC has implemented a number of advanced combustion research projects that will lead to the establishment of a broad, commercially acceptable engineering data base for the advancement of coal as the fuel of choice for boilers, furnaces, and process heaters. Vortec Corporation`s Coal-Fired Combustion System for Industrial Process Heating Applications has been selected for Phase III development under contract DE-AC22-91PC91161. This advanced combustion system research program is for the development of innovative coal-fired process heaters which can be used for high temperature melting, smelting, recycling, and refining processes. The process heater concepts to be developed are based on advanced glass melting and ore smelting furnaces developed and patented by Vortec Corporation. The process heater systems to be developed have multiple use applications; however, the Phase HI research effort is being focused on the development of a process heater system to be used for producing glass frits and wool fiber from boiler and incinerator ashes. The primary objective of the Phase III project is to develop and integrate all the system components, from fuel through total system controls, and then test the complete system in order to evaluate its potential marketability. The economic evaluation of commercial scale CMS processes has begun. In order to accurately estimate the cost of the primary process vessels, preliminary designs for 25, 50, and 100 ton/day systems have been started under Task 1. This data will serve as input data for life cycle cost analysis performed as part of techno-economic evaluations. The economic evaluations of commercial CMS systems will be an integral part of the commercialization plan.

  11. Feasibility study for an advanced coal fired heat exchanger/gas turbine topping cycle for a high efficiency power plant. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Solomon, P.R.; Zhao, Y.; Pines, D.; Buggeln, R.C.; Shamroth, S.J.

    1993-11-01

    Significant improvements in efficiency for the conversion of coal into electricity can be achieved by cycles which employ a high temperature gas turbine topping cycle. The objective of this project is the development of an externally fired gas turbine system. The project computationally tested a new concept for a High Temperature Advanced Furnace (HITAF) and high temperature heat exchanger with a proprietary design to reduce the problems associated with the harsh coal environment. The program addressed two key technology issues: (1) the HITAF/heat exchanger heat transfer through a 2-D computer analysis of the HITAF configuration; (2) 3-D Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model application to simulate the exclusion of particles and corrosive gases from the heat exchanger surface. The basic concept of this new combustor design was verified through the 2D and 3D modeling. It demonstrated that the corrosion and erosion of the exchanger material caused by coal and ash particles can be largely reduced by employing a specially designed firing scheme. It also suggested that a proper combustion geometry design is necessary to maximize the cleaning effect.

  12. Study on the effect of the operating condition on a pulverized coal-fired furnace using computational fluid dynamics commercial code

    SciTech Connect

    Manish Kumar; Santi Gopal Sahu . man_manna@yahoo.com

    2007-12-15

    Computer models for coal combustion are not sufficiently accurate to enable the design of pulverized coal fired furnaces or the selection of coal based on combustion behavior. Most comprehensive combustion models can predict with reasonable accuracy flow fields and heat transfer but usually with a much lesser degree of accuracy than the combustion of coal particles through char burnout. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling is recognized widely to be a cost-effective, advanced tool for optimizing the design and operating condition of the pulverized coal-fired furnaces for achieving cleaner and efficient power generation. Technologists and researchers are paying remarkable attention to CFD because of its value in the pulverized fuel fired furnace technology and its nonintrusiveness, sophistication, and ability to significantly reduce the time and expense involved in the design, optimization, trouble-shooting, and repair of power generation equipment. An attempt to study the effect of one of the operating conditions, i.e., burner tilts on coal combustion mechanisms, furnace exit gas temperature (FEGT), and heat flux distribution pattern, within the furnace has been made in this paper by modeling a 210 MW boiler using commercial CFD code FLUENT. 5 refs., 8 figs.

  13. Development and testing of a high efficiency advanced coal combustor: Phase 3 -- Industrial boiler retrofit. Proof of concept testing summary (Task 3.0 Final topical report)

    SciTech Connect

    Patel, R.L.; Borio, R.; McGowan, J.G.

    1995-07-01

    Economics may one day dictate that it makes sense to replace oil or natural gas with coal in boilers that were originally designed to burn oil or gas. In recognition of this future possibility, Pittsburgh Energy Technical Center (PETC) has supported a program led by ABB Power Plant Laboratories in cooperation with the Energy and Fuels Research Center of Penn State University to develop the High Efficiency Advanced Coal Combustor (HEACC). The objective of the program is to demonstrate the technical and economic feasibility of retrofitting a gas/oil designed boiler to burn micronized coal. In support of the overall objective the following specific areas were targeted: a coal handling/preparation system that can meet the technical requirements for retrofitting microfine coal on a boiler designed for burning oil or natural gas; maintaining boiler thermal performance in accordance with specifications when burning oil or natural gas; maintaining NOx emissions at or below 0.6 lb NO{sub 2} per million Btu; achieving combustion efficiencies of 98% or higher; and calculating economic payback periods as a function of key variables. The work carried out under this program is broken into five major Tasks: review of current state-of-the-art coal firing system components; design and experimental testing of a prototype HEACC burner; installation and testing of a HEACC system in a retrofit application; economic evaluation of the HEACC concept for retrofit applications; and long term demonstration under user demand conditions. This report summarizes the work done under Task 3, the installation and testing of the HEACC burner in a 15,000 lb/hr package boiler located at Penn State. The period of testing was approximately 400 hours. Key findings are presented.

  14. BOILER MATERIALS FOR ULTRASUPERCRITICAL COAL POWER PLANTS

    SciTech Connect

    R. Viswanathan; K. Coleman

    2002-07-15

    The principal objective of this project is to develop materials technology for use in ultrasupercritical (USC) plant boilers capable of operating with 760 C (1400 F), 35 MPa (5000 psi) steam. In the 21st century, the world faces the critical challenge of providing abundant, cheap electricity to meet the needs of a growing global population while at the same time preserving environmental values. Most studies of this issue conclude that a robust portfolio of generation technologies and fuels should be developed to assure that the United States will have adequate electricity supplies in a variety of possible future scenarios. The use of coal for electricity generation poses a unique set of challenges. On the one hand, coal is plentiful and available at low cost in much of the world, notably in the U.S., China, and India. Countries with large coal reserves will want to develop them to foster economic growth and energy security. On the other hand, traditional methods of coal combustion emit pollutants and CO{sub 2} at high levels relative to other generation options. Maintaining coal as a generation option in the 21st century will require methods for addressing these environmental issues. This project has established a government/industry consortium to undertake a five-year effort to evaluate and develop of advanced materials that allow the use of advanced steam cycles in coal-based power plants. These advanced cycles, with steam temperatures up to 760 C, will increase the efficiency of coal-fired boilers from an average of 35% efficiency (current domestic fleet) to 47% (HHV). This efficiency increase will enable coal-fired power plants to generate electricity at competitive rates (irrespective of fuel costs) while reducing CO{sub 2} and other fuel-related emissions by as much as 29%. Success in achieving these objectives will support a number of broader goals. First, from a national prospective, the program will identify advanced materials that will make it possible to

  15. BOILER MATERIALS FOR ULTRASUPERCRITICAL COAL POWER PLANTS

    SciTech Connect

    R. Viswanathan; K. Coleman

    2002-10-15

    The principal objective of this project is to develop materials technology for use in ultrasupercritical (USC) plant boilers capable of operating with 760 C (1400 F), 35 MPa (5000 psi) steam. In the 21st century, the world faces the critical challenge of providing abundant, cheap electricity to meet the needs of a growing global population while at the same time preserving environmental values. Most studies of this issue conclude that a robust portfolio of generation technologies and fuels should be developed to assure that the United States will have adequate electricity supplies in a variety of possible future scenarios. The use of coal for electricity generation poses a unique set of challenges. On the one hand, coal is plentiful and available at low cost in much of the world, notably in the U.S., China, and India. Countries with large coal reserves will want to develop them to foster economic growth and energy security. On the other hand, traditional methods of coal combustion emit pollutants and CO{sub 2} at high levels relative to other generation options. Maintaining coal as a generation option in the 21st century will require methods for addressing these environmental issues. This project has established a government/industry consortium to undertake a five-year effort to evaluate and develop of advanced materials that allow the use of advanced steam cycles in coal-based power plants. These advanced cycles, with steam temperatures up to 760 C, will increase the efficiency of coal-fired boilers from an average of 35% efficiency (current domestic fleet) to 47% (HHV). This efficiency increase will enable coal-fired power plants to generate electricity at competitive rates (irrespective of fuel costs) while reducing CO{sub 2} and other fuel-related emissions by as much as 29%. Success in achieving these objectives will support a number of broader goals. First, from a national prospective, the program will identify advanced materials that will make it possible to

  16. BOILER MATERIALS FOR ULTRASUPERCRITICAL COAL POWER PLANTS

    SciTech Connect

    R. Viswanathan; K. Coleman

    2003-01-20

    The principal objective of this project is to develop materials technology for use in ultrasupercritical (USC) plant boilers capable of operating with 760 C (1400 F), 35 MPa (5000 psi) steam. In the 21st century, the world faces the critical challenge of providing abundant, cheap electricity to meet the needs of a growing global population while at the same time preserving environmental values. Most studies of this issue conclude that a robust portfolio of generation technologies and fuels should be developed to assure that the United States will have adequate electricity supplies in a variety of possible future scenarios. The use of coal for electricity generation poses a unique set of challenges. On the one hand, coal is plentiful and available at low cost in much of the world, notably in the U.S., China, and India. Countries with large coal reserves will want to develop them to foster economic growth and energy security. On the other hand, traditional methods of coal combustion emit pollutants and CO{sub 2} at high levels relative to other generation options. Maintaining coal as a generation option in the 21st century will require methods for addressing these environmental issues. This project has established a government/industry consortium to undertake a five-year effort to evaluate and develop of advanced materials that allow the use of advanced steam cycles in coal-based power plants. These advanced cycles, with steam temperatures up to 760 C, will increase the efficiency of coal-fired boilers from an average of 35% efficiency (current domestic fleet) to 47% (HHV). This efficiency increase will enable coal-fired power plants to generate electricity at competitive rates (irrespective of fuel costs) while reducing CO{sub 2} and other fuel-related emissions by as much as 29%. Success in achieving these objectives will support a number of broader goals. First, from a national prospective, the program will identify advanced materials that will make it possible to

  17. BOILER MATERIALS FOR ULTRASUPERCRITICAL COAL POWER PLANTS

    SciTech Connect

    R. Viswanathan

    2002-04-15

    The principal objective of this project is to develop materials technology for use in ultrasupercritical (USC) plant boilers capable of operating with 760 C (1400 F), and up to 5500 psi with emphasis upon 35 MPa (5000 psi) steam. In the 21st century, the world faces the critical challenge of providing abundant, cheap electricity to meet the needs of a growing global population while at the same time preserving environmental values. Most studies of this issue conclude that a robust portfolio of generation technologies and fuels should be developed to assure that the United States will have adequate electricity supplies in a variety of possible future scenarios. The use of coal for electricity generation poses a unique set of challenges. On the one hand, coal is plentiful and available at low cost in much of the world, notably in the U.S., China, and India. Countries with large coal reserves will want to develop them to foster economic growth and energy security. On the other hand, traditional methods of coal combustion emit pollutants and CO{sub 2} at high levels relative to other generation options. Maintaining coal as a generation option in the 21st century will require methods for addressing these environmental issues. This project has established a government/industry consortium to undertake a five-year effort to evaluate and develop advanced materials that allow the use of advanced steam cycles in coal-based power plants. These advanced cycles, with steam temperatures up to 760 C, will increase the efficiency of coal-fired boilers from an average of 35% efficiency (current domestic fleet) to 47% (HHV). This efficiency increase will enable coal-fired power plants to generate electricity at competitive rates (irrespective of fuel costs) while reducing CO{sub 2} and other fuel-related emissions by as much as 29%. Success in achieving these objectives will support a number of broader goals. First, from a national prospective, the program will identify advanced

  18. CHARACTERIZATION AND MODELING OF THE FORMS OF MERCURY FROM COAL-FIRED POWER PLANTS

    SciTech Connect

    Dennis L. Laudal

    2001-08-01

    The 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAAs) required the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to determine whether the presence of mercury in the stack emissions from fossil fuel-fired electric utility power plants poses an unacceptable public health risk. EPA's conclusions and recommendations were presented in the Mercury Study Report to Congress (1) and the Utility Air Toxics Report to Congress (1). The first report addressed both the human health and environmental effects of anthropogenic mercury emissions, while the second addressed the risk to public health posed by the emission of mercury and other hazardous air pollutants from steam-electric generating units. Given the current state of the art, these reports did not state that mercury controls on coal-fired electric power stations would be required. However, they did indicate that EPA views mercury as a potential threat to human health. In fact, in December 2000, the EPA issued an intent to regulate for mercury from coal-fired boilers. However, it is clear that additional research needs to be done in order to develop economical and effective mercury control strategies. To accomplish this objective, it is necessary to understand mercury behavior in coal-fired power plants. The markedly different chemical and physical properties of the different mercury forms generated during coal combustion appear to impact the effectiveness of various mercury control strategies. The original Characterization and Modeling of the Forms of Mercury from Coal-Fired Power Plants project had two tasks. The first was to collect enough data such that mercury speciation could be predicted based on relatively simple inputs such as coal analyses and plant configuration. The second was to field-validate the Ontario Hydro mercury speciation method (at the time, it had only been validated at the pilot-scale level). However, after sampling at two power plants (the Ontario Hydro method was validated at one of them), the EPA issued an

  19. Characteristics of NOx emission from Chinese coal-fired power plants equipped with new technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Zizhen; Deng, Jianguo; Li, Zhen; Li, Qing; Zhao, Ping; Wang, Liguo; Sun, Yezhu; Zheng, Hongxian; Pan, Li; Zhao, Shun; Jiang, Jingkun; Wang, Shuxiao; Duan, Lei

    2016-04-01

    Coal combustion in coal-fired power plants is one of the important anthropogenic NOx sources, especially in China. Many policies and methods aiming at reducing pollutants, such as increasing installed capacity and installing air pollution control devices (APCDs), especially selective catalytic reduction (SCR) units, could alter NOx emission characteristics (NOx concentration, NO2/NOx ratio, and NOx emission factor). This study reported the NOx characteristics of eight new coal-fired power-generating units with different boiler patterns, installed capacities, operating loads, and coal types. The results showed that larger units produced less NOx, and anthracite combustion generated more NOx than bitumite and lignite combustion. During formation, the NOx emission factors varied from 1.81 to 6.14 g/kg, much lower than those of older units at similar scales. This implies that NOx emissions of current and future units could be overestimated if they are based on outdated emission factors. In addition, APCDs, especially SCR, greatly decreased NOx emissions, but increased NO2/NOx ratios. Regardless, the NO2/NOx ratios were lower than 5%, in accordance with the guidelines and supporting the current method for calculating NOx emissions from coal-fired power plants that ignore NO2.

  20. The coal-fired gas turbine locomotive - A new look

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liddle, S. G.; Bonzo, B. B.; Purohit, G. P.

    1983-01-01

    Advances in turbomachine technology and novel methods of coal combustion may have made possible the development of a competitive coal fired gas turbine locomotive engine. Of the combustor, thermodynamic cycle, and turbine combinations presently assessed, an external combustion closed cycle regenerative gas turbine with a fluidized bed coal combustor is judged to be the best suited for locomotive requirements. Some merit is also discerned in external combustion open cycle regenerative systems and internal combustion open cycle regenerative gas turbine systems employing a coal gasifier. The choice of an open or closed cycle depends on the selection of a working fluid and the relative advantages of loop pressurization, with air being the most attractive closed cycle working fluid on the basis of cost.

  1. DEVELOPMENTS IN PARTICULATE CONTROL FOR COAL-FIRED POWER PLANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses recent developments in particulate control for coal-fired power plants. The developments are responding to a double challenge to conventional coal-fired power plant emissions control technology: (1) lower particulate emissions require more efficient control de...

  2. Emissions from Coal Fires and Their Impact on the Environment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kolker, Allan; Engle, Mark; Stracher, Glenn; Hower, James; Prakash, Anupma; Radke, Lawrence; ter Schure, Arnout; Heffern, Ed

    2009-01-01

    Self-ignited, naturally occurring coal fires and fires resulting from human activities persist for decades in underground coal mines, coal waste piles, and unmined coal beds. These uncontrolled coal fires occur in all coal-bearing parts of the world (Stracher, 2007) and pose multiple threats to the global environment because they emit greenhouse gases - carbon dioxide (CO2), and methane (CH4) - as well as mercury (Hg), carbon monoxide (CO), and other toxic substances (fig. 1). The contribution of coal fires to the global pool of atmospheric CO2 is little known but potentially significant. For China, the world's largest coal producer, it is estimated that anywhere between 10 million and 200 million metric tons (Mt) of coal reserves (about 0.5 to 10 percent of production) is consumed annually by coal fires or made inaccessible owing to fires that hinder mining operations (Rosema and others, 1999; Voigt and others, 2004). At this proportion of production, coal amounts lost to coal fires worldwide would be two to three times that for China. Assuming this coal has mercury concentrations similar to those in U.S. coals, a preliminary estimate of annual Hg emissions from coal fires worldwide is comparable in magnitude to the 48 tons of annual Hg emissions from all U.S. coal-fired power-generating stations combined (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2002). In the United States, the combined cost of coal-fire remediation projects, completed, budgeted, or projected by the U.S. Department of the Interior's Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement (OSM), exceeds $1 billion, with about 90% of that in two States - Pennsylvania and West Virginia (Office of Surface Mining Enforcement and Reclamation, 2008; fig. 2). Altogether, 15 States have combined cumulative OSM coal-fire project costs exceeding $1 million, with the greatest overall expense occurring in States where underground coal fires are predominant over surface fires, reflecting the greater cost of

  3. Engineering development of advanced coal-fired low-emission boiler systems. Technical progress report No. 6, January--March 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-05-17

    Work continued as planned and scheduled. Total expenditures are below budget. Tasks 2 and 3 are complete. Task 5 was started early. Task 6 will start in April. The following major deliverables were issued: (1) Slides and narrative for PETC Audio/Visual combustion 2000 Exhibit; (2) Technical Paper for the 19th International Technical Conference on Coal Utilization & Fuel Systems; and (3) Draft of Technical Paper (for internal review) for the 1994 International Joint Power Generation Conference. Two advisors were added to the Team -- Richmond Power & Light and Peridot chemicals, Inc. RP&L is an excellent candidate for the POC host. Peridot has expertise in the production and marketing of sulfuric acid. A regular Quarterly Review Meeting was held with DOE-PETC.

  4. A coal-fired combustion system for industrial process heating applications

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-29

    This advanced combustion system research program is for the development of innovative coal-fired process heaters which can be used for high temperature melting, smelting and waste vitrification processes. The process heater concepts to be developed are based on advanced glass melting and ore smelting furnaces developed and patented by Vortec Corporation. The process heater systems to be developed have multiple use applications; however, the Phase III research effort is being focused on the development of a process heater system to be used for producing value added vitrified glass products from boiler/incinerator ashesand industrial wastes. The primary objective of the Phase III project is to develop and integrate all the system components, from fuel through total system controls, and then test the complete system in order to evaluate its potential marketability. During the current reporting period, a majority of the effort was spent relining the separator/reservoir and the cyclone melter. The relinings were completed, the cyclonemelter was reinstalled, and the test system was returned to operational status. The wet ESP was delivered and placed on its foundation. The focus during the upcoming months will be completing the integration ofthe wet ESP and conducting the first industrial proof-of-concept test. The other system modifications are well underway with the designs of the recuperator installation and the batch/coal feed system progressing smoothly. The program is still slightly behind the original schedule but it is anticipated that it will be back on schedule by the end of the year. The commercialization planning is continuing with the identification of seven potential near-term commercial demonstration opportunities.

  5. EVALUATION OF UTILITY BOILER RADIANT FURNACE RESIDENCE TIME/TEMPERATURE CHARACTERISTICS: FIELD TESTS AND HEAT TRANSFER MODELING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes an investigation of the adequacy of a modeling approach in predicting the thermal environment and flow field of pulverized-coal-fired utility boilers. Two 420 MWe coal-fired boilers were evaluated: a single-wall-fired unit and a tangentially fired unit, repre...

  6. Downstream component corrosion in coal-fired MHD power plants

    SciTech Connect

    White, M. K.

    1980-06-01

    Results are given to date of corrosion probe studies conducted to evaluate the nature and severity of degradation of oiler and superheater materials in coal-fired MHD power generation systems. Tests were conducted with two air or nitrogen cooled probes in Cell III of the UTSI MHD facility. One probe had carbon steel samples subjected to metal temperatures of from 547K to 719K and reducing (SR = 0.85) gas conditions to simulate boiler tube conditions. The exposure time to date on these samples is 240 minutes. The other probe had samples of carbon steel, chromium-molybdenum steels and stainless steels subjected to temperatures ranging from 811K to 914K with oxidizing (SR = 1.15) gas conditions. The total run time on these samples was 70 minutes. The boiler probe samples were found to undergo predominantly pitted type corrosion beneath a deposit of ash/seed material having approximately 34% K/sub 2/SO/sub 4/. Weight loss rates varied from about 1.5 x 10/sup -4/ gm/hr-cm/sup 2/ at the cool end of the probe to about 5.5 x 10/sup -4/ gm/hr-cm/sup 2/ at the hot end. This loss is attributed primarily to sulfidation by hydrogen sulfide. Resistance to scaling of superheater materials increased progressively with the degree of alloying. Attack appeared to be in the form of surface scales containing mixtures of oxides and is attributed to either gaseous oxidation or to the presence of complex potassium trisulfates.

  7. Engineering Development of Coal-Fired High Performance Power Systems

    SciTech Connect

    2000-12-31

    This report presents work carried out under contract DE-AC22-95PC95144 ''Engineering Development of Coal-Fired High Performance Systems Phase II and III.'' The goals of the program are to develop a coal-fired high performance power generation system (HIPPS) that is capable of: thermal efficiency (HHV) {ge} 47% NOx, SOx, and particulates {le} 10% NSPS (New Source Performance Standard) coal providing {ge} 65% of heat input all solid wastes benign cost of electricity {le}{le} 90% of present plants Phase I, which began in 1992, focused on the analysis of various configurations of indirectly fired cycles and on technical assessments of alternative plant subsystems and components, including performance requirements, developmental status, design options, complexity and reliability, and capital and operating costs. Phase I also included preliminary R&D and the preparation of designs for HIPPS commercial plants approximately 300 MWe in size. Phase II, had as its initial objective the development of a complete design base for the construction and operation of a HIPPS prototype plant to be constructed in Phase III. As part of a descoping initiative, the Phase III program has been eliminated and work related to the commercial plant design has been ended. The rescoped program retained a program of engineering research and development focusing on high temperature heat exchangers, e.g. HITAF development (Task 2); a rescoped Task 6 that is pertinent to Vision 21 objectives and focuses on advanced cycle analysis and optimization, integration of gas turbines into complex cycles, and repowering designs; and preparation of the Phase II Technical Report (Task 8). This rescoped program deleted all subsystem testing (Tasks 3, 4, and 5) and the development of a site-specific engineering design and test plan for the HIPPS prototype plant (Task 7). Work reported herein is from: Task 2.2 HITAF Air Heaters

  8. CO(2), CO, and Hg emissions from the Truman Shepherd and Ruth Mullins coal fires, eastern Kentucky, USA.

    PubMed

    O'Keefe, Jennifer M K; Henke, Kevin R; Hower, James C; Engle, Mark A; Stracher, Glenn B; Stucker, J D; Drew, Jordan W; Staggs, Wayne D; Murray, Tiffany M; Hammond, Maxwell L; Adkins, Kenneth D; Mullins, Bailey J; Lemley, Edward W

    2010-03-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO(2)), carbon monoxide (CO), and mercury (Hg) emissions were quantified for two eastern Kentucky coal-seam fires, the Truman Shepherd fire in Floyd County and the Ruth Mullins fire in Perry County. This study is one of the first to estimate gas emissions from coal fires using field measurements at gas vents. The Truman Shepherd fire emissions are nearly 1400t CO(2)/yr and 16kg Hg/yr resulting from a coal combustion rate of 450-550t/yr. The sum of CO(2) emissions from seven vents at the Ruth Mullins fire is 726+/-72t/yr, suggesting that the fire is consuming about 250-280t coal/yr. Total Ruth Mullins fire CO and Hg emissions are estimated at 21+/-1.8t/yr and >840+/-170g/yr, respectively. The CO(2) emissions are environmentally significant, but low compared to coal-fired power plants; for example, 3.9x10(6)t CO(2)/yr for a 514-MW boiler in Kentucky. Using simple calculations, CO(2) and Hg emissions from coal-fires in the U.S. are estimated at 1.4x10(7)-2.9x10(8)t/yr and 0.58-11.5t/yr, respectively. This initial work indicates that coal fires may be an important source of CO(2), CO, Hg and other atmospheric constituents. PMID:20071005

  9. Geophysics and clean development mechanisms (CDM) - Applications to coal fires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, U.; Chen-Brauchler, D.; Schlömer, S.; Kus, J.; Lambrecht, A.; Rüter, H.; Fischer, C.; Bing, K.

    2009-04-01

    The largest hard coal resources worldwide are found in the coal belt through Northern China and Inner Mongolia. Because of still existing technological problems and a steeply rising demand of coal in this region the most coal fires occur. Once established, coal fires are difficult to extinguish, destroy large amounts of coal and are major challenge to the environment. The Sino-German coal fire research initiative "Innovative technologies for exploration, extinction and monitoring of coal fires in Northern China" conducts field investigations, laboratory measurements and experiments as well as numerical modelling of coal fires in close co-operation with Chinese coal fire fighting departments. A special task within this project is to help the Chinese partners to develop methodologies and project designs to extinguish coal fires under the frame of the Kyoto protocol. In practise, this task requires a robust method to estimate the CO2 baseline of coal fires including fire detection and monitoring. In order to estimate the fire volume, fire propagation and the resulting CO2 exhaust gas volume, different types of geophysical measurements are necessary as near surface temperature and gas measurements, ground penetrating radar etc. Three different types of CO2 exhaust gas estimations from coal fires are discussed: the energy approach, the volume approach and the direct approach. The energy approach highly depends on accurate near surface and gas temperature plus the gas flux data. The volume approach is based on radar and near surface geomagnetic surveying and monitoring. The direct approach relies on the exact knowledge of gas fluxes and volumes. All approaches need reference data as regional to local weather data and petrological parameters of the burning coal. The approaches are evaluated for their use in CO2 baseline estimations and thus for clean development mechanisms.

  10. Engineering development of coal-fired high-performance power systems. Technical report, July - September 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-11-01

    A High Performance Power System (HIPPS) is being developed. This system is a coal-fired, combined cycle plant with indirect heating of gas turbine air. Foster Wheeler Development Corporation and a team consisting of Foster Wheeler Energy Corporation, AlliedSignal Aerospace Equipment Systems, Bechtel Corporation, University of Tennessee Space Institute and Westinghouse Electric Corporation are developing this system. In Phase I of the project, a conceptual design of a commercial plant was developed. Technical and economic analyses indicated that the plant would meet the goals of the project which include a 47 percent efficiency (HHV) and a 10 percent lower cost of electricity than an equivalent size PC plant. The concept uses a pyrolyzation process to convert coal into fuel gas and char. The char is fired in a High Temperature Advanced Furnace (HITAF). It is a pulverized fuel-fired boiler/airheater where steam and gas turbine air are indirectly heated. The fuel gas generated in the pyrolyzer is then used to heat the gas turbine air further before it enters the gas turbine. The project is currently in Phase 2 which includes engineering analysis, laboratory testing and pilot plant testing. Research and development is being done on the HIPPS systems that are not commercial or being developed on other projects. Pilot plant testing of the pyrolyzer subsystem and the char combustion subsystem are being done separately, and then a pilot plant with integrated pyrolyzer and char combustion systems will be tested. In this report, progress in the pyrolyzer pilot plant preparation is reported. The results of extensive laboratory and bench scale testing of representative char are also reported. Preliminary results of combustion modeling of the char combustion system are included. There are also discussions of the auxiliary systems that are planned for the char combustion system pilot plant and the status of the integrated system pilot plant.

  11. Engineering Development of Coal-Fired High-Performance Power Systems

    SciTech Connect

    York Tsuo

    2000-12-31

    A High Performance Power System (HIPPS) is being developed. This system is a coal-fired, combined cycle plant with indirect heating of gas turbine air. Foster Wheeler Development Corporation and a team consisting of Foster Wheeler Energy Corporation, Bechtel Corporation, University of Tennessee Space Institute and Westinghouse Electric Corporation are developing this system. In Phase 1 of the project, a conceptual design of a commercial plant was developed. Technical and economic analyses indicated that the plant would meet the goals of the project which include a 47 percent efficiency (HHV) and a 10 percent lower cost of electricity than an equivalent size PC plant. The concept uses a pyrolysis process to convert coal into fuel gas and char. The char is fired in a High Temperature Advanced Furnace (HITAF). The HITAF is a pulverized fuel-fired boiler/air heater where steam is generated and gas turbine air is indirectly heated. The fuel gas generated in the pyrolyzer is then used to heat the gas turbine air further before it enters the gas turbine. The project is currently in Phase 2 which includes engineering analysis, laboratory testing and pilot plant testing. Research and development is being done on the HIPPS systems that are not commercial or being developed on other projects. Pilot plant testing of the pyrolyzer subsystem and the char combustion subsystem are being done separately. This report addresses the areas of technical progress for this quarter. The detail of syngas cooler design is given in this report. The final construction work of the CFB pyrolyzer pilot plant has started during this quarter. No experimental testing was performed during this quarter. The proposed test matrix for the future CFB pyrolyzer tests is given in this report. Besides testing various fuels, bed temperature will be the primary test parameter.

  12. CONTROL TECHNOLOGY FOR COAL-FIRED BOILERS: APPLICATIONS TO CHINA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper examines new multipollutant technologies and improvements to old technologies that may allow China and other rapidly developing nations to mitigate the high cost of retrofits and still achieve cleaner air. A program is outlined to jointly investigate some of these tech...

  13. Method for extraction of quantitative information using remote sensing data of underground coal fire areas and its application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dang, Fu-xing; Li, Zhi-zhong; Xiong, Sheng-qing; Fang, Hong-bin; Yang, Ri-hong

    2008-11-01

    Underground coal-bed spontaneous combustion is a dynamic process with complex physical, chemical and environmental interaction. The anomalous information on remote sensing spatial, spectral and thermal indexes is very meaningful for detecting underground coal fires and assessing its effects on environment. This paper, based on a series of advanced technical datum in Wu Da coalfield areas located in Inner-Mongolia, such as ground spectral testing, thermal infrared multispectral indexes, and high-spatial resolution images, analyzes the correlation between the underground coal-bed burning conditions and the remote sensing information. Besides, it provides a further discussion on the application potential for quantitative feature extraction of underground coal fire.

  14. Effect of occupation on lipid peroxidation and antioxidant status in coal-fired thermal plant workers

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Sandeep; Gill, Manmeet Singh; Gupta, Kapil; Manchanda, KC

    2013-01-01

    Background: Air pollution from coal-fired power units is large and varied, and contributes to a significant number of negative environmental and health effects. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of coal dust-induced toxicity in coal-fired power plants. Aim: The aim of the study was to measure free radical damage and the antioxidant activity in workers exposed to varying levels of coal dust. Material and Methods: The study population consisted of workers in coal handling unit, turbine unit, and boiler unit (n = 50 each), working in thermal power plant; and electricians (n = 50) from same department were taken as controls. Lipid peroxidation was measured by malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and antioxidant activity was determined by superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) levels. Statistical analysis was carried out by Student's unpaired t-test. Result: MDA levels showed significant increase (P > 0.001) in the thermal power plant workers than the electricians working in the city. The levels of SOD and GPx were significantly higher (P > 0.001) in electricians as compared to subjects working in thermal plant. Among the thermal plant workers, the coal handling unit workers showed significant increase (P > 0.001) in MDA and significant decrease in SOD and GPx than the workers of boiler and turbine unit workers. Conclusion: Oxidative stress due to increase in lipid peroxidation and decrease in antioxidant activity results from exposure to coal dust and coal combustion products during thermal plant activities. PMID:24083143

  15. Development and testing of commercial-scale, coal-fired combustion systems: Phase III. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-03-01

    Based on studies that indicated a large potential for significantly increased coal-firing in the commercial sector, the U.S. Department of Energy`s Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) sponsored a multi-phase development effort for advanced coal combustion systems. This Final Report presents the results of the last phase (Phase III) of a project for the development of an advanced coal-fired system for the commercial sector of the economy. The project performance goals for the system included dual-fuel capability (i.e., coal as primary fuel and natural gas as secondary fuel), combustion efficiency exceeding 99 percent, thermal efficiency greater than 80 percent, turndown of at least 3:1, dust-free and semi-automatic dry ash removal, fully automatic start-up with system purge and ignition verification, emissions performance exceeding New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) and approaching those produced by oil-fired, Commercial-sized units, and reliability, safety, operability, maintainability, and service life comparable to oil-fired units. The program also involved a site demonstration at a large facility owned by Striegel Supply Company, a portion of which was leased to MTCI. The site, mostly warehouse space, was completely unheated and the advanced coal-fired combustion system was designed and sized to heat this space. Three different coals were used in the project, one low and one high sulfur pulverized Pittsburgh No. 8 coal, and a micronized low volatile, bituminous coal. The sorbents used were Pfizer dolomitic limestone and an Anvil lime. More than 100 hours of screening test`s were performed to characterize the system. The parameters examined included coal firing rate, excess air level, ash recycle rate, coal type, dolomitic limestone feed rate, and steam injection rate. These tests indicated that some additional modifications for coal burning in the system were required.

  16. Current status and prediction of major atmospheric emissions from coal-fired power plants in Shandong Province, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Tianqi; Jiang, Wei; Gao, Weidong

    2016-01-01

    Shandong is considered to be the top provincial emitter of air pollutants in China due to its large consumption of coal in the power sector and its dense distribution of coal-fired plants. To explore the atmospheric emissions of the coal-fired power sector in Shandong, an updated emission inventory of coal-fired power plants for the year 2012 in Shandong was developed. The inventory is based on the following parameters: coal quality, unit capacity and unit starting year, plant location, boiler type and control technologies. The total SO2, NOx, fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and mercury (Hg) emissions are estimated at 705.93 kt, 754.30 kt, 63.99 kt and 10.19 kt, respectively. Larger units have cleaner emissions than smaller ones. The coal-fired units (≥300 MW) are estimated to account for 35.87% of SO2, 43.24% of NOx, 47.74% of PM2.5 and 49.83% of Hg emissions, which is attributed primarily to the improved penetration of desulfurization, LNBs, denitration and dust-removing devices in larger units. The major regional contributors are southwestern cities, such as Jining, Liaocheng, Zibo and Linyi, and eastern cities, such as Yantai and Qindao. Under the high-efficiency control technology (HECT) scenario analysis, emission reductions of approximately 58.61% SO2, 80.63% NOx, 34.20% PM2.5 and 50.08% Hg could be achieved by 2030 compared with a 2012 baseline. This inventory demonstrates why it is important for policymakers and researchers to assess control measure effectiveness and to supply necessary input for regional policymaking and the management of the coal-fired power sector in Shandong.

  17. Numerical Modelling by FLAC on Coal Fires in North China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gusat, D.; Drebenstedt, C.

    2009-04-01

    Coal fires occur in many countries all over the world (e.g. Australia, China, India, Indonesia, USA and Russia) in underground and on surface. In China the most coal fires occur especially in the North. Economical and environmental damages are the negative effects of the coal fires: coal fires induce open fractures and fissures within the seam and neighbouring rocks. So that these are the predominant pathways for oxygen flow and exhaust gases from a coal fire. All over northern China there are a large number of coal fires, which cause and estimated yearly coal loss of between 100 and 200 million tons ([1], [2], [3]). Spontaneous combustion is a very complicated process and is influenced by number of factors. The process is an exothermic reaction in which the heat generated is dissipated by conduction to the surrounding environment, by radiation, by convection to the ventilation flow, and in some cases by evaporation of moisture from the coal [4]. The coal fires are very serious in China, and the dangerous extent of spontaneous combustion is bad which occupies about 72.9% in mining coal seams. During coal mining in China, the coal fires of spontaneous combustion are quite severity. The dangerous of coal spontaneous combustion has been in 56% of state major coalmines [5]. The 2D and 3D-simulation models describing coal fire damages are strong tools to predict fractures and fissures, to estimate the risk of coal fire propagation into neighbouring seams, to test and evaluate coal fire fighting and prevention methods. The numerical simulations of the rock mechanical model were made with the software for geomechanical and geotechnical calculations, the programs FLAC and FLAC3D [6]. To fight again the coal fires, exist several fire fighting techniques. Water, slurries or liquefied nitrogen can be injected to cool down the coal or cut of air supply with the backfill and thereby extinct the fire. Air supply also can be cut of by covering the coal by soil or sealing of the

  18. CONTROLLING MULTIPLE EMISSIONS FROM COAL-FIRED POWER PLANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper presents and analyzes nine existing and novel control technologies designed to achieve multipollutant emissions reductions. It provides an evaluation of multipollutant emission control technologies that are potentially available for coal-fired power plants of 25 MW capa...

  19. Coal-fired combustion system for industrial process heating applications. Quarterly technical progress report, April 1995--June 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-01

    PETC has implemented a number of advanced combustion research projects that will lead to the establishment of a broad, commercially acceptable engineering data base for the advancement of coal as the fuel of choice for boilers, furnaces, and process heaters. This includes new installations and those existing installations that were originally designed for oil or gas firing. The data generated by these projects must be sufficient for private-sector decisions on the feasibility of using coal as the fuel of choice. This work should also provide incentives for the private sector to continue and expand the development, demonstration, and application of these combustion systems. Vortec Corporation`s Coal-Fired Combustion System for Industrial Process Heating Applications is being developed under contract DE-AC22-91PC91161 as part of this DOE development program. The current contract represents the third phase of a three-phase development program. Phase I of the program addressed the technical and economic feasibility of the process, and was initiated in 1987 and completed 1989. Phase II was initiated in 1989 and completed in 1990. During Phase II of the development, design improvements were made to critical components and the test program addressed the performance of the process using several different feedstocks. Phase III of the program was initiated September 1991 and is scheduled for completion in 1994. The Phase III research effort is being focused on the development of a process heater system to be used for producing value-added vitrified glass products from boiler/incinerator ashes and selected industrial wastes.

  20. Conference on alternatives for pollution control from coal-fired low emission sources, Plzen, Czech Republic. Plzen Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-07-01

    The Conference on Alternatives for Pollution Control from Coal-Fired Emission Sources presented cost-effective approaches for pollution control of low emission sources (LES). It also identified policies and strategies for implementation of pollution control measures at the local level. Plzen, Czech Republic, was chosen as the conference site to show participants first hand the LES problems facing Eastern Europe today. Collectively, these Proceedings contain clear reports on: (a) methods for evaluating the cost effectiveness of alternative approaches to control pollution from small coal-fired boilers and furnaces; (b) cost-effective technologies for controlling pollution from coal-fired boilers and furnaces; (c) case studies of assessment of cost effective pollution control measures for selected cities in eastern Europe; and (d) approaches for actually implementing pollution control measures in cities in Eastern Europe. It is intended that the eastern/central European reader will find in these Proceedings useful measures that can be applied to control emissions and clean the air in his city or region. The conference was sponsored by the United States Agency for International Development (AID), the United States Department of Energy (DOE), and the Czech Ministry of Industry and Trade. Selected papers have been indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  1. Baghouse cleans flyash from boiler exhaust

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-02-01

    A large baghouse installation recently started up on the boilerhouse of the Avtex Fibers Inc. rayon plant in Front Royal, Virginia. The baghouse removes 99.7% of the flyash particulate from the combustion fumes of five coal-fired boilers. The boilers have a combined capacity of one million lb/h of steam. Emissions from the plant are well below EPA limitations.

  2. Development of a high-performance, coal-fired power generating system with a pyrolysis gas and char-fired high-temperature furnace

    SciTech Connect

    Shenker, J.

    1995-11-01

    A high-performance power system (HIPPS) is being developed. This system is a coal-fired, combined-cycle plant that will have an efficiency of at least 47 percent, based on the higher heating value of the fuel. The original emissions goal of the project was for NOx and SOx to each be below 0.15 lb/MMBtu. In the Phase 2 RFP this emissions goal was reduced to 0.06 lb/MMBtu. The ultimate goal of HIPPS is to have an all-coal-fueled system, but initial versions of the system are allowed up to 35 percent heat input from natural gas. Foster Wheeler Development Corporation is currently leading a team effort with AlliedSignal, Bechtel, Foster Wheeler Energy Corporation, Research-Cottrell, TRW and Westinghouse. Previous work on the project was also done by General Electric. The HIPPS plant will use a high-Temperature Advanced Furnace (HITAF) to achieve combined-cycle operation with coal as the primary fuel. The HITAF is an atmospheric-pressure, pulverized-fuel-fired boiler/air heater. The HITAF is used to heat air for the gas turbine and also to transfer heat to the steam cycle. its design and functions are very similar to conventional PC boilers. Some important differences, however, arise from the requirements of the combined cycle operation.

  3. The Magnetohydrodynamics Coal-Fired Flow Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-11-01

    Progress continued at MHD coal-fired flow facility. UTSI reports on progress in developing the technology for the steam bottoming portion of the MHD Steam Combined Cycle Power Plant. No Proof-of-Concept (POC) testing was conducted during the quarter but data analyses are reported from the test conducted during the prior quarter. Major results include corrosion data from the first 500 hours of testing on candidate tube materials in the superheater test module (SHTM). Solids mass balance data, electrostatic precipitator (ESP) and baghouse (BH) performance data, diagnostic systems and environmental data results from previous POC tests are included. The major activities this quarter were in facility modifications required to complete the scheduled POC test program. Activities reported include the installation of an automatic ash/seed removal system on the SHTM, the BH, and ESP hoppers. Also, a higher pressure compressor (350 psi) is being installed to provide additional blowing pressure to remove solids deposits on the convective heat transfer tubes in the high temperature zone where the deposits are molten. These activities are scheduled to be completed and ready for the next test, which is scheduled for late May 1990. Also, experiments on drying western coal are reported. The recommended system for modifying the CFFF coal system to permit processing of western coal is described. Finally, a new effort to test portions of the TRW combustor during tests in the CFFF is described. The status of system analyses being conducted under subcontract by the Westinghouse Electric Corporation is also described. 2 refs., 18 figs., 3 tabs.

  4. Life assessment and emissions monitoring of Indian coal-fired power plants. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-07-01

    At the request of the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) of the United States Department of Energy (USDOE), the traveler, along with Dr. R. P. Krishnan, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge, Tennessee spent three weeks in India planning and performing emissions monitoring at the coal-fired Vijayawada Thermal Power Station (VTPS). The coordination for the Indian participants was provided by BHEL, Trichy and CPRI, Bangalore. The trip was sponsored by the PETC under the United States Agency for International Development (USAID)/Government of India (GOI)P Alternate Energy Resources Development (AERD) Project. The AERD Project is managed by PETC, and ORNL is providing the technical coordination and support for four coal projects that are being implemented with BHEL, Trichy. The traveler, after briefing the USAID mission in New Delhi visited BHEL, Trichy and CPRI, Bangalore to coordinate and plan the emissions test program. The site selection was made by BHEL, CPRI, TVA, and PETC. Monitoring was performed for 4 days on one of the 4 existing 210 MW coal-fired boilers at the VTPS, 400 km north of Madras, India.

  5. Life assessment and emissions monitoring of Indian coal-fired power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-07-01

    At the request of the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) of the United States Department of Energy (USDOE), the traveler, along with Dr. R. P. Krishnan, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge, Tennessee spent three weeks in India planning and performing emissions monitoring at the coal-fired Vijayawada Thermal Power Station (VTPS). The coordination for the Indian participants was provided by BHEL, Trichy and CPRI, Bangalore. The trip was sponsored by the PETC under the United States Agency for International Development (USAID)/Government of India (GOI)P Alternate Energy Resources Development (AERD) Project. The AERD Project is managed by PETC, and ORNL is providing the technical coordination and support for four coal projects that are being implemented with BHEL, Trichy. The traveler, after briefing the USAID mission in New Delhi visited BHEL, Trichy and CPRI, Bangalore to coordinate and plan the emissions test program. The site selection was made by BHEL, CPRI, TVA, and PETC. Monitoring was performed for 4 days on one of the 4 existing 210 MW coal-fired boilers at the VTPS, 400 km north of Madras, India.

  6. Geology of coal fires: case studies from around the world

    SciTech Connect

    Glenn B. Stracher

    2008-01-15

    Coal fires are preserved globally in the rock record as burnt and volume-reduced coal seams and by pyrometamorphic rocks, explosion breccias, clinker, gas-vent-mineral assemblages, fire-induced faulting, ground fissures, slump blocks, and sinkholes. Coal fires are responsible for coronary and respiratory diseases and fatalities in humans, as well as arsenic and fluorine poisoning. Their heat energy, toxic fumes, and solid by-products of combustion destroy floral and faunal habitats while polluting the air, water, and soil. This volume includes chapters devoted to spontaneous combustion and greenhouse gases, gas-vent mineralogy and petrology, paralavas and combustion metamorphic rocks, geochronology and landforms, magnetic signatures and geophysical modeling, remote-sensing detection and fire-depth estimation of concealed fires, and coal fires and public policy.

  7. Nitrogen oxide emissions from coal fired MHD plants

    SciTech Connect

    Chapman, J.N.

    1996-03-01

    In this topical report, the nitrogen oxide emission issues from a coal fired MHD steam combined cycle power plant are summarized, both from an experimental and theoretical/calculational viewpoint. The concept of staging the coal combustion to minimize NO{sub x} is described. The impact of NO{sub x} control design choices on electrical conductivity and overall plant efficiency are described. The results of the NO{sub x} measurements in over 3,000 hours of coal fired testing are summarized. A chemical kinetics model that was used to model the nooks decomposition is described. Finally, optimum design choices for a low nooks plant are discussed and it is shown that the MHD Steam Coal Fired Combined Cycle Power Plant can be designed to operate with nooks emissions less than 0.05 lbm/MMBTU.

  8. Opportunities for Decarbonizing Existing U.S. Coal-Fired Power Plants via CO2 Capture, Utilization and Storage.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Haibo; Ou, Yang; Rubin, Edward S

    2015-07-01

    This study employs a power plant modeling tool to explore the feasibility of reducing unit-level emission rates of CO2 by 30% by retrofitting carbon capture, utilization, and storage (CCUS) to existing U.S. coal-fired electric generating units (EGUs). Our goal is to identify feasible EGUs and their key attributes. The results indicate that for about 60 gigawatts of the existing coal-fired capacity, the implementation of partial CO2 capture appears feasible, though its cost is highly dependent on the unit characteristics and fuel prices. Auxiliary gas-fired boilers can be employed to power a carbon capture process without significant increases in the cost of electricity generation. A complementary CO2 emission trading program can provide additional economic incentives for the deployment of CCS with 90% CO2 capture. Selling and utilizing the captured CO2 product for enhanced oil recovery can further accelerate CCUS deployment and also help reinforce a CO2 emission trading market. These efforts would allow existing coal-fired EGUs to continue to provide a significant share of the U.S. electricity demand. PMID:26023722

  9. Economic comparison of nuclear and coal-fired generation. [Monograph

    SciTech Connect

    Corey, G.R.

    1980-01-01

    This paper compares the current and historic operating performance of 12 large nuclear and coal-fired units now operated by Commonwealth Edison Co., and provides specific comparisons of busbar costs of electricity generated by those units in recent years. It also provides cost comparisons for future nuclear and coal-fired units, and attempts to deal realistically with the effect of future inflation upon these comparisons. The paper deals with the problem of uncertainty, the effect of future developments on present-day comparisons, and how published comparisons have varied over the past four or five years. 9 tables.

  10. Comprehensive assessment of toxic emissions from coal-fired power plants

    SciTech Connect

    1996-09-01

    The 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) have two primary goals: pollution prevention and a market-based least-cost approach to emission control. To address air quality issues as well as permitting and enforcement, the 1990 CAAA contain 11 sections or titles. The individual amendment titles are as follows: Title I - National Ambient Air Quality Standards Title II - Mobile Sources Title III - Hazardous Air Pollutants Title IV - Acid Deposition Control Title V - Permits Title VI - Stratospheric Ozone Protection Chemicals Title VII - Enforcement Title VIII - Miscellaneous Provisions Title IX - Clean Air Research Title X - Disadvantaged Business Concerns Title XI - Clean Air Employment Transition Assistance Titles I, III, IV, and V will change or have the potential to change how operators of coal-fired utility boilers control, monitor, and report emissions. For the purpose of this discussion, Title III is the primary focus.

  11. Novel Nanocrystalline Intermetallic Coatings for Metal Alloys in Coal-fired Environments

    SciTech Connect

    Z. Zak Fang; H. Y. Sohn

    2009-08-31

    Intermetallic coatings (iron aluminide and nickel aluminide) were prepared by a novel reaction process. In the process, the aluminide coating is formed by an in-situ reaction between the aluminum powder fed through a plasma transferred arc (PTA) torch and the metal substrate (steel or Ni-base alloy). Subjected to the high temperature within an argon plasma zone, aluminum powder and the surface of the substrate melt and react to form the aluminide coatings. The prepared coatings were found to be aluminide phases that are porosity-free and metallurgically bonded to the substrate. The coatings also exhibit excellent high-temperature corrosion resistance under the conditions which simulate the steam-side and fire-side environments in coal-fired boilers. It is expected that the principle demonstrated in this process can be applied to the preparation of other intermetallic and alloy coatings.

  12. A coal-fired combustion system for industrial process heating applications. Quarterly technical progress report, October 1992--December 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-29

    This advanced combustion system research program is for the development of innovative coal-fired process heaters which can be used for high temperature melting, smelting and waste vitrification processes. The process heater concepts to be developed are based on advanced glass melting and ore smelting furnaces developed and patented by Vortec Corporation. The process heater systems to be developed have multiple use applications; however, the Phase III research effort is being focused on the development of a process heater system to be used for producing value added vitrified glass products from boiler/incinerator ashesand industrial wastes. The primary objective of the Phase III project is to develop and integrate all the system components, from fuel through total system controls, and then test the complete system in order to evaluate its potential marketability. During the current reporting period, a majority of the effort was spent relining the separator/reservoir and the cyclone melter. The relinings were completed, the cyclonemelter was reinstalled, and the test system was returned to operational status. The wet ESP was delivered and placed on its foundation. The focus during the upcoming months will be completing the integration ofthe wet ESP and conducting the first industrial proof-of-concept test. The other system modifications are well underway with the designs of the recuperator installation and the batch/coal feed system progressing smoothly. The program is still slightly behind the original schedule but it is anticipated that it will be back on schedule by the end of the year. The commercialization planning is continuing with the identification of seven potential near-term commercial demonstration opportunities.

  13. Application of advanced technologies to ash-related problems in boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Baxter, L.L.; Richards, G.; Harb, J.

    1995-01-01

    Prediction of ash behavior in boilers has, for many years, been based on relatively simple relationships involving the composition of inorganic material in fuels. In recent years, advanced analyses for both fuels and deposits have seen increasing use in the solid fuel combustion community. The combination of the standard and advanced analyses, together with a knowledge of boiler design and operating conditions, allow better interpretation of ash behavior in boilers than has previously been possible. This paper discusses several case histories where advanced technologies have been applied to interpret ash behavior in boilers where standard techniques were insufficient. Included in the discussion are: (1) the behavior of blends of fuels; (2) explanations for markedly different behavior between fuels with similar ASTM characteristics; and (3) effects of boiler operating conditions on ash deposit formation.

  14. Engineering development of coal-fired high-performance power systems

    SciTech Connect

    1999-05-01

    A High Performance Power System (HIPPS) is being developed. This system is a coal-fired, combined cycle plant with indirect heating of gas turbine air. Foster Wheeler Development Corporation and a team consisting of Foster Wheeler Energy Corporation, Bechtel Corporation, University of Tennessee Space Institute and Westinghouse Electric Corporation are developing this system. In Phase 1 of the project, a conceptual design of a commercial plant was developed. Technical and economic analyses indicated that the plant would meet the goals of the project which include a 47 percent efficiency (HHV) and a 10 percent lower cost of electricity than an equivalent size PC plant. The concept uses a pyrolysis process to convert coal into fuel gas and char. The char is fired in a High Temperature Advanced Furnace (HITAF). The HITAF is a pulverized fuel-fired boiler/air heater where steam is generated and gas turbine air is indirectly heated. The fuel gas generated in the pyrolyzer is then used to heat the gas turbine air further before it enters the gas turbine. The project is currently in Phase 2 which includes engineering analysis, laboratory testing and pilot plant testing. Research and development is being done on the HIPPS systems that are not commercial or being developed on other projects. Pilot plant testing of the pyrolyzer subsystem and the char combustion subsystem are being done separately, and after each experimental program has been completed, a larger scale pyrolyzer will be tested at the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF) in Wilsonville, AL. The facility is equipped with a gas turbine and a topping combustor, and as such, will provide an opportunity to evaluate integrated pyrolyzer and turbine operation. This report addresses the areas of technical progress for this quarter. The char combustion tests in the arch-fired arrangement were completed this quarter. A total of twenty-one setpoints were successfully completed, firing both synthetically-made char

  15. Engineering development of coal-fired high-performance power systems

    SciTech Connect

    1999-10-01

    A High Performance Power System (HIPPS) is being developed. This system is a coal-fired, combined cycle plant with indirect heating of gas turbine air. Foster Wheeler Development Corporation and a team consisting of Foster Wheeler Energy Corporation, Bechtel Corporation, University of Tennessee Space Institute and Westinghouse Electric Corporation are developing this system. In Phase 1 of the project, a conceptual design of a commercial plant was developed. Technical and economic analyses indicated that the plant would meet the goals of the project which include a 47 percent efficiency (HHV) and a 10 percent lower cost of electricity than an equivalent size PC plant. The concept uses a pyrolysis process to convert coal into fuel gas and char. The char is fired in a High Temperature Advanced Furnace (HITAF). The HITAF is a pulverized fuel-fired boiler/air heater where steam is generated and gas turbine air is indirectly heated. The fuel gas generated in the pyrolyzer is then used to heat the gas turbine air further before it enters the gas turbine. The project is currently in Phase 2 which includes engineering analysis, laboratory testing and pilot plant testing. Research and development is being done on the HIPPS systems that are not commercial or being developed on other projects. Pilot plant testing of the pyrolyzer subsystem and the char combustion subsystem are being done separately, and after each experimental program has been completed, a larger scale pyrolyzer will be tested at the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF) in Wilsonville, AL. The facility is equipped with a gas turbine and a topping combustor, and as such, will provide an opportunity to evaluate integrated pyrolyzer and turbine operation. This report addresses the areas of technical progress for this quarter. Analysis of the arch-fired burner continued during this quarter. Unburned carbon and NOx performance are included in this report. Construction commenced this quarter to modify the CETF

  16. Task 2: Materials for Advanced Boiler and Oxy-combustion Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Holcolm, Gordon R.; McGhee, Barry

    2009-05-01

    The PowerPoint presentation provides an overview of the tasks for the project: Characterize advanced boiler (oxy-fuel combustion, biomass co-fired) gas compositions and ash deposits; Generate critical data on the effects of environmental conditions; develop a unified test method with a view to future standardization; Generate critical data for coating systems for use in advanced boiler systems; Generate critical data for flue gas recycle piping materials for oxy-fuel systems; and, Compile materials performance data from laboratory and pilot plant exposures of candidate alloys for use in advanced boiler systems.

  17. EMISSIONS OF SULFUR TRIOXIDE FROM COAL-FIRED POWER PLANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Emissions of sulfur trioxide (SO3) are a key component of plume opacity and acid deposition. Consequently, these emissions need to be low enough not to cause opacity violations and acid deposition. Generally, a small fraction of sulfur in coal is converted to SO3 in coal-fired co...

  18. Computational Modeling and Assessment Of Nanocoatings for Ultra Supercritical Boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Gandy, David W.; Shingledecker, John P.

    2011-05-11

    Coal-fired power plants are a significant part of the nation's power generating capacity, currently accounting for more than 55% of the country's total electricity production. Extending the reliable lifetimes of fossil fired boiler components and reducing the maintenance costs are essential for economic operation of power plants. Corrosion and erosion are leading causes of superheater and reheater boiler tube failures leading to unscheduled costly outages. Several types of coatings and weld overlays have been used to extend the service life of boiler tubes; however, the protection afforded by such materials was limited approximately one to eight years. Power companies are more recently focused in achieving greater plant efficiency by increasing steam temperature and pressure into the advanced-ultrasupercritical (A-USC) condition with steam temperatures approaching 760°C (1400°F) and operating pressures in excess of 35MPa (5075 psig). Unfortunately, laboratory and field testing suggests that the resultant fireside environment when operating under A-USC conditions can potentially cause significant corrosion to conventional and advanced boiler materials1-2. In order to improve reliability and availability of fossil fired A-USC boilers, it is essential to develop advanced nanostructured coatings that provide excellent corrosion and erosion resistance without adversely affecting the other properties such as toughness and thermal fatigue strength of the component material.

  19. Coal-fired high performance power generating system

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-07-01

    The goals of the program are to develop a coal-fired high performance power generation system (HIPPS) by the year 2000 that is capable of > 47% thermal efficiency; NO[sub x] SO [sub x] and Particulates < 25% NSPS; Cost of electricity 10% lower; coal > 65% of heat input and all solid wastes benign. In order to achieve these goals our team has outlined a research plan based on an optimized analysis of a 250 MW[sub e] combined cycle system applicable to both frame type and aeroderivative gas turbines. Under the constraints of the cycle analysis we have designed a high temperature advanced furnace (HITAF) which integrates several combustor and air heater designs with appropriate ash management procedures. Most of this report discusses the details of work on these components, and the R D Plan for future work. The discussion of the combustor designs illustrates how detailed modeling can be an effective tool to estimate NO[sub x] production, minimum burnout lengths, combustion temperatures and even particulate impact on the combustor walls. When our model is applied to the long flame concept it indicates that fuel bound nitrogen will limit the range of coals that can use this approach. For high nitrogen coals a rapid mixing, rich-lean, deep staging combustor will be necessary. The air heater design has evolved into two segments: a convective heat exchanger downstream of the combustion process; a radiant panel heat exchanger, located in the combustor walls; The relative amount of heat transferred either radiatively or convectively will depend on the combustor type and the ash properties.

  20. DEMONSTRATION OF AN ADVANCED INTEGRATED CONTROL SYSTEM FOR SIMULTANEOUS EMISSIONS REDUCTION

    SciTech Connect

    Suzanne Shea; Randhir Sehgal; Ilga Celmins; Andrew Maxson

    2002-02-01

    The primary objective of the project titled ''Demonstration of an Advanced Integrated Control System for Simultaneous Emissions Reduction'' was to demonstrate at proof-of-concept scale the use of an online software package, the ''Plant Environmental and Cost Optimization System'' (PECOS), to optimize the operation of coal-fired power plants by economically controlling all emissions simultaneously. It combines physical models, neural networks, and fuzzy logic control to provide both optimal least-cost boiler setpoints to the boiler operators in the control room, as well as optimal coal blending recommendations designed to reduce fuel costs and fuel-related derates. The goal of the project was to demonstrate that use of PECOS would enable coal-fired power plants to make more economic use of U.S. coals while reducing emissions.

  1. A coal-fired combustion system for industrial process heating applications. Quarterly technical progress report, July 1993--September 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-30

    This advanced combustion system research program is for the development of innovative coal-fired process heaters which can be used for high temperature melting, smelting and waste vitrification processes. The process heater systems to be developed have multiple use applications; however, the Phase 3 research effort is being focused on the development of a process heater system to be used for producing value added vitrified glass products from boiler/incinerator ashes and industrial wastes. The primary objective of the Phase 3 project is to develop and integrate all the system components, from fuel through total system controls, and then test the complete system in order to evaluate its potential marketability. During the past quarter, the major effort was completing some of the system modification installation designs, completing industry funded testing, developing a surrogate TSCA ash composition, and completing the TSCA ash Test Plan. The installation designs will be used for the equipment modifications planned for the end of CY 93. The industry funded testing consisted of vitrifying Spent Aluminum Potliner (SPL) which is a listed hazardous waste. This testing has verified that SPL can be vitrified into a safe, recyclable glass product. Some results from this testing are provided in Section 2.2.1. The surrogate TSCA ash composition was developed with input from various DOE laboratories and subcontractors. The surrogate ash consists of a mixture of MSW fly ash and bottom ash spiked with heavy metal contaminants. The levels of metal additives are sufficient to ascertain the partitioning of the contaminants between the glass and effluent flow streams. Details of the surrogate composition and the planned testing is provided in Section 4.2.2.

  2. Potential nanotechnology applications for reducing freshwater consumption at coal fired power plants : an early view.

    SciTech Connect

    Elcock, D.

    2010-09-17

    , would reduce energy use and concomitant water consumption. These inefficiencies include air heater inefficiencies, boiler corrosion, low operating temperatures, fuel inefficiencies, and older components that are subject to strain and failure. A variety of nanotechnology applications that could potentially be used to reduce the amount of freshwater consumed - either directly or indirectly - by these areas and activities was identified. These applications include membranes that use nanotechnology or contain nanomaterials for improved water purification and carbon capture; nano-based coatings and lubricants to insulate and reduce heat loss, inhibit corrosion, and improve fuel efficiency; nano-based catalysts and enzymes that improve fuel efficiency and improve sulfur removal efficiency; nanomaterials that can withstand high temperatures; nanofluids that have better heat transfer characteristics than water; nanosensors that can help identify strain and impact damage, detect and monitor water quality parameters, and measure mercury in flue gas; and batteries and capacitors that use nanotechnology to enable utility-scale storage. Most of these potential applications are in the research stage, and few have been deployed at coal-fired power plants. Moving from research to deployment in today's economic environment will be facilitated with federal support. Additional support for research development and deployment (RD&D) for some subset of these applications could lead to reductions in water consumption and could provide lessons learned that could be applied to future efforts. To take advantage of this situation, it is recommended that NETL pursue funding for further research, development, or deployment for one or more of the potential applications identified in this report.

  3. Building America Case Study: Advanced Boiler Load Monitoring Controllers, Chicago, Illinois (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    PARR

    2014-09-01

    Beyond these initial system efficiency upgrades are an emerging class of Advanced Load Monitoring (ALM) aftermarket controllers that dynamically respond to the boiler load, with claims of 10% to 30% of fuel savings over a heating season. For hydronic boilers specifically, these devices perform load monitoring, with continuous measurement of supply and in some cases return water temperatures. Energy savings from these ALM controllers are derived from dynamic management of the boiler differential, where a microprocessor with memory of past boiler cycles prevents the boiler from firing for a period of time, to limit cycling losses and inefficient operation during perceived low load conditions. These differ from OTR controllers, which vary boiler setpoint temperatures with ambient conditions while maintaining a fixed differential. PARR installed and monitored the performance of one type of ALM controller, the M2G from Greffen Systems, at multifamily sites in the city of Chicago and its suburb Cary, IL, both with existing OTR control. Results show that energy savings depend on the degree to which boilers are over-sized for their load, represented by cycling rates. Also savings vary over the heating season with cycling rates, with greater savings observed in shoulder months. Over the monitoring period, over-sized boilers at one site showed reductions in cycling and energy consumption in line with prior laboratory studies, while less over-sized boilers at another site showed muted savings.

  4. Development and testing of a high efficiency advanced coal combustor phase III industrial boiler retrofit. Quarterly technical progress report No. 9, 1 October 1993--31 December 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Jennings, P.; Borio, R.; McGowan, J.G.

    1994-03-01

    This report documents the technical aspects of this project during the ninth quarter of the program. During this quarter, the natural gas baseline testing at the Penn State demonstration boiler was completed, results were analyzed and are presented here. The burner operates in a stable manner over an 8/1 turndown, however due to baghouse temperature limitations (300{degrees}F for acid dewpoint), the burner is not operated for long periods of time below 75% load. Boiler efficiency averaged 83.1% at the 100 percent load rate while increasing to 83.7% at 75% load. NO{sub x} emissions ranged from a low of 0.17 Lbs/MBtu to a high of 0.24 Lbs/MBtu. After the baseline natural gas testing was completed, work continued on hardware optimization and testing with the goal of increasing carbon conversion efficiency on 100% coal firing from {approx}95% to 98%. Several coal handling and feeding problems were encountered during this quarter and no long term testing was conducted. While resolving these problems several shorter term (less than 6 hour) tests were conducted. These included, 100% coal firing tests, 100% natural gas firing tests, testing of air sparges on coal to simulate more primary air and a series of cofiring tests. For 100% coal firing, the carbon conversion efficiency (CCE) obtained this quarter did not exceed the 95-96% barrier previously reached. NO{sub x} emissions on coal only ranged from {approx} 0.42 to {approx} 0.78 Lbs/MBtu. The burner has not been optimized for low NO{sub x} yet, however, due to the short furnace residence time, meeting the goals of 98% CCE and <0.6 Lbs/MBtu NO{sub x} simultaneously will be difficult. Testing on 100% natural gas in the boiler after coal firing indicated no changes in efficiency due to firing in a `dirty` boiler. The co-firing tests showed that increased levels of natural gas firing proportionately decreased NO{sub x}, SO{sub 2}, and CO.

  5. FABRIC FILTRATION ANALYSES FOR THREE UTILITY BOILER FLYASHES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of fabric filter analyses of flyash from three utility boilers. A major aim of the program was to augment the present data base for modeling fabric filter systems designed to control inhalable particulate (IP) emissions from coal-fired boilers. Emphasis w...

  6. Investigating dynamic underground coal fires by means of numerical simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wessling, S.; Kessels, W.; Schmidt, M.; Krause, U.

    2008-01-01

    Uncontrolled burning or smoldering of coal seams, otherwise known as coal fires, represents a worldwide natural hazard. Efficient application of fire-fighting strategies and prevention of mining hazards require that the temporal evolution of fire propagation can be sufficiently precise predicted. A promising approach for the investigation of the temporal evolution is the numerical simulation of involved physical and chemical processes. In the context of the Sino-German Research Initiative `Innovative Technologies for Detection, Extinction and Prevention of Coal Fires in North China,' a numerical model has been developed for simulating underground coal fires at large scales. The objective of such modelling is to investigate observables, like the fire propagation rate, with respect to the thermal and hydraulic parameters of adjacent rock. In the model, hydraulic, thermal and chemical processes are accounted for, with the last process complemented by laboratory experiments. Numerically, one key challenge in modelling coal fires is to circumvent the small time steps resulting from the resolution of fast reaction kinetics at high temperatures. In our model, this problem is solved by means of an `operator-splitting' approach, in which transport and reactive processes of oxygen are independently calculated. At high temperatures, operator-splitting has the decisive advantage of allowing the global time step to be chosen according to oxygen transport, so that time-consuming simulation through the calculation of fast reaction kinetics is avoided. Also in this model, because oxygen distribution within a coal fire has been shown to remain constant over long periods, an additional extrapolation algorithm for the coal concentration has been applied. In this paper, we demonstrate that the operator-splitting approach is particularly suitable for investigating the influence of hydraulic parameters of adjacent rocks on coal fire propagation. A study shows that dynamic propagation

  7. Distribution and Fate of Mercury in Pulverized Bituminous Coal-Fired Power Plants in Coal Energy-Dominant Huainan City, China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Bingyu; Liu, Guijian; Sun, Ruoyu

    2016-05-01

    A better understanding on the partitioning behavior of mercury (Hg) during coal combustion in large-scale coal-fired power plants is fundamental for drafting Hg-emission control regulations. Two large coal-fired utility boilers, equipped with electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and a wet flue gas desulfurization (WFGD) system, respectively, in coal energy-dominant Huainan City, China, were selected to investigate the distribution and fate of Hg during coal combustion. In three sampling campaigns, we found that Hg in bottom ash was severely depleted with a relative enrichment (RE) index <7 %, whereas the RE index for fly ash (9-54%) was comparatively higher and variable. Extremely high Hg was concentrated in gypsum (≤4500 ng/g), which is produced in the WFGD system. Mass balance calculation shows that the shares of Hg in bottom ash, fly ash, WFGD products (gypsum, effluents, sludge), and stack emissions were <2, 17-32, 7-22, and 54-82%, respectively. The Hg-removal efficiencies of ESPs, WFGD, and ESPs + WFGD were 17-32, 10-29, and 36-46%, respectively. The Hg-emission factor of studied boilers was in a high range of 0.24-0.29 g Hg/t coal. We estimated that Hg emissions in all Huainan coal-fired power plants varied from 1.8 Mg in 2003 to 7.3 Mg in 2010. PMID:26883032

  8. Coal-fired high performance power generating system. Quarterly progress report, July 1, 1993--September 30, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-31

    This report covers work carried out under Task 3, Preliminary Research and Development, and Task 4, Commercial Generating Plant Design, under contract DE-AC22-92PC91155, {open_quotes}Engineering Development of a Coal Fired High Performance Power Generation System{close_quotes} between DOE Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center and United Technologies Research Center. The goals of the program are to develop a coal-fired high performance power generation system (HIPPS) by the year 2000 that is capable of >47% thermal efficiency; NO{sub x}, SO{sub x}, and particulates {le} 25% NSPS; cost {ge} 65% of heat input; and all solid wastes benign. The report discusses progress in cycle analysis, chemical reactor modeling, ash deposition rate calculations for HITAF (high temperature advanced furnace) convective air heater, air heater materials, and deposit initiation and growth on ceramic substrates.

  9. Cost analysis of a coal-fired power plant using the NPV method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Ravinder; Sharma, Avdhesh Kr.; Tewari, P. C.

    2015-06-01

    The present study investigates the impact of various factors affecting coal-fired power plant economics of 210 MW subcritical unit situated in north India for electricity generation. In this paper, the cost data of various units of thermal power plant in terms of power output capacity have been fitted using power law with the help of the data collected from a literature search. To have a realistic estimate of primary components or equipment, it is necessary to include the latest cost of these components. The cost analysis of the plant was carried out on the basis of total capital investment, operating cost and revenue. The total capital investment includes the total direct plant cost and total indirect plant cost. Total direct plant cost involves the cost of equipment (i.e. boiler, steam turbine, condenser, generator and auxiliary equipment including condensate extraction pump, feed water pump, etc.) and other costs associated with piping, electrical, civil works, direct installation cost, auxiliary services, instrumentation and controls, and site preparation. The total indirect plant cost includes the cost of engineering and set-up. The net present value method was adopted for the present study. The work presented in this paper is an endeavour to study the influence of some of the important parameters on the lifetime costs of a coal-fired power plant. For this purpose, parametric study with and without escalation rates for a period of 35 years plant life was evaluated. The results predicted that plant life, interest rate and the escalation rate were observed to be very sensitive on plant economics in comparison to other factors under study.

  10. An intelligent emissions controller for fuel lean gas reburn in coal-fired power plants.

    PubMed

    Reifman, J; Feldman, E E; Wei, T Y; Glickert, R W

    2000-02-01

    The application of artificial intelligence techniques for performance optimization of the fuel lean gas reburn (FLGR) system is investigated. A multilayer, feedforward artificial neural network is applied to model static nonlinear relationships between the distribution of injected natural gas into the upper region of the furnace of a coal-fired boiler and the corresponding oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emissions exiting the furnace. Based on this model, optimal distributions of injected gas are determined such that the largest NOx reduction is achieved for each value of total injected gas. This optimization is accomplished through the development of a new optimization method based on neural networks. This new optimal control algorithm, which can be used as an alternative generic tool for solving multidimensional nonlinear constrained optimization problems, is described and its results are successfully validated against an off-the-shelf tool for solving mathematical programming problems. Encouraging results obtained using plant data from one of Commonwealth Edison's coal-fired electric power plants demonstrate the feasibility of the overall approach. Preliminary results show that the use of this intelligent controller will also enable the determination of the most cost-effective operating conditions of the FLGR system by considering, along with the optimal distribution of the injected gas, the cost differential between natural gas and coal and the open-market price of NOx emission credits. Further study, however, is necessary, including the construction of a more comprehensive database, needed to develop high-fidelity process models and to add carbon monoxide (CO) emissions to the model of the gas reburn system. PMID:10680354

  11. ASSESSMENT OF LOW COST NOVEL SORBENTS FOR COAL-FIRED POWER PLANT MERCURY CONTROL

    SciTech Connect

    Sharon Sjostrom

    2004-03-01

    The injection of sorbents upstream of a particulate control device is one of the most promising methods for controlling mercury emissions from coal-fired utility boilers with electrostatic precipitators and fabric filters. Studies carried out at the bench-, pilot-, and full-scale have shown that a wide variety of factors may influence sorbent mercury removal effectiveness. These factors include mercury species, flue gas composition, process conditions, existing pollution control equipment design, and sorbent characteristics. The objective of the program is to obtain the necessary information to assess the viability of lower cost alternatives to commercially available activated carbon for mercury control in coal-fired utilities. Prior to injection testing, a number of sorbents were tested in a slipstream fixed-bed device both in the laboratory and at two field sites. Based upon the performance of the sorbents in a fixed-bed device and the estimated cost of mercury control using each sorbent, seventeen sorbents were chosen for screening in a slipstream injection system at a site burning a Western bituminous coal/petcoke blend, five were chosen for screening at a site burning a subbituminous Powder River Basin (PRB) coal, and nineteen sorbents were evaluated at a third site burning a PRB coal. Sorbents evaluated during the program were of various materials, including: activated carbons, treated carbons, other non-activated carbons, and non-carbon material. The economics and performance of the novel sorbents evaluated demonstrate that there are alternatives to the commercial standard. Smaller enterprises may have the opportunity to provide lower price mercury sorbents to power generation customers under the right set of circumstances.

  12. Micronized coal solves mushroom grower's boiler headaches

    SciTech Connect

    Reason, J.

    1984-03-01

    A brief account is given of a Utah mushroom grower who has replaced two underfeed stoker-fired boilers requiring 7 attendants by an ultra-fine pulverised coal-fired system. The coal is ground in a proprietary rotary grinder to 80% through a 325-mesh screen. Information is presented on the mill and the special refractory burners required.

  13. Thermal surface characteristics of coal fires 1 results of in-situ measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jianzhong; Kuenzer, Claudia

    2007-12-01

    Natural underground coal fires are fires in coal seams occurring subsurface. The fires are ignited through a process named spontaneous combustion, which occurs based on a natural reaction but is usually triggered through human interaction. Coal mining activities expose coal to the air. This leads to the exothermal oxidation of the carbon in the coal with the air's oxygen to CO 2 and - under certain circumstances - to spontaneous combustion. Coal fires occur in many countries world wide - however, currently the Chinese coal mining industry faces the biggest problems with coal fires. Coal fires destroy the valuable resource coal and furthermore lead to many environmental degradation phenomena such as the deterioration of surrounding vegetation, land subsidence and the emission of toxic gasses (CO, N 2O). They additionally contribute to the emission of green house relevant gasses such as CO 2 and CH 4 to the atmosphere. In this paper we present thermal characteristics of coal fires as measured in-situ during a field campaign to the Wuda coal fire area in south-central Inner Mongolia, China. Thermal characteristics include temperature anomaly measurements at the surface, spatial surface temperature profiles of fire areas and unaffected background areas, diurnal temperature profiles, and temperature measurements inside of coal fire induced cracks in the overlying bedrock. For all the measurements the effects of uneven solar heating through influences of slope and aspect are considered. Our findings show that coal fires result in strong or subtle thermal surface anomalies. Especially the latter can easily be influenced by heating of the surrounding background material through solar influences. Temperature variation of background rocks with different albedo, slope, aspect or vegetation cover can substantially influence the detectability of thermal anomalies. In the worst case coal fire related thermal anomalies can be completely masked by solar patterns during the daytime

  14. [Comprehensive fuzzy evaluation of nitrogen oxide control technologies for coal-fired power plants].

    PubMed

    Yu, Chao; Wang, Shu-xiao; Hao, Ji-ming

    2010-07-01

    A multi-level assessment index system was established to quantitatively and comprehensively evaluate the performance of typical nitrogen oxide control technologies for coal-fired power plants. Comprehensive fuzzy evaluation was conducted to assess six NO, control technologies, including low NO, burner (LNB), over the fire (OFA), flue gas reburning (Reburning), selective catalyst reduction (SCR), selective non-catalyst reduction (SNCR) and hybrid SCR/SNCR. Case studies indicated that combination of SCR and LNB are the optimal choice for wall-fired boilers combusting anthracite coal which requires NO, removal efficiency to be over 70%, however, for W-flame or tangential boilers combusting bituminous and sub-bituminous coal which requires 30% NO, removal, LNB and reburning are better choices. Therefore, we recommend that in the developed and ecological frangible regions, large units burning anthracite or meager coal should install LNB and SCR and other units should install LNB and SNCR. In the regions with environmental capacity, units burning anthracite or meager coal shall install LNB and SNCR, and other units shall apply LNB to reduce NO, emissions. PMID:20825011

  15. Industry perspectives on increasing the efficiency of coal-fired power generation

    SciTech Connect

    Torrens, I.M.; Stenzel, W.C.

    1997-12-31

    Independent power producers will build a substantial fraction of expected new coal-fired power generation in developing countries over the coming decades. To reduce perceived risk and obtain financing for their projects, they are currently building and plan to continue to build subcritical coal-fired plants with generating efficiency below 40%. Up-to-date engineering assessment leads to the conclusion that supercritical generating technology, capable of efficiencies of up to 45%, can produce electricity at a lower total cost than conventional plants. If such plants were built in Asia over the coming decades, the savings in carbon dioxide emissions over their lifetime would be measured in billions of tons. IPPs perceive supercritical technology as riskier and higher cost than conventional technology. The truth needs to be confirmed by discussions with additional experienced power engineering companies. Better communication among the interested parties could help to overcome the IPP perception issue. Governments working together with industry might be able to identify creative financing arrangements which can encourage the use of more efficient pulverized clean coal technologies, while awaiting the commercialization of advanced clean coal technologies like gasification combined cycle and pressurized fluidized bed combustion.

  16. Coal-fired high performance power generating system. Quarterly progress report, April 1--June 30, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-01

    This report covers work carried out under Task 2, Concept Definition and Analysis, Task 3, Preliminary R&D and Task 4, Commercial Generating Plant Design, under Contract AC22-92PC91155, ``Engineering Development of a Coal Fired High Performance Power Generation System`` between DOE Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center and United Technologies Research Center. The goals of the program are to develop a coal-fired high performance power generation system (HIPPS) by the year 2000 that is capable of: >47% thermal efficiency; NO{sub x}, SO{sub x} and Particulates {le}25% NSPS; cost {ge}65% of heat input; all solid wastes benign. In order to achieve these goals our team has outlined a research plan based on an optimized analysis of a 250 MW{sub e} combined cycle system applicable to both frame type and aeroderivative gas turbines. Under the constraints of the cycle analysis we have designed a high temperature advanced furnace (HITAF) which integrates several combustor and air heater designs with appropriate ash management procedures. A survey of currently available high temperature alloys has been completed and some of their high temperature properties are shown for comparison. Several of the most promising candidates will be selected for testing to determine corrosion resistance and high temperature strength. The corrosion resistance testing of candidate refractory coatings is continuing and some of the recent results are presented. This effort will provide important design information that will ultimately establish the operating ranges of the HITAF.

  17. System studies of coal fired-closed cycle MHD for central station power plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zauderer, B.

    1976-01-01

    This paper presents a discussion of the closed cycle MHD results obtained in a recent study of various advanced energy conversion (ECAS) power systems. The study was part of the first phase of this ECAS study. Since this was the first opportunity to evaluate the coal fired closed cycle MHD system, a number of iterations were required to partially optimize the system. The present paper deals with the latter part of the study in which the direct coal fired, MHD topping-steam bottoming cycle was established as the current choice for central station power generation. The emphasis of the paper is on the background assumptions and the conclusions that can be drawn from the closed cycle MHD analysis. The author concludes that closed cycle MHD has efficiencies comparable to that of open cycle MHD and that both systems are considerably more efficient than the other system studies in Phase 1 of the GE ECAS. Its cost will possibly be slightly higher than that of the open cycle MHD system. Also, with reasonable fuel escalation assumptions, both systems can produce lower cost electricity than conventional steam power plants. Suggestions for further work in closed cycle MHD components and systems is made.

  18. Coal-fired high performance power generating system. Quarterly progress report, January 1--March 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-31

    This report covers work carried out under Task 2, Concept Definition and Analysis, and Task 3, Preliminary R and D, under contract DE-AC22-92PC91155, ``Engineering Development of a Coal Fired High Performance Power Generation System`` between DOE Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center and United Technologies Research Center. The goals of the program are to develop a coal-fired high performance power generation system (HIPPS) by the year 2000 that is capable of: > 47% thermal efficiency; NO{sub x}, SO{sub x} and Particulates {le} 25% NSPS; cost {ge} 65% of heat input; and all solid wastes benign. In order to achieve these goals our team has outlined a research plan based on an optimized analysis of a 250 MW{sub e} combined cycle system applicable to both frame type and aeroderivative gas turbines. Under the constraints of the cycle analysis we have designed a high temperature advanced furnace (FHTAF) which integrates several combustor and air heater designs with appropriate ash management procedures. The cycle optimization effort has brought about several revisions to the system configuration resulting from: (1) the use of Illinois No. 6 coal instead of Utah Blind Canyon; (2) the use of coal rather than methane as a reburn fuel; (3) reducing radiant section outlet temperatures to 1700F (down from 1800F); and (4) the need to use higher performance (higher cost) steam cycles to offset losses introduced as more realistic operating and construction constraints are identified.

  19. Magnetohydrodynamics coal-fired flow facility: Quarterly progress report, July--September 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-04-01

    In this Quarterly Technical progress report, UTSI reports on progress in proof-of-concept (POC) testing and development of the components for a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) steam bottoming plant. The primary activities discussed are results of a 252 hour, coal-fired test in the Department of Energy Coal Fired Flow Facility (CFFF). The performance of the upstream components, which simulate the MHD topping cycle for the generation of test gases with the correct time-temperature history, was significantly more reliable than in previous tests. In the bottoming cycle tests continued on candidate superheater test module (SHTM) tube materials in three different temperature zones. The test achieved all objectives in this area. Difficulties continued in keeping the accumulation of deposits sufficiently blown-off on the high temperature tubes of the first test section and the following cooling section. Particulate loading samples were taken to evaluate the effectiveness of the baghouse and electrostatic precipitator (ESP). Results of varying the flow rate through the ESP to determine the minimum specific collection area (SCA) to meet the New Source Performance Standard (NSPS) particulate emission standards are reported. Reports of on-going studies and analyses are summarized. Results of utilization of advanced diagnostics by both UTSI and MSU are included. Data and analyses from stack gas analysis, water quality, ambient air sampling and terrestrial ecology programs are summarized and future plans are outlined. 14 figs., 1 tab.

  20. ADVANCED EMISSIONS CONTROL DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM

    SciTech Connect

    G.A. Farthing

    2001-02-06

    The primary objective of the Advanced Emissions Control Development Program (AECDP) is to develop practical, cost-effective strategies for reducing the emissions of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs, or air toxics) from coal-fired boilers. The project goal is to effectively control air toxic emissions through the use of conventional flue gas cleanup equipment such as electrostatic precipitators (ESPs), fabric filters (baghouses), and wet flue gas desulfurization (WFGD) systems. Development work initially concentrated on the capture of trace metals, fine particulate, hydrogen chloride, and hydrogen fluoride. Recent work has focused almost exclusively on the control of mercury emissions.

  1. Advanced Emissions Control Development Program

    SciTech Connect

    G. A. Farthing; G. T. Amrhein; G. A. Kudlac; D. A. Yurchison; D. K. McDonald; M. G. Milobowski

    2001-03-31

    The primary objective of the Advanced Emissions Control Development Program (AECDP) is to develop practical, cost-effective strategies for reducing the emissions of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs, or air toxics) from coal-fired boilers. This objective is being met by identifying ways to effectively control air toxic emissions through the use of conventional flue gas cleanup equipment such as electrostatic precipitators (ESPs), fabric filters (fabric filters), and wet flue gas desulfurization (wet FGD) systems. Development work initially concentrated on the capture of trace metals, hydrogen chloride, and hydrogen fluoride. Recent work has focused almost exclusively on the control of mercury emissions.

  2. Direct estimation of diffuse gaseous emissions from coal fires: current methods and future directions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Engle, Mark A.; Olea, Ricardo A.; O'Keefe, Jennifer M. K.; Hower, James C.; Geboy, Nicholas J.

    2013-01-01

    Coal fires occur in nature spontaneously, contribute to increases in greenhouse gases, and emit atmospheric toxicants. Increasing interest in quantifying coal fire emissions has resulted in the adaptation and development of specialized approaches and adoption of numerical modeling techniques. Overview of these methods for direct estimation of diffuse gas emissions from coal fires is presented in this paper. Here we take advantage of stochastic Gaussian simulation to interpolate CO2 fluxes measured using a dynamic closed chamber at the Ruth Mullins coal fire in Perry County, Kentucky. This approach allows for preparing a map of diffuse gas emissions, one of the two primary ways that gases emanate from coal fires, and establishing the reliability of the study both locally and for the entire fire. Future research directions include continuous and automated sampling to improve quantification of gaseous coal fire emissions.

  3. Development and Testing of Industrial Scale Coal Fired Combustion System, Phase 3

    SciTech Connect

    Bert Zauderer

    1998-09-30

    Coal Tech Corp's mission is to develop, license & sell innovative, lowest cost, solid fuel fired power systems & total emission control processes using proprietary and patented technology for domestic and international markets. The present project 'DEVELOPMENT & TESTING OF INDUSTRIAL SCALE, COAL FIRED COMBUSTION SYSTEM, PHASE 3' on DOE Contract DE-AC22-91PC91162 was a key element in achieving this objective. The project consisted of five tasks that were divided into three phases. The first phase, 'Optimization of First Generation 20 MMBtu/hr Air-Cooled Slagging Coal Tech Combustor', consisted of three tasks, which are detailed in Appendix 'A' of this report. They were implemented in 1992 and 1993 at the first generation, 20 MMBtu/hour, combustor-boiler test site in Williamsport, PA. It consisted of substantial combustor modifications and coal-fired tests designed to improve the combustor's wall cooling, slag and ash management, automating of its operation, and correcting severe deficiencies in the coal feeding to the combustor. The need for these changes was indicated during the prior 900-hour test effort on this combustor that was conducted as part of the DOE Clean Coal Program. A combination of combustor changes, auxiliary equipment changes, sophisticated multi-dimensional combustion analysis, computer controlled automation, and series of single and double day shift tests totaling about 300 hours, either resolved these operational issues or indicated that further corrective changes were needed in the combustor design. The key result from both analyses and tests was that the combustor must be substantially lengthened to maximize combustion efficiency and sharply increase slag retention in the combustor. A measure of the success of these modifications was realized in the third phase of this project, consisting of task 5 entitled: 'Site Demonstration with the Second Generation 20 MMBtu/hr Air-Cooled Slagging Coal Tech Combustor'. The details of the task 5 effort are

  4. Reducing water freshwater consumption at coal-fired power plants : approaches used outside the United States.

    SciTech Connect

    Elcock, D.

    2011-05-09

    Coal-fired power plants consume huge quantities of water, and in some water-stressed areas, power plants compete with other users for limited supplies. Extensive use of coal to generate electricity is projected to continue for many years. Faced with increasing power demands and questionable future supplies, industries and governments are seeking ways to reduce freshwater consumption at coal-fired power plants. As the United States investigates various freshwater savings approaches (e.g., the use of alternative water sources), other countries are also researching and implementing approaches to address similar - and in many cases, more challenging - water supply and demand issues. Information about these non-U.S. approaches can be used to help direct near- and mid-term water-consumption research and development (R&D) activities in the United States. This report summarizes the research, development, and deployment (RD&D) status of several approaches used for reducing freshwater consumption by coal-fired power plants in other countries, many of which could be applied, or applied more aggressively, at coal-fired power plants in the United States. Information contained in this report is derived from literature and Internet searches, in some cases supplemented by communication with the researchers, authors, or equipment providers. Because there are few technical, peer-reviewed articles on this topic, much of the information in this report comes from the trade press and other non-peer-reviewed references. Reducing freshwater consumption at coal-fired power plants can occur directly or indirectly. Direct approaches are aimed specifically at reducing water consumption, and they include dry cooling, dry bottom ash handling, low-water-consuming emissions-control technologies, water metering and monitoring, reclaiming water from in-plant operations (e.g., recovery of cooling tower water for boiler makeup water, reclaiming water from flue gas desulfurization [FGD] systems), and

  5. Political and technical issues of coal fire extinction in the Kyoto framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, U.; Chen-Brauchler, D.; Rüter, H.; Fischer, C.; Bing, K.

    2009-04-01

    It is a highly desirable effort to extinguish as much coal fires as possible in short time to prevent large losses of energy resources and to minimise CO2 and other exhaust gas releases from such sources. Unfortunately, extinguishing coal fires needs massive financial investments, skilled man power, suited technology and a long time. Even mid to small scale coal fires need several months of extinguishing measures and of monitoring time after extinction resulting in expenditures of a minimum of several hundred thousand Euros. Large companies might be willing to spend money for coal fire extinction measures but smaller holdings or regional governments might not have the monetary resources for it. Since there is no law in China that demands coal fire extinction, measures under the Kyoto framework may be applied to sell CO2 certificates for prevented emissions from extinguished coal fires and thus used as a financial stimulus for coal fire extinction activities. The set-up for methodologies and project designs is especially complex for coal fire extinction measures and thus for necessary exploration, evaluation and monitoring using geophysical and remote sensing methods. A brief overview of most important formal and technical aspects is given to outline the conditions for a potentially successful CDM application on coal fires based on geophysical observations and numerical modelling.

  6. Technology Solutions Case Study: Advanced Boiler Load Monitoring Controls, Chicago, Illinois

    SciTech Connect

    2014-09-01

    Most of Chicago’s older multifamily housing stock is heated by centrally metered steam or hydronic systems. The cost of heat is typically absorbed into the owner’s operating cost and is then passed to tenants. Central boilers typically have long service lifetimes; the incentive for retrofit system efficiency upgrades is greater than equipment replacement for the efficiency-minded owner. System improvements as the “low-hanging fruit” are familiar, from improved pipe insulation to aftermarket controls such as outdoor temperature reset (OTR) or lead/lag controllers for sites with multiple boilers. Beyond these initial system efficiency upgrades are an emerging class of Advanced Load Monitoring (ALM) aftermarket controllers that dynamically respond to the boiler load, with claims of 10% to 30% of fuel savings over a heating season. In this project, the Building America team Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit (PARR) installed and monitored an ALM aftermarket controller, the M2G from Greffen Systems, at two Chicago area multifamily buildings with existing OTR control. Results show that energy savings depend on the degree to which boilers are oversized for their load, represented by cycling rates. Also, savings vary over the heating season with cycling rates, with greater savings observed in shoulder months. Over the monitoring period, oversized boilers at one site showed reductions in cycling and energy consumption in line with prior laboratory studies, while less oversized boilers at another site showed muted savings.

  7. The magnetohydrodynamics Coal-Fired Flow Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-07-01

    In this quarterly technical progress report, UTSI summarizes the results of a multi-task research and development project directed toward the development of the technology for the commercialization of the steam bottoming plant for the MHD steam combined cycle power plant. The report covers the final test in a 2000-hour proof-of-concept (POC) test series on eastern coal, the plans and progress for the facility modifications and the conduct of the POC tests to be conducted with western coal. Results summarized in the report include chloride emissions from the particle removal (ESP/BH) processes, nitrogen and sulfur oxide emissions for various tests conditions, measurements of particulate control efficiency and management of the facility holding ponds during testing. Activities relating to corrosion and deposition probe measurements during testing and the fouling of heat transfer tubes and interaction with sootblowing cycles are summarized. The performance of both UTSI and Mississippi State University (MSU) advanced diagnostic systems is reported. Significant administrative and contractual actions are included. 2 refs., 28 figs., 7 tabs.

  8. Assessment of pulverized-coal-fired combustion performance: Final report for the period September 1980--September 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Richter, W.F.; Clark, W.; Pohl, J.H.; Payne, R.

    1987-06-01

    The purpose of this program was to evaluate an engineering analysis procedure which could be used to assess the impact on thermal performance of converting gas and oil fired equipment to coal. The program consisted of four major tasks: (1) Engineering Analysis. The objective was to evaluate currently available models which could be used to predict combustor performance and to define a procedure which could be used to assess the impact of a coal firing in a boiler or furnace; (2) Reactor Studies. The purpose was to evaluate, under controlled conditions, the radiative properties of fly ash clouds; (3) Pilot Scale Experiments. This involved a combustion trial with gas and coals which were burned at 0.7 /times/ 10/sup 6/ Btu/hr in a pilot-scale combustor. The purpose was to verify and supplement the results of the small-scale reactor studies on the radiant properties of coal flames at larger scale; (4) Reporting. Engineering analysis procedures were used to identify those fuels related properties which had a major impact on the thermal performance of furnaces. The major result of the study is that thermal performance of coal-fired furnaces is dominated by the formation of fly ash deposits on the heat transfer surfaces. The key parameters which influence thermal performance are: thickness, thermal conductivity, and surface emissivity or absorptivity. 105 refs., 170 figs., 29 tabs.

  9. Atmospheric emissions estimation of Hg, As, and Se from coal-fired power plants in China, 2007.

    PubMed

    Tian, Hezhong; Wang, Yan; Xue, Zhigang; Qu, Yiping; Chai, Fahe; Hao, Jiming

    2011-07-15

    Over half of coal in China is burned directly by power plants, becoming an important source of hazardous trace element emissions, such as mercury (Hg), arsenic (As), and selenium (Se), etc. Based on coal consumption by each power plant, emission factors classified by different boiler patterns and air pollution control devices configuration, atmospheric emissions of Hg, As, and Se from coal-fired power plants in China are evaluated. The national total emissions of Hg, As, and Se from coal-fired power plants in 2007 are calculated at 132 t, 550 t, and 787 t, respectively. Furthermore, according to the percentage of coal consumed by units equipped with different types of PM devices and FGD systems, speciation of mercury is estimated as follows: 80.48 t of Hg, 49.98 t of Hg(2+), and 1.89 t of Hg(P), representing 60.81%, 37.76%, and 1.43% of the totals, respectively. The emissions of Hg, As, and Se in China's eastern and central provinces are much higher than those in the west, except for provinces involved in the program of electricity transmission from west to east China, such as Sichuan, Guizhou, Yunnan, Shaanxi, etc. PMID:21621816

  10. LOCAL IMPACTS OF MERCURY EMISSIONS FROM COAL FIRED POWER PLANTS.

    SciTech Connect

    SULLIVAN, T.M.; BOWERMAN, B.; ADAMS, J.; MILIAN, L.; LIPFERT, F.; SUBRAMANIAM, S.; BLAKE, R.

    2005-09-21

    Mercury is a neurotoxin that accumulates in the food chain and is therefore a health concern. The primary human exposure pathway is through fish consumption. Coal-fired power plants emit mercury and there is uncertainty over whether this creates localized hot spots of mercury leading to substantially higher levels of mercury in water bodies and therefore higher exposure. To obtain direct evidence of local deposition patterns, soil and vegetations samples from around three U.S. coal-fired power plants were collected and analyzed for evidence of hot spots and for correlation with model predictions of deposition. At all three sites, there was no correlation between modeled mercury deposition and either soil concentrations or vegetation concentrations. It was estimated that less than 2% of the total mercury emissions from these plants deposited within 15 km of these plants. These small percentages of deposition are consistent with the literature review findings of only minor perturbations in environmental levels, as opposed to hot spots, near the plants. The major objective of the sampling studies was to determine if there was evidence for hot spots of mercury deposition around coal-fired power plants. From a public health perspective, such a hot spot must be large enough to insure that it did not occur by chance, and it must increase mercury concentrations to a level in which health effects are a concern in a water body large enough to support a population of subsistence fishers. The results of this study suggest that neither of these conditions has been met.

  11. Slag processing system for direct coal-fired gas turbines

    DOEpatents

    Pillsbury, Paul W.

    1990-01-01

    Direct coal-fired gas turbine systems and methods for their operation are provided by this invention. The systems include a primary combustion compartment coupled to an impact separator for removing molten slag from hot combustion gases. Quenching means are provided for solidifying the molten slag removed by the impact separator, and processing means are provided forming a slurry from the solidified slag for facilitating removal of the solidified slag from the system. The released hot combustion gases, substantially free of molten slag, are then ducted to a lean combustion compartment and then to an expander section of a gas turbine.

  12. Corrosion protection pays off for coal-fired power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, T.

    2006-11-15

    Zinc has long been used to hot-dip galvanise steel to deliver protection in harsh environments. Powder River Basin or eastern coal-fired plants benefit from using galvanized steel for conveyors, vibratory feeders, coal hoppers, chutes, etc. because maintenance costs are essentially eliminated. When life cycle costs for this process are compared to an alternative three-coal paint system for corrosion protection, the latter costs 5-10 times more than hot-dip galvanizing. An AEP Power Plant in San Juan, Puerto Rico and the McDuffie Coal Terminal in Mobile, AL, USA have both used hot-dip galvanized steel. 1 fig., 1 tab.

  13. ENGINEERING DEVELOPMENT OF COAL-FIRED HIGH-PERFORMANCE POWER SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    1998-11-01

    A High Performance Power System (HIPPS) is being developed. This system is a coal-fired, combined cycle plant with indirect heating of gas turbine air. Foster Wheeler Development Corporation and a team consisting of Foster Wheeler Energy Corporation, Bechtel Corporation, University of Tennessee Space Institute and Westinghouse Electric Corporation are developing this system. In Phase 1 of the project, a conceptual design of a commercial plant was developed. Technical and economic analyses indicated that the plant would meet the goals of the project which include a 47 percent efficiency (HHV) and a 10 percent lower cost of electricity than an equivalent size PC plant. The concept uses a pyrolyzation process to convert coal into fuel gas and char. The char is fired in a High Temperature Advanced Furnace (HITAF). The HITAF is a pulverized fuel-fired boiler/air heater where steam is generated and gas turbine air is indirectly heated. The fuel gas generated in the pyrolyzer is then used to heat the gas turbine air further before it enters the gas turbine. The project is currently in Phase 2, which includes engineering analysis, laboratory testing and pilot plant testing. Research and development is being done on the HIPPS systems that are not commercial or being developed on other projects. Pilot plant testing of the pyrolyzer subsystem and the char combustion subsystem are being done separately, and after each experimental program has been completed, a larger scale pyrolyzer will be tested at the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF) in Wilsonville, Al. The facility is equipped with a gas turbine and a topping combustor, and as such, will provide an opportunity to evaluate integrated pyrolyzer and turbine operation. The design of the char burner was completed during this quarter. The burner is designed for arch-firing and has a maximum capacity of 30 MMBtu/hr. This size represents a half scale version of a typical commercial burner. The burner is outfitted with

  14. Modeling of integrated environmental control systems for coal-fired power plants. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Rubin, E.S.; Salmento, J.S.; Frey, H.C.; Abu-Baker, A.; Berkenpas, M.

    1991-05-01

    The Integrated Environmental Control Model (IECM) was designed to permit the systematic evaluation of environmental control options for pulverized coal-fired (PC) power plants. Of special interest was the ability to compare the performance and cost of advanced pollution control systems to ``conventional`` technologies for the control of particulate, SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x}. Of importance also was the ability to consider pre-combustion, combustion and post-combustion control methods employed alone or in combination to meet tough air pollution emission standards. Finally, the ability to conduct probabilistic analyses is a unique capability of the IECM. Key results are characterized as distribution functions rather than as single deterministic values. (VC)

  15. Modeling of integrated environmental control systems for coal-fired power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Rubin, E.S.; Salmento, J.S.; Frey, H.C.; Abu-Baker, A.; Berkenpas, M.

    1991-05-01

    The Integrated Environmental Control Model (IECM) was designed to permit the systematic evaluation of environmental control options for pulverized coal-fired (PC) power plants. Of special interest was the ability to compare the performance and cost of advanced pollution control systems to conventional'' technologies for the control of particulate, SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x}. Of importance also was the ability to consider pre-combustion, combustion and post-combustion control methods employed alone or in combination to meet tough air pollution emission standards. Finally, the ability to conduct probabilistic analyses is a unique capability of the IECM. Key results are characterized as distribution functions rather than as single deterministic values. (VC)

  16. System studies of coal fired-closed cycle MHD for central station power plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zauderer, B.

    1976-01-01

    This paper presents a discussion of the closed-cycle MHD results obtained in a recent study of various advanced energy-conversion power systems. The direct coal-fired MHD topping-steam bottoming cycle was established as the current choice for central station power generation. Emphasis is placed on the background assumptions and the conclusions that can be drawn from the closed-cycle MHD analysis. It is concluded that closed-cycle MHD has efficiencies comparable to that of open-cycle MHD. Its cost will possibly be slightly higher than that of the open-cycle MHD system. Also, with reasonable fuel escalation assumptions, both systems can produce lower-cost electricity than conventional steam power plants. Suggestions for further work in closed-cycle MHD components and systems are made.

  17. Modeling of integrated environmental control systems for coal-fired power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Rubin, E.S.

    1989-10-01

    The general goal of this research project is to enhance, and transfer to DOE, a new computer simulation model for analyzing the performance and cost of environmental control systems for coal-fired power plants. Systems utilizing pre-combustion, combustion, or post-combustion control methods, individually or in combination, may be considered. A unique capability of this model is the probabilistic representation of uncertainty in model input parameters. This stochastic simulation capability allows the performance and cost of environmental control systems to be quantified probabilistically, accounting for the interactions among all uncertain process and economic parameters. This method facilitates more rigorous comparisons between conventional and advanced clean coal technologies promising improved cost and/or effectiveness for SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} removal. Detailed modeling of several pre-combustion and post-combustion processes of interest to DOE/PETC have been selected for analysis as part of this project.

  18. Aspects and Strategies of Numerical Modelling of Underground Coal Fires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wuttke, M. W.; Han, J.; Liu, G.; Kessels, W.; Schmidt, M.; Gusat, D.; Fischer, Chr.; Hirner, A.; Meyer, U.

    2009-04-01

    Numerical modelling of underground coal fires has become a valuable tool even for practical fire extinction work. The approaches, methods and finally codes that are used depend on the targets that are aimed at by the particular modelling task. The most general one is to fully understand the processes that sustain or suppress the fire. Another purpose is to produce realistic data for regions that are not accessible (e . g. underneath a burning coal seam) or couldn't be investigated (e.g due to limited resources) to estimate the complete energy budget of the fire. Last but not least one would like to forecast the fire dynamics to predict the future damage or to assess the effectivenees of extinction work. These purposes require the consideration of all aspects with respect to thermal, hydraulic, mechanical and chemical (THMC) processes. At the moment there is no single code that completely covers all these aspects with every degree of complexity. Within the Sino-German project "Innovative Technologies for Exploration, Extinction and Monitoring of Coal Fires in North China" we apply existing codes with different foci with respect to THMC processes and try to combine all codes to one comprehensive model. Besides the sophisticated academic modelling approach we also pursue the concept of "Onsite" modelling to enable fire fighting personnel to perform simplified modelling tasks even by means of web-based applications.

  19. Bioremediation for coal-fired power stations using macroalgae.

    PubMed

    Roberts, David A; Paul, Nicholas A; Bird, Michael I; de Nys, Rocky

    2015-04-15

    Macroalgae are a productive resource that can be cultured in metal-contaminated waste water for bioremediation but there have been no demonstrations of this biotechnology integrated with industry. Coal-fired power production is a water-limited industry that requires novel approaches to waste water treatment and recycling. In this study, a freshwater macroalga (genus Oedogonium) was cultivated in contaminated ash water amended with flue gas (containing 20% CO₂) at an Australian coal-fired power station. The continuous process of macroalgal growth and intracellular metal sequestration reduced the concentrations of all metals in the treated ash water. Predictive modelling shows that the power station could feasibly achieve zero discharge of most regulated metals (Al, As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, and Zn) in waste water by using the ash water dam for bioremediation with algal cultivation ponds rather than storage of ash water. Slow pyrolysis of the cultivated algae immobilised the accumulated metals in a recalcitrant C-rich biochar. While the algal biochar had higher total metal concentrations than the algae feedstock, the biochar had very low concentrations of leachable metals and therefore has potential for use as an ameliorant for low-fertility soils. This study demonstrates a bioremediation technology at a large scale for a water-limited industry that could be implemented at new or existing power stations, or during the decommissioning of older power stations. PMID:25646673

  20. Micronized coal-fired retrofit system for SO{sub x} reduction Krakow clean fossil fuels and energy efficiency program. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1997-04-01

    This report describes results of a technical, financial and environmental assessment study for a project, which would have included a new TCS micronized coal-fired heating plant for the Produkcja I Hodowla Roslin Ogrodniczych (PHRO) Greenhouse Complex; Krzeszowice, Poland. Project site is about 20 miles west of Krakow, Poland. During the project study period, PHRO utilized 14 heavy oil-fired boilers to produce heat for its greenhouse facilities and also home heating to several adjacent apartment housing complexes. The boilers burn a high-sulfur content heavy crude oil, called mazute, The project study was conducted during a period extended from March 1996 through February 1997. For size orientation, the PHRO Greenhouse complex grows a variety of vegetables and flowers for the Southern Poland marketplace. The greenhouse area under glass is very large and equivalent to approximately 50 football fields, The new micronized coal fired boiler would have: (1) provided a significant portion of the heat for PHRO and a portion of the adjacent apartment housing complexes, (2) dramatically reduced sulfur dioxide air pollution emissions, while satisfying new Polish air regulations, and (3) provided attractive savings to PHRO, based on the quantity of displaced oil.

  1. Advanced combustion system for industrial boilers. Quarterly technical progress report, August 1987--October 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Attig, R.C.; Foote, J.P.; Millard, W.P.; Schulz, R.J.; Wagoner, C.L.

    1987-12-31

    The purpose of this project is to develop an advanced coal-combustion system for industrial boilers. With the new combustion system, coal could be used to replace oil and possibly gas as fuel for many industrial boilers. The advanced combustion system is comprised of several parts: (1) A new burner-design concept for coal fuels, developed from the familiar gas turbine combustor-can designs that have proven efficient, reliable, durable, and safe for the combustion of liquid fuel oils. (2) A coal storage and dense-phase feed system for injecting clean, ultrafine pulverized coal into the burner at a low velocity. (3) An automatic control system based on feedback from low-cost automotive combustion-quality transducers. A cold flow model of an initial phase of the new burner design and the associated laser flow-visualization techniques were developed during this quarter. A series of modifications of the initial cold flow model will be tested to establish details of design for the new burner. Also a 200 hp firetube boiler has been installed and tested using number 2 oil as a fuel. This boiler will be used for future combustion testing with the new burner and ultrafine pulverized coal. Additionally an ultrafine-coal injector has been designed which will be evaluated separately as a replacement for the oil gun in the firetube boiler. Two tons of deep-cleaned, ultrafine coal were received for initial tests with the coal injector.

  2. Oxy-fuel Combustion and Integrated Pollutant Removal as Retrofit Technologies for Removing CO2 from Coal Fired Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Ochs, T.L.; Oryshchyn, D.B.; Summers, C.A.; Gerdemann, S.J.

    2001-01-01

    One third of the US installed capacity is coal-fired, producing 49.7% of net electric generation in 20051. Any approach to curbing CO2 production must consider the installed capacity and provide a mechanism for preserving this resource while meeting CO2 reduction goals. One promising approach to both new generation and retrofit is oxy-fuel combustion. Using oxygen instead of air as the oxidizer in a boiler provides a concentrated CO2 combustion product for processing into a sequestration-ready fluid.... Post-combustion carbon capture and oxy-fuel combustion paired with a compression capture technology such as IPR are both candidates for retrofitting pc combustion plants to meet carbon emission limits. This paper will focus on oxy-fuel combustion as applied to existing coal power plants.

  3. Mercury capture by native fly ash carbons in coal-fired power plants

    PubMed Central

    Hower, James C.; Senior, Constance L.; Suuberg, Eric M.; Hurt, Robert H.; Wilcox, Jennifer L.; Olson, Edwin S.

    2013-01-01

    The control of mercury in the air emissions from coal-fired power plants is an on-going challenge. The native unburned carbons in fly ash can capture varying amounts of Hg depending upon the temperature and composition of the flue gas at the air pollution control device, with Hg capture increasing with a decrease in temperature; the amount of carbon in the fly ash, with Hg capture increasing with an increase in carbon; and the form of the carbon and the consequent surface area of the carbon, with Hg capture increasing with an increase in surface area. The latter is influenced by the rank of the feed coal, with carbons derived from the combustion of low-rank coals having a greater surface area than carbons from bituminous- and anthracite-rank coals. The chemistry of the feed coal and the resulting composition of the flue gas enhances Hg capture by fly ash carbons. This is particularly evident in the correlation of feed coal Cl content to Hg oxidation to HgCl2, enhancing Hg capture. Acid gases, including HCl and H2SO4 and the combination of HCl and NO2, in the flue gas can enhance the oxidation of Hg. In this presentation, we discuss the transport of Hg through the boiler and pollution control systems, the mechanisms of Hg oxidation, and the parameters controlling Hg capture by coal-derived fly ash carbons. PMID:24223466

  4. Tire derived fuel and thermal waste incineration commercial operation in coal fired cyclone units

    SciTech Connect

    Costello, P.A.; Waldron, R.G.; Diewald, D.J.; Witts, W.H.

    1995-12-31

    In an effort to clean up and dispose of former manufactured gas plant site wastes, the Illinois Environmental Protection Agency issued an experimental permit to Illinois Power to conduct a test burn of coal tar and coal tar impacted soil. An experimental permit was required because this was the first time in Illinois that gas manufacturing residues had been burned in a power plant boiler, even though it has been done in other states with great success. The USEPA, the Illinois EPA, and Illinois Power believe the most efficient way to clean up these wastes is to use a method that permanently reduces or removes threats to health and the environment. After completing successful test burns and providing results to the Illinois EPA and USEPA, Illinois Power petitioned for and was granted an environmental permit to construct and operate a commercial incineration facility to supplement the fuel on two coal fired cyclone units. This technical paper examines the processing, testing and effectiveness of the commercial operation to date. A comprehensive health and safety plan along with a results study to establish an improved permanent operation at the Baldwin Plant will be contained.

  5. Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy application for ash characterisation for a coal fired power plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ctvrtnickova, T.; Mateo, M. P.; Yañez, A.; Nicolas, G.

    2010-08-01

    The aim of this work was to apply the LIBS technique for the analysis of fly ash and bottom ash resulting from the coal combustion in a coal fired power plant. The steps of presented LIBS analysis were pelletizing of powdered samples, firing with laser and spectroscopic detection. The analysis "on tape" was presented as an alternative fast sampling approach. This procedure was compared with the usual steps of normalized chemical analysis methods for coal which are coal calcination, fluxing in high temperature plasma, dilution in strong acids and analyzing by means of ICP-OES and/or AAS. First, the single pulse LIBS approach was used for determination and quantification of elemental content in fly ash and bottom ash on the exit of the boiler. For pellet preparation, ash has to be mixed with proper binder to assure the sample resistance. Preparation of the samples (binder selection and pressing/pelletizing conditions) was determined and LIBS experimental conditions optimized. No preparation is necessary in "on tape" sampling. Moreover, double-pulse approach in orthogonal reheating configuration was applied to enhance the repeatability and precision of the LIBS results and to surpass the matrix effect influencing the calibration curves in case of some elements. Obtained results showed that LIBS responses are comparable to the normalized analytical methods. Once optimized the experimental conditions and features, application of LIBS may be a promising technique for combustion process control even in on-line mode.

  6. Characterizing mercury emissions from a coal-fired power plant utilizing a venturi wet FGD system

    SciTech Connect

    Vann Bush, P.; Dismukes, E.B.; Fowler, W.K.

    1995-11-01

    Southern Research Institute (SRI) conducted a test program at a coal-fired utility plant from October 24 to October 29, 1994. The test schedule was chosen to permit us to collect samples during a period of consecutive days with a constant coal source. SRI collected the samples required to measured concentrations of anions and trace elements around two scrubber modules and in the stack. Anions of interest were CI{sup -}, F{sup -}, and SO{sub 4}{sup =}. We analyzed samples for five major elements (Al, Ca, Fe, Mg, and Ti) and 16 trace elements (As, B, Ba, Be, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, and V). SRI made measurements across two scrubber modules, each treating nominally 20% of the total effluent from the boiler. Across one module we examined the effects of changes in the liquid-to-gas ratio (L/G) on the efficiency with which the scrubber removes trace elements and anions from the flue gas. Across another module we examined the effects of slurry pH on the removal of trace elements and anions from the flue gas. Measurements in the stack quantified emissions rates of anions and trace elements.

  7. Mercury capture within coal-fired power plant electrostatic precipitators: model evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Clack, H.L.

    2009-03-01

    Efforts to reduce anthropogenic mercury emissions worldwide have recently focused on a variety of sources, including mercury emitted during coal combustion. Toward that end, much research has been ongoing seeking to develop new processes for reducing coal combustion mercury emissions. Among air pollution control processes that can be applied to coal-fired boilers, electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) are by far the most common, both on a global scale and among the principal countries of India, China, and the U.S. that burn coal for electric power generation. A previously reported theoretical model of in-flight mercury capture within ESPs is herein evaluated against data from a number of full-scale tests of activated carbon injection for mercury emissions control. By using the established particle size distribution of the activated carbon and actual or estimated values of its equilibrium mercury adsorption capacity, the incremental reduction in mercury concentration across each ESP can be predicted and compared to experimental results. Because the model does not incorporate kinetics associated with gas-phase mercury transformation or surface adsorption, the model predictions represent the mass-transfer-limited performance. Comparing field data to model results reveals many facilities performing at or near the predicted mass-transfer-limited maximum, particularly at low rates of sorbent injection. Where agreement is poor between field data and model predictions, additional chemical or physical phenomena may be responsible for reducing mercury removal efficiencies. 26 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Mercury capture within coal-fired power plant electrostatic precipitators: model evaluation.

    PubMed

    Clack, Herek L

    2009-03-01

    Efforts to reduce anthropogenic mercury emissions worldwide have recently focused on a variety of sources, including mercury emitted during coal combustion. Toward that end, much research has been ongoing seeking to develop new processes for reducing coal combustion mercury emissions. Among air pollution control processes that can be applied to coal-fired boilers, electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) are by far the most common, both on a global scale and among the principal countries of India, China, and the U.S. that burn coal for electric power generation. A previously reported theoretical model of in-flight mercury capture within ESPs is herein evaluated against data from a number of full-scale tests of activated carbon injection for mercury emissions control. By using the established particle size distribution of the activated carbon and actual or estimated values of its equilibrium mercury adsorption capacity, the incremental reduction in mercury concentration across each ESP can be predicted and compared to experimental results. Because the model does not incorporate kinetics associated with gas-phase mercury transformation or surface adsorption, the model predictions representthe mass-transfer-limited performance. Comparing field data to model results reveals many facilities performing at or near the predicted mass-transfer-limited maximum, particularly at low rates of sorbent injection. Where agreement is poor between field data and model predictions, additional chemical or physical phenomena may be responsible for reducing mercury removal efficiencies. PMID:19350920

  9. Mercury capture by native fly ash carbons in coal-fired power plants.

    PubMed

    Hower, James C; Senior, Constance L; Suuberg, Eric M; Hurt, Robert H; Wilcox, Jennifer L; Olson, Edwin S

    2010-08-01

    The control of mercury in the air emissions from coal-fired power plants is an on-going challenge. The native unburned carbons in fly ash can capture varying amounts of Hg depending upon the temperature and composition of the flue gas at the air pollution control device, with Hg capture increasing with a decrease in temperature; the amount of carbon in the fly ash, with Hg capture increasing with an increase in carbon; and the form of the carbon and the consequent surface area of the carbon, with Hg capture increasing with an increase in surface area. The latter is influenced by the rank of the feed coal, with carbons derived from the combustion of low-rank coals having a greater surface area than carbons from bituminous- and anthracite-rank coals. The chemistry of the feed coal and the resulting composition of the flue gas enhances Hg capture by fly ash carbons. This is particularly evident in the correlation of feed coal Cl content to Hg oxidation to HgCl2, enhancing Hg capture. Acid gases, including HCl and H2SO4 and the combination of HCl and NO2, in the flue gas can enhance the oxidation of Hg. In this presentation, we discuss the transport of Hg through the boiler and pollution control systems, the mechanisms of Hg oxidation, and the parameters controlling Hg capture by coal-derived fly ash carbons. PMID:24223466

  10. Ultra-Supercritical Pressure CFB Boiler Conceptual Design Study

    SciTech Connect

    Zhen Fan; Steve Goidich; Archie Robertson; Song Wu

    2006-06-30

    Electric utility interest in supercritical pressure steam cycles has revived in the United States after waning in the 1980s. Since supercritical cycles yield higher plant efficiencies than subcritical plants along with a proportional reduction in traditional stack gas pollutants and CO{sub 2} release rates, the interest is to pursue even more advanced steam conditions. The advantages of supercritical (SC) and ultra supercritical (USC) pressure steam conditions have been demonstrated in the high gas temperature, high heat flux environment of large pulverized coal-fired (PC) boilers. Interest in circulating fluidized bed (CFB) combustion, as an alternative to PC combustion, has been steadily increasing. Although CFB boilers as large as 300 MWe are now in operation, they are drum type, subcritical pressure units. With their sizes being much smaller than and their combustion temperatures much lower than those of PC boilers (300 MWe versus 1,000 MWe and 1600 F versus 3500 F), a conceptual design study was conducted herein to investigate the technical feasibility and economics of USC CFB boilers. The conceptual study was conducted at 400 MWe and 800 MWe nominal plant sizes with high sulfur Illinois No. 6 coal used as the fuel. The USC CFB plants had higher heating value efficiencies of 40.6 and 41.3 percent respectively and their CFB boilers, which reflect conventional design practices, can be built without the need for an R&D effort. Assuming construction at a generic Ohio River Valley site with union labor, total plant costs in January 2006 dollars were estimated to be $1,551/kW and $1,244/kW with costs of electricity of $52.21/MWhr and $44.08/MWhr, respectively. Based on the above, this study has shown that large USC CFB boilers are feasible and that they can operate with performance and costs that are competitive with comparable USC PC boilers.

  11. Mercury emission and speciation of coal-fired power plants in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, S. X.; Zhang, L.; Li, G. H.; Wu, Y.; Hao, J. M.; Pirrone, N.; Sprovieri, F.; Ancora, M. P.

    2010-02-01

    Comprehensive field measurements are needed to understand the mercury emissions from Chinese power plants and to improve the accuracy of emission inventories. Characterization of mercury emissions and their behavior were measured in six typical coal-fired power plants in China. During the tests, the flue gas was sampled simultaneously at inlet and outlet of Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR), electrostatic precipitators (ESP), and flue gas desulfurization (FGD) using the Ontario Hydro Method (OHM). The pulverized coal, bottom ash, fly ash and gypsum were also sampled in the field. Mercury concentrations in coal burned in the measured power plants ranged from 17 to 385 μg/kg. The mercury mass balances for the six power plants varied from 87 to 116% of the input coal mercury for the whole system. The total mercury concentrations in the flue gas from boilers were at the range of 1.92-27.15 μg/m3, which were significantly related to the mercury contents in burned coal. The mercury speciation in flue gas right after the boiler is influenced by the contents of halogen, mercury, and ash in the burned coal. The average mercury removal efficiencies of ESP, ESP plus wet FGD, and ESP plus dry FGD-FF systems were 24%, 73% and 66%, respectively, which were similar to the average removal efficiencies of pollution control device systems in other countries such as US, Japan and South Korea. The SCR system oxidized 16% elemental mercury and reduced about 32% of total mercury. Elemental mercury, accounting for 66-94% of total mercury, was the dominant species emitted to the atmosphere. The mercury emission factor was also calculated for each power plant.

  12. Mercury emission and speciation of coal-fired power plants in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, S.; Zhang, L.; Li, G.; Wu, Y.; Hao, J.; Pirrone, N.; Sprovieri, F.; Ancora, M. P.

    2009-11-01

    Comprehensive field measurements are needed to understand the mercury emissions from Chinese power plants and to improve the accuracy of emission inventories. Characterization of mercury emissions and their behavior were measured in six typical coal-fired power plants in China. During the tests, the flue gas was sampled simultaneously at inlet and outlet of selective catalyst reduction (SCR), electrostatic precipitators (ESP), and flue gas desulfurization (FGD) using the Ontario Hydro Method (OHM). The pulverized coal, bottom ash, fly ash and gypsum were also sampled in the field. Mercury concentrations in coal burned in the measured power plants ranged from 17 to 385 μg/kg. The mercury mass balances for the six power plants varied from 87 to 116% of the input coal mercury for the whole system. The total mercury concentrations in the flue gas from boilers were at the range of 1.92-27.15 μg/m3, which were significantly related to the mercury contents in burned coal. The mercury speciation in flue gas right after the boiler is influenced by the contents of halogen, mercury, and ash in the burned coal. The average mercury removal efficiencies of ESP, ESP plus wet FGD, and ESP plus dry FGD-FF systems were 24%, 73% and 66%, respectively, which were similar to the average removal efficiencies of pollution control device systems in other countries such as US, Japan and South Korea. The SCR system oxidized 16% elemental mercury and reduced about 32% of total mercury. Elemental mercury, accounting for 66-94% of total mercury, was the dominant species emitted to the atmosphere. The mercury emission factor was also calculated for each power plant.

  13. LOCAL IMPACTS OF MERCURY EMISSIONS FROM COAL FIRED POWER PLANTS.

    SciTech Connect

    SULLIVAN, T.M.; BOWERMAN, B.; ADAMS, J.; LIPFERT, D.D.; MORRIS, S.M.; BANDO, A.; ET AL.

    2004-03-30

    A thorough quantitative understanding of the processes of mercury emissions, deposition, and translocation through the food chain is currently not available. Complex atmospheric chemistry and dispersion models are required to predict concentration and deposition contributions, and aquatic process models are required to predict effects on fish. There are uncertainties in all of these predictions. Therefore, the most reliable method of understanding impacts of coal-fired power plants on Hg deposition is from empirical data. A review of the literature on mercury deposition around sources including coal-fired power plants found studies covering local mercury concentrations in soil, vegetation, and animals (fish and cows (Lopez et al. 2003)). There is strong evidence of enhanced local deposition within 3 km of the chlor-alkali plants, with elevated soil concentrations and estimated deposition rates of 10 times background. For coal-fired power plants, the data show that atmospheric deposition of Hg may be slightly enhanced. On the scale of a few km, modeling suggests that wet deposition may be increased by a factor of two or three over background. The measured data suggest lower increases of 15% or less. The effects of coal-fired plants seem to be less than 10% of total deposition on a national scale, based on emissions and global modeling. The following summarizes our findings from published reports on the impacts of local deposition. In terms of excesses over background the following increments have been observed within a few km of the plant: (1) local soil concentration Hg increments of 30%-60%, (2) sediment increments of 18-30%, (3) wet deposition increments of 11-12%, and (4) fish Hg increments of about 5-6%, based on an empirical finding that fish concentrations are proportional to the square root of deposition. Important uncertainties include possible reductions of RGM to Hg(0) in power plant plumes and the role of water chemistry in the relationship between Hg

  14. ADVANCED, LOW/ZERO EMISSION BOILER DESIGN AND OPERATION

    SciTech Connect

    Ovidiu Marin; Fabienne Chatel-Pelage

    2003-07-01

    This document reviews the work performed during the quarter April-June 2003. The main focus of this quarter has been the site preparation (task 1) for the test campaign scheduled in September/October 2003. Task 3 (Techno-economical assessment) has also been initiated while selecting the methodology to be used in the economics analysis and specifying the plants to be compared: In Task 1 (Site Preparation), the process definition and design activities have been completed, the equipment and instruments required have been identified, and the fabrication and installation activities have been initiated, to implement the required modifications on the pilot boiler. As of today, the schedule calls for completion of construction by late-July. System check-down is scheduled for the first two weeks of August. In Task 2 (Combustion and Emissions Performance Optimization), four weeks of testing are planned, two weeks starting second half of August and two weeks starting at the end of September. In Task 3 (Techno-Economic Study), the plants to be evaluated have been specified, including baseline cases (air fired PC boilers with or without CO{sub 2} capture), O{sub 2}-fired cases (with or without flue gas recirculation) and IGCC cases. Power plants ranging from 50 to 500MW have been selected and the methodology to be used has been described, both for performance evaluation and cost assessment. The first calculations will be performed soon and the first trends will be reported in the next quarter. As part of Task 5 (Project Management & Reporting), the subcontract between Babcock&Wilcox and American Air Liquide has been finalized. The subcontract between ISGS and American Air Liquide is in the final stages of completion.

  15. Identifying/Quantifying Environmental Trade-offs Inherent in GHG Reduction Strategies for Coal-Fired Power.

    PubMed

    Schivley, Greg; Ingwersen, Wesley W; Marriott, Joe; Hawkins, Troy R; Skone, Timothy J

    2015-07-01

    Improvements to coal power plant technology and the cofired combustion of biomass promise direct greenhouse gas (GHG) reductions for existing coal-fired power plants. Questions remain as to what the reduction potentials are from a life cycle perspective and if it will result in unintended increases in impacts to air and water quality and human health. This study provides a unique analysis of the potential environmental impact reductions from upgrading existing subcritical pulverized coal power plants to increase their efficiency, improving environmental controls, cofiring biomass, and exporting steam for industrial use. The climate impacts are examined in both a traditional-100 year GWP-method and a time series analysis that accounts for emission and uptake timing over the life of the power plant. Compared to fleet average pulverized bed boilers (33% efficiency), we find that circulating fluidized bed boilers (39% efficiency) may provide GHG reductions of about 13% when using 100% coal and reductions of about 20-37% when cofiring with 30% biomass. Additional greenhouse gas reductions from combined heat and power are minimal if the steam coproduct displaces steam from an efficient natural gas boiler. These upgrades and cofiring biomass can also reduce other life cycle impacts, although there may be increased impacts to water quality (eutrophication) when using biomass from an intensely cultivated source. Climate change impacts are sensitive to the timing of emissions and carbon sequestration as well as the time horizon over which impacts are considered, particularly for long growth woody biomass. PMID:26001040

  16. Micronized coal-fired retrofit system for SO{sub x} reduction: Krakow Clean Fossil Fuels and Energy Efficiency Program. Technical progress report No. 3, October 1996--December 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-31

    The PROJECT proposes to install a new TCS micronized coal-fired heating plant for the Produkcja I Hodowla Roslin Ogrodniczych (PHRO) Greenhouse Complex; Krzeszowice, Poland (about 20 miles west of Krakow). PHRO currently utilizes 14 heavy oil-fired boilers to produce heat for its greenhouse facilities and also home heating to several adjacent apartment housing complexes. The boilers currently burn a high-sulfur content heavy crude oil, called Mazute. For size orientation, the PHRO Greenhouse complex grows a variety of vegetables and flowers for the Southern Poland marketplace. The greenhouse area under glass is very large and equivalent to approximately 50 football fields. The new micronized coal fired boiler would: (1) provide a significant portion of the heat for PHRO and a portion of the adjacent apartment housing complexes, (2) dramatically reduce sulfur dioxide air pollution emissions, while satisfying new Polish air regulations, and (3) provide attractive savings to PHRO, based on the quantity of displaced oil. Currently, the Town of Krzeszowice is considering a district heating program that would replace some, or all, of the 40 existing small in-town heating boilers that presently burn high-sulfur content coal. Potentially the district heating system can be expanded and connected into the PHRO boiler network; so that, PHRO boilers can supply all, or a portion of, the Town`s heating demand. The new TCS micronized coal system could provide a portion of this demand.

  17. EVALUATION OF MERCURY EMISSIONS FROM COAL-FIRED FACILITIES WITH SCR AND FGD SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    J. A. Withum; S.C. Tseng; J. E. Locke

    2004-10-31

    CONSOL Energy Inc., Research & Development (CONSOL), with support from the U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE) is evaluating the effects of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) on mercury (Hg) capture in coal-fired plants equipped with an electrostatic precipitator (ESP) - wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) combination or a spray dyer absorber--fabric filter (SDA-FF) combination. In this program CONSOL is determining mercury speciation and removal at 10 coal-fired facilities. The objectives are (1) to evaluate the effect of SCR on mercury capture in the ESP-FGD and SDA-FF combinations at coal-fired power plants, (2) evaluate the effect of catalyst degradation on mercury capture; (3) evaluate the effect of low load operation on mercury capture in an SCR-FGD system, and (4) collect data that could provide the basis for fundamental scientific insights into the nature of mercury chemistry in flue gas, the catalytic effect of SCR systems on Hg speciation and the efficacy of different FGD technologies for Hg capture. This document, the second in a series of topical reports, describes the results and analysis of mercury sampling performed on a 330 MW unit burning a bituminous coal containing 1.0% sulfur. The unit is equipped with a SCR system for NOx control and a spray dryer absorber for SO{sub 2} control followed by a baghouse unit for particulate emissions control. Four sampling tests were performed in March 2003. Flue gas mercury speciation and concentrations were determined at the SCR inlet, air heater outlet (ESP inlet), and at the stack (FGD outlet) using the Ontario Hydro method. Process stream samples for a mercury balance were collected to coincide with the flue gas measurements. Due to mechanical problems with the boiler feed water pumps, the actual gross output was between 195 and 221 MW during the tests. The results showed that the SCR/air heater combination oxidized nearly 95% of the elemental mercury. Mercury removal, on a

  18. Slag processing system for direct coal-fired gas turbines

    DOEpatents

    Pillsbury, Paul W.

    1990-01-01

    Direct coal-fired gas turbine systems and methods for their operation are provided by this invention. The gas turbine system includes a primary zone for burning coal in the presence of compressed air to produce hot combustion gases and debris, such as molten slag. The turbine system further includes a secondary combustion zone for the lean combustion of the hot combustion gases. The operation of the system is improved by the addition of a cyclone separator for removing debris from the hot combustion gases. The cyclone separator is disposed between the primary and secondary combustion zones and is in pressurized communication with these zones. In a novel aspect of the invention, the cyclone separator includes an integrally disposed impact separator for at least separating a portion of the molten slag from the hot combustion gases.

  19. Liquid-metal magnetohydrodynamic system evaluation. [coal-fired designs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holman, R. R.; Lippert, T. E.

    1976-01-01

    The present study emphasizes a direct coal-fired design using a bubbly two-component flow of sodium and argon in the MHD generator and a Rankine steam-bottoming plant. Two basic cycles were studied, corresponding to argon temperatures of 922 and 1089 K at the duct inlet. The MHD duct system consisted of multiple ducts arranged in clusters and separated by iron magnet pole pieces. The ducts, each with an output of about 100 MW, were parallel to the flow, but were connected in series electrically to provide a higher MHD voltage. With channel efficiencies of 80%, a pump efficiency of 90%, and a 45% efficient steam-bottoming plant, the overall efficiency of the 1089 K liquid-metal MHD power plant was 43%.

  20. Electrode materials for coal-fired MHD generators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perkins, R. A.

    1980-10-01

    Metallic materials are evaluated as electrodes for coal fired MHD generators. A laboratory test that simulates the electrochemical and corrosive environment was developed and used to characterize electrode behavior in a diffuse current flow (nonarcing) mode of operation. High current density requires that an electron transport mechanism of current flow be maintained. With inert, stable electrodes, anode polarization occurs and ionic conduction prevails, limiting current to low values. The nature of this behavior and approaches to overcoming anodic polarization are studied as a function of electrode material, slag composition, and temperature. By operating at high temperatures and with controlled slag chemistries to produce a very fluid slag, depolarization may be achieved by mechanical mixing. Interrupted current flow are required to aid in breaking down anodic polarization.

  1. Coal fired power plant with pollution control and useful byproducts

    SciTech Connect

    Marten, J.H.; Lloyd, G.M.

    1990-04-17

    This patent describes a coal fired power plant. It comprises: coal gasification means for heating coal in the presence of an oxidant-lean atmosphere under partial coal-gasifying conditions; means for separating sulfur-containing compounds from the crude gas stream; means for converting the sulfur compound containing stream into elemental sulfur; energy-conversion means for burning a portion of the combustible gas stream and a portion of the carbonaceous char; flue gas desulfurization means for contacting the SO{sub 2}-containing flue gas with lime and limestone; gypsum desulfurization means for heating the gypsum and the remaining portion of carbonaceous char under reducing conditions utilizing burning of the remaining portion of the combustible gas stream; means for recycling the SO{sub 2}-containing gas stream to the coal gasification means.

  2. Impacts of TMDLs on coal-fired power plants.

    SciTech Connect

    Veil, J. A.; Environmental Science Division

    2010-04-30

    The Clean Water Act (CWA) includes as one of its goals restoration and maintenance of the chemical, physical, and biological integrity of the Nation's waters. The CWA established various programs to accomplish that goal. Among the programs is a requirement for states to establish water quality standards that will allow protection of the designated uses assigned to each water body. Once those standards are set, state agencies must sample the water bodies to determine if water quality requirements are being met. For those water bodies that are not achieving the desired water quality, the state agencies are expected to develop total maximum daily loads (TMDLs) that outline the maximum amount of each pollutant that can be discharged to the water body and still maintain acceptable water quality. The total load is then allocated to the existing point and nonpoint sources, with some allocation held in reserve as a margin of safety. Many states have already developed and implemented TMDLs for individual water bodies or regional areas. New and revised TMDLs are anticipated, however, as federal and state regulators continue their examination of water quality across the United States and the need for new or revised standards. This report was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Existing Plants Research Program, which has an energy-water research effort that focuses on water use at power plants. This study complements its overall research effort by evaluating water issues that could impact power plants. One of the program missions of the DOE's NETL is to develop innovative environmental control technologies that will enable full use of the Nation's vast coal reserves, while at the same time allowing the current fleet of coal-fired power plants to comply with existing and emerging environmental regulations. Some of the parameters for which TMDLs are being developed are components in discharges from coal-fired power

  3. DOE/NETL's advanced NOx emissions control technology R & D program

    SciTech Connect

    Lani, B.W.; Feeley, T.J. III; Miller, C.E.; Carney, B.A.; Murphy, J.T.

    2006-11-15

    Efforts are underway to provide more cost-effective options for coal-fired power plants to meet stringent emissions limits. Several recently completed DOE/NETL R & D projects were successful in achieving the short-term goal of controlling NOx emissions at 0.15 lb/MMBtu using in-furnace technologies. In anticipation of CAIR and possible congressional multi-pollutant legislation, DOE/NETL issued a solicitation in 2004 to continue R & D efforts to meet the 2007 goal and to initiate R & D targeting the 2010 goal of achieving 0.10 lb/MMBtu using in-furnace technologies in lieu of SCR. As a result, four new NOx R & D projects are currently underway and will be completed over the next three years. The article outlines: ALSTOM's Project on developing an enhanced combustion, low NOx burner for tangentially-fired boilers; Babcock and Wilcox's demonstration of an advanced NOx control technology to achieve an emission rate of 0.10 lb/MMBtu while burning bituminous coal for both wall- and cyclone-fired boilers; Reaction Engineering International's (REI) full-scale field testing of advanced layered technology application (ALTA) NOx control for cyclone fired boilers; and pilot-scale testing of ALTA NOx control of coal-fired boilers also by REI. DOE/NETL has begun an R & D effort to optimize performance of SCR controls to achieve the long term goal of 0.01 lb/MMBtu NOx emission rate by 2020. 1 fig.

  4. Development of a coal-fired combustion system for industrial process heating applications. Quarterly technical progress report, January--March 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-04-30

    This advanced combustion system research program is for the development of innovative coal-fired process heaters which can be used for high temperature melting, smelting and waste vitrification processes. The process heater systems to be developed have multiple use applications; however, the Phase III research effort is being focused on the development of a process heater system to be used for producing value added vitrified glass products from boiler/incinerator ashes and industrial wastes. The primary objective of the Phase III project is to develop and integrate all the system components, from fuel through total system, controls, and then test the complete system in order to evaluate its potential marketability. The past quarter began with a two-day test performed in January to determine the cause of pulsations in the batch feed system observed during pilot-scale testing of surrogate TSCA incinerator ash performed in December of 1993. Two different batch feedstocks were used during this test: flyash and cullet. The cause of the pulsations was traced to a worn part in the feeder located at the bottom of the batch feed tank. The problem was corrected by replacing the wom part with the corresponding part on the existing coal feed tank. A new feeder for the existing coal tank, which had previously been ordered as part of the new coal handling system, was procured and installed. The data from the pilot-scale tests performed on surrogate TSCA incinerator ash during December of 1993 was collected and analyzed. All of the glass produced during the test passed both the Toxicity characteristics Leach Procedure (TCLP) and the Product Consistency Test (PCT) by approximately two orders of magnitude.

  5. Choosing the right boiler air fans at Weston 4

    SciTech Connect

    Spring, N.

    2009-04-15

    When it came to choosing the three 'big' boiler air fans - forced draft, induced draft and primary air, the decision revolved around efficiency. The decision making process for fan selection for the Western 4 supercritical coal-fired plant is described in this article. 3 photos.

  6. A system for controlling the boiler heat load

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kositsyn, V. Yu.; Rybalev, A. N.; Telichenko, D. A.

    2013-02-01

    The system controlling the load of a coal-fired boiler operating in the configuration with a common steam line that is used at cogeneration stations is considered. An analysis method is proposed, and the mathematical description of the controlled plant is obtained. Results obtained from a study of classic and adaptive control laws are presented.

  7. Lessons from the past: materials-related issues in an ultra-supercritical boiler at Eddystone plant

    SciTech Connect

    Henry, J.; Zhou, G.; Ward, T.

    2007-07-01

    Major research efforts have made progress toward the development of coal-fired ultra-supercritical steam generators that will operate at efficiencies approaching 50% based on HHV. A component test facility designed to evaluate operation of major steam generator components at 700{degree}C (1292{degree}F) will soon be operational in Germany, and the first demonstration plant incorporating advanced ultra-supercritical technology could be constructed as soon as the year 2010. The question posed by those who will be responsible for the operation of these new ultra-supercritical power plants is obvious: will they perform reliably under the conditions of flexible operation that are likely to be imposed by modern de-regulated markets? The real intent of this question is more subtle: do the materials and methods of construction exist to build these advanced coal-fired boilers. In large part, the answer to that question lies in a US power plant located not far from the Philadelphia airport. The plant is Exelon's Eddystone plant. The steam generator for Unit I at that plant has operated successfully for over 44 years at steam conditions more advanced than any other coal-fired unit in operation today. This paper reviews salient features of the operating history of Eddystone 1, focussing on the materials-related problems that forced a modest retreat from the original and unprecedented design conditions, emphasizing the record of many years of reliable operation at aggressive steam conditions. It then discusses a few of the more significant materials-related issues involved in operating a steam generator at Eddystone-like conditions as a basis for arguing that there exists today the materials and manufacturing understanding necessary to construct an advanced ultra-supercritical unit that will operate efficiently and reliably.

  8. Evaluation of dense-phase ultrafine coal (DUC) as a fuel alternative for oil- and gas-designed boilers and heaters. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-12-01

    Utility and industrial firms currently using oil- and gas-fired boilers have an interest in substitution of coal for oil and gas as the primary boiler fuel. This interest stems from coal`s two main advantages over oil and gas-lower cost and security of supply. Recent efforts in the area of coal conversion have been directed to converting oil- and gas- fired boilers which were originally designed for coal-firing or were designed with some coal-firing capability. Boilers designed exclusively for oil- or gas-firing have not been considered viable candidates for coal conversion because they generally require a significant capacity derating and extensive and costly modifications. As a result, conversion of boilers in this class to coal-firing has generally been considered unattractive. Renewed interest in the prospects for converting boilers designed exclusively for oil- and gas-firing to coal firing has centered around the concept of using ``ultra fine`` coal as opposed to ``conventional grind`` pulverized coal. The main distinction being the finer particle size to which the former is ground. This fuel type may have characteristics which ameliorate many of the boiler problems normally associated with pulverized coal-firing. The overall concept for ultrafine coal utilization is based on a regional large preparation plant with distribution of a ready to fire fuel directly to many small users. This differs from normal practice in which final coal sizing is performed in pulverizers at the user`s site.

  9. Advanced Diagnostics and Control for Furnaces, Fired Heaters and Boilers

    SciTech Connect

    2007-06-01

    This factsheet describes a research project whose objective is to develop and implement technologies that address advanced combustion diagnostics and rapid Btu measurements of fuels. These are the fundamental weaknesses associated with the combustion processes of a furnace.

  10. Water vulnerabilities for existing coal-fired power plants.

    SciTech Connect

    Elcock, D.; Kuiper, J.; Environmental Science Division

    2010-08-19

    This report was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Existing Plants Research Program, which has an energy-water research effort that focuses on water use at power plants. This study complements the Existing Plants Research Program's overall research effort by evaluating water issues that could impact power plants. Water consumption by all users in the United States over the 2005-2030 time period is projected to increase by about 7% (from about 108 billion gallons per day [bgd] to about 115 bgd) (Elcock 2010). By contrast, water consumption by coal-fired power plants over this period is projected to increase by about 21% (from about 2.4 to about 2.9 bgd) (NETL 2009b). The high projected demand for water by power plants, which is expected to increase even further as carbon-capture equipment is installed, combined with decreasing freshwater supplies in many areas, suggests that certain coal-fired plants may be particularly vulnerable to potential water demand-supply conflicts. If not addressed, these conflicts could limit power generation and lead to power disruptions or increased consumer costs. The identification of existing coal-fired plants that are vulnerable to water demand and supply concerns, along with an analysis of information about their cooling systems and related characteristics, provides information to help focus future research and development (R&D) efforts to help ensure that coal-fired generation demands are met in a cost-effective manner that supports sustainable water use. This study identified coal-fired power plants that are considered vulnerable to water demand and supply issues by using a geographical information system (GIS) that facilitated the analysis of plant-specific data for more than 500 plants in the NETL's Coal Power Plant Database (CPPDB) (NETL 2007a) simultaneously with 18 indicators of water demand and supply. Two types of demand indicators were evaluated. The first type

  11. Quantifying greenhouse gas emissions from coal fires using airborne and ground-based methods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Engle, M.A.; Radke, L.F.; Heffern, E.L.; O'Keefe, J. M. K.; Smeltzer, C.D.; Hower, J.C.; Hower, J.M.; Prakash, A.; Kolker, A.; Eatwell, R.J.; ter, Schure A.; Queen, G.; Aggen, K.L.; Stracher, G.B.; Henke, K.R.; Olea, R.A.; Roman-Colon, Y.

    2011-01-01

    Coal fires occur in all coal-bearing regions of the world and number, conservatively, in the thousands. These fires emit a variety of compounds including greenhouse gases. However, the magnitude of the contribution of combustion gases from coal fires to the environment is highly uncertain, because adequate data and methods for assessing emissions are lacking. This study demonstrates the ability to estimate CO2 and CH4 emissions for the Welch Ranch coal fire, Powder River Basin, Wyoming, USA, using two independent methods: (a) heat flux calculated from aerial thermal infrared imaging (3.7-4.4td-1 of CO2 equivalent emissions) and (b) direct, ground-based measurements (7.3-9.5td-1 of CO2 equivalent emissions). Both approaches offer the potential for conducting inventories of coal fires to assess their gas emissions and to evaluate and prioritize fires for mitigation. ?? 2011.

  12. MHD coal-fired flow facility. Annual technical progress report, October 1979-September 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Alstatt, M.C.; Attig, R.C.; Brosnan, D.A.

    1981-03-01

    The University of Tennessee Space Institute (UTSI) reports on significant activity, task status, planned research, testing, development, and conclusions for the Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) Coal-Fired Flow Faclity (CFFF) and the Energy Conversion Facility (ECF).

  13. MERCURY CONTROL IN MUNICIPAL WASTE COMBUSTORS AND COAL-FIRED UTILITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Control of mercury (Hg) emissions from municipal waste combustors (MWCs) and coal-fired utilities has attracted attention due to current and potential regulations. Among several techniques evaluated for Hg control, dry sorbent injection (primarily injection of activated carbon) h...

  14. NOx technology for power plant emissions selection of catalysts and type of SCR for process for gas and coal fired power stations

    SciTech Connect

    Ghoreski, D.F.; Negrea, S.

    1993-12-31

    The paper will discuss the basic principle under which SCR system suppliers select the catalyst type and system appropriate for their project. A discussion of temperature, materials, contamination risks and activation properties will be covered for various types of catalysts. The presentation for the selection of type of SCR in the High Dust, Low Dust and Tail gas positions will also be discussed. Further covered is the decision making process to ascertain if an in-duct or conventional SCR system is to be considered. The paper uses examples of pricing for various arrangements in 2,500 MW of gas fired boilers in Southern California a 420 MW coal fired boiler in Florida.

  15. Fuel switching for Clean Air Act compliance-boiler considerations

    SciTech Connect

    Warchol, J.J.; Kitto, B. Jr.; Kulig, J.S.

    1995-03-01

    Boiler considerations in fuel switching for Clean Air Act Compliance are outlined. The following topics are discussed: fuel switching options, major fuel characteristics, coal receiving and handling, dust control, grindability vs coal rank, pulverizers and burners, burning profiles, deposition zones in a coal-fired boiler, sootblower location, flues, ducts, and fans, air heaters, electrostatic precipitator (ESP), fly ash resistivity, potential ESP upgrades, ash handling system, auxiliary power system, economic factors, site considerations, and political issues. A summary and conclusion is presented.

  16. Advanced Oxyfuel Boilers and Process Heaters for Cost Effective CO2 Capture and Sequestration

    SciTech Connect

    Max Christie; Rick Victor; Bart van Hassel; Nagendra Nagabushana; Juan Li; Joseph Corpus; Jamie Wilson

    2007-03-31

    The purpose of the advanced boilers and process heaters program is to assess the feasibility of integrating Oxygen Transport Membranes (OTM) into combustion processes for cost effective CO{sub 2} capture and sequestration. Introducing CO{sub 2} capture into traditional combustion processes can be expensive, and the pursuit of alternative methods, like the advanced boiler/process heater system, may yield a simple and cost effective solution. In order to assess the integration of an advanced boiler/process heater process, this program addressed the following tasks: Task 1--Conceptual Design; Task 2--Laboratory Scale Evaluation; Task 3--OTM Development; Task 4--Economic Evaluation and Commercialization Planning; and Task 5--Program Management. This Final report documents and summarizes all of the work performed for the DOE award DE-FC26-01NT41147 during the period from January 2002-March 2007. This report outlines accomplishments for the following tasks: conceptual design and economic analysis, oxygen transport membrane (OTM) development, laboratory scale evaluations, and program management.

  17. GEOPHYSICAL METHODS FOR COAL FIRE DETECTION AND MONITORING

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, U.; Gundelach, V.; Vasterling, M.; Lambrecht, A.; Rueter, H.; Lindner, H.

    2009-12-01

    Within the framework of the Sino-German research initiative "Innovative technologies for exploration, extinction and monitoring of coal fires in Northern China" a number of different geophysical methods have been applied to determine their use on coal fire detecting, accompanying the extinguishing processes, controlling of the extinction and finally monitoring the extinction success. It is known that the heating of coal resp. coal host rocks changes its electrical resistivity and magnetic susceptibility. Hence the methods of choice are airborne magnetics and frequency electromagnetics (AEM) for surveying large and inaccessible areas and ground based magnetics, transient electromagnetics (TEM), ground penetrating radar (GPR) and temperature measurements to obtain detailed local information. Ground based and airborne magnetics show positive anomalies on coal fire areas. Susceptibility of sandstone, coal and (burnt) clay samples were determined in-situ. The magnetisation was strikingly high for thermally altered clay and slightly increased for thermally influenced sandstone. They get remanently magnetised according to the earth’s recent magnetic field when cooling down below Curie temperature as the fire propagates. Additionally, at a certain temperature non-magnetic minerals like pyrite chemically react to magnetic minerals like magnetite. Thus the observed magnetic anomalies indicate burnt areas. From ground based magnetics the anomalies were more distinct whereas using an airborne system a larger area and also inaccessible terrain can be surveyed. Performing TEM measurements a change in data curves can be observed where the profiles cross the hot burning zone. Heat and fluid transport included in the burning processes presumably change the permittivity of the rock. The electrical resistivity of thermally influenced coal is strongly decreased. Furthermore, the condensed mineralised process water in the rocks above the burning seams forms a layer of low resistivity

  18. ESTIMATION OF NEAR SUBSURFACE COAL FIRE GAS EMISSIONS BASED ON GEOPHYSICAL INVESTIGATIONS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen-Brauchler, D.; Meyer, U.; Schlömer, S.; Kus, J.; Gundelach, V.; Wuttke, M.; Fischer, C.; Rueter, H.

    2009-12-01

    Spontaneous and industrially caused subsurface coal fires are worldwide disasters that destroy coal resources, cause air pollution and emit a large amount of green house gases. Especially in developing countries, such as China, India and Malaysia, this problem has intensified over the last 15 years. In China alone, 10 to 20 million tons of coal are believed to be lost in uncontrolled coal fires. The cooperation of developing countries and industrialized countries is needed to enforce internationally concerted approaches and political attention towards the problem. The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) under the framework of the Kyoto Protocol may provide an international stage for financial investment needed to fight the disastrous situation. A Sino-German research project for coal fire exploration, monitoring and extinction applied several geophysical approaches in order to estimate the annual baseline especially of CO2 emissions from near subsurface coal fires. As a result of this project, we present verifiable methodologies that may be used in the CDM framework to estimate the amount of CO2 emissions from near subsurface coal fires. We developed three possibilities to approach the estimation based on (1) thermal energy release, (2) geological and geometrical determinations as well as (3) direct gas measurement. The studies involve the investigation of the physical property changes of the coal seam and bedrock during different burning stages of a underground coal fire. Various geophysical monitoring methods were applied from near surface to determine the coal volume, fire propagation, temperature anomalies, etc.

  19. Thermal Integration of CO{sub 2} Compression Processes with Coal-Fired Power Plants Equipped with Carbon Capture

    SciTech Connect

    Edward Levy

    2012-06-29

    Coal-fired power plants, equipped either with oxycombustion or post-combustion CO{sub 2} capture, will require a CO{sub 2} compression system to increase the pressure of the CO{sub 2} to the level needed for sequestration. Most analyses show that CO{sub 2} compression will have a significant effect on parasitic load, will be a major capital cost, and will contribute significantly to reduced unit efficiency. This project used first principle engineering analyses and computer simulations to determine the effects of utilizing compressor waste heat to improve power plant efficiency and increase net power output of coal-fired power plants with carbon capture. This was done for units with post combustion solvent-based CO{sub 2} capture systems and for oxyfired power plants, firing bituminous, PRB and lignite coals. The thermal integration opportunities analyzed for oxycombustion capture are use of compressor waste heat to reheat recirculated flue gas, preheat boiler feedwater and predry high-moisture coals prior to pulverizing the coal. Among the thermal integration opportunities analyzed for post combustion capture systems are use of compressor waste heat and heat recovered from the stripper condenser to regenerate post-combustion CO{sub 2} capture solvent, preheat boiler feedwater and predry high-moisture coals. The overall conclusion from the oxyfuel simulations is that thermal integration of compressor heat has the potential to improve net unit heat rate by up to 8.4 percent, but the actual magnitude of the improvement will depend on the type of heat sink used and to a lesser extent, compressor design and coal rank. The simulations of a unit with a MEA post combustion capture system showed that thermal integration of either compressor heat or stripper condenser heat to preheat boiler feedwater would result in heat rate improvements from 1.20 percent to 4.19 percent. The MEA capture simulations further showed that partial drying of low rank coals, done in combination

  20. Impacts of the Minamata Convention for Mercury Emissions from Coal-fired Power Generation in Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giang, A.; Stokes, L. C.; Streets, D. G.; Corbitt, E. S.; Selin, N. E.

    2014-12-01

    We explore the potential implications of the recently signed United Nations Minamata Convention on Mercury for emissions from coal-fired power generation in Asia, and the impacts of these emissions changes on deposition of mercury worldwide by 2050. We use qualitative interviews, document analysis, and engineering analysis to create plausible technology scenarios consistent with the Convention, taking into account both technological and political factors. We translate these scenarios into possible emissions inventories for 2050, based on IPCC development scenarios, and then use the GEOS-Chem global transport model to evaluate the effect of these different technology choices on mercury deposition over geographic regions and oceans. We find that China is most likely to address mercury control through co-benefits from technologies for SO2, NOx, and particulate matter (PM) capture that will be required to attain its existing air quality goals. In contrast, India is likely to focus on improvements to plant efficiency such as upgrading boilers, and coal washing. Compared to current technologies, we project that these changes will result in emissions decreases of approximately 140 and 190 Mg/yr for China and India respectively in 2050, under an A1B development scenario. With these emissions reductions, simulated average gross deposition over India and China are reduced by approximately 10 and 3 μg/m2/yr respectively, and the global average concentration of total gaseous mercury (TGM) is reduced by approximately 10% in the Northern hemisphere. Stricter, but technologically feasible, requirements for mercury control in both countries could lead to an additional 200 Mg/yr of emissions reductions. Modeled differences in concentration and deposition patterns between technology suites are due to differences in both the mercury removal efficiency of technologies and their resulting stack speciation.

  1. System design study to reduce capital and operating costs and bench-scale testing of a circulating-bed AFB [atmospheric pressure fluidized bed] advanced concept: Phase 1, Design, cost estimate, and cost comparison for MWK circulating fluid bed combustor and oil-fired boilers: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Sadhukhan, P.; Lin, Y.Y.; Hsiao, K.H.; Richards, S.R.; Wagner, C.; Settle, W.H.; Bryant, J.; Gorman, W.A.; Newlin, T.; Shires, P.J.; James, J.L.

    1986-06-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) issued an RFP for a "System Design Study to Reduce Capital and Operating Cost and Bench Scale Testing of a Circulating-Bed AFB Advanced Concept." The design and cost study of a 150,000 pounds per hour steam boiler comprised Phase-I of the RFP. The objective was to produce a design with improved performance and reduced capital and operating costs compared with conventional atmospheric pressure fluidized bed (AFB) boilers. The final result was a significant reduction of capital cost - 36% below the lowest AFB plant cost. The steam cost was 24% below the corresponding cost for the AFB process. In June 1985, DOE issued a Change Order (C001) to the Phase-I study in order for MWK to design and estimate the cost for a scaled-down coal-fired (Illinois No. 6, 3% S) CFBC plant producing low pressure and low temperature steam (75,000lbs/hr, 200 psig, 387{degree}F), and to compare the costs -capital and steam costs -with those for a packaged high sulfur (3%) fuel oil-fired boiler, which is of the same capacity and requires SO{sub 2} removal. An additional objective was to estimate the cost for a No. 2 fuel oil-fired boiler that does not need any SO{sub 2} scrubber. An evaluation of the sensitivity of the steam cost to the oil-fired boiler capital cost and to fuel prices was also to be undertaken. The cost of steam produced by the No. 6 fuel oil boiler is 52% higher than the cost for CFBC, and the corresponding cost for the No. 2 fuel oil plant is 43% higher. Again, a large advantage for the CFBC comes from the low price of coal relative to that of oil. The large cost advantage of steam calculated for the MWK CFBC using coal as a fuel over the oil-fired boilers would remain even in the worst case scenario of a declining oil price accompanied by a steady coal price. 7 refs., 25 figs., 34 tabs.

  2. Cost and performance of Group 2 boiler NOx controls

    SciTech Connect

    Khan, S.; Maibodi, M.; Srivastava, R.

    1997-12-31

    This paper presents the results of a study conducted to assist EPA in developing the Phase II NO{sub x} rule under Title IV of the Clean Air Act Amendment of 1990 (the Act). The specific purpose of this study was to assess the performance and capital and total levelized costs of NO{sub x} controls pertinent to Group 2 boilers. Group 2 boilers are all coal-fired boilers that are not dry-bottom wall-fired and tangentially fired and include cell burner-fired, cyclone-fired, wet-bottom, vertically fired, stoker-fired, and fluidized-bed boilers.

  3. CFB boiler for Southern Illinois University: Planning and design

    SciTech Connect

    Silvey, M.; Roth, N.; Haake, A.

    1995-12-31

    Southern Illinois University (SIU) is in the process of installing a Babcock and Wilcox (B and W) coal fired circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boiler at its Carbondale, Illinois campus. The CFB boiler will be used for cogeneration. Funding for this project was made possible by the State of Illinois Capital Development Board. Illinois coal will be fired in this CFB boiler. This paper provides a description of the planning process and design of the CFB boiler and related equipment with specific emphasis on particulate removal and recirculation. The startup of this new installation is scheduled for the summer of 1996, with commercial operation by fall of 1996.

  4. Conceptual design of a coal-fired MHD retrofit plant. Topical report, Seed Regeneration System Study 2

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-11-01

    Westinghouse Advanced Energy Systems (WAES), through Contract No. DE-AC22-87PC79668 funded by US DOE/PETC, is conducting a conceptual design study to evaluate a coal-fired magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) retrofit of a utility plant of sufficient size to demonstrate the technical and future economic viability of an MHD system operating within an electric utility environment. The objective of this topical report is to document continuing seed regeneration system application studies and the definition of will system integration requirements for the Scholz MHD retrofit plant design. MHD power plants require the addition of a seeding material in the form of potassium to enhance the ionization of the high temperature combustion gas in the MHD channel. This process has an added environmental advantage compared to other types of coal-fired power plants in that the potassium combines with the naturally occurring sulfur in the coal to form a potassium sulfate flyash (K{sub 2}SO{sub 4}) which can be removed from the process by appropriate particulate control equipment. Up to 100% of the Sulfur in the coal can be removed by this process thereby providing environmentally clean power plant operation that is better than required by present and anticipated future New Source Performance Standards (NSPS).

  5. Mercury emission from coal-fired power plants in Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glodek, Anna; Pacyna, Jozef M.

    The paper reviews the current state of knowledge regarding sources of mercury emission in Poland. Due to the large quantities of coal burned at present, as well as taking into account existing reserves, coal remains the main energy source of energy in Poland. The data on coal consumption in Poland in the past, at present and in the future are discussed in the paper. Information on the content of mercury in Polish coals is presented. Coal combustion processes for electricity and heat production are the main source of anthropogenic mercury emission in Poland. It is expected that the current emissions will decrease in the future due to implementation of efficient control measures. These measures for emission reduction are described in the paper. Results of estimated mercury emission from coal-fired power station situated in the Upper Silesia Region, Poland are investigated. A relationship between mercury emission to the air and the mercury content in the consumed coal in power station equipped with the electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) is discussed.

  6. New technology tackles coal-fired power plant emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Prachi Patel-Predd

    2006-05-01

    Tests conducted at three coal-fired power plants show that a new technology can reduce mercury emissions at higher rates and lower costs than current methods, according to its developers, Chem-Mod LLC. The Chem-Mod system is able to capture Hg{sup 0} by using a liquid sorbent to oxidize it to Hg{sup 2+} or trap it on its surface. A second, powder sorbent captures SO{sub 2} and heavy metals. The two sorbents combine to trap the emissions in a ceramic-like matrix that is locked into the fly ash. The technology removed up to 98%, 90%, and 86% of the mercury in week-long tests with different bituminous and subbituminous grades of coals. In addition, the system cut SO{sub 2} emissions by 40-75% and those of arsenic, chloride, and heavy metals by 75-90%. A full-scale commercial facility using the technology is expected to start soon.

  7. Testing of a coal-fired diesel power plant

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, R.P.; Balles, E.N.; Benedek, K.R.; Benson, C.E. , Inc., Cambridge, MA ); Rao, K.; Schaub, F. ); Kimberley, J. ); Itse, D. )

    1993-01-01

    The POC coal-fired power plant consists of a Cooper-Bessemer LSC-6 engine (15.5 inch bore, 22 inch stroke) rated at 400 rev/min and 208 psi bmep producing approximately 1.8 MW of power. The power plant is fueled with 'engine grade' coal slurry which has been physically cleaned to an ash level of approximately 1.5 to 2% (dry basis) and has a mean particle size of approximately 12 micron. CWS is injected directly into the combustion chamber through a fuel injector (one per cylinder) which was designed and developed to be compatible with the fuel. Each injector is fitted with a 19 orifice nozzle tip made with sapphire inserts in each orifice. The combustion chambers are fitted with twin diesel pilot injectors which provide a positive ignition source and substantially shorten the ignition delay period of the CWS fuel. Durable coatings (typically tungsten carbide) are used for the piston rings and cylinder liners to reduce wear rates. The emission control system consists of SCR for NO[sub x] control, sodium sorbent injection for SO[sub x] control, and a cyclone plus baghouse for particulate capture. The cyclone is installed upstream of the engine turbocharger which helps protect the turbine blades.

  8. Testing of a coal-fired diesel power plant

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, R.P.; Balles, E.N.; Benedek, K.R.; Benson, C.E.; Rao, K.; Schaub, F.; Kimberley, J.; Itse, D.

    1993-01-01

    The POC coal-fired power plant consists of a Cooper-Bessemer LSC-6 engine (15.5 inch bore, 22 inch stroke) rated at 400 rev/min and 208 psi bmep producing approximately 1.8 MW of power. The power plant is fueled with `engine grade` coal slurry which has been physically cleaned to an ash level of approximately 1.5 to 2% (dry basis) and has a mean particle size of approximately 12 micron. CWS is injected directly into the combustion chamber through a fuel injector (one per cylinder) which was designed and developed to be compatible with the fuel. Each injector is fitted with a 19 orifice nozzle tip made with sapphire inserts in each orifice. The combustion chambers are fitted with twin diesel pilot injectors which provide a positive ignition source and substantially shorten the ignition delay period of the CWS fuel. Durable coatings (typically tungsten carbide) are used for the piston rings and cylinder liners to reduce wear rates. The emission control system consists of SCR for NO{sub x} control, sodium sorbent injection for SO{sub x} control, and a cyclone plus baghouse for particulate capture. The cyclone is installed upstream of the engine turbocharger which helps protect the turbine blades.

  9. Scale-up and advanced performance analysis of boiler combustion chambers

    SciTech Connect

    Richter, W.

    1985-12-31

    This paper discusses methods for evaluation of thermal performance of large boiler furnaces. Merits and limitations of pilot-scale testing and mathematical modeling are pointed out. Available computer models for furnace performance predictions are reviewed according to their classification into finite-difference methods and zone methods. Current state of the art models for industrial application are predominantly zone methods based on advanced Monte-Carlo type techniques for calculation of radiation heat transfer. A representation of this model type is described in more detail together with examples of its practical application. It is also shown, how pilot-scale results can be scaled-up with help of the model to predict full-scale performance of particular boiler furnaces.

  10. CHALLENGES AND OPPORTUNITIES FOR EMISSION REDUCTIONS FROM THE COAL-FIRED POWER SECTOR IN GROWING ECONOMIES: THE CASE OF COAL-FIRED ELECTRIC UTILITY PLANTS IN RUSSIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    China, Russia and India together contribute over one-fourth of the total global greenhouse gas emissions from the combustion of fossil-fuels. This paper focuses on the Russian coal-fired power sector, and identifies potential opportunities for reducing emissions. The Russian powe...

  11. Water Extraction from Coal-Fired Power Plant Flue Gas

    SciTech Connect

    Bruce C. Folkedahl; Greg F. Weber; Michael E. Collings

    2006-06-30

    The overall objective of this program was to develop a liquid disiccant-based flue gas dehydration process technology to reduce water consumption in coal-fired power plants. The specific objective of the program was to generate sufficient subscale test data and conceptual commercial power plant evaluations to assess process feasibility and merits for commercialization. Currently, coal-fired power plants require access to water sources outside the power plant for several aspects of their operation in addition to steam cycle condensation and process cooling needs. At the present time, there is no practiced method of extracting the usually abundant water found in the power plant stack gas. This project demonstrated the feasibility and merits of a liquid desiccant-based process that can efficiently and economically remove water vapor from the flue gas of fossil fuel-fired power plants to be recycled for in-plant use or exported for clean water conservation. After an extensive literature review, a survey of the available physical and chemical property information on desiccants in conjunction with a weighting scheme developed for this application, three desiccants were selected and tested in a bench-scale system at the Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC). System performance at the bench scale aided in determining which desiccant was best suited for further evaluation. The results of the bench-scale tests along with further review of the available property data for each of the desiccants resulted in the selection of calcium chloride as the desiccant for testing at the pilot-scale level. Two weeks of testing utilizing natural gas in Test Series I and coal in Test Series II for production of flue gas was conducted with the liquid desiccant dehumidification system (LDDS) designed and built for this study. In general, it was found that the LDDS operated well and could be placed in an automode in which the process would operate with no operator intervention or

  12. Advancements in low NOx tangential firing systems

    SciTech Connect

    Hein, R. von; Maney, C.; Borio, R.

    1996-12-31

    The most cost effective method of reducing nitrogen oxide emissions when burning fossil fuels, such as coal, is through in-furnace NOx reduction processes. ABB Combustion Engineering, Inc. (ABB CE), through its ABB Power Plant Laboratories has been involved in the development of such low NOx pulverized coal firing systems for many years. This development effort is most recently demonstrated through ABB CE`s involvement with the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) {open_quotes}Engineering Development of Advanced Coal Fired Low-Emission Boiler Systems{close_quotes} (LEBS) project. The goal of the DOE LEBS project is to use {open_quotes}near term{close_quotes} technologies to produce a commercially viable, low emissions boiler. This paper addresses one of the key technologies within this project, the NOx control subsystem. The foundation for the work undertaken at ABB CE is the TFS 2000{trademark} firing system, which is currently offered on a commercial basis. This system encompasses sub-stoichiometric combustion in the main firing zone for reduced NOx formation. Potential enhancements to this firing system focus on optimizing the introduction of the air and fuel within the primary windbox to provide additional horizontal and vertical staging. As is the case with all in-furnace NOx control processes, it is necessary to operate the system in a manner which does not decrease NOx at the expense of reduced combustion efficiency.

  13. High pressure coal-fired ceramic air heater for gas turbine applications. Second quarterly report, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1997-07-01

    The manuscript of the paper presented at the Advanced Coal-Fired Power Systems `95 Review Meeting at DOE METC, June 27, was submitted for inclusion in the published proceedings. The paper focused on the building of the pilot plant in Kennebunk, Maine, and the proof of concept tests performed to date. Slide shows and tours of the Kennebunk Test Facility were held for local community leaders, many of whom were concerned about plant noise levels. The Kennebunk Rotary Club was addressed on July 18. On July 24, a town manager attended a demonstration of noise abatement measures Hague had taken to address complaints about the sound of the facility`s ID fan. This resulted in a favorable newspaper story published in the Biddeford - Saco Journal Tribune on July 26. Heat Exchanger Development Task 2.4.1 - Tube- String Development: Improve Tube Toughness: Evaluation of an improved containment system is proceeding. Several prototype samples fabricated some time ago have been tested. The first round of tests successfully demonstrated the containment concept. Tests are planned to evaluate the containment scheme using so called `high temperature` materials suitable for use in the CerHx.

  14. Ice fog abatement and pollution reduction at a subarctic coal-fired heating plant. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Leonard, L.E.; Seifert, R.; Zarling, J.; Johnson, R.

    1981-02-01

    An experimental cooler-condenser system was constructed at the coal-fired heating and electric plant on the Fairbanks campus of the University of Alaska to evaluate its potential to reduce ice fog and other pollutant stack emissions in a subarctic environment. This experiment advanced the work began by Porteous and Wallis (1965) to a stage of field evaluation for a less than full scale system. Flue gas was diverted from the existing power plant stack through the experimental system for test purposes. A cold water spray was directed into the muzzle of the experimental stack counter-current to the direction of flue gas flow to cool the gas, condense combustion-produced water vapor and scrub the gas stream of potential pollutants before they were released to the atmosphere. Because of several factors, the system at this stage of development proved ineffective for its main function of ice fog reduction. Some of the problems could be prevented by changes in the design of the system and some remain inconclusive and not well understood. Results show that the scrubbing function was more successful. Environmental considerations such as process water treatment and disposal presented no major obstacles, however, the potential to recover waste from the system does not appear favorable.

  15. MHD Coal-Fired Flow Facility. Quarterly/annual technical progress report, October-December 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Dicks, J. B.; Chapman, J. N.; Crawford, L. W.

    1980-02-01

    In this Fourth Quarterly/Annual Report submitted under DOE contracts EX-76-C-01-1760 and DE-AC02-79ET10815, the University of Tennessee Space Institute (UTSI) reports on significant activity, task status, planned research, testing, and development, and conclusions for the Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) Coal-Fired Flow Facility (CFFF) and the Research and Development Laboratory. Work on the CFFF progressed with only minor problems. Total construction activity for all site work presently awarded is nearly 98% complete. Water analysis shows that Woods Reservoir baseline conditions are within EPA or Tennessee drinking water standards. For the primary combustor, the vitiation heater and primary combustor fabrication drawings were completed and the nozzle design was completed. The drum module for the radiant slagging furnace was awarded. On the MHD Power Generator, development continued in several areas of advanced analysis including development of time-dependent models for use with the one-dimensional code. For seed regeneration, the tentative determination is that the Tomlinson Tampella is the most economically viable method. With regard to capped electrode erosion, investigations have shown that the major degradation of the cladding still present is at the leading edge of the capped anode. To alleviate this, plans are to hot work the noble metal in the bending operation. In resolving another problem, a system employing the modified line-reversal method has been assembled and successfully tested to measure absolute plasma temperatures.

  16. The Magnetohydrodynamics Coal-Fired Flow Facility technical progress report, July 1, 1993--September 30, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-01

    In this quarterly technical progress report, UTSI reports on a multi-task research contract directed toward developing the technology for an MHD steam combined cycle power plant. During the period two tests were conducted in the DOE Coal Fired FLow Facility. Both of these tests were part of the western coal proof-of-concept (POC) test series. The report describes the performance of the tests and provides some preliminary performance data on particulate removal systems during the tests. The performance of ceramic tubes being tested for high temperature air heater application is described. Performance of advanced diagnostics equipment from both UTSI and MSU is summarized. The results of experiments designed to determine the effects of potassium compounds on combustion are included. Plans for analysis of metal tube specimens previously removed from the test train are discussed. Modeling and analysis of previous test data include a deposition model to predict ash deposition on tubes, mass balance results, automated data screening and chemical analyses and the data base containing these analyses. Laboratory tests on sealing ceramic tubes and corrosion analyses of previously tested tubes are reported.

  17. Nighttime NOx Chemistry in Coal-Fired Power Plant Plumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fibiger, D. L.; McDuffie, E. E.; Dube, W. P.; Veres, P. R.; Lopez-Hilfiker, F.; Lee, B. H.; Green, J. R.; Fiddler, M. N.; Ebben, C. J.; Sparks, T.; Weinheimer, A. J.; Montzka, D.; Campos, T. L.; Cohen, R. C.; Bililign, S.; Holloway, J. S.; Thornton, J. A.; Brown, S. S.

    2015-12-01

    Nitrogen oxides (NOx = NO + NO2) play a key role in atmospheric chemistry. During the day, they catalyze ozone (O3) production, while at night they can react to form nitric acid (HNO3) and nitryl chloride (ClNO2) and remove O3 from the atmosphere. These processes are well studied in the summer, but winter measurements are more limited. Coal-fired power plants are a major source of NOx to the atmosphere, making up approximately 30% of emissions in the US (epa.gov). NOx emissions can vary seasonally, as well as plant-to-plant, with important impacts on the details of the plume chemistry. In particular, due to inefficient plume dispersion, nighttime NOx emissions from power plants are held in concentrated plumes, where rates of mixing with ambient O3 have a strong influence on plume evolution. We will show results from the aircraft-based WINTER campaign over the northeastern United States, where several nighttime intercepts of power plant plumes were made. Several of these intercepts show complete O3 titration, which can have a large influence on NOx lifetime, and thus O3 production, in the plume. When power plant NO emissions exceed background O3 levels, O3 is completely consumed converting NO to NO2. In the presence of O3, NO2 will be oxidized to NO3, which will then react with NO2 to form N2O5, which can then form HNO3 and/or ClNO2 and, ultimately, remove NOx from the atmosphere or provide next-day oxidant sources. If there is no O3 present, however, no further chemistry can occur and NO and NO2 will be transported until mixing with sufficient O3 for higher oxidation products. Modeling results of plume development and mixing, which can tell us more about this transport, will also be presented.

  18. The demonstration of an advanced cyclone coal combustor, with internal sulfur, nitrogen, and ash control for the conversion of a 23 MMBtu/hour oil fired boiler to pulverized coal

    SciTech Connect

    Zauderer, B.; Fleming, E.S.

    1991-08-30

    The project objective was to demonstrate a technology which can be used to retrofit oil/gas designed boilers, and conventional pulverized coal fired boilers to direct coal firing, by using a patented sir cooled coal combustor that is attached in place of oil/gas/coal burners. A significant part of the test effort was devoted to resolving operational issues related to uniform coal feeding, efficient combustion under very fuel rich conditions, maintenance of continuous slag flow and removal from the combustor, development of proper air cooling operating procedures, and determining component materials durability. The second major focus of the test effort was on environmental control, especially control of SO{sub 2} emissions. By using staged combustion, the NO{sub x} emissions were reduced by around 3/4 to 184 ppmv, with further reductions to 160 ppmv in the stack particulate scrubber. By injection of calcium based sorbents into the combustor, stack SO{sub 2} emissions were reduced by a maximum of of 58%. (VC)

  19. EVALUATION OF MERCURY EMISSIONS FROM COAL-FIRED FACILITIES WITH SCR AND FGD SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    J.A. Withum

    2006-03-07

    CONSOL Energy Inc., Research & Development (CONSOL), with support from the U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE) and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), evaluated the effects of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) on mercury (Hg) capture in coal-fired plants equipped with an electrostatic precipitator (ESP)-wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) combination or a spray dyer absorber-fabric filter (SDA-FF) combination. In this program CONSOL determined mercury speciation and removal at 10 bituminous coal-fired facilities; at four of these facilities, additional tests were performed on units without SCR, or with the existing SCR bypassed. This project final report summarizes the results and discusses the findings of the body of work as a whole. Eleven Topical Reports were issued (prior to this report) that describe in great detail the sampling results at each of the ten power plants individually. The results showed that the SCR-FGD combination removed a substantial fraction of mercury from flue gas. The coal-to-stack mercury removals ranged from 65% to 97% for the units with SCR and from 53% to 87% for the units without SCR. There was no indication that any type of FGD system was more effective at mercury removal than others. The coal-to-stack mercury removal and the removal in the wet scrubber were both negatively correlated with the elemental mercury content of the flue gas and positively correlated with the scrubber liquid chloride concentration. The coal chlorine content was not a statistically significant factor in either case. Mercury removal in the ESP was positively correlated with the fly ash carbon content and negatively correlated with the flue gas temperature. At most of the units, a substantial fraction (>35%) of the flue gas mercury was in the elemental form at the boiler economizer outlet. After passing through the SCR-air heater combination very little of the total mercury (<10%) remained in the elemental form in

  20. New mineral occurrences and mineralization processes: Wuda coal-fire gas vents of Inner Mongolia

    SciTech Connect

    Stracher, G.B.; Prakash, A.; Schroeder, P.; McCormack, J.; Zhang, X.M.; Van Dijk, P.; Blake, D.

    2005-12-01

    Five unique mineral assemblages that include the sulfates millosevichite, alunogen, anhydrite, tschermigite, coquimbite, voltaite, and godovikovite, as well as the halide salammoniac and an unidentified phase, according to X-ray diffraction and EDS data, were found as encrustations on quartzofeldspathic sand and sandstone adjacent to coal-fire gas vents associated with underground coal fires in the Wuda coalfield of Inner Mongolia. The mineral assemblage of alunogen, coquimbite, voltaite, and the unidentified phase collected front the same gas vent, is documented for the first time. Observations suggest that the sulfates millosevichite, alunogen, coquimbite, voltaite, godovikovite, and the unidentified phase, crystallized in response to a complex sequence of processes that include condensation, hydrothermal alteration, crystallization from solution, fluctuating vent temperatures, boiling, and dehydration reactions, whereas the halide salammoniac crystallized during the sublimation of coal-fire gas. Tschermigite and anhydrite formed by the reaction of coal-fire gas with quartzofelds pathic rock or by hydrothermal alteration of this rock and crystallization from an acid-rich aqueous solution. These minerals have potentially important environmental significance and may be vectors for the transmission of toxins. Coal fires also provide insight for the recognition in the geologic record of preserved mineral assemblages that are diagnostic of ancient fires.

  1. Development and testing of commercial-scale, coal-fired combustion systems: Phase 3, Technical progress report, October 1993--December 1993

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    The objective of this Phase III program for the development of a commercial scale, coal-fired combustion system is to develop and integrate all system components from fuel through total system controls building upon the prior Phase I and II development accomplishments of the MTCI pulse combustion technology and to then field test the complete system in order to evaluate its potential marketability. During this 13th quarter, a steam generation cost model was developed to compare the economics of steam production in the commercial-scale, coal-fired pulse combustion system with that in a natural gas- or oil-fired system. The purpose of this model is to define the competitive capital cost range for the MTCI system under a specified set of technical and economic conditions. A current preliminary estimate of the MTCI pulse coal combustion system capital cost turns out to be about $120,000 and this is within the target range of the US commercial boiler market sector. European differential fuel costs are expected to be more favorable. Several conceptual arrangements for coal reburn and char burnout were evaluated. The arrangement was selected based on the following considerations viz. utilization of the existing pulse combustor as is, minimization of footprint and vertical space requirement, good mixing of coal, steam and combustion products in the reburn section, and adequate char residence time in the char burnout section.

  2. Exergy efficiency of small coal-fired power plants as a criterion of their wide applicability

    SciTech Connect

    O.V. Afanas'eva; G.R. Mingaleeva

    2009-02-15

    The applicability of small coal-fired power plants as an independent and reliable power supply source was considered. The advantages of using small thermal power plants were given, and the classification characteristics of small coal-fired power plants were put forward. The exergy method was chosen as a versatility indicator for the operating efficiency of a flowsheet in question. The exergy efficiency factor of the flowsheet was 32%. With the manufacture of by-products, such as activated carbons, the exergy efficiency of the flowsheet increased to 35%. The studies undertaken substantiated the wide applicability of small coal-fired power plants for the development of decentralized power supply. 7 refs., 2 tabs.

  3. Correlates of mental health in nuclear and coal-fired power plant workers.

    PubMed

    Parkinson, D K; Bromet, E J

    1983-08-01

    The mental health of 104 nuclear workers at the Three Mile Island plant was compared with that of 122 workers from another nuclear plant and 151 workers from two coal-fired generating plants. The coal-fired plant workers were somewhat more symptomatic than the nuclear plant workers. Assessments of work environments showed that the coal-fired plant workers perceived less stress but more problems with workplace exposures than the nuclear plant workers. Negative perceptions of work and marital stress were both strongly and independently related to mental distress. Overall, the results suggest that the Three Mile Island accident did not engender long-term psychological difficulties in workers evaluated 2.5 years after the accident. PMID:6635612

  4. Dispersion modeling of mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants at Coshocton and Manchester, Ohio

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S.; Keener, T.C.

    2009-09-15

    Mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants are estimated to contribute to approximately 46% of the total US anthropogenic mercury emissions and required to be regulated by maximum achievable control technology (MACT) standards. Dispersion modeling of mercury emissions using the AERMOD model and the industrial source complex short term (ISCST3) model was conducted for two representative coal-fired power plants at Coshocton and Manchester, Ohio. Atmospheric mercury concentrations, dry mercury deposition rates, and wet mercury deposition rates were predicted in a 5 x 5 km area surrounding the Coonesville and JM Stuart coal-fired power plants. In addition, the analysis results of meteorological parameters showed that wet mercury deposition is dependent on precipitation, but dry mercury deposition is influenced by various meteorological factors. 8 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  5. Creep Strength of Dissimilar Welded Joints Using High B-9Cr Steel for Advanced USC Boiler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tabuchi, Masaaki; Hongo, Hiromichi; Abe, Fujio

    2014-10-01

    The commercialization of a 973 K (700 °C) class pulverized coal power system, advanced ultra-supercritical (A-USC) pressure power generation, is the target of an ongoing research project initiated in Japan in 2008. In the A-USC boiler, Ni or Ni-Fe base alloys are used for high-temperature parts at 923 K to 973 K (650 °C to 700 °C), and advanced high-Cr ferritic steels are planned to be used at temperatures lower than 923 K (650 °C). In the dissimilar welds between Ni base alloys and high-Cr ferritic steels, Type IV failure in the heat-affected zone (HAZ) is a concern. Thus, the high B-9Cr steel developed at the National Institute for Materials Science, which has improved creep strength in weldments, is a candidate material for the Japanese A-USC boiler. In the present study, creep tests were conducted on the dissimilar welded joints between Ni base alloys and high B-9Cr steels. Microstructures and creep damage in the dissimilar welded joints were investigated. In the HAZ of the high B-9Cr steels, fine-grained microstructures were not formed and the grain size of the base metal was retained. Consequently, the creep rupture life of the dissimilar welded joints using high B-9Cr steel was 5 to 10 times longer than that of the conventional 9Cr steel welded joints at 923 K (650 °C).

  6. Technical progress report for the Magnetohydrodynamics Coal-Fired Flow Facility: October 1, 1992--December 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-06-01

    Progress is reported on a multitask contract to develop technology for steam bottoming cycle of a Combined Cycle MHD Steam Power Plant. The report describes a 314 hour proof-of-concept (POC) test completed during the quarter. Results include secondary combustion and effect of potassium on the light-off temperature, fouling of heat transfer surfaces, particulate clean-up device performance and advanced diagnostic system performance. Test results on ceramic materials and tubes directed toward the development of a high temperature recuperative air heater are summarized. Results of data analysis of previous tests that are reported include the continuing analysis of tube materials that were exposed to 1500 and 2000 hours of eastern coal fired operation during the previously completed 2000 hour POC test series on eastern, high sulfur coal.

  7. Coal Fires in the United States: A Case Study in Government Inattention

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCurdy, K. M.

    2006-12-01

    Coal fires occur in all coal producing nations. Like most other environmental problems fires are not confined by political boundaries. Important economic coal seams in the United States are found across the Inter-montaine west, the Midwest, and Appalachia. The age of these deposits differs, as does the grade and sulfur content of the coal, the mining techniques utilized for exploitation of this resource, and the markets in which the coal is traded. Coal fires are ordinary occurrences under extraordinary conditions. Every coal bed exposed in an underground or surface mine has the potential to ignite. These fires are spread thinly over the political geography and over time, so that constituencies rarely coalesce to petition government to address the coal fire problem. Coal fires produce serious problems with long term consequences for society. They threaten mine safety, consume a non-renewable resource, and produce toxic gases with serious health effects for local populations. Additionally, as coal production in the developing world intensifies, these problems worsen. The lack of government attention to coal fires is due to the confluence of at least four independent political factors: 1) The separated powers, federated system in which decisions in the United States are made; 2) Low levels of political energy available in Congress to be expended on coal fires, measured by the magnitude of legislative majorities and seniority; 3) The mid-twentieth century model of scientific and technical information moving indirectly to legislators through the bureaucratic agencies; 4) The chronic and diffuse nature of fires across space and time.

  8. Electrical resistivity of coal-bearing rocks under high temperature and the detection of coal fires using electrical resistance tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Zhenlu; Wang, Deming; Wang, Yanming; Zhong, Xiaoxing; Tang, Xiaofei; Xi, Dongdong

    2016-02-01

    Coal fires are severe hazards to environment, health and safety throughout the world. Efficient and economical extinguishing of these fires requires that the extent of the subsurface coal fires should be delineated. Electrical and electromagnetic methods have been used to detect coal fires in recent years. However, the resistivity change of coal-bearing rocks at high temperature is rarely investigated. The resistivity characteristics of coal fires at different temperatures and depths are seldomly researched as well. In this paper, we present the results of measurements of several coal-bearing rocks' resistivity and permeability under high temperature. Two major causes for the change in resistivity with increasing temperature are recognized, there are the increase of charge carriers and thermal fracturing, of which the first one is probably the dominant cause. A set of 2-D simulations is carried out to compare the relation of resolution and efficiency of coal fires detection to temperature and depth when adopting the electrical resistance tomography. The simulation results show that the resolution and efficiency decrease with the decrease of temperature and the increase of depth. Finally, the electrical resistance tomography is used to delineate coal fires in the Anjialing Open Pit Mine. Most low-resistivity regions are verified as coal-fire areas according to the long-term monitoring of borehole temperature. The results indicate that the electrical resistance tomography can be used as a tool for the detection of coal fires.

  9. THREE STAGE COMBUSTION (REBURNING) TEST RESULTS FROM A 300 MW BOILER IN THE UKRAINE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper gives results of a program to design, install, and test a natural gas three-stage combustion (reburn) system on a 300-MWe, opposed-wall, wetbottom (slagging) coal-fired utility boiler operating in the Ukraine. The U. S. EPA sponsored this-program in support of a working...

  10. DISTRIBUTED MIXING BURNER (DMB) ENGINEERING DESIGN FOR APPLICATION TO INDUSTRIAL AND UTILITY BOILERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report summarizes the design of two prototype distributed mixing burners (DMBs) for application to industrial and utility boilers. The DMB is a low-NOx pulverized-coal-fired burner in which: (1) mixing of the coal with combustion air is controlled to minimize NOx emissions, a...

  11. THE ADIPIC ACID ENHANCED FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION PROCESS FOR INDUSTRIAL BOILERS. VOLUME 1. FIELD TEST RESULTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of an evaluation of the effect of adding adipic acid on the SO2 removal of a wet limestone flue gas desulfurization (FGD) system on a coal-fired industrial boiler at Rickenbacker Air National Guard Base near Columbus, OH. Emission data were collected in a...

  12. REVIEW OF CONCURRENT MASS EMISSION AND OPACITY MEASUREMENTS FOR COAL-BURNING UTILITY AND INDUSTRIAL BOILERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of concurrent particulate emissions and opacity measurements based on visual observations and/or in-stack transmissometry for more than 400 compliance, acceptance, or experimental tests on coal-fired utility and industrial boilers. The sampling, which inc...

  13. LOW-SULFUR WESTERN COAL USE IN EXISTING SMALL AND INTERMEDIATE SIZE BOILERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of testing of 10 representative coal-fired boilers in the Upper-Midwest, including an assessment of SOx, NOx, CO, unburned HC, and particulate emissions from these units, as well as an assessment of the operational impact of coal switching. The study show...

  14. DEMONSTRATION OF SORBENT INJECTION TECHNOLOGY ON A WALL-FIRED UTILITY BOILER (EDGEWATER LIMB DEMONSTRATION)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of the full-scale demonstration of Limestone Injection Multistage Burner (LIMB) technology on the coal-fired, 105 MW, Unit 4 boiler at Ohio Edison's Edgewater Station. eveloped as a technology aimed at moderate levels of sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen ...

  15. PRELIMINARY PERFORMANCE AND COST ESTIMATES OF MERCURY EMISSION CONTROL OPTIONS FOR ELECTRIC UTILITY BOILERS

    EPA Science Inventory


    The paper discusses preliminary performance and cost estimates of mercury emission control options for electric utility boilers. Under the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, EPA had to determine whether mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants should be regulated. To a...

  16. Evaluation of wood chip gasification to produce reburn fuel for coal-fired boilers

    EPA Science Inventory

    Gasification/reburn testing with biomass and other wastes is of interest to both the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Italian Ministry of the Environment & Territory (IMET). Gasification systems that use wastes as feedstock should provide a clean, efficient sour...

  17. CONTROL OF MERCURY EMISSIONS FROM COAL-FIRED ELECTRIC UTILITY BOILERS: INTERIM REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report provides additional information on mercury (Hg) emissions control following the release of "Study of Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions from Electric Utility Steam Generating Units--Final Report to Congress" in February 1998. Chapters 1-3 describe EPA's December 2000 de...

  18. EVALUATION AND MITIGATION OF VISIBLE ACIDIC AEROSOL PLUMES FROM COAL FIRED POWER BOILERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The formation of sulfur trioxide during the combustion of coal can increase significantly following the installation and operation of selective catalytic reduction systems for reduction of nitrogen oxides. This can in turn lead to adverse environmental impacts, including visible...

  19. EFFECTS OF CONDITIONING AGENTS ON EMISSIONS FROM COAL-FIRED BOILERS: TEST REPORT NO. 1

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a field performance test of an electrostatic precipitator (ESP) which uses SO3 as the conditioning agent. The ESP is at an electric utility power plant, burning approximately 1% sulfur coal. Tests were conducted with and without injection of the SO3. T...

  20. EFFECTS OF CONDITIONING AGENTS ON EMISSIONS FROM COAL-FIRED BOILERS: TEST REPORT NO. 2

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a field performance test of an electrostatic precipitator (ESP) which uses Apollo Chemical Co.'s LPA 445 and LAC 51B flue gas conditioning agents. The ESP is at an electric utility power plant, burning approximately 1% to 2% sulfur coal. Tests were con...

  1. Evaluation of wood chip gasification to produce reburrn fuel for coal-fired boilers: AWMA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Gasification or reburn testing with biomass and other wastes is of interest to both the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Italian Ministry of the Environment & Territory (IMET). Gasification systems that use wastes as feedstock should provide a clean, efficient s...

  2. FUNDAMENTALS OF MERCURY SPECIATION AND CONTROL IN COAL-FIRED BOILERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes the progress of an experimental investigation of the speciation of mercury in simulated coal combustion flue gasses. The effects of flue gas parameters and coal fly ash on the oxidation of elemental mercury (Hgo) in the presence of hydrogen chloride (HCl) in ...

  3. MINIMIZATION OF NO EMISSIONS FROM MULTI-BURNER COAL-FIRED BOILERS

    SciTech Connect

    E.G. Eddings; A. Molina; D.W. Pershing; A.F. Sarofim; K.A. Davis; M.P. Heap; T.H. Fletcher; H. Zhang

    2000-04-01

    Reduction of NO{sub x} emission is an important environmental issue in pulverized coal combustion. Final emissions of NO{sub x} are strongly affected by the nitrogen release during devolatilization, which is the first stage of coal combustion. The most cost-effective approach to NO{sub x} reduction is air-staging which can also operate with additional down-stream techniques such as reburning [1]. Air staging promotes the conversion of NO{sub x} precursors (HCN, NH{sub 3}, etc.) to N{sub 2} by delaying the oxygen supply to the greatest extent when those nitrogen species are released during devolatilization. Such a delay gives the primary volatiles a chance to undergo secondary reactions, including tar cracking and soot formation. Secondary reactions of volatiles largely determine the fate of the ultimate NO{sub x} production from pyrolysis, therefore a detailed investigation into the transformation of nitrogen species during secondary reactions and effects of soot on nitrogen release is critical for design and implementation of new pollution control strategies. Current nitrogen models (including the CPD model at BYU) only simulate the nitrogen release during primary pyrolysis, which happens at low temperatures. This project helps to build a nitrogen release model that accounts for secondary reactions and the effects of soot at temperatures relevant to industrial burners.

  4. MINIMIZATION OF NO EMISSIONS FROM MULTI-BURNER COAL-FIRED BOILERS

    SciTech Connect

    E.G. Eddings; A. Molina; D.W. Pershing; A.F. Sarofim; K.A. Davis; M.P. Heap; T.H. Fletcher; H. Zhang

    2000-04-01

    Coal continues to be one of the principal energy sources for electric power generation in the United States. One of the biggest environmental challenges involved with coal utilization is the reduction of nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) formed during coal combustion. The most economical method of NO{sub x} abatement in coal combustion is through burner modification. Air-staging techniques have been widely used in the development of low-NO{sub x} pulverized coal burners, promoting the conversion of NO{sub x} to N{sub 2} by delaying the mixing in the fuel-rich zone near the burner inlet. Previous studies have looked at the mechanisms of NO{sub x} evolution at relatively low temperatures where primary pyrolysis is dominant, but data published for secondary pyrolysis in the pulverized coal furnace are scarce. In this project, the nitrogen evolution behavior during secondary coal pyrolysis will be explored. The end result will be a complete model of nitrogen evolution and NO{sub x} precursor formation due to primary and secondary pyrolysis.

  5. Technical and Economic Aspects of Biomass Co-Firing in Coal-Fired Boilers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dzikuć, M.; Łasiński, K.

    2014-11-01

    The article presents the analysis of the potential of using biomass and coal co-firing in the Polish electro energetic system and shows the benefits resulting from an increase of biomass amount in electricity production in one of the largest Polish power stations. The paper discusses the most often used technologies for biomass co-firing and the potential of using biomass in electricity production in Poland. It also emphasises the fact that biomass co-firing allows a reduction of greenhouse gases emissions to the atmosphere and helps decrease consumption of energy resources. The article also emphasises the economic meaning of increasing the share of renewable energy resources in energy balance, including biomass, due to costs related to greenhouse gases emissions charges. Finally, conclusions from using biomass and coal co-firing in electricity production are presented

  6. Evaluation of Biomass Gasification to Produce Reburning Fuel for Coal-Fired Boilers

    EPA Science Inventory

    Gasification and reburning testing with biomass and other wastes is of interest to both the U.S. EPA and the Italian Ministry of the Environment & Territory. Gasification systems that use biofuels or wastes as feedstock can provide a clean, efficient source of synthesis gas and p...

  7. Chemical interactions in isolated coal-fired power plant plumes: conversion of sulfur dioxide to sulfate aerosols. Volume II. Data supplement

    SciTech Connect

    Meagher, J.F.; Bailey, E.M.; Stockburger, L. III

    1981-03-01

    The Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) has conducted several field experiments to examine the chemical interactions in isolated coal-fired power plant plumes, Particularly the conversion of sulfur dioxide (SO/sub 2/) to sulfate (SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/) aerosols. Six field studies have been conducted at three TVA power plants - Cumberland, paradise, and Colbert Steam Plants - each of which has a different boiler configuration. Studies were conducted during all seasons of the year. Samples were usually collected between sunrise and noon; however, at Cumberland and Paradise Steam Plants, samples were also collected in the afternoon and after sunset. The effect of several meteorological parameters on the conversion rate was investigated from the results of these studies. During one study at Cumberland Steam Plant, samples were taken during periods of reduced and normal electrostatic precipitator (ESP) operation; results from this study were used to investigate the effect of particle loading in the plume on the conversion rate.

  8. Coal-fired-heater makers stress energy efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Branscome, J.

    1982-10-04

    Several systems have been developed recently for igniting pulverised fuel boilers without the need for supplementary fuel. Combustion Engineering have introduced a system called Direct Igntion of Pulverized Coal (DIPC) which uses high-intensity arc ignition of very finely ground coal. This is being tested at the TVA power station. Babcock and Wilcox are developing a Plasma Arc Igniter, and Foster Wheeler are installing their Low-load Coal Burner/Igniter (LLCB/J) at a station in Indiana.

  9. ADVANCED OXYFUEL BOILERS AND PROCESS HEATERS FOR COST EFFECTIVE CO2 CAPTURE AND SEQUESTRATION

    SciTech Connect

    John Sirman; Leonard Switzer; Bart van Hassel

    2004-06-01

    This annual technical progress report summarizes the work accomplished during the second year of the program, January-December 2003, in the following task areas: Task 1--Conceptual Design, Task 2--Laboratory Scale Evaluations, Task 3--OTM Development, Task 4--Economic Evaluation and Commercialization Planning and Task 5--Program Management. The program has experienced significant delays due to several factors. The budget has also been significantly under spent. Based on recent technical successes and confirmation of process economics, significant future progress is expected. Concepts for integrating Oxygen Transport Membranes (OTMs) into boilers and process heaters to facilitate oxy-fuel combustion have been investigated. OTM reactor combustion testing was delayed to insufficient reliability of the earlier OTM materials. Substantial improvements to reliability have been identified and testing will recommence early in 2004. Promising OTM material compositions and OTM architectures have been identified that improve the reliability of the ceramic elements. Economic evaluation continued. Information was acquired that quantified the attractiveness of the advanced oxygen-fired boiler. CO{sub 2} capture and compression are still estimated to be much less than $10/ton CO{sub 2}.

  10. Characteristics of particulate-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons emitted from industrial grade biomass boilers.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiaoyang; Geng, Chunmei; Sun, Xuesong; Yang, Wen; Wang, Xinhua; Chen, Jianhua

    2016-02-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are carcinogenic or mutagenic and are important toxic pollutants in the flue gas of boilers. Two industrial grade biomass boilers were selected to investigate the characteristics of particulate-bound PAHs: one biomass boiler retro-fitted from an oil boiler (BB1) and one specially designed (BB2) biomass boiler. One coal-fired boiler was also selected for comparison. By using a dilution tunnel system, particulate samples from boilers were collected and 10 PAH species were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The total emission factors (EFs) of PAHs ranged from 0.0064 to 0.0380 mg/kg, with an average of 0.0225 mg/kg, for the biomass boiler emission samples. The total PAH EFs for the tested coal-fired boiler were 1.8 times lower than the average value of the biomass boilers. The PAH diagnostic ratios for wood pellets and straw pellets were similar. The ratio of indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene/[indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene+benzo(g,h,i)perylene] for the two biomass boilers was lower than those of the reference data for other burning devices, which can probably be used as an indicator to distinguish the emission of biomass boilers from that of industrial coal-fired boilers and residential stoves. The toxic potential of the emission from wood pellet burning was higher than that from straw pellet burning, however both of them were much lower than residential stove exhausts. PMID:26969542

  11. CHARACTERIZATION AND MANAGEMENT OF RESIDUES FROM COAL-FIRED POWER PLANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) determined on December 15, 2000, that regulations are needed to control the risks of mercury air emissions from coal-fired power plants. The thrust of these new regulations is to remove mercury from the air stream of fossil-fuel-fire...

  12. EFFECTS OF A 'CLEAN' COAL-FIRED POWER GENERATING STATION ON FOUR COMMON WISCONSIN LICHEN SPECIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Algal plasmolysis percentages and other morphological characteristics of Parmelia bolliana, P. caperata, P. rudecta, and Physicia millegrana were compared for specimens growing near to and far from a rural coal-fired generating station in south central Wisconsin. SO2 levels were ...

  13. NOVEL MERCURY OXIDANT AND SORBENT FOR MERCURY EMISSIONS CONTROL FROM COAL-FIRED POWER PLANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The authors have successfully developed novel efficient and cost-effective sorbent and oxidant for removing mercury from power plant flue gases. These sorbent and oxidant offer great promise for controlling mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants burning a wide range of c...

  14. Coal-fired plant meets strict standards from air to aesthetics. [New York

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-04-01

    The 625 MW coal-fired Somerset power station in New York State is the first plant to be constructed and operated under new, strict siting laws. More than one-third of the capital cost was required for environmental controls, and these are outlined.

  15. CHARACTERIZATION OF EMISSIONS OF PAH'S (POLYNUCLEAR AROMATIC HYDROCARBON) FROM RESIDENTIAL COAL-FIRED SPACE HEATERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper gives results of a joint emissions testing and analysis program--the U.S. EPA and the State of Vermont--to determine polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), particulate, sulfur dioxide (SO2), and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions from two coal-fired residential space heate...

  16. Evaluating the fate of metals in air pollution control residues from coal-fired power plants

    EPA Science Inventory

    Changes in air pollution control at coal-fired power plants are shifting mercury (Hg) and other metals from the flue gas at electric utilities to the coal ash. This paper presents data from the characterization of73 coal combustion residues (CCRs) evaluating the composition and c...

  17. PRELIMINARY ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF COAL-FIRED FLUIDIZED-BED COMBUSTION SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report evaluates potential pollutants which could be generated in coal-fired fluidized-bed combustion (FBC) processes. The primary emphasis is on organic compounds, trace elements, inorganic compounds (other than SO2 and Nox), and particulates. Using available bench scale or ...

  18. ICE FOG ABATEMENT AND POLLUTION REDUCTION AT A SUBARCTIC COAL-FIRED HEATING PLANT

    EPA Science Inventory

    An experimental cooler-condenser system was constructed at the coal-fired heating and electric plant on the Fairbanks campus of the University of Alaska to evaluate its potential to reduce ice fog and other pollutant stack emissions in a subarctic environment. This experiment adv...

  19. Study of coal-fired power plants in Japan. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Cahn, A.L.; Falkenberg, R.C.

    1985-06-01

    This is a study of the Japanese utility industry by a team of senior US utility representatives. The objectives of the study were to evaluate and compare Japanese coal-fired power plant design, construction, procurement, operation, and maintenance practices with those of the United States; to assess related Japanese technological innovations; and to verify the reported costs, performance, and reliability of Japan's coal-fired power plants. In addition, Japanese plans for developing and adding new coal-fired generating capacity were to be confirmed. The principal source of information was a detailed set of responses from the Japanese utilities to six comprehensive questionnaires developed by the US study team. This information was supplemented with data gathered by the study team during a two-week visit to representative Japanese power plants and manufacturing facilities, and with material developed in meetings with both private and government groups in Japan. The study presents efficiency and availability data indicating excellent performance of the modern Japanese coal-fired power plants. Differences in institutional and cultural factors, along with government and utility priorities, are among the items identified as contributing to these results. A detailed comparison is made of the utility industries of Japan and the United States.

  20. PATHOLOGIC CHANGES INDUCED BY COAL-FIRED FLY ASH IN HAMSTER TRACHEAL GRAFTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The toxicity of fly ash from a coal-fired power plant for respiratory tract epithelium was studied in heterotropic tracheal grafts. Hamster tracheal grafts were continuously exposed to beeswax-cholesterol pellets containing 100, 1000 and 5000 micrograms fly ash and evaluated at 1...