Science.gov

Sample records for advanced cyclone processes

  1. Evaluation, engineering and development of advanced cyclone processes

    SciTech Connect

    Durney, T.E.; Cook, A.; Ferris, D.D.

    1995-11-01

    This research and development project is one of three seeking to develop advanced, cost-effective, coal cleaning processes to help industry comply with 1990 Clean Air Act Regulations. The specific goal for this project is to develop a cycloning technology that will beneficiate coal to a level approaching 85% pyritic sulfur rejection while retaining 85% of the parent coal`s heating value. A clean coal ash content of less than 6% and a moisture content, for both clean coal and reject, of less than 30% are targeted. The process under development is a physical, gravimetric-based cleaning system that removes ash bearing mineral matter and pyritic sulfur. Since a large portion of the Nation`s coal reserves contain significant amounts of pyrite, physical beneficiation is viewed as a potential near-term, cost effective means of producing an environmentally acceptable fuel.

  2. Evaluation, engineering and development of advanced cyclone processes. Final separating media evaluation and test report (FSMER). Appendices

    SciTech Connect

    1996-05-01

    This report consists of appendices pertaining to the separating media evaluation (calcium nitrate solution) and testing for an advanced cyclone process. Appendices include: materials safety data, aqueous medium regeneration, pH control strategy, and other notes and data.

  3. Evaluation, engineering and development of advanced cyclone processes. Final separating media evaluation and test report (FSMER)

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-19

    {open_quotes}Evaluation Engineering and Development of Advanced Cyclone Processes{close_quotes} is one of the DOE-PETC sponsored advanced coal cleaning projects, which share a number of specific goals. These goals are to produce a 6% ash product, reject 85% of the parent coal`s pyritic sulfur, recover 85% of the parent coal`s Btu value, and provide products that are less than 30% moisture. The process in this project, as the name implies, relies on a cyclone or cyclonic separator to achieve physical beneficiation based on the gravimetric differences between clean coal and its impurities. Just as important as the cyclonic separator, if not more so, is the selection of a parting liquid or medium for use in the separator. Selection of a separating medium is regarded as a significant portion of the project because it has a profound impact on the required unit operations, the performance of the separator, and economics of the process. The choice of medium especially influences selection of media recovery system(s), and the characteristics of clean coal and refuse products. Since medium selection is such an important aspect of the project, portions of the project are dedicated to the study, evaluation, and selection of the most desirable medium. Though separators are an important component, this project initially focused on media study, rather than the separators themselves. In coal processing, discussion of media requires description of the handling and recovery system(s), separation performance, interaction with coal, cost, and health, environmental and safety issues. In order to be effective, a candidate must perform well in all of these categories.

  4. Advances in dust cyclone research

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dust cyclones reduce particulate emissions but their operation consumes electrical energy. Response surface methodology was used to compare two strategies to reduce energy costs without increasing emissions. Cyclones of a standard design (1D3D) were operated singly and in series, as was an ‘Experi...

  5. Evaluation, engineering and development of advanced cyclone processes. Quarterly technical progress report No. 15, April 1, 1994--June 30, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-31

    The project goal is to develop an advanced coal beneficiation technology that can achieve high recovery of the parent coal`s calorific value, while maximizing pyritic sulfur removal. Coal cleaning is to be accomplished by physical means incorporating an advanced form of cycloning or gravimetric process. Evaluation of different media types and their attendant systems for recovery, concentration, and regeneration is to be completed. Phase I, media evaluation, now completed involved a paper study and a number of laboratory tests to eliminate all but the best media options. Phase II, media testing, involved detailed testing of the more promising media and separators in a closed-loop pilot facility circuit. In the final phase, Phase III, it is proposed to test individual components of the process using the optimum medium, separator, and medium recovery systems(s) selected in prior phases. Some of the highlights for this reporting period are: (1) Outomec conducted a second set of hot water wash experiments. These hot water experiments, using prefiltered medium, yielded a significant improvement in calcium nitrate recovery, and showed a consistent decrease in residuum calcium nitrate with increasing wash rate. (2) Several alternatives were investigated for potential reduction in thermal regeneration process costs. Culligan, Spin Tek, and Rochem, manufacturers of reverse osmosis or ultra filtration systems were contacted. Rochem ultimately performed laboratory experiments. Starting with a dilute medium density of 1.07, the Rochem laboratory system achieved a density of 1.11. A density of 1.22 sg would be commercially attainable. This is less than the target medium density of 1.35, meaning that if their system were utilized, some thermal means would still be required to regenerate medium to operating density. (3) Management and Technical Systems initiated work on a preliminary economic study and will submit a report during the next quarterly reporting period.

  6. Diabatic processes and the evolution of two contrasting extratropical cyclones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez-Alvarado, Oscar; Gray, Suzanne; Methven, John

    2016-04-01

    Two contrasting extratropical cyclones were observed over the United Kingdom during the summer 2012 field campaign of the DIAMET (DIAbatic influences on Mesoscale structures in ExtraTropical storms) project. The first cyclone, observed in July, was a shallow system typical of summer over west Europe while the second cyclone, observed in August, was a much deeper system which developed a potential vorticity (PV) tower. The evolution of these two cyclones was analysed and compared in terms of diabatic effects with respect to two aspects. The first aspect is the amount and distribution of heat produced during the development of each cyclone, measured by the cross-isentropic motion around the cyclone centre. The second aspect is the modification to the circulation around the cyclones' centres, measured by area-averaged isentropic vorticity. The contributions from individual diabatic processes, such as convection, cloud microphysics and radiation, to these two aspects is also considered. The cyclones were analysed via hindcast simulations with a research version of the Met Office Unified Model, enhanced with on-line tracers of diabatic changes of potential temperature and PV. A new methodology for the interpretation of these tracers was also implemented and used. The hindcast simulations were compared with the available dropsonde observations from the field campaign as well as operational analyses and radar rainfall rates. It is shown that, while boundary layer and turbulent mixing processes and cloud microphysics processes contributed to the development of both cyclones, the main differences between the cyclones in terms of diabatic effects could be attributed to differences in convective activity. It is also shown that the contribution from all these diabatic processes to changes in the circulation was modulated by the characteristics of advection around each cyclone in a highly nonlinear fashion. This research establishes a new framework for a systematic comparison

  7. Advanced cleanup device performance design report (Task 4. 3). Volume A. Cyclone theory and data correlation

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-01-01

    The 100-year-old cyclone is perhaps the best known and least expensive method of gas particulate cleaning. The theory and practice of cyclone operation has been extensively documented. The body of experience indicates that small cyclones operated at high swirl velocity give better separative efficiency although consideration must also be given to coarse particle bouncing and limitations associated with system pressure losses and cyclone erosion. Hence, multicyclones (i.e., many small cyclones operating in parallel), and staging have been employed in situations where unusually clean gas is mandated. Despite the extensive body of literature on the subject, predicting the performance of cyclones in actual service remains an art. The inadequacies in the existing cyclone theories quickly became evident in the course of several experimental programs at GE using various cyclone designs. The most significant finding of this work has been the observation that electrostatic forces could enhance, or, in fact, dominate the separation process. Cyclone separative efficiencies, with natural electrostatic effects present, were found to be independent of flowrate or even to improve at low flowrates, completely contrary to any of the existing cyclone literature. By implication, it is also possible that such electrostatic forces could influence cyclone scaling so that large cyclones employed in the cleanup train may not suffer the performance degradation compared to small cyclones, as projected from conventional inertial theory. Much of the GE work has therefore been oriented toward understanding and augmenting these electrostatic effects. This report is a collection of the most significant papers and memos on cyclone performance generated during the past three years by General Electric under the CFCC program.

  8. Evaluation of a Combined Cyclone and Gas Filtration System for Particulate Removal in the Gasification Process

    SciTech Connect

    Rizzo, Jeffrey J.

    2010-04-30

    The Wabash gasification facility, owned and operated by sgSolutions LLC, is one of the largest single train solid fuel gasification facilities in the world capable of transforming 2,000 tons per day of petroleum coke or 2,600 tons per day of bituminous coal into synthetic gas for electrical power generation. The Wabash plant utilizes Phillips66 proprietary E-Gas (TM) Gasification Process to convert solid fuels such as petroleum coke or coal into synthetic gas that is fed to a combined cycle combustion turbine power generation facility. During plant startup in 1995, reliability issues were realized in the gas filtration portion of the gasification process. To address these issues, a slipstream test unit was constructed at the Wabash facility to test various filter designs, materials and process conditions for potential reliability improvement. The char filtration slipstream unit provided a way of testing new materials, maintenance procedures, and process changes without the risk of stopping commercial production in the facility. It also greatly reduced maintenance expenditures associated with full scale testing in the commercial plant. This char filtration slipstream unit was installed with assistance from the United States Department of Energy (built under DOE Contract No. DE-FC26-97FT34158) and began initial testing in November of 1997. It has proven to be extremely beneficial in the advancement of the E-Gas (TM) char removal technology by accurately predicting filter behavior and potential failure mechanisms that would occur in the commercial process. After completing four (4) years of testing various filter types and configurations on numerous gasification feed stocks, a decision was made to investigate the economic and reliability effects of using a particulate removal gas cyclone upstream of the current gas filtration unit. A paper study had indicated that there was a real potential to lower both installed capital and operating costs by implementing a char

  9. Cyclone oil shale retorting concept. [Use it all retorting process

    SciTech Connect

    Harak, A.E.; Little, W.E.; Faulders, C.R.

    1984-04-01

    A new concept for above-ground retorting of oil shale was disclosed by A.E. Harak in US Patent No. 4,340,463, dated July 20, 1982, and assigned to the US Department of Energy. This patent titled System for Utilizing Oil Shale Fines, describes a process wherein oil shale fines of one-half inch diameter and less are pyrolyzed in an entrained-flow reactor using hot gas from a cyclone combustor. Spent shale and supplemental fuel are burned at slagging conditions in this combustor. Because of fines utilization, the designation Use It All Retorting Process (UIARP) has been adopted. A preliminary process engineering design of the UIARP, analytical tests on six samples of raw oil shale, and a preliminary technical and economic evaluation of the process were performed. The results of these investigations are summarized in this report. The patent description is included. It was concluded that such changes as deleting air preheating in the slag quench and replacing the condenser with a quench-oil scrubber are recognized as being essential. The addition of an entrained flow raw shale preheater ahead of the cyclone retort is probably required, but final acceptance is felt to be contingent on some verification that adequate reaction time cannot be obtained with only the cyclone, or possibly some other twin-cyclone configuration. Sufficient raw shale preheating could probably be done more simply in another manner, perhaps in a screw conveyor shale transporting system. Results of the technical and economic evaluations of Jacobs Engineering indicate that further investigation of the UIARP is definitely worthwhile. The projected capital and operating costs are competitive with costs of other processes as long as electric power generation and sales are part of the processing facility.

  10. Ocean feedback to tropical cyclones: climatology and processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jullien, Swen; Marchesiello, Patrick; Menkes, Christophe E.; Lefèvre, Jérôme; Jourdain, Nicolas C.; Samson, Guillaume; Lengaigne, Matthieu

    2014-11-01

    This study presents the first multidecadal and coupled regional simulation of cyclonic activity in the South Pacific. The long-term integration of state-of the art models provides reliable statistics, missing in usual event studies, of air-sea coupling processes controlling tropical cyclone (TC) intensity. The coupling effect is analyzed through comparison of the coupled model with a companion forced experiment. Cyclogenesis patterns in the coupled model are closer to observations with reduced cyclogenesis in the Coral Sea. This provides novel evidence of air-sea coupling impacting not only intensity but also spatial cyclogenesis distribution. Storm-induced cooling and consequent negative feedback is stronger for regions of shallow mixed layers and thin or absent barrier layers as in the Coral Sea. The statistical effect of oceanic mesoscale eddies on TC intensity (crossing over them 20 % of the time) is also evidenced. Anticyclonic eddies provide an insulating effect against storm-induced upwelling and mixing and appear to reduce sea surface temperature (SST) cooling. Cyclonic eddies on the contrary tend to promote strong cooling, particularly through storm-induced upwelling. Air-sea coupling is shown to have a significant role on the intensification process but the sensitivity of TCs to SST cooling is nonlinear and generally lower than predicted by thermodynamic theories: about 15 rather than over 30 hPa °C-1 and only for strong cooling. The reason is that the cooling effect is not instantaneous but accumulated over time within the TC inner-core. These results thus contradict the classical evaporation-wind feedback process as being essential to intensification and rather emphasize the role of macro-scale dynamics.

  11. Role of moist processes in the trajectories of mid-latitude surface cyclones within idealized simulations.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coronel, Benoit; Ricard, Didier; Rivière, Gwendal; Arbogast, Philippe

    2014-05-01

    Recent studies suggest that it is the misrepresentation of moist processes within extratropical cyclones that is responsible for many forecast failures. The effect of the latent heat release intensifying perturbations has been demonstrated in numerous studies but its effect on the trajectory has been less extensively studied. Our objective is to systematically study the influence of wet processes on the trajectories of surface cyclones using idealized simulations of the MESO-NH non-hydrostatic mesoscale model. The initial state of the simulations is defined as the sum of a zonal baroclinic jet and finite-amplitude synoptic-scale anomalies located to the south of the jet. Special attention is paid to identifying the dynamical processes acting on the motion of the surface cyclone along and across the jet. Two sets of initial conditions are introduced, one with a unique cyclonic anomaly near the surface, and another one with two cyclonic anomalies near the surface and tropopause in such a way that they interact baroclinically with each other. A first comparison is made between dry simulations having these two different initial conditions to see the impact of the upper-level anomaly in the motion of the surface cyclone. The second comparison is made between wet and dry simulations to study the influence of moist processes. The difference between the different simulations is interpreted in terms of potential vorticity (PV). In all simulations, a dipolar PV anomaly which is composed of an upstream cyclone and a downstream anticyclone is formed near the tropopause and above the surface depression. Using a PV inversion algorithm, we show that the trajectories of the surface cyclone in the various experiments mainly depend on the intensity and orientation of the upper-level dipolar PV anomaly. The upper-level anticyclonic PV being more intense in the moist run than in the dry run, it more rapidly advects the surface cyclone poleward. The consequence is that the surface

  12. Advanced In-Furnace NOx Control for Wall and Cyclone-Fired Boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Hamid Sarv

    2009-02-28

    A NO{sub x} minimization strategy for coal-burning wall-fired and cyclone boilers was developed that included deep air staging, innovative oxygen use, reburning, and advanced combustion control enhancements. Computational fluid dynamics modeling was applied to refine and select the best arrangements. Pilot-scale tests were conducted by firing an eastern high-volatile bituminous Pittsburgh No.8 coal at 5 million Btu/hr in a facility that was set up with two-level overfire air (OFA) ports. In the wall-fired mode, pulverized coal was burned in a geometrically scaled down version of the B and W DRB-4Z{reg_sign} low-NO{sub x} burner. At a fixed overall excess air level of 17%, NO{sub x} emissions with single-level OFA ports were around 0.32 lb/million Btu at 0.80 burner stoichiometry. Two-level OFA operation lowered the NO{sub x} levels to 0.25 lb/million Btu. Oxygen enrichment in the staged burner reduced the NO{sub x} values to 0.21 lb/million Btu. Oxygen enrichment plus reburning and 2-level OFA operation further curbed the NO{sub x} emissions to 0.19 lb/million Btu or by 41% from conventional air-staged operation with single-level OFA ports. In the cyclone firing arrangement, oxygen enrichment of the cyclone combustor enabled high-temperature and deeply staged operation while maintaining good slag tapping. Firing the Pittsburgh No.8 coal in the optimum arrangement generated 112 ppmv NO{sub x} (0.15 lb/million Btu) and 59 ppmv CO. The optimum emissions results represent 88% NO{sub x} reduction from the uncontrolled operation. Levelized costs for additional NO{sub x} removal by various in-furnace control methods in reference wall-fired or cyclone-fired units already equipped with single-level OFA ports were estimated and compared with figures for SCR systems achieving 0.1 lb NO{sub x}/10{sup 6} Btu. Two-level OFA ports could offer the most economical approach for moderate NO{sub x} control, especially for smaller units. O{sub 2} enrichment in combination with 2-level

  13. Extratropical Cyclone

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    ... using data from multiple MISR cameras within automated computer processing algorithms. The stereoscopic algorithms used to generate ... changes. Extratropical cyclones are the dominant weather system at midlatitudes, and the term is used generically for regional ...

  14. Diagnosing the influence of diabatic processes on the explosive deepening of extratropical cyclones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fink, Andreas H.; Pohle, Susan; Pinto, Joaquim G.; Knippertz, Peter

    2012-04-01

    A novel version of the classical surface pressure tendency equation (PTE) is applied to ERA-Interim reanalysis data to quantitatively assess the contribution of diabatic processes to the deepening of extratropical cyclones relative to effects of temperature advection and vertical motions. The five cyclone cases selected, Lothar and Martin in December 1999, Kyrill in January 2007, Klaus in January 2009, and Xynthia in February 2010, all showed explosive deepening and brought considerable damage to parts of Europe. For Xynthia, Klaus and Lothar diabatic processes contribute more to the observed surface pressure fall than horizontal temperature advection during their respective explosive deepening phases, while Kyrill and Martin appear to be more baroclinically driven storms. The powerful new diagnostic tool presented here can easily be applied to large numbers of cyclones and will help to better understand the role of diabatic processes in future changes in extratropical storminess.

  15. Cyclone Boiler Field Testing of Advanced Layered NOx Control Technology in Sioux Unit 1

    SciTech Connect

    Marc A. Cremer; Bradley R. Adams

    2006-06-30

    A four week testing program was completed during this project to assess the ability of the combination of deep staging, Rich Reagent Injection (RRI), and Selective Non-Catalytic Reduction (SNCR) to reduce NOx emissions below 0.15 lb/MBtu in a cyclone fired boiler. The host site for the tests was AmerenUE's Sioux Unit 1, a 500 MW cyclone fired boiler located near St. Louis, MO. Reaction Engineering International (REI) led the project team including AmerenUE, FuelTech Inc., and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). This layered approach to NOx reduction is termed the Advanced Layered Technology Approach (ALTA). Installed RRI and SNCR port locations were guided by computational fluid dynamics (CFD) based modeling conducted by REI. During the parametric testing, NOx emissions of 0.12 lb/MBtu were achieved consistently from overfire air (OFA)-only baseline NOx emissions of 0.25 lb/MBtu or less, when firing the typical 80/20 fuel blend of Powder River Basin (PRB) and Illinois No.6 coals. From OFA-only baseline levels of 0.20 lb/MBtu, NOx emissions of 0.12 lb/MBtu were also achieved, but at significantly reduced urea flow rates. Under the deeply staged conditions that were tested, RRI performance was observed to degrade as higher blends of Illinois No.6 were used. NOx emissions achieved with ALTA while firing a 60/40 blend were approximately 0.15 lb/MBtu. NOx emissions while firing 100% Illinois No.6 were approximately 0.165 lb/MBtu. Based on the performance results of these tests, economics analyses of the application of ALTA to a nominal 500 MW cyclone unit show that the levelized cost to achieve 0.15 lb/MBtu is well below 75% of the cost of a state of the art SCR.

  16. DMS cyclone separation processes for optimization of plastic wastes recycling and their implications.

    PubMed

    Gent, Malcolm Richard; Menendez, Mario; Toraño, Javier; Torno, Susana

    2011-06-01

    It is demonstrated that substantial reductions in plastics presently disposed of in landfills can be achieved by cyclone density media separation (DMS). In comparison with the size fraction of plastics presently processed by industrial density separations (generally 6.4 to 9.5 mm), cyclone DMS methods are demonstrated to effectively process a substantially greater range of particle sizes (from 0.5 up to 120 mm). The purities of plastic products and recoveries obtained with a single stage separation using a cylindrical cyclone are shown to attain virtually 100% purity and recoveries >99% for high-density fractions and >98% purity and recoveries were obtained for low-density products. Four alternative schemas of multi-stage separations are presented and analyzed as proposed methods to obtain total low- and high-density plastics fraction recoveries while maintaining near 100% purities. The results of preliminary tests of two of these show that the potential for processing product purities and recoveries >99.98% of both density fractions are indicated. A preliminary economic comparison of capital costs of DMS systems suggests cyclone DMS methods to be comparable with other DMS processes even if the high volume capacity for recycling operations of these is not optimized. PMID:21030424

  17. The effect of varying amounts of satellite data, orography and diabatic processes on the numerical prediction of an intense cyclone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atlas, R.

    1981-01-01

    Descriptive results from a study of cyclone evolution in the DST-6 forecast case from 0000 GMT 19 February 1976 are presented. The effects of satellite data, orography and diabatic processes on the numerical prediction of cyclone development, and displacement are assessed.

  18. The relevance of individual microphysical processes for potential vorticity anomalies in extratropical cyclones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crezee, Bas; Joos, Hanna; Wernli, Heini

    2016-04-01

    Extratropical cyclones have a large impact on daily weather through their accompanying strong winds and precipitation. The latent heating and cooling associated with microphysical processes like condensation, freezing and melting, sublimation and evaporation leads to the formation of distinct cloud diabatic potential vorticity (CDPV) anomalies. Positive low-level CDPV anomalies - which typically are formed along the fronts and close to the cyclone center - have been shown to interact with upper-level PV anomalies thereby potentially enhancing storm intensification. Here a novel method is applied, which calculates backward trajectories from the mature storm stage, integrates cloud diabatic PV changes due to microphysical processes, and constructs a CDPV budget for each individual anomaly. Thereby we quantify the contributions of, e.g., cloud condensation, depositional growth of snow and melting of snow to the individual anomalies and in turn to the near-surface circulation. First, we apply this method to an idealized mid-latitude cyclone. The formation of the relatively small low-level negative CDPV anomalies is dominated each by one specific process, depending on their location relative to the front. For the large positive PV anomaly we find that the strongest contributions are from in-cloud condensation and below-cloud snow melting and rain evaporation. Although contributions of in-cloud depositional growth of ice are rather small, they cover a very large area and are therefore dynamically significant, i.e., they produce a fairly large-scale but low-amplitude anomaly. In addition the results from the idealized simulations are compared to a wintertime cyclone. It will be discussed how well the method works for real cyclones and how closely the results agree with those from the idealized channel model experiment.

  19. Advances in Process Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, David L.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Advances in electronics and computer science have enabled industries (pulp/paper, iron/steel, petroleum/chemical) to attain better control of their processes with resulting increases in quality, productivity, profitability, and compliance with government regulations. (JN)

  20. Advanced Refractory and Anti-Wearing Technology of Cyclone Separator in CFB Boiler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, H. P.; Shen, Y. Q.; Wang, X. H.; Dai, X. M.; Xue, H. Y.; Liu, D. C.

    The circulating fluidized bed is playing more and more vital role in the electric power field. Cyclone separator as the heart of the circulating fluidized bed combustion boiler, the technology of fire-resistant anti-wear layer in cyclone separator is the guarantee for the long-life and working safety of CFB unit. Based on the comparison of insulation-cyclone and water-cooled cyclone, a novel technology of Anchor bricks use in the cyclone separator was put forward. The temperature of Anchor brick surface is just 80˜90°C, much lower than conventional technology. The problems caused by conventional Y-shaped hook welding were overcome, such as fire-resistant anti-wear layer burned, fire-resistant anti-wear layer rupture, the high temperature of separator's surface, a large number of heat dissipation and etc. Simultaneously, three types of Anchor brick were designed for the different parts of cyclone. It was applied successfully in Thermal Power Plant in Shaoguan Iron and Steel Company. The life time and the operation cycle of the fire-resistant anti-wear layer of the cyclone were prolonged, and the number of boiler off was reduced greatly. Hence, the continuous operation time of boiler was extended. It played a key role in improving the overall economic efficiency of power plant. It is great for the utilization and development of CFB technology.

  1. Energy Conservation/Waste Reduction in the Processing of Soft (Unfired) Ceramic Particles Via Dynamic Cyclone Classification

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, Steve R.

    2003-04-15

    The objective of this project was to advance the development of a novel inertial classifier technology to a full-scale industrial product by sequentially evaluating performance of pre-commercial prototypes. The technology, termed a ''Dynamic Cyclone Classifier'' (DCC), utilizes boundary layers on rotating annular disks to effect particle separation with minimal particle-rotor impaction. Although a large (2-ton/hr) DCC was originally envisioned for use within the mining industry, a smaller (kg/hr) sub-10-mm ''Fine Particle Dynamic Cyclone Classifier'' (FPDCC) was subsequently developed as a result of market research that showed higher commercialization potential for classifying ultrafine powders. Modified FPDCC prototypes were iteratively tested and evaluated in the sub-10-mm particle size range using standardized test particles (i.e., ISO Fine test dust). Classification performance tests were assessed by varying device parameters to define the operational envelope of the device to obtain sharp classification cuts, to maximize particle dispersion, to limit particle attrition and to increase production yields. The FPDCC exhibited sub-10-mm performance using both ideal (ISO test dust) and pharmaceutical excipient (calcium carbonate) ultrafine powders. Performance was compared with conventional classification technologies having the ability to process sub-10-mm ultrafine powders, specifically high-efficiency cyclones (HECs) and rotary vane classifiers (RVCs). The FPDCC can generate sharper classification cuts than high-pressure/high efficiency cyclones (HECs), since there is no turbulent particle re-entrainment, while using as much as 95% less energy. Being vaneless, particle impact with high RPM rotor components in the FPDCC is much less severe than in rotary vane classifiers (RVCs), leading to less critical component wear/erosion and concomitantly reducing potential product attrition and contamination. FPDCC energy usage is also less than in RVCs, since rotating

  2. Unconventional cyclone separators

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, P. )

    1993-01-01

    Conventional cyclone separators are seldom suitable for dust removal from gases according to present standards. The reason is the presence of secondary currents within the cyclone body, which disturb the process of separation as predicted by elementary cyclone theory. Interference can be avoided by special design of the cyclone, including the geometry of the separation chamber, the position of openings, use of flow guides within the cyclone, the dimension and the geometry of the hopper, bleeding and bypassing of the gas, use of multicyclones, and means for dust agglomeration.

  3. Using Enabling Technologies to Advance Data Intensive Analysis Tools in the JPL Tropical Cyclone Information System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knosp, B.; Gangl, M. E.; Hristova-Veleva, S. M.; Kim, R. M.; Lambrigtsen, B.; Li, P.; Niamsuwan, N.; Shen, T. P. J.; Turk, F. J.; Vu, Q. A.

    2014-12-01

    The JPL Tropical Cyclone Information System (TCIS) brings together satellite, aircraft, and model forecast data from several NASA, NOAA, and other data centers to assist researchers in comparing and analyzing data related to tropical cyclones. The TCIS has been supporting specific science field campaigns, such as the Genesis and Rapid Intensification Processes (GRIP) campaign and the Hurricane and Severe Storm Sentinel (HS3) campaign, by creating near real-time (NRT) data visualization portals. These portals are intended to assist in mission planning, enhance the understanding of current physical processes, and improve model data by comparing it to satellite and aircraft observations. The TCIS NRT portals allow the user to view plots on a Google Earth interface. To compliment these visualizations, the team has been working on developing data analysis tools to let the user actively interrogate areas of Level 2 swath and two-dimensional plots they see on their screen. As expected, these observation and model data are quite voluminous and bottlenecks in the system architecture can occur when the databases try to run geospatial searches for data files that need to be read by the tools. To improve the responsiveness of the data analysis tools, the TCIS team has been conducting studies on how to best store Level 2 swath footprints and run sub-second geospatial searches to discover data. The first objective was to improve the sampling accuracy of the footprints being stored in the TCIS database by comparing the Java-based NASA PO.DAAC Level 2 Swath Generator with a TCIS Python swath generator. The second objective was to compare the performance of four database implementations - MySQL, MySQL+Solr, MongoDB, and PostgreSQL - to see which database management system would yield the best geospatial query and storage performance. The final objective was to integrate our chosen technologies with our Joint Probability Density Function (Joint PDF), Wave Number Analysis, and

  4. PFB coal fired combined cycle development program. Advanced hot gas cleanup concept evaluation (Task 4. 3). Volume B. Developmental cyclone evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-02-01

    This report summarizes the results of cold flow model testing of a conventional reverse-flow cyclone containing several developmental features designed to improve its separative performance. The four advanced features evaluated were: Outlet Scroll Skimming - to remove particles from the high dust concentration region at the periphery of the outlet dust; Base Purge - to reduce reentrainment of dust from the disengagement hopper; Increased Outlet Duct Engagement - to reduce short-circuiting of the inlet dust into the outlet; and Vortex Shield - to stabilize the point of vortex attachment at the cyclone base and thus reduce base pickup. A schematic of the advanced cyclone, showing the various developmental features, is provided. The results of the cold flow experiments showed that substantial improvement (approximately 30% reduction in exhaust emission) could be obtained from outlet skimming or from increased engagement of the exhaust dust. Furthermore, the effects of these features are additive so that about 60% overall reduction in emissions could be achieved by incorporating both of these elements. On the other hand, the vortex shield and the base purge had little effect on the separative performance. Almost all of the experimental results exhibited strong electrostatic influence. At high flowrates, the separative performance of the cyclone decreased as the flowrate was reduced, as expected from cyclone theory. Although the improvements obtained with the developmental cyclone are significant, further improvements appear possible with the Air Shield cyclone and the Electrocyclone. Consequently, subsequent efforts under the CFCC program were focused on these concepts.

  5. Advanced signal processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Creasey, D. J.

    1985-12-01

    A collection of papers on advanced signal processing in radar, sonar, and communications is presented. The topics addressed include: transmitter aerials, high-power amplifier design for active sonar, radar transmitters, receiver array technology for sonar, new underwater acoustic detectors, diversity techniques in communications receivers, GaAs IC amplifiers for radar and communication receivers, integrated optical techniques for acoustooptic receivers, logarithmic receivers, CCD processors for sonar, acoustooptic correlators, designing in silicon, very high performance integrated circuits, and digital filters. Also discussed are: display types, scan converters in sonar, display ergonomics, simulators, high throughput sonar processors, optical fiber systems for signal processing, satellite communications, VLSI array processor for image and signal processing, ADA, future of cryogenic devices for signal processing applications, advanced image understanding, and VLSI architectures for real-time image processing.

  6. Advanced Polymer Processing Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Muenchausen, Ross E.

    2012-07-25

    Some conclusions of this presentation are: (1) Radiation-assisted nanotechnology applications will continue to grow; (2) The APPF will provide a unique focus for radiolytic processing of nanomaterials in support of DOE-DP, other DOE and advanced manufacturing initiatives; (3) {gamma}, X-ray, e-beam and ion beam processing will increasingly be applied for 'green' manufacturing of nanomaterials and nanocomposites; and (4) Biomedical science and engineering may ultimately be the biggest application area for radiation-assisted nanotechnology development.

  7. The Role of Moist Processes in the Intrinsic Predictability of Indian Ocean Cyclones

    SciTech Connect

    Taraphdar, Sourav; Mukhopadhyay, P.; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Zhang, Fuqing; Abhilash, S.; Goswami, B. N.

    2014-07-16

    The role of moist processes and the possibility of error cascade from cloud scale processes affecting the intrinsic predictable time scale of a high resolution convection permitting model within the environment of tropical cyclones (TCs) over the Indian region are investigated. Consistent with past studies of extra-tropical cyclones, it is demonstrated that moist processes play a major role in forecast error growth which may ultimately limit the intrinsic predictability of the TCs. Small errors in the initial conditions may grow rapidly and cascades from smaller scales to the larger scales through strong diabatic heating and nonlinearities associated with moist convection. Results from a suite of twin perturbation experiments for four tropical cyclones suggest that the error growth is significantly higher in cloud permitting simulation at 3.3 km resolutions compared to simulations at 3.3 km and 10 km resolution with parameterized convection. Convective parameterizations with prescribed convective time scales typically longer than the model time step allows the effects of microphysical tendencies to average out so convection responds to a smoother dynamical forcing. Without convective parameterizations, the finer-scale instabilities resolved at 3.3 km resolution and stronger vertical motion that results from the cloud microphysical parameterizations removing super-saturation at each model time step can ultimately feed the error growth in convection permitting simulations. This implies that careful considerations and/or improvements in cloud parameterizations are needed if numerical predictions are to be improved through increased model resolution. Rapid upscale error growth from convective scales may ultimately limit the intrinsic mesoscale predictability of the TCs, which further supports the needs for probabilistic forecasts of these events, even at the mesoscales.

  8. Satellite radiothermovision of atmospheric mesoscale processes: case study of tropical cyclones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ermakov, D. M.; Sharkov, E. A.; Chernushich, A. P.

    2015-04-01

    Satellite radiothermovision is a set of processing techniques applicable for multisource data of radiothermal monitoring of oceanatmosphere system, which allows creating dynamic description of mesoscale and synoptic atmospheric processes and estimating physically meaningful integral characteristics of the observed processes (like avdective flow of the latent heat through a given border). The approach is based on spatiotemporal interpolation of the satellite measurements which allows reconstructing the radiothermal fields (as well as the fields of geophysical parameters) of the ocean-atmosphere system at global scale with spatial resolution of about 0.125° and temporal resolution of 1.5 hour. The accuracy of spatiotemporal interpolation was estimated by direct comparison of interpolated data with the data of independent asynchronous measurements and was shown to correspond to the best achievable as reported in literature (for total precipitable water fields the accuracy is about 0.8 mm). The advantages of the implemented interpolation scheme are: closure under input radiothermal data, homogeneity in time scale (all data are interpolated through the same time intervals), automatic estimation of both the intermediate states of scalar field of the studied geophysical parameter and of vector field of effective velocity of advection (horizontal movements). Using this pair of fields one can calculate the flow of a given geophysical quantity though any given border. For example, in case of total precipitable water field, this flow (under proper calibration) has the meaning of latent heat advective flux. This opportunity was used to evaluate the latent heat flux though a set of circular contours, enclosing a tropical cyclone and drifting with it during its evolution. A remarkable interrelation was observed between the calculated magnitude and sign of advective latent flux and the intensity of a tropical cyclone. This interrelation is demonstrated in several examples of

  9. Advanced information processing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lala, J. H.

    1984-01-01

    Design and performance details of the advanced information processing system (AIPS) for fault and damage tolerant data processing on aircraft and spacecraft are presented. AIPS comprises several computers distributed throughout the vehicle and linked by a damage tolerant data bus. Most I/O functions are available to all the computers, which run in a TDMA mode. Each computer performs separate specific tasks in normal operation and assumes other tasks in degraded modes. Redundant software assures that all fault monitoring, logging and reporting are automated, together with control functions. Redundant duplex links and damage-spread limitation provide the fault tolerance. Details of an advanced design of a laboratory-scale proof-of-concept system are described, including functional operations.

  10. Advanced soldering processes

    SciTech Connect

    Jellison, J.L.; Golden, J.; Frear, D.R.; Hosking, F.M.; Keicher, D.M.; Yost, F.G.

    1993-02-20

    Advanced soldering processes are discussed in a complete manner. The ability to meet the needs of electronic manufacturing, while addressing the environmental issues are challenging goals. Government regulations mandate the elimination of most solvents in solder flux removal. Alternative approaches to promoting wetting are discussed. Inert atmosphere soldering, acid vapor fluxless soldering, atomic and ionic hydrogen as reactive atmospheres, fluxless laser soldering in a controlled atmosphere are offered as soldering mechanisms for the future. Laser are discussed as alternate heat sources. Various types of lasers, advantages of lasers, and fiber optic beam delivery are considered.

  11. Advances in speech processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ince, A. Nejat

    1992-10-01

    The field of speech processing is undergoing a rapid growth in terms of both performance and applications and this is fueled by the advances being made in the areas of microelectronics, computation, and algorithm design. The use of voice for civil and military communications is discussed considering advantages and disadvantages including the effects of environmental factors such as acoustic and electrical noise and interference and propagation. The structure of the existing NATO communications network and the evolving Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) concept are briefly reviewed to show how they meet the present and future requirements. The paper then deals with the fundamental subject of speech coding and compression. Recent advances in techniques and algorithms for speech coding now permit high quality voice reproduction at remarkably low bit rates. The subject of speech synthesis is next treated where the principle objective is to produce natural quality synthetic speech from unrestricted text input. Speech recognition where the ultimate objective is to produce a machine which would understand conversational speech with unrestricted vocabulary, from essentially any talker, is discussed. Algorithms for speech recognition can be characterized broadly as pattern recognition approaches and acoustic phonetic approaches. To date, the greatest degree of success in speech recognition has been obtained using pattern recognition paradigms. It is for this reason that the paper is concerned primarily with this technique.

  12. Advanced powder processing

    SciTech Connect

    Janney, M.A.

    1997-04-01

    Gelcasting is an advanced powder forming process. It is most commonly used to form ceramic or metal powders into complex, near-net shapes. Turbine rotors, gears, nozzles, and crucibles have been successfully gelcast in silicon nitride, alumina, nickel-based superalloy, and several steels. Gelcasting can also be used to make blanks that can be green machined to near-net shape and then high fired. Green machining has been successfully applied to both ceramic and metal gelcast blanks. Recently, the authors have used gelcasting to make tooling for metal casting applications. Most of the work has centered on H13 tool steel. They have demonstrated an ability to gelcast and sinter H13 to near net shape for metal casting tooling. Also, blanks of H13 have been cast, green machined into complex shape, and fired. Issues associated with forming, binder burnout, and sintering are addressed.

  13. Advanced microwave processing concepts

    SciTech Connect

    Lauf, R.J.; McMillan, A.D.; Paulauskas, F.L.

    1995-05-01

    The purpose of this work is to explore the feasibility of several advanced microwave processing concepts to develop new energy-efficient materials and processes. The project includes two tasks: (1) commercialization of the variable-frequency microwave furnace; and (2) microwave curing of polymer composites. The variable frequency microwave furnace, whose initial conception and design was funded by the AIC Materials Program, will allow us, for the first time, to conduct microwave processing studies over a wide frequency range. This novel design uses a high-power traveling wave tube (TWT) originally developed for electronic warfare. By using this microwave source, one can not only select individual microwave frequencies for particular experiments, but also achieve uniform power densities over a large area by the superposition of many different frequencies. Microwave curing of thermoset resins will be studied because it hold the potential of in-situ curing of continuous-fiber composites for strong, lightweight components. Microwave heating can shorten curing times, provided issues of scaleup, uniformity, and thermal management can be adequately addressed.

  14. Advanced microwave processing concepts

    SciTech Connect

    Lauf, R.J.; McMillan, A.D.; Paulauskas, F.L.

    1997-04-01

    The purpose of this work is to explore the feasibility of several advanced microwave processing concepts to develop new energy-efficient materials and processes. The project includes two tasks: (1) commercialization of the variable-frequency microwave furnace; and (2) microwave curing of polymeric materials. The variable frequency microwave furnace, whose initial conception and design was funded by the AIM Materials Program, allows the authors, for the first time, to conduct microwave processing studies over a wide frequency range. This novel design uses a high-power traveling wave tube (TWT) originally developed for electronic warfare. By using this microwave source, one can not only select individual microwave frequencies for particular experiments, but also achieve uniform power densities over a large area by the superposition of many different frequencies. Microwave curing of various thermoset resins will be studied because it holds the potential of in-situ curing of continuous-fiber composites for strong, lightweight components or in-situ curing of adhesives, including metal-to-metal. Microwave heating can shorten curing times, provided issues of scaleup, uniformity, and thermal management can be adequately addressed.

  15. Tropical cyclone formation

    SciTech Connect

    Montgomery, M.T.; Farrell, B.F. )

    1993-01-15

    The physics of tropical cyclone formation is not well understood, and more is known about the mature hurricane than the formative mechanisms that produce it. It is believed part of the reason for this can be traced to insufficient upper-level atmospheric data. Recent observations suggest that tropical cyclones are initiated by asymmetric interactions associated with migratory upper-level potential vorticity disturbances and low-level disturbances. Favored theories of cyclones formation, however, focus on internal processes associated with cumulus convection and/or air-sea interaction. This work focuses on external mechanisms of cyclone formation and, using both a two- and three-dimensional moist geostrophic momentum model, investigates the role of upper-level potential vorticity disturbances on the formation process. A conceptual model of tropical cyclone formation is proposed, and implications of the theory are discussed. 71 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  16. The role of moist processes in the intrinsic predictability of Indian Ocean cyclones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taraphdar, S.; Mukhopadhyay, P.; Leung, L. Ruby; Zhang, Fuqing; Abhilash, S.; Goswami, B. N.

    2014-07-01

    The role of moist processes in short-range forecasts of Indian Ocean tropical cyclones (TCs) track and intensity and upscale error cascade from cloud-scale processes affecting the intrinsic predictability of TCs was investigated using the Weather Research and Forecasting model with parameterized and explicitly resolved convection. Comparing the results from simulations of four Indian Ocean TCs at 10 km resolution with parameterized convection and convection-permitting simulations at 1.1 km resolution, both reproduced the observed TC tracks and intensities significantly better than simulations at 30 km resolution with parameterized convection. "Identical twin" experiments were performed by introducing random perturbations to the simulations for each TC. Results show that moist convection plays a major role in intrinsic error growth that ultimately limits the intrinsic predictability of TCs, consistent with past studies of extratropical cyclones. More specifically, model intrinsic errors start to build up from the regions of convection and ultimately affect the larger scales. It is also found that the error at small scale grows faster compared to the larger scales. The gradual increase in error energy in the large scale is a manifestation of upscale cascade of error energy from convective to large scale. Rapid upscale error growth from convective scales limits the intrinsic predictability of the TCs up to 66 h. The intrinsic predictability limit estimated by the 10 km resolution runs is comparable to that estimated by the convection-permitting simulations, suggesting some usefulness of high-resolution (~10 km) models with parameterized convection for TC forecasting and predictability study.

  17. Understand cyclone design

    SciTech Connect

    Coker, A.K. )

    1993-12-01

    Cyclones are widely used for the separation and recovery of industrial dusts from air or process gases. Cyclones are the principal type of gas-solids separator using centrifugal force. They are simple to construct, of low cost, and are made from a wide range of materials with an ability to operate at high temperatures and pressure. Cyclones are suitable for separating particles where agglomeration occurs. Pollution and emission regulations have compelled designers to study the efficiency of cyclones. Cyclones offer the least expensive means of dust collection. They give low efficiency for collection of particles smaller than 5 [mu]m. A high efficiency of 98% can be achieved on dusts with particle sizes of 0.1 to 0.2 [mu]m that are highly flocculated. The paper discusses the design procedure and operating parameters.

  18. Advanced Process Heater

    SciTech Connect

    Tom Briselden, Chris Parrish

    2005-03-07

    The Roadmap for Process Heating Technology (March 16, 2001), identified the following priority R&D needs: Improved performance of high temperature materials; Improved methods for stabilizing low emission flames; Heating technologies that simultaneously reduce emissions, increase efficiency, and increase heat transfer. This Category I award entitled ''Proof of Concept of an Advanced Process Heater (APH) for Steel, Aluminum, and Petroleum Industries of the Future'' met the technical feasibility goals of: (1) Doubling the heat transfer rates (2) Improving thermal efficiencies by 20%, (3) Improving temperature uniformity by 100 degrees F and (4) simultaneously reducing NOx and CO2 emissions. The APH address EERE's mission priority of increasing efficiency/reducing fuel usage in energy intensive industries. One component of the APH, the SpyroCorTM, was commercialized by STORM Development's partner, Spinworks LLC. Over 2000 SpyrCorsTM were sold in 2004 resulting in 480 million BTU's of energy savings, 20% reduction in NOx and CO2 levels, and 9 jobs in N.W. Pennsylvania. A second component, the HeatCorTM, a low-cost high-temperature heat exchanger will be demonstrated by Spinworks in 2005 in preparation for commercial sales in 2006. The project occurred in the 21st Congressional District of Pennsylvania. Once fully commercialized, the APH energy savings potential is 339 trillion BTUs annually in the U.S. and will process 1.5 million more tons annually without major capital equipment expenditures. Spinworks will commercialize the APH and add over 100 U.S. workers. To accomplish the objective, STORM Development LLC teamed with Penn State University, SyCore, Inc, Spinworks LLC, and Schunk-INEX, Inc. The project consisted of component engineering and integration of the APH followed by parametric testing. All components of the system were tested in a lab furnace that simulates a full scale industrial installation. The target areas for development include: (1) Scale up STORM

  19. Advanced Hydrogen Liquefaction Process

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, Joseph; Kromer, Brian; Neu, Ben; Jankowiak, Jerome; Barrett, Philip; Drnevich, Raymond

    2011-09-28

    The project identified and quantified ways to reduce the cost of hydrogen liquefaction, and reduce the cost of hydrogen distribution. The goal was to reduce the power consumption by 20% and then to reduce the capital cost. Optimizing the process, improving process equipment, and improving ortho-para conversion significantly reduced the power consumption of liquefaction, but by less than 20%. Because the efficiency improvement was less than the target, the program was stopped before the capital cost was addressed. These efficiency improvements could provide a benefit to the public to improve the design of future hydrogen liquefiers. The project increased the understanding of hydrogen liquefaction by modeling different processes and thoroughly examining ortho-para separation and conversion. The process modeling provided a benefit to the public because the project incorporated para hydrogen into the process modeling software, so liquefaction processes can be modeled more accurately than using only normal hydrogen. Adding catalyst to the first heat exchanger, a simple method to reduce liquefaction power, was identified, analyzed, and quantified. The demonstrated performance of ortho-para separation is sufficient for at least one identified process concept to show reduced power cost when compared to hydrogen liquefaction processes using conventional ortho-para conversion. The impact of improved ortho-para conversion can be significant because ortho para conversion uses about 20-25% of the total liquefaction power, but performance improvement is necessary to realize a substantial benefit. Most of the energy used in liquefaction is for gas compression. Improvements in hydrogen compression will have a significant impact on overall liquefier efficiency. Improvements to turbines, heat exchangers, and other process equipment will have less impact.

  20. Sea ice trends and cyclone activity in the Southern Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coggins, Jack; McDonald, Adrian; Rack, Wolfgang; Dale, Ethan

    2015-04-01

    Significant trends in the extent of Southern Hemisphere sea ice have been noted over the course of the satellite record, with highly variable trends between different seasons and regions. In this presentation, we describe efforts to assess the impact of cyclones on these trends. Employing a maximum cross-correlation method, we derive Southern Ocean ice-motion vectors from daily gridded SSMI 85.5 GHz brightness temperatures. We then derive a sea ice budget from the NASA-Team 25 km square daily sea ice concentrations. The budget quantifies the total daily change in sea ice area, and includes terms representing the effects of ice advection and divergence. A residual term represents the processes of rafting, ridging, freezing and thawing. We employ a cyclone tracking algorithm developed at the University of Canterbury to determine the timing, location, size and strength of Southern Hemisphere cyclones from mean sea-level pressure fields of the ERA-Interim reanalysis. We then form composites of the of sea ice budget below the location of cyclones. Unsurprisingly, we find that clockwise atmospheric flow around Southern Hemisphere cyclones exerts a strong influence on the movement of sea ice, an effect which is visible in the advection and divergence terms. Further, we assess the climatological importance of cyclones by comparing seasons of sea ice advance for periods with varying numbers of cyclones. This analysis is performed independently for each sea ice concentration pixel, thus affording us insight into the geographical importance of storm systems. We find that Southern Hemisphere sea ice extent is highly sensitive to the presence of cyclones in the periphery of the pack in the advance season. Notably, the sensitivity is particularly high in the northern Ross Sea, an area with a marked positive trend in sea ice extent. We discuss whether trends in cyclone activity in the Southern Ocean may have contributed to sea ice extent trends in this region.

  1. Understanding the Role of Cloud and Convective Processes in Simulating the Weaker Tropical Cyclones over Indian Seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanase, Radhika D.; Mukhopadhyay, P.; Salvekar, P. S.

    2015-06-01

    This study addresses the problem of incorporating moist processes (resolving the grid scale and parameterizing the subgrid scale) at resolutions of 9 and 3 km with double- and triple-nested domains, respectively, in predicting the track and intensity of four cases of weaker tropical cyclones over the North Indian Ocean. The sensitivity experiments are carried out with three convective parameterization schemes, and the results are evaluated based on the track and intensity of cyclones. The Betts-Miller-Janjic scheme shows the most reasonable representation of track and intensity and therefore is used for all sensitivity experiments related to microphysical schemes in two and three domains. Three sets of microphysics sensitivity experiments are carried out: The first set includes experiments with parameterized moist convection (referred to as the 9-km experiment) in two domains (27 and 9 km). The second and third sets of simulation experiments are carried out at 9 km in two domains (27 and 9 km; referred to as the 9-km-noCP) and at 3 km in three domains (27 km, 9 km and 3 km; referred to as the 3-km experiment), respectively, by resolving the grid-scale convection explicitly with the four bulk microphysical schemes. The explicit moist convection treatment at 9- and 3-km resolution produces a better cyclone simulation than the parameterized convection at 9-km resolution. The latent heat released in the generation of hydrometeors such as snow and graupel in the mid-tropospheric levels appears to influence the heating within the inner core of the cyclone. The comparable and more realistic representation of mid-tropospheric heating is possibly one of the main reasons behind the improvement at 9-km-noCP and 3 km. The stronger vertical advection of moist static energy gives well-organized mesoscale convection within the cyclone environment at 9-km-noCP and 3-km resolution. This study therefore demonstrates the importance of microphysical processes in the simulation of

  2. ADVANCED OXIDATION PROCESS

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Colin P. Horwitz; Dr. Terrence J. Collins

    2003-11-04

    The removal of recalcitrant sulfur species, dibenzothiophene and its derivatives, from automotive fuels is an integral component in the development of cleaner burning and more efficient automobile engines. Oxidative desulfurization (ODS) wherein the dibenzothiophene derivative is converted to its corresponding sulfoxide and sulfone is an attractive approach to sulfur removal because the oxidized species are easily extracted or precipitated and filtered from the hydrocarbon phase. Fe-TAML{reg_sign} activators of hydrogen peroxide (TAML is Tetra-Amido-Macrocyclic-Ligand) catalytically convert dibenzothiophene and its derivatives rapidly and effectively at moderate temperatures (50-60 C) and ambient pressure to the corresponding sulfoxides and sulfones. The oxidation process can be performed in both aqueous systems containing alcohols such as methanol, ethanol, or t-butanol, and in a two-phase hydrocarbon/aqueous system containing tert-butanol or acetonitrile. In the biphasic system, essentially complete conversion of the DBT to its oxidized products can be achieved using slightly longer reaction times than in homogeneous solution. Among the key features of the technology are the mild reaction conditions, the very high selectivity where no over oxidation of the sulfur compounds occurs, the near stoichiometric use of hydrogen peroxide, the apparent lack of degradation of sensitive fuel components, and the ease of separation of oxidized products.

  3. ADVANCED OXIDATION PROCESS

    SciTech Connect

    Colin P. Horwitz; Terrence J. Collins

    2003-10-22

    The design of new, high efficiency and cleaner burning engines is strongly coupled with the removal of recalcitrant sulfur species, dibenzothiophene and its derivatives, from fuels. Oxidative desulfurization (ODS) wherein these dibenzothiophene derivatives are oxidized to their corresponding sulfoxides and sulfones is an approach that has gained significant attention. Fe-TAML{reg_sign} activators of hydrogen peroxide (TAML is Tetra-Amido-Macrocyclic-Ligand) convert in a catalytic process dibenzothiophene and its derivatives to the corresponding sulfoxides and sulfones rapidly at moderate temperatures (60 C) and ambient pressure. The reaction can be performed in both an aqueous system containing an alcohol (methanol, ethanol, or t-butanol) to solubilize the DBT and in a two-phase hydrocarbon/aqueous system where the alcohol is present in both phases and facilitates the oxidation. Under a consistent set of conditions using the FeBF{sub 2} TAML activator, the degree of conversion was found to be t-butanol > methanol > ethanol. In the cases of methanol and ethanol, both the sulfoxide and sulfone were observed while for t-butanol only the sulfone was detected. In the two-phase system, the alcohol may function as an inverse phase transfer agent. The oxidation was carried out using two different TAML activators. In homogeneous solution, approximately 90% oxidation of the DBT could be achieved using the prototype TAML activator, FeB*, by sonicating the solution at near room temperature. In bi-phasic systems conversions as high as 50% were achieved using the FeB* TAML activator and hydrogen peroxide at 100 C. The sonication method yielded only {approx}6% conversion but this may have been due to mixing.

  4. Advanced composite materials and processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baucom, Robert M.

    1991-01-01

    Composites are generally defined as two or more individual materials, which, when combined into a single material system, results in improved physical and/or mechanical properties. The freedom of choice of the starting components for composites allows the generation of materials that can be specifically tailored to meet a variety of applications. Advanced composites are described as a combination of high strength fibers and high performance polymer matrix materials. These advanced materials are required to permit future aircraft and spacecraft to perform in extended environments. Advanced composite precursor materials, processes for conversion of these materials to structures, and selected applications for composites are reviewed.

  5. Process for producing advanced ceramics

    DOEpatents

    Kwong, Kyei-Sing

    1996-01-01

    A process for the synthesis of homogeneous advanced ceramics such as SiC+AlN, SiAlON, SiC+Al.sub.2 O.sub.3, and Si.sub.3 N.sub.4 +AlN from natural clays such as kaolin, halloysite and montmorillonite by an intercalation and heat treatment method. Included are the steps of refining clays, intercalating organic compounds into the layered structure of clays, drying the intercalated mixture, firing the treated atmospheres and grinding the loosely agglomerated structure. Advanced ceramics produced by this procedure have the advantages of homogeneity, cost effectiveness, simplicity of manufacture, ease of grind and a short process time. Advanced ceramics produced by this process can be used for refractory, wear part and structure ceramics.

  6. USING CYCLONES EFFECTIVELY AT COTTON GINS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cyclones are the most common type of emissions control device used in agricultural processing operations. Cyclones are efficient, reliable, low-cost, and require little maintenance. When used properly, cyclones effectively separate particulate matter from air streams, allowing compliance with state ...

  7. Ultrastructure processing of advanced ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Mackenzie, J.D.; Ulrich, D.R.

    1988-01-01

    Experimental investigations and applications of advanced ceramics are discussed in reviews and reports presented at the Third International Conference on Ultrastructure Processing of Ceramics, Glasses, and Composites held in San Diego in February 1987. Sections are devoted to precursors and chemistry for ultrastructure processing; sol-gel science and technology; powders and colloids; advanced ceramics; and composites, new materials, and techniques. Particular attention is given to silicon oxynitride and sialon ceramics from organosilicon powders, fluoropolymer-modified silicate glasses, Raman and FTIR spectroscopy of rapid sol-gel processes, a low-temperature route to high-purity Ti/Zr/Hf diboride powders and films, and sol-gel methods for SiO2 optical-fiber coatings. Diagrams, drawings, graphs, micrographs, and tables of numerical data are included.

  8. Diagnosing the Influence of Diabatic Processes on the Explosive Deepening of Extratropical Cyclones over the North Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knippertz, P.; Fink, A. H.; Pohle, S.; Pinto, J. G.

    2012-04-01

    The relative roles of baroclinic and diabatic processes for explosive deepening of extratropical cyclones have been debated for a long time, mostly on the basis of case studies. Here we present a powerful diagnostic approach to the problem, which is based on a combination of an automatic cyclone tracking with a special version of the classical pressure tendency equation (PTE) that relates changes in surface pressure to contributions from horizontal and vertical temperature advection as well as diabatic processes, i.e., mainly latent heat release in clouds. Along the entire track of a cyclone, the PTE is evaluated in a 3°x3° box from the surface to 100 hPa centred on the location the storm is moving to within the next time step. The great advantage of this new approach is the easy applicability to large gridded datasets, even if diabatic tendencies are not explicitly available as in many reanalysis products. The strengths and limitations of the method are illustrated here through application to several explosively deepening, damaging winter storms over the North Atlantic Ocean. Data used are 6-hourly ERA-Interim re-analyses. For better interpretation of the results, the PTE analysis is complemented with other classical cyclogenetic factors, i.e., the strength of the polar jet and the equivalent-potential temperature θe at 850 hPa in the warm sector. The main conclusions from this analysis are: • The time evolutions of the actual core pressure of the storm and the 6-hourly pressure changes in the moving box used to evaluate the PTE show structural similarities that are dominated by the explosive deepening. • The vertical advection term is positive throughout the entire lifecycle of all storms indicating the dominance of ascent downstream of the cyclone center. It is (over-) compensated by negative contributions through warm advection and diabatic heating. • Storms "Martin" and "Kyrill" are dominated by baroclinic processes with contributions of diabatic

  9. Cyclone Monty

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    ... for the effects of the high winds associated with cyclone rotation. Areas where heights could not be retrieved are shown in dark gray. ... Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer observes the daylit Earth continuously and every 9 days views the entire globe between 82 degrees ...

  10. Plasma Processing of Advanced Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Heberlein, Joachim, V.R.; Pfender, Emil; Kortshagen, Uwe

    2005-02-28

    Plasma Processing of Advanced Materials The project had the overall objective of improving our understanding of the influences of process parameters on the properties of advanced superhard materials. The focus was on high rate deposition processes using thermal plasmas and atmospheric pressure glow discharges, and the emphasis on superhard materials was chosen because of the potential impact of such materials on industrial energy use and on the environment. In addition, the development of suitable diagnostic techniques was pursued. The project was divided into four tasks: (1) Deposition of superhard boron containing films using a supersonic plasma jet reactor (SPJR), and the characterization of the deposition process. (2) Deposition of superhard nanocomposite films in the silicon-nitrogen-carbon system using the triple torch plasma reactor (TTPR), and the characterization of the deposition process. (3) Deposition of films consisting of carbon nanotubes using an atmospheric pressure glow discharge reactor. (4) Adapting the Thomson scattering method for characterization of atmospheric pressure non-uniform plasmas with steep spatial gradients and temporal fluctuations. This report summarizes the results.

  11. Advanced System for Process Engineering

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1992-02-01

    ASPEN (Advanced System for Process Engineering) is a state of the art process simulator and economic evaluation package which was designed for use in engineering fossil energy conversion processes. ASPEN can represent multiphase streams including solids, and handle complex substances such as coal. The system can perform steady state material and energy balances, determine equipment size and cost, and carry out preliminary economic evaluations. It is supported by a comprehensive physical property system for computationmore » of major properties such as enthalpy, entropy, free energy, molar volume, equilibrium ratio, fugacity coefficient, viscosity, thermal conductivity, and diffusion coefficient for specified phase conditions; vapor, liquid, or solid. The properties may be computed for pure components, mixtures, or components in a mixture, as appropriate. The ASPEN Input Language is oriented towards process engineers.« less

  12. Research on coal cleaning by cyclone with CWS as heavy medium

    SciTech Connect

    Fu Xiaoheng; Wang Zuna

    1997-12-31

    A good rheologic Coal Water Slurry (CWS) was prepared by an advanced technique. The CWS is used as a heavy medium in cycloning for coal preparation. The concentration of the CWS is 55% by wt. and the density of the CWS is 1.286g/cm{sup 3}. The effect of the operation and equipment parameters of the CWS cyclone on preparation efficiency have been investigated in the laboratory. The results show that the separation process is similar to conventional heavy medium cyclone and gives good preparation efficiency, Ep being 0.04, for feed size between 1.8--5.0mm.

  13. Impact of subgrid-scale processes on eyewall replacement cycle of tropical cyclones in HWRF system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Ping; Zhu, Zhenduo; Gopalakrishnan, Sundararaman; Black, Robert; Marks, Frank D.; Tallapragada, Vijay; Zhang, Jun A.; Zhang, Xuejin; Gao, Cen

    2015-11-01

    Two idealized simulations by the Hurricane Weather Research and Forecast (HWRF) model are presented to examine the impact of model physics on the simulated eyewall replacement cycle (ERC). While no ERC is produced in the control simulation that uses the operational HWRF physics, the sensitivity experiment with different model physics generates an ERC that possesses key features of observed ERCs in real tropical cyclones. Likely reasons for the control simulation not producing ERC include lack of outer rainband convection at the far radii from the eyewall, excessive ice hydrometeors in the eyewall, and enhanced moat shallow convection, which all tend to prevent the formation of a persistent moat between the eyewall and outer rainband. Less evaporative cooling from precipitation in the outer rainband region in the control simulation produces a more stable and dryer environment that inhibits the development of systematic convection at the far radii from the eyewall.

  14. Advanced detectors and signal processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greve, D. W.; Rasky, P. H. L.; Kryder, M. H.

    1986-01-01

    Continued progress is reported toward development of a silicon on garnet technology which would allow fabrication of advanced detection and signal processing circuits on bubble memories. The first integrated detectors and propagation patterns have been designed and incorporated on a new mask set. In addition, annealing studies on spacer layers are performed. Based on those studies, a new double layer spacer is proposed which should reduce contamination of the silicon originating in the substrate. Finally, the magnetic sensitivity of uncontaminated detectors from the last lot of wafers is measured. The measured sensitivity is lower than anticipated but still higher than present magnetoresistive detectors.

  15. Advances in natural language processing.

    PubMed

    Hirschberg, Julia; Manning, Christopher D

    2015-07-17

    Natural language processing employs computational techniques for the purpose of learning, understanding, and producing human language content. Early computational approaches to language research focused on automating the analysis of the linguistic structure of language and developing basic technologies such as machine translation, speech recognition, and speech synthesis. Today's researchers refine and make use of such tools in real-world applications, creating spoken dialogue systems and speech-to-speech translation engines, mining social media for information about health or finance, and identifying sentiment and emotion toward products and services. We describe successes and challenges in this rapidly advancing area. PMID:26185244

  16. Advanced Information Processing System (AIPS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pitts, Felix L.

    1993-01-01

    Advanced Information Processing System (AIPS) is a computer systems philosophy, a set of validated hardware building blocks, and a set of validated services as embodied in system software. The goal of AIPS is to provide the knowledgebase which will allow achievement of validated fault-tolerant distributed computer system architectures, suitable for a broad range of applications, having failure probability requirements of 10E-9 at 10 hours. A background and description is given followed by program accomplishments, the current focus, applications, technology transfer, FY92 accomplishments, and funding.

  17. Effects of cyclone diameter on performance of 1D3D cyclones: Collection efficiency

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cyclones are the most commonly used air pollution abatement device for separating particulate matter (PM) from air streams in agricultural processes, such as cotton gins. Several mathematical models have been proposed to predict the performance of cyclones as cyclone diameter varies. The objective o...

  18. EFFECTS OF CYCLONE DIAMETER ON PERFORMANCE OF 1D3D CYCLONES: COLLECTION EFFICIENCY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cyclones are the most commonly used air pollution abatement device for separating particulate matter (PM) from air streams in agricultural processes, such as cotton gins. Several mathematical models have been proposed to predict the performance of cyclones as cyclone diameter varies. The objective o...

  19. Effects of cyclone diameter on performance of 1D3D cyclones: Cut point and slope

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cyclones are a commonly used air pollution abatement device for separating particulate matter (PM) from air streams in industrial processes. Several mathematical models have been proposed to predict the performance of cyclones, as cyclone diameter varies. The objective of this research was to determ...

  20. Effects of cyclone diameter on performance of 1D3D cyclones: Cut point and slope

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cyclones are a commonly used air pollution abatement device for separating particulate matter (PM) from air streams in industrial processes. Several mathematical models have been proposed to predict the cut point of cyclones as cyclone diameter varies. The objective of this research was to determine...

  1. Assessing the Role of Frictional and Diabatic Processes in a Numerically Simulated Frontal Cyclone Using Potential Vorticity Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoelinga, Mark T.

    A numerically simulated case of rapid frontal cyclogenesis over the western Atlantic Ocean is investigated using potential vorticity (PV) prognosis and inversion. In particular, the effects of latent heat of condensation and boundary layer friction on the structure and evolution of the storm are studied. Nonconservation of PV is investigated by a partitioned prognosis method which separately integrates in time the various source terms of the PV tendency equation. PV features obtained through this technique are inverted to yield the direct contribution to the total circulation from latent heating and surface friction. In addition, sensitivity studies are carried out to determine the overall impact of latent heating and surface friction on the cyclone development. Results of the PV integration show that latent heating creates a significant positive anomaly at low levels above the warm front, near the surface storm center. Inversion of this feature results in a low-level circulation which comprises seventy percent of the total low-level circulation at the mature stage of the storm. A sensitivity test with latent heating withheld shows that it also enhances the coupling between the surface and tropopause-level disturbances, both through a nondivergent circulation associated with generated PV, and through an enhanced vertical/divergent circulation associated with reduced effective stability. Surface friction also causes the formation of net positive PV at low levels, primarily in the easterly flow of the warm frontal zone, where the dominant mechanism is the frictional formation of southward oriented horizontal vorticity in the presence of a strong southward temperature gradient. Inversion of this PV yields a small but significant cyclonic circulation centered on the surface low. However, a frictionless simulation produces a stronger cyclone, due mainly to enhanced amplification of the surface thermal anomaly and enhanced frontal circulation. A primary conclusion is

  2. GEOTECHNICAL/GEOCHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF ADVANCED COAL PROCESS WASTE STREAMS

    SciTech Connect

    Edwin S. Olson; Charles J. Moretti

    1999-11-01

    Thirteen solid wastes, six coals and one unreacted sorbent produced from seven advanced coal utilization processes were characterized for task three of this project. The advanced processes from which samples were obtained included a gas-reburning sorbent injection process, a pressurized fluidized-bed coal combustion process, a coal-reburning process, a SO{sub x}, NO{sub x}, RO{sub x}, BOX process, an advanced flue desulfurization process, and an advanced coal cleaning process. The waste samples ranged from coarse materials, such as bottom ashes and spent bed materials, to fine materials such as fly ashes and cyclone ashes. Based on the results of the waste characterizations, an analysis of appropriate waste management practices for the advanced process wastes was done. The analysis indicated that using conventional waste management technology should be possible for disposal of all the advanced process wastes studied for task three. However, some wastes did possess properties that could present special problems for conventional waste management systems. Several task three wastes were self-hardening materials and one was self-heating. Self-hardening is caused by cementitious and pozzolanic reactions that occur when water is added to the waste. All of the self-hardening wastes setup slowly (in a matter of hours or days rather than minutes). Thus these wastes can still be handled with conventional management systems if care is taken not to allow them to setup in storage bins or transport vehicles. Waste self-heating is caused by the exothermic hydration of lime when the waste is mixed with conditioning water. If enough lime is present, the temperature of the waste will rise until steam is produced. It is recommended that self-heating wastes be conditioned in a controlled manner so that the heat will be safely dissipated before the material is transported to an ultimate disposal site. Waste utilization is important because an advanced process waste will not require

  3. New trends in the improvement of cyclones

    SciTech Connect

    Rivkinzon, I.B.; Zyuba, B.I.

    1984-05-01

    This article examines the possibilities of reducing catalyst attrition and cyclone wall erosion through optimization of the aerodynamic conditions in the cyclone. It is assumed that the disintegration of catalyst particles and erosion of the cyclone walls take place at exactly the same points (e.g. the seats of erosion in the cyclones can serve as natural indicators in determining the zones of catalyst pulverization). In catalytic cracking units, internal cyclones are used as the primary means of cleanup of the gas for process purposes. Cyclones trap out 99.8-99.95% of the catalyst entrained from the fluidized bed by the contact gas. The retrofitting of standard cyclones with chambers for preliminary aerodynamic stabilization of the flow yielded favorable results. The results of erosion tests on type TsN cyclones with and without a stabilization chamber indicate that the proposed stabilization method can give an approximately fivefold reduction of erosion of the cylindrical part of the cyclone. An important advantage of cyclones with added stabilization is the increased efficiency of dust collection. It is concluded that supplementary aerodynamic stabilization of the dust-laded gas flow and reduction of the angle of attack can give substantial improvements in the operating characteristics of cyclones, both cylindrical and spiral-conical.

  4. Advanced System for Process Engineering

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1998-09-14

    PRO ASPEN/PC1.0 (Advanced System for Process Engineering) is a state of the art process simulator and economic evaluation package which was designed for use in engineering fossil energy conversion processes and has been ported to run on a PC. PRO ASPEN/PC1.0 can represent multiphase streams including solids, and handle complex substances such as coal. The system can perform steady state material and energy balances, determine equipment size and cost, and carry out preliminary economic evaluations.more » It is supported by a comprehensive physical property system for computation of major properties such as enthalpy, entropy, free energy, molar volume, equilibrium ratio, fugacity coefficient, viscosity, thermal conductivity, and diffusion coefficient for specified phase conditions; vapor, liquid, or solid. The properties may be computed for pure components, mixtures, or components in a mixture, as appropriate. The PRO ASPEN/PC1.0 Input Language is oriented towards process engineers.« less

  5. Electrochromic Windows: Advanced Processing Technology

    SciTech Connect

    SAGE Electrochromics, Inc

    2006-12-13

    This project addresses the development of advanced fabrication capabilities for energy saving electrochromic (EC) windows. SAGE EC windows consist of an inorganic stack of thin films deposited onto a glass substrate. The window tint can be reversibly changed by the application of a low power dc voltage. This property can be used to modulate the amount of light and heat entering buildings (or vehicles) through the glazings. By judicious management of this so-called solar heat gain, it is possible to derive significant energy savings due to reductions in heating lighting, and air conditioning (HVAC). Several areas of SAGE’s production were targeted during this project to allow significant improvements to processing throughput, yield and overall quality of the processing, in an effort to reduce the cost and thereby improve the market penetration. First, the overall thin film process was optimized to allow a more robust set of operating points to be used, thereby maximizing the yield due to the thin film deposition themselves. Other significant efforts aimed at improving yield were relating to implementing new procedures and processes for the manufacturing process, to improve the quality of the substrate preparation, and the quality of the IGU fabrication. Furthermore, methods for reworking defective devices were developed, to enable devices which would otherwise be scrapped to be made into useful product. This involved the in-house development of some customized equipment. Finally, the improvements made during this project were validated to ensure that they did not impact the exceptional durability of the SageGlass® products. Given conservative estimates for cost and market penetration, energy savings due to EC windows in residences in the US are calculated to be of the order 0.026 quad (0.026×1015BTU/yr) by the year 2017.

  6. Cyclonic variability in the Mediterranean-Black Sea region associated with global processes in the ocean-atmosphere system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maslova, V. N.; Voskresenskaya, E. N.; Yurovskiy, A. V.

    2010-09-01

    The aim of the paper is to analyze interannual and decadal variability of cyclonic activity in the Mediterranean and Black Sea regions associated with the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), El-Nino - Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO). Using daily NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data sets on the 1000 hPa geopotential height in 1948 - 2006, the main parameters of cyclones such as frequency, area, depth and intensity were calculated for the Western and Eastern Mediterranean and Black Sea region, the data sets of parameters of cyclones were created. Quality control of the detection of cyclones on the basis of reanalysis data was done. Comparison of number of cyclonic centers selected from NCEP/NCAR reanalysis and the same values obtained from cinematic maps of the Ukrainian Hydrometeorological service demonstrates quite good agreement of the analyzed series; correlation coefficient between them reaches 0.91. Interannual variability of the parameters of cyclones associated with NAO index and SOI (Southern Oscillation index) was analyzed. Correctness of the choice of these global signals is corroborated by the results of spectrum analysis of the parameters of cyclones. Particularly, it was shown that typical scales of cyclonic variability in the Mediterranean and Black Sea regions are ~2, 4.3 - 4.8 and 7 - 8 years which confirm that this variability is characterized by the same time scales as NAO (2 - 8 years) and SO (3 - 7 years). Correlation analysis of the monthly cyclonic parameters with NAO and SO indices was performed. Correlation coefficients of the winter-spring cyclonic parameters with NAO index reach -0.6; while the lagged (4 - 6 months) correlation coefficients with SOI reach 0.49. In particular, correlation analysis of the connection between parameters of cyclones and SOI has shown that ENSO variability in September causes up to 20% of anomalous weather conditions in all studied regions in winter (correlation coefficient r = 0.43); ENSO in

  7. Development of advanced fluid-bed agglomeration and cyclonic incineration for simultaneous waste disposal and energy recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Rehmat, A.; Khinkis, M.

    1991-01-01

    The Institute of Gas Technology (IGT) is currently developing a two-stage fluidized-bed/cyclonic agglomerating incineration system for waste disposal that is based on combining the fluidized-bed agglomeration/incineration and cyclonic combustion techologies. Both technologies have been developed individually at IGT over many years. This combination has resulted in a unique and extremely flexible incinerator for solid, liquid, and gaseous wastes including municipal sludges. The system can operate over a wide range of conditions in the first stage, from low temperature (desorption) to high temperature (agglomeration), including gasification of wastes. In the combined system, solid, liquid, and gaseous organic wastes are incinerated with ease and great efficiency (>99.99% destruction and removal efficiency (DRE)), while solid inorganic contaminants contained within a glassy matrix are rendered benign and suitable for disposal in an ordinary landfill. The heat generated within the incinerator can be recovered using the state-of-the-art boilers. The development of the two-stage incinerator is a culmination of extensive research and development efforts on each stage of the incinerator. The variety of data obtained with solid, liquid, and gaseous wastes for both stages includes agglomeration of ash, incineration and reclamation of used blast grit and foundry sand, partial combustion of carbonaceous fuels, in-situ desulfurization, combustion of low-Btu gases, incineration of industrial wastewater, and incineration of carbon tetrachloride. 5 refs., 7 figs., 12 tabs.

  8. Cyclone performance and optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Leith, D.

    1990-12-15

    An empirical model for predicting pressure drop across a cyclone, developed by Dirgo (1988), is presented. The model was developed through a statistical analysis of pressure drop data for 98 cyclone designs. This model is used with the efficiency model of Iozia and Leith (1990) to develop an optimization curve which predicts the minimum pressure drop on the dimension ratios of the optimized cyclone for a given aerodynamic cut diameter, d{sub 50}. The effect of variation in cyclone height, cyclone diameter, and flow on the optimization is determined. The optimization results are used to develop a design procedure for optimized cyclones. 33 refs., 10 figs., 4 tabs.

  9. Cyclone reactor

    DOEpatents

    Converse, Alvin O.; Grethlein, Hans E.; Holland, Joseph E.

    1989-04-04

    A system is provided to produce sugars from a liquid-solid mixture containing biomass, and an acid, wherein the mixture is heated to an appropriate temperature to achieve hydrolysis. The liquid-solid mixture is introduced as a stream into the circular-cylindrical chamber of a cyclone reaction vessel and steam is introduced to the vessel to provide the necessary heat for hydrolysis as well as to establish the liquid-solid mixture in a rotary flow field whereby the liquids and solids of the mixture move along spiral paths within the chamber. The liquid-solid mixture may be introduced at the periphery of the chamber to spiral down toward and be discharged at or near the center of the chamber. Because of differing mass, the solid particles in the mixture move radially inward at a different rate than the liquid and that rate is controlled to maximize the hydrolysis of the solids and to minimize the decomposition of sugars, thus formed.

  10. Advanced methods for processing ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, W.B.

    1995-05-01

    Combustion chemical vapor deposition (CCVD) is a flame assisted, open air chemical vapor deposition (CVD) process. The process is capable of producing textured, epitaxial coatings on single crystal substrates using low cost reagents. Combustion chemical vapor deposition is a relatively inexpensive, alternative thin film deposition process with potential to replace conventional coating technologies for certain applications. The goals of this project are to develop the CCVD process to the point that potential industrial applications can be identified and reliably assessed.

  11. Advanced methods for processing ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, W.B.

    1997-04-01

    Combustion chemical vapor deposition (combustion CVD) is being developed for the deposition of high temperature oxide coatings. The process is being evaluated as an alternative to more capital intensive conventional coating processes. The thrusts during this reporting period were the development of the combustion CVD process for depositing lanthanum monazite, the determination of the influence of aerosol size on coating morphology, the incorporation of combustion CVD coatings into thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) and related oxidation research, and continued work on the deposition of zirconia-yttria coatings.

  12. The Influence of Dust-radiation-microphysics Processes on Tropical Cyclone Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, S.; Cheng, C.; Chen, J.; Lin, Y.; Lee, H.; Tsai, I.

    2011-12-01

    Saharan dust can modify the Saharan Air Layer (SAL) and its environment by changing the energy budget through direct and indirect radiative forcing. Scattering and absorption of radiation by suspended dust directly modifies the energy budget in the atmosphere and at the surface. Smaller dust particles can remain suspended in the air for prolonged periods and propagate over the Atlantic Ocean along with SAL. These fine particles can reach an altitude of 8-9 km, where they nucleate ice crystals and transform cloud microphysical properties, indirectly changing the energy budget. Thus, the dust within the air mass is likely to affect the evolution of hurricane properties, life cycles, and the corresponding cloud systems through the dust-cloud-radiation interactions. A tracer model based on the Weather Research and Forecasting model (named WRFT) was developed to study the influence of dust-radiation-microphysics effects on hurricane activities. The dust-radiation effects and a two-moment microphysics scheme with dust particles acting as ice nuclei were implemented into WRFT. In this work, two easterly waves, which were precursors of Tropical Storm Debby and Hurricane Ernesto, during 18-25 August 2006 were studied. Four high-resolution numerical experiments were conducted with the combinations of activating/deactivating dust-radiation and/or dust-microphysics processes. Results from these four experiments are compared to investigate the influence of dust-radiation-microphysics processes on these two storm developments.

  13. The demonstration of an advanced cyclone coal combustor, with internal sulfur, nitrogen, and ash control for the conversion of a 23 MMBTU/hour oil fired boiler to pulverized coal

    SciTech Connect

    Zauderer, B.; Fleming, E.S.

    1991-08-30

    This work contains to the final report of the demonstration of an advanced cyclone coal combustor. Titles include: Chronological Description of the Clean Coal Project Tests,'' Statistical Analysis of Operating Data for the Coal Tech Combustor,'' Photographic History of the Project,'' Results of Slag Analysis by PA DER Module 1 Procedure,'' Properties of the Coals Limestone Used in the Test Effort,'' Results of the Solid Waste Sampling Performed on the Coal Tech Combustor by an Independent Contractor During the February 1990 Tests.'' (VC)

  14. Solidification process control for advanced superalloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gray, H. R.; Dreshfield, R. L.

    1982-01-01

    The importance of understanding and controlling the basic solidification process in high temperature alloy technology as applied to gas turbine engine production is discussed. Resultant tailoring of the superalloy macro- and microstructure offers significant potential for continued advances in superalloy use temperatures in turbine engines. Atomized superalloy powders, rapidly solidified superalloys, microstructural control, and advanced superalloys are discussed.

  15. Advanced digital SAR processing study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martinson, L. W.; Gaffney, B. P.; Liu, B.; Perry, R. P.; Ruvin, A.

    1982-01-01

    A highly programmable, land based, real time synthetic aperture radar (SAR) processor requiring a processed pixel rate of 2.75 MHz or more in a four look system was designed. Variations in range and azimuth compression, number of looks, range swath, range migration and SR mode were specified. Alternative range and azimuth processing algorithms were examined in conjunction with projected integrated circuit, digital architecture, and software technologies. The advaced digital SAR processor (ADSP) employs an FFT convolver algorithm for both range and azimuth processing in a parallel architecture configuration. Algorithm performace comparisons, design system design, implementation tradeoffs and the results of a supporting survey of integrated circuit and digital architecture technologies are reported. Cost tradeoffs and projections with alternate implementation plans are presented.

  16. Advanced Materials and Processing 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yunfeng; Su, Chun Wei; Xia, Hui; Xiao, Pengfei

    2011-06-01

    Strain sensors made from MWNT/polymer nanocomposites / Gang Yin, Ning Hu and Yuan Li -- Shear band evolution and nanostructure formation in titanium by cold rolling / Dengke Yang, Peter D. Hodgson and Cuie Wen -- Biodegradable Mg-Zr-Ca alloys for bone implant materials / Yuncang Li ... [et al.] -- Hydroxyapatite synthesized from nanosized calcium carbonate via hydrothermal method / Yu-Shiang Wu, Wen-Ku Chang and Min Jou -- Modeling of the magnetization process and orthogonal fluxgate sensitivity of ferromagnetic micro-wire arrays / Fan Jie ... [et al.] -- Fabrication of silicon oxide nanowires on Ni coated silicon substrate by simple heating process / Bo Peng and Kwon-Koo Cho -- Deposition of TiOxNy thin films with various nitrogen flow rate: growth behavior and structural properties / S.-J. Cho ... [et al.] -- Observation on photoluminescence evolution in 300 KeV self-ion implanted and annealed silicon / Yu Yang ... [et al.] -- Facile synthesis of lithium niobate from a novel precursor H[symbol] / Meinan Liu ... [et al.] -- Effects of the buffer layers on the adhesion and antimicrobial properties of the amorphous ZrAlNiCuSi films / Pai-Tsung Chiang ... [et al.] -- Fabrication of ZnO nanorods by electrochemical deposition process and its photovoltaic properties / Jin-Hwa Kim ... [et al.] -- Cryogenic resistivities of NbTiAlVTaLax, CoCrFeNiCu and CoCrFeNiAl high entropy alloys / Xiao Yang and Yong Zhang -- Modeling of centrifugal force field and the effect on filling and solidification in centrifugal casting / Wenbin Sheng, Chunxue Ma and Wanli Gu -- Electrochemical properties of TiO[symbol] nanotube arrays film prepared by anodic oxidation / Young-Jin Choi ... [et al.] -- Effect of Ce additions on high temperature properties of Mg-5Sn-3Al-1Zn alloy / Byoung Soo Kang ... [et al.] -- Sono-electroless plating of Ni-Mo-P film / Atsushi Chiba, Masato Kanou and Wen-Chang Wu -- Diameter dependence of giant magneto-impedance effect in co-based melt extracted amorphous

  17. Advanced Materials and Processing 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yunfeng; Su, Chun Wei; Xia, Hui; Xiao, Pengfei

    2011-06-01

    Strain sensors made from MWNT/polymer nanocomposites / Gang Yin, Ning Hu and Yuan Li -- Shear band evolution and nanostructure formation in titanium by cold rolling / Dengke Yang, Peter D. Hodgson and Cuie Wen -- Biodegradable Mg-Zr-Ca alloys for bone implant materials / Yuncang Li ... [et al.] -- Hydroxyapatite synthesized from nanosized calcium carbonate via hydrothermal method / Yu-Shiang Wu, Wen-Ku Chang and Min Jou -- Modeling of the magnetization process and orthogonal fluxgate sensitivity of ferromagnetic micro-wire arrays / Fan Jie ... [et al.] -- Fabrication of silicon oxide nanowires on Ni coated silicon substrate by simple heating process / Bo Peng and Kwon-Koo Cho -- Deposition of TiOxNy thin films with various nitrogen flow rate: growth behavior and structural properties / S.-J. Cho ... [et al.] -- Observation on photoluminescence evolution in 300 KeV self-ion implanted and annealed silicon / Yu Yang ... [et al.] -- Facile synthesis of lithium niobate from a novel precursor H[symbol] / Meinan Liu ... [et al.] -- Effects of the buffer layers on the adhesion and antimicrobial properties of the amorphous ZrAlNiCuSi films / Pai-Tsung Chiang ... [et al.] -- Fabrication of ZnO nanorods by electrochemical deposition process and its photovoltaic properties / Jin-Hwa Kim ... [et al.] -- Cryogenic resistivities of NbTiAlVTaLax, CoCrFeNiCu and CoCrFeNiAl high entropy alloys / Xiao Yang and Yong Zhang -- Modeling of centrifugal force field and the effect on filling and solidification in centrifugal casting / Wenbin Sheng, Chunxue Ma and Wanli Gu -- Electrochemical properties of TiO[symbol] nanotube arrays film prepared by anodic oxidation / Young-Jin Choi ... [et al.] -- Effect of Ce additions on high temperature properties of Mg-5Sn-3Al-1Zn alloy / Byoung Soo Kang ... [et al.] -- Sono-electroless plating of Ni-Mo-P film / Atsushi Chiba, Masato Kanou and Wen-Chang Wu -- Diameter dependence of giant magneto-impedance effect in co-based melt extracted amorphous

  18. Coal desulfurization by cyclonic whirl

    SciTech Connect

    Jianguo, Y.; Wenjun, Z.; Yuling, W.

    1999-07-01

    The crux of coal desulfurization is how to improve separation efficiency for 3--0.1mm materials. Cyclonic whirl produce centrifugal force and shearing force, heavy medium cyclone uses former, and cyclone flotation column uses both of them. A new system with heavy medium cyclone and cyclone flotation column is provided and testified to be very efficient in commercial desulfurization.

  19. Tropical Cyclone Information System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, P. Peggy; Knosp, Brian W.; Vu, Quoc A.; Yi, Chao; Hristova-Veleva, Svetla M.

    2009-01-01

    The JPL Tropical Cyclone Infor ma tion System (TCIS) is a Web portal (http://tropicalcyclone.jpl.nasa.gov) that provides researchers with an extensive set of observed hurricane parameters together with large-scale and convection resolving model outputs. It provides a comprehensive set of high-resolution satellite (see figure), airborne, and in-situ observations in both image and data formats. Large-scale datasets depict the surrounding environmental parameters such as SST (Sea Surface Temperature) and aerosol loading. Model outputs and analysis tools are provided to evaluate model performance and compare observations from different platforms. The system pertains to the thermodynamic and microphysical structure of the storm, the air-sea interaction processes, and the larger-scale environment as depicted by ocean heat content and the aerosol loading of the environment. Currently, the TCIS is populated with satellite observations of all tropical cyclones observed globally during 2005. There is a plan to extend the database both forward in time till present as well as backward to 1998. The portal is powered by a MySQL database and an Apache/Tomcat Web server on a Linux system. The interactive graphic user interface is provided by Google Map.

  20. APR-2 Tropical Cyclone Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Durden, S. L.; Tanelli, S.

    2011-01-01

    The Second Generation Airborne Precipitation Radar (APR-2) participated in the Genesis and Rapid Intensification Processes (GRIP) experiment in August and September of 2010, collecting a large volume of data in several tropical systems, including Hurricanes Earl and Karl. Additional measurements of tropical cyclone have been made by APR-2 in experiments prior to GRIP (namely, CAMEX-4, NAMMA, TC4); Table 1 lists all the APR-2 tropical cyclone observations. The APR-2 observations consist of the vertical structure of rain reflectivity at 13.4 and 35.6 GHz, and at both co-polarization and crosspolarization, as well as vertical Doppler measurements and crosswind measurements. APR-2 normally flies on the NASA DC-8 aircraft, as in GRIP, collecting data with a downward looking, cross-track scanning geometry. The scan limits are 25 degrees on either side of the aircraft, resulting in a roughly 10-km swath, depending on the aircraft altitude. Details of the APR-2 observation geometry and performance can be found in Sadowy et al. (2003).The multiparameter nature of the APR-2 measurements makes the collection of tropical cyclone measurements valuable for detailed studies of the processes, microphysics and dynamics of tropical cyclones, as well as weaker systems that are associated with tropical cyclone formation. In this paper, we give a brief overview of how the APR-2 data are processed. We also discuss use of the APR-2 cross-track winds to estimate various quantities of interest in in studies of storm intensification. Finally, we show examples of the standard products and derived information.

  1. Cyclone performance and optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Leith, D.

    1990-09-15

    The objectives of this project are: to characterize the gas flow pattern within cyclones, to revise the theory for cyclone performance on the basis of these findings, and to design and test cyclones whose dimensions have been optimized using revised performance theory. This work is important because its successful completion will aid in the technology for combustion of coal in pressurized, fluidized beds. This quarter, an empirical model for predicting pressure drop across a cyclone was developed through a statistical analysis of pressure drop data for 98 cyclone designs. The model is shown to perform better than the pressure drop models of First (1950), Alexander (1949), Barth (1956), Stairmand (1949), and Shepherd-Lapple (1940). This model is used with the efficiency model of Iozia and Leith (1990) to develop an optimization curve which predicts the minimum pressure drop and the dimension rations of the optimized cyclone for a given aerodynamic cut diameter, d{sub 50}. The effect of variation in cyclone height, cyclone diameter, and flow on the optimization curve is determined. The optimization results are used to develop a design procedure for optimized cyclones. 37 refs., 10 figs., 4 tabs.

  2. Cyclone performance and optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Leith, D.

    1989-03-15

    The objectives of this project are: to characterize the gas flow pattern within cyclones, to revise the theory for cyclone performance on the basis of these findings, and to design and test cyclones whose dimensions have been optimized using revised performance theory. This work is important because its successful completion will aid in the technology for combustion of coal in pressurized, fluidized beds. This quarter, we have been hampered somewhat by flow delivery of the bubble generation system and arc lighting system placed on order last fall. This equipment is necessary to map the flow field within cyclones using the techniques described in last quarter's report. Using the bubble generator, we completed this quarter a study of the natural length'' of cyclones of 18 different configurations, each configuration operated at five different gas flows. Results suggest that the equation by Alexander for natural length is incorrect; natural length as measured with the bubble generation system is always below the bottom of the cyclones regardless of the cyclone configuration or gas flow, within the limits of the experimental cyclones tested. This finding is important because natural length is a term in equations used to predict cyclone efficiency. 1 tab.

  3. HANDBOOK ON ADVANCED NONPHOTOCHEMICAL OXIDATION PROCESSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this handbook is to summarize commercial-scale system performance and cost data for advanced nonphotochemical oxidation (ANPO) treatment of contaminated water, air, and soil. Similar information from pilot-and bench-scale evaluations of ANPO processes is also inclu...

  4. HANDBOOK ON ADVANCED PHOTOCHEMICAL OXIDATION PROCESSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This handbook summarizes commercial-scale system performance and cost data for advanced photochemical oxidation (APO) treatment of contaminated water, air, and solids. Similar information from pilot- and bench-scale evaluations of APO processes is also included to supplement the...

  5. Process simulation for advanced composites production

    SciTech Connect

    Allendorf, M.D.; Ferko, S.M.; Griffiths, S.

    1997-04-01

    The objective of this project is to improve the efficiency and lower the cost of chemical vapor deposition (CVD) processes used to manufacture advanced ceramics by providing the physical and chemical understanding necessary to optimize and control these processes. Project deliverables include: numerical process models; databases of thermodynamic and kinetic information related to the deposition process; and process sensors and software algorithms that can be used for process control. Target manufacturing techniques include CVD fiber coating technologies (used to deposit interfacial coatings on continuous fiber ceramic preforms), chemical vapor infiltration, thin-film deposition processes used in the glass industry, and coating techniques used to deposit wear-, abrasion-, and corrosion-resistant coatings for use in the pulp and paper, metals processing, and aluminum industries.

  6. Ion beam processing of advanced electronic materials

    SciTech Connect

    Cheung, N.W.; Marwick, A.D.; Roberto, J.B.; International Business Machines Corp., Yorktown Heights, NY . Thomas J. Watson Research Center; Oak Ridge National Lab., TN )

    1989-01-01

    This report contains research programs discussed at the materials research society symposia on ion beam processing of advanced electronic materials. Major topics include: shallow implantation and solid-phase epitaxy; damage effects; focused ion beams; MeV implantation; high-dose implantation; implantation in III-V materials and multilayers; and implantation in electronic materials. Individual projects are processed separately for the data bases. (CBS)

  7. Assessment of advanced coal gasification processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccarthy, J.; Ferrall, J.; Charng, T.; Houseman, J.

    1981-01-01

    A technical assessment of the following advanced coal gasification processes is presented: high throughput gasification (HTG) process; single stage high mass flux (HMF) processes; (CS/R) hydrogasification process; and the catalytic coal gasification (CCG) process. Each process is evaluated for its potential to produce synthetic natural gas from a bituminous coal. Key similarities, differences, strengths, weaknesses, and potential improvements to each process are identified. The HTG and the HMF gasifiers share similarities with respect to: short residence time (SRT), high throughput rate, slagging, and syngas as the initial raw product gas. The CS/R hydrogasifier is also SRT, but is nonslagging and produces a raw gas high in methane content. The CCG gasifier is a long residence time, catalytic, fluidbed reactor producing all of the raw product methane in the gasifier.

  8. Cyclone performance by velocity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cyclones are used almost exclusively in the US cotton ginning industry for emission abatement on pneumatic conveying system exhausts because of their high efficiency, and low capital and operating cost.. Cyclone performance is improved by increasing collection effectiveness or decreasing energy cons...

  9. Cyclone performance and optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Leith, D.

    1989-06-15

    The objectives of this project are: to characterize the gas flow pattern within cyclones, to revise the theory for cyclone performance on the basis of these findings, and to design and test cyclones whose dimensions have been optimized using revised performance theory. This work is important because its successful completion will aid in the technology for combustion of coal in pressurized, fluidized beds. We have now received all the equipment necessary for the flow visualization studies described over the last two progress reports. We have begun more detailed studies of the gas flow pattern within cyclones as detailed below. Third, we have begun studies of the effect of particle concentration on cyclone performance. This work is critical to application of our results to commercial operations. 1 fig.

  10. Assessment of Advanced Coal Gasification Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCarthy, John; Ferrall, Joseph; Charng, Thomas; Houseman, John

    1981-01-01

    This report represents a technical assessment of the following advanced coal gasification processes: AVCO High Throughput Gasification (HTG) Process; Bell Single-Stage High Mass Flux (HMF) Process; Cities Service/Rockwell (CS/R) Hydrogasification Process; Exxon Catalytic Coal Gasification (CCG) Process. Each process is evaluated for its potential to produce SNG from a bituminous coal. In addition to identifying the new technology these processes represent, key similarities/differences, strengths/weaknesses, and potential improvements to each process are identified. The AVCO HTG and the Bell HMF gasifiers share similarities with respect to: short residence time (SRT), high throughput rate, slagging and syngas as the initial raw product gas. The CS/R Hydrogasifier is also SRT but is non-slagging and produces a raw gas high in methane content. The Exxon CCG gasifier is a long residence time, catalytic, fluidbed reactor producing all of the raw product methane in the gasifier. The report makes the following assessments: 1) while each process has significant potential as coal gasifiers, the CS/R and Exxon processes are better suited for SNG production; 2) the Exxon process is the closest to a commercial level for near-term SNG production; and 3) the SRT processes require significant development including scale-up and turndown demonstration, char processing and/or utilization demonstration, and reactor control and safety features development.

  11. Advances in resist technology and processing V

    SciTech Connect

    MacDonald, S.A.

    1988-01-01

    These proceedings discuss the technology and processing advances made in the resist materials. The topics included are: Mid-UV photoresists combining chemical amplification and dissolution inhibition; new photoactive compounds for deep-UV lithography; contrast-enhancement materials for mid-UV applications; materials for CMOS and bipolar circuits; effects of ion bombardment in oxygen plasma etching; silicone-based positive photoresist; and ion-etching properties of polysilane polysilane copolymers.

  12. Advanced oxidation process sanitization of eggshell surfaces.

    PubMed

    Gottselig, Steven M; Dunn-Horrocks, Sadie L; Woodring, Kristy S; Coufal, Craig D; Duong, Tri

    2016-06-01

    The microbial quality of eggs entering the hatchery represents an important critical control point for biosecurity and pathogen reduction programs in integrated poultry production. The development of safe and effective interventions to reduce microbial contamination on the surface of eggs will be important to improve the overall productivity and microbial food safety of poultry and poultry products. The hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and ultraviolet (UV) light advanced oxidation process is a potentially important alternative to traditional sanitizers and disinfectants for egg sanitation. The H2O2/UV advanced oxidation process was demonstrated previously to be effective in reducing surface microbial contamination on eggs. In this study, we evaluated treatment conditions affecting the efficacy of H2O2/UV advanced oxidation in order to identify operational parameters for the practical application of this technology in egg sanitation. The effect of the number of application cycles, UV intensity, duration of UV exposure, and egg rotation on the recovery of total aerobic bacteria from the surface of eggs was evaluated. Of the conditions evaluated, we determined that reduction of total aerobic bacteria from naturally contaminated eggs was optimized when eggs were sanitized using 2 repeated application cycles with 5 s exposure to 14 mW cm(-2) UV light, and that rotation of the eggs between application cycles was unnecessary. Additionally, using these optimized conditions, the H2O2/UV process reduced Salmonella by greater than 5 log10 cfu egg(-1) on the surface of experimentally contaminated eggs. This study demonstrates the potential for practical application of the H2O2/UV advanced oxidation process in egg sanitation and its effectiveness in reducing Salmonella on eggshell surfaces. PMID:27030693

  13. Human factors challenges for advanced process control

    SciTech Connect

    Stubler, W.F.; O`Hara, J..M.

    1996-08-01

    New human-system interface technologies provide opportunities for improving operator and plant performance. However, if these technologies are not properly implemented, they may introduce new challenges to performance and safety. This paper reports the results from a survey of human factors considerations that arise in the implementation of advanced human-system interface technologies in process control and other complex systems. General trends were identified for several areas based on a review of technical literature and a combination of interviews and site visits with process control organizations. Human factors considerations are discussed for two of these areas, automation and controls.

  14. Advanced miniature processing handware for ATR applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chao, Tien-Hsin (Inventor); Daud, Taher (Inventor); Thakoor, Anikumar (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    A Hybrid Optoelectronic Neural Object Recognition System (HONORS), is disclosed, comprising two major building blocks: (1) an advanced grayscale optical correlator (OC) and (2) a massively parallel three-dimensional neural-processor. The optical correlator, with its inherent advantages in parallel processing and shift invariance, is used for target of interest (TOI) detection and segmentation. The three-dimensional neural-processor, with its robust neural learning capability, is used for target classification and identification. The hybrid optoelectronic neural object recognition system, with its powerful combination of optical processing and neural networks, enables real-time, large frame, automatic target recognition (ATR).

  15. Can climate models represent the precipitation associated with extratropical cyclones?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawcroft, Matthew K.; Shaffrey, Len C.; Hodges, Kevin I.; Dacre, Helen F.

    2016-08-01

    Extratropical cyclones produce the majority of precipitation in many regions of the extratropics. This study evaluates the ability of a climate model, HiGEM, to reproduce the precipitation associated with extratropical cyclones. The model is evaluated using the ERA-Interim reanalysis and GPCP dataset. The analysis employs a cyclone centred compositing technique, evaluates composites across a range of geographical areas and cyclone intensities and also investigates the ability of the model to reproduce the climatological distribution of cyclone associated precipitation across the Northern Hemisphere. Using this phenomena centred approach provides an ability to identify the processes which are responsible for climatological biases in the model. Composite precipitation intensities are found to be comparable when all cyclones across the Northern Hemisphere are included. When the cyclones are filtered by region or intensity, differences are found, in particular, HiGEM produces too much precipitation in its most intense cyclones relative to ERA-Interim and GPCP. Biases in the climatological distribution of cyclone associated precipitation are also found, with biases around the storm track regions associated with both the number of cyclones in HiGEM and also their average precipitation intensity. These results have implications for the reliability of future projections of extratropical precipitation from the model.

  16. Advanced PPA Reactor and Process Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheeler, Raymond; Aske, James; Abney, Morgan B.; Miller, Lee A.; Greenwood, Zachary

    2012-01-01

    Design and development of a second generation Plasma Pyrolysis Assembly (PPA) reactor is currently underway as part of NASA s Atmosphere Revitalization Resource Recovery effort. By recovering up to 75% of the hydrogen currently lost as methane in the Sabatier reactor effluent, the PPA helps to minimize life support resupply costs for extended duration missions. To date, second generation PPA development has demonstrated significant technology advancements over the first generation device by doubling the methane processing rate while, at the same time, more than halving the required power. One development area of particular interest to NASA system engineers is fouling of the PPA reactor with carbonaceous products. As a mitigation plan, NASA MSFC has explored the feasibility of using an oxidative plasma based upon metabolic CO2 to regenerate the reactor window and gas inlet ports. The results and implications of this testing are addressed along with the advanced PPA reactor development work.

  17. Structure of Developing Tropical Cyclones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molinari, J. E.

    2006-12-01

    Considerable progress has been made in the numerical modeling of tropical cyclones. The very high resolution now routinely used in research models allows realistic simulation of eyewall structure and breakdown, vortex Rossby waves, and numerous other processes that were beyond the capability of previous generations of models. At least one aspect of tropical cyclones, however, has not been reproduced in the current generation of models: early development (or lack of development) during tropical depression and early tropical storm stages. During such times, vertical wind shear often plays a critical role. In this presentation, details of the structure of four tropical cyclones at early stages will be given: Claudette (2003), Danny (1997), Gabrielle (2001), and Edouard (2002). The first three contained intense vortices that formed within downshear convection. Deep-layer vertical wind shear ranged from 8-15 m/s in the storms. In Claudette, a hurricane formed that lasted only 6 hours. In Danny and Gabrielle, the downshear vortices became the new storm center. One became a hurricane and one did not. In Edouard, vertical shear was even larger. Convection fluctuated between downshear of the center and over the center, with analogous intensity changes. This behavior is known to forecasters, but the causes of such fluctuations remain uncertain. The evolving structure of these four storms will be shown, with emphasis on the variation of convection, equivalent potential temperature in the lower troposphere, and azimuthal asymmetries of wind and circulation. Contrast will be made between the structure of forming tropical cyclones in nature and those seen in mesoscale numerical models. Some remarks will be given on the key physical processes that must be simulated.

  18. A comparison of limited-area energetic processes between observations and primitive equation model predictions. [cyclone Numerical Weather Forecasting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alpert, J. C.; Chen, T.-C.

    1979-01-01

    Energetic analyses of the NMC initial conditions and NMC six-layer primitive equation operational prediction model 12-hr forecast for a developing cyclone are presented. Consideration is given to the total kinetic energy, the energetics of the divergent and nondivergent flows and the baroclinic (vertical shear flow) and barotropic (vertical mean flow) components of the kinetic energy. It is found that the model initial conditions lose 10-15% of the kinetic energy at various levels compared to a limited-area multivariate statistical analysis of the observational data, leading to a decrease in the horizontal kinetic energy flux, a misrepresentation of the synoptic scale wave system in the 12-hr forecast. Similar results are obtained for the nondivergent flow, while the divergent flow energetics are not reproduced accurately by the model. The horizontal flux terms of the vertical mean and vertical shear energetics are also not found to be reproduced in the upper levels, although horizontal flux contributions to the baroclinic component are improved at middle and lower levels. Finally, vertical shear kinetic energy generation is found to be well represented in the model prediction, however kinetic energy conversion between vertical shear and mean flow is not reproduced in the lower layer.

  19. Advanced microlithography process with chemical shrink technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanda, Takashi; Tanaka, Hatsuyuki; Kinoshita, Yoshiaki; Watase, Natsuo; Eakin, Ronald J.; Ishibashi, Takeo; Toyoshima, Toshiyuki; Yasuda, Naoki; Tanaka, Mikihiro

    2000-06-01

    Mitsubishi Electric Corporation (MELCO) has developed an advanced microlithographic process for producing 0.1 micrometer contact holes (CH). A chemical shrink technology, RELACSTM (Resolution Enhancement Lithography Assisted by Chemical Shrink), utilizes the crosslinking reaction catalyzed by the acid component existing in a predefined resist pattern. This 'RELACSTM' process is a hole shrinking procedure that includes simple coating, baking, and rinse steps applied after conventional photolithography. This paper examines the process parameters affecting shrinkage of CH size. We subsequently evaluated the dependency of CH shrinkage on resist formulation. We conducted investigations of shrink magnitude dependency on each process parameter. (1) Photoresist lithography process: CH size, exposure dose, post development bake temperature. (2) AZR R200 [a product of Clariant, Japan) K.K.] RELACSTM process: Soft bake temperature, film thickness, mixing bake temperature (diffusion bake temperature), etc. We found that the mixing bake condition (diffusion bake temperature) is one of most critical parameters to affect the amount of CH shrink. Additionally, the structural influence of photoacid generators on shrinkage performance was also investigated in both high and low activation energy resist systems. The shrinkage behavior by the photoacid generator of the resist is considered in terms of the structure (molecular volume) of the photogenerated acid and its acidity (pKa). The results of these studies are discussed in terms of base polymer influence on shrinkage performance and tendency. Process impact of the structure and acidity of the photogenerated acid is explored. Though the experimental acetal type KrF positive resist (low activation energy system) can achieve around 0.1 micrometer CH after RELACSTM processing under the optimized condition, the experimental acrylate type positive resist (high activation energy system) showed less shrinkage under the same process

  20. Tropical Cyclone Nargis: 2008

    NASA Video Gallery

    This new animation, developed with the help of NASA's Pleiades supercomputer, illustrates how tropical cyclone Nargis formed in the Indian Ocean's Bay of Bengal over several days in late April 2008...

  1. Cyclone performance and optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Leith, D.

    1990-06-15

    The objectives of this project are: to characterize the gas flow pattern within cyclones, to revise the theory for cyclone performance on the basis of these findings, and to design and test cyclones whose dimensions have been optimized using revised performance theory. This work is important because its successful completion will aid in the technology for combustion of coal in pressurized, fluidized beds. During the past quarter, we have nearly completed modeling work that employs the flow field measurements made during the past six months. In addition, we have begun final work using the results of this project to develop improved design methods for cyclones. This work involves optimization using the Iozia-Leith efficiency model and the Dirgo pressure drop model. This work will be completed this summer. 9 figs.

  2. Processing and properties of advanced metallic foams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brothers, Alan Harold

    Since the development of the first aluminum foams in the middle of the 20th century [178], great advances have been made in the processing and fundamental understanding of metallic foams. As a result of these advances, metallic foams are now penetrating a number of applications where their unique suite of properties makes them superior to solid materials, such as lightweight structures, packaging and impact protection, and filtration and catalysis [3]. The purpose of this work is to extend the use of metallic foams in such applications by expanding their processing to include more sophisticated base alloys and architectures. The first four chapters discuss replacement of conventional crystalline metal foams with ones made from high-strength, low-melting amorphous metals, a substitution that offers potential for achieving mechanical properties superior to those of the best crystalline metal foams, without sacrificing the simplicity of processing methods made for low-melting crystalline alloys. Three different amorphous metal foams are developed in these chapters, and their structures and properties characterized. It is shown for the first time that amorphous metal foams, due to stabilization of shear bands during bending of their small strut-like features, are capable of compressive ductility comparable to that of ductile crystalline metal foams. A two-fold improvement in mechanical energy absorption relative to crystalline aluminum foams is shown experimentally to result from this stabilization. The last two chapters discuss modifications in foam processing that are designed to introduce controllable and continuous gradients in local foam density, which should improve mass efficiency by mimicking the optimized structures found in natural cellular materials [64], as well as facilitate the bonding and joining of foams with solid materials in higher-order structures. Two new processing methods are developed, one based on replication of nonuniformly-compressed polymer

  3. Impact of Tropical Cyclones on the Ocean Heat Budget in the Bay of Bengal during 1999: Processes and Interpretations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, J.; Han, W.; Sriver, R. L.

    2012-12-01

    The impacts of two consecutive, strong tropical cyclones (TCs) from October-November in 1999 on the Bay of Bengal (BoB) heat budget are examined using the Hybrid Coordinate Ocean Model. The model uses atmospheric conditions from reanalysis, reconstructed TC winds, and satellite-observed winds and precipitation. We conduct a series of diagnostic experiments to isolate the model's response to the individual TC-associated forcings. During the TCs, the BoB ocean heat content (OHC) is reduced, primarily due to TC-wind induced southward ocean heat transport (OHT) and a reduction in surface downward radiation due to increased cloudiness. BoB OHC is largely restored in the following months via enhanced surface heat fluxes, associated with cold wake restoration, and positive northward OHT. The TCs' downward heat pumping effect is estimated to be ~1.74×1018J near the end of February 2000, which is less than estimates using previously published methods based on surface observations. The relatively weak heat pumping results from freshwater input by intense monsoon rainfall and river discharge in the BoB, which stabilizes stratification, forms a barrier layer, and generates temperature inversions during seasonal surface cooling. As a result, early stage TC winds entrain the warm barrier layer water and enhance enthalpy loss in the southeastern Bay, while mature stage TC winds erode the barrier layer, decrease SST through upwelling and entrainment of deeper cold water and reduce enthalpy loss in the northwestern Bay. Our findings suggest TC winds may significantly alter the interseasonal BoB heat budget through OHT and surface heat fluxes.

  4. Impact of tropical cyclones on the ocean heat budget in the Bay of Bengal during 1999: 2. Processes and interpretations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jih-Wang; Han, Weiqing; Sriver, Ryan L.

    2012-09-01

    The impacts of two consecutive, strong tropical cyclones (TCs) from October-November in 1999 on the Bay of Bengal (BoB) heat budget are examined using the Hybrid Coordinate Ocean Model. The model uses atmospheric conditions from reanalysis, reconstructed TC winds, and satellite-observed winds and precipitation. We conduct a series of diagnostic experiments to isolate the model's response to the individual TC-associated forcings. During the TCs, the BoB ocean heat content (OHC) is reduced, primarily due to TC-wind induced southward ocean heat transport (OHT) and a reduction in surface downward radiation due to increased cloudiness. BoB OHC is largely restored in the following months via enhanced surface heat fluxes, associated with cold wake restoration, and positive northward OHT. The TCs' downward heat pumping effect is estimated to be ˜1.74 × 1018 J near the end of February 2000, which is less than estimates using previously published methods based on surface observations. The relatively weak heat pumping results from freshwater input by intense monsoon rainfall and river discharge in the BoB, which stabilizes stratification, forms a barrier layer, and generates temperature inversions during seasonal surface cooling. As a result, early stage TC winds entrain the warm barrier layer water and enhance enthalpy loss in the southeastern Bay, while mature stage TC winds erode the barrier layer, decrease SST through upwelling and entrainment of deeper cold water and reduce enthalpy loss in the northwestern Bay. Our findings suggest TC winds may significantly alter the interseasonal BoB heat budget through OHT and surface heat fluxes.

  5. Cyclone performance estimates for pressurized fluidized-bed combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Henry, R.F.; Podolski, W.F.

    1981-07-01

    Hot pressurized flue gas from pressurized fluidized-bed combustion must be cleaned up prior to its expansion in a gas turbine as part of the combined-cycle electric power generation concept. The performance of conventional cyclones in experimental tests has been compared with theory, with reasonable agreement. Prediction of the performance of a larger cyclone system shows that three stages should provide the cleanup required on the basis of current estimates of turbine tolerance of particulate matter. Advances in hot gas cleanup - optimized cyclones, augmented cyclones, and alternative devices - should provide future improvement in cycle efficiencies and costs, but simple cyclones are planned for first-generation PFB/CC pilot and demonstration plants.

  6. Improved water-cooled cyclone constructions in CFBs

    SciTech Connect

    Alliston, M.G.; Luomaharju, T.; Kokko, A.

    1999-07-01

    The construction of CFB boilers has advanced in comparison with early designs. One improvement has been the use of water or steam cooled cyclones, which allows the use of thin refractories and minimizes maintenance needs. Cooled cyclones are also tolerant of wide load variations when the main fuel is biologically based, and coal or some other fuel is used as a back-up. With uncooled cyclones, load changes with high volatile fuels can mean significant temperature transients in the refractory, due to post-combustion phenomena in the cyclone. Kvaerner's development of water-cooled cyclones for CFBs began in the early 1980s. The first boiler with this design was delivered in 1985 in Sweden. Since then, Kvaerner Pulping has delivered over twenty units with cooled cyclones, in capacity ranging from small units up to 400 MW{sub th}. Among these units, Kvaerner has developed unconventional solutions for CFBs, in order to simplify the constructions and to increase the reliability for different applications. The first of them was CYMIC{reg{underscore}sign}, which has its water-cooled cyclone built inside the boiler furnace. There are two commercial CYMIC boilers in operation and one in project stages. The largest CYMIC in operation is a 185 MW{sub th} industrial boiler burning various fuels. For even larger scale units Kvaerner developed the Integrated Cylindrical Cyclone and Loopseal (ICCL) assembly. One of these installations is in operation in USA, having steaming capacity of over 500 t/h. The design bases of these new solutions are quite different in comparison with conventional cyclones. Therefore, an important part of the development has been cold model testing and mathematical modeling of the cyclones. This paper reviews the state-of-the-art in water-cooled cyclone construction. The new solutions, their full-scale experience, and a comparison of the actual experience with the preliminary modeling work are introduced.

  7. Cloudsat tropical cyclone database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tourville, Natalie D.

    CloudSat (CS), the first 94 GHz spaceborne cloud profiling radar (CPR), launched in 2006 to study the vertical distribution of clouds. Not only are CS observations revealing inner vertical cloud details of water and ice globally but CS overpasses of tropical cyclones (TC's) are providing a new and exciting opportunity to study the vertical structure of these storm systems. CS TC observations are providing first time vertical views of TC's and demonstrate a unique way to observe TC structure remotely from space. Since December 2009, CS has intersected every globally named TC (within 1000 km of storm center) for a total of 5,278 unique overpasses of tropical systems (disturbance, tropical depression, tropical storm and hurricane/typhoon/cyclone (HTC)). In conjunction with the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL), each CS TC overpass is processed into a data file containing observational data from the afternoon constellation of satellites (A-TRAIN), Navy's Operational Global Atmospheric Prediction System Model (NOGAPS), European Center for Medium range Weather Forecasting (ECMWF) model and best track storm data. This study will describe the components and statistics of the CS TC database, present case studies of CS TC overpasses with complementary A-TRAIN observations and compare average reflectivity stratifications of TC's across different atmospheric regimes (wind shear, SST, latitude, maximum wind speed and basin). Average reflectivity stratifications reveal that characteristics in each basin vary from year to year and are dependent upon eye overpasses of HTC strength storms and ENSO phase. West Pacific (WPAC) basin storms are generally larger in size (horizontally and vertically) and have greater values of reflectivity at a predefined height than all other basins. Storm structure at higher latitudes expands horizontally. Higher vertical wind shear (≥ 9.5 m/s) reduces cloud top height (CTH) and the intensity of precipitation cores, especially in HTC strength storms

  8. Advanced Technology Composite Fuselage - Materials and Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scholz, D. B.; Dost, E. F.; Flynn, B. W.; Ilcewicz, L. B.; Nelson, K. M.; Sawicki, A. J.; Walker, T. H.; Lakes, R. S.

    1997-01-01

    The goal of Boeing's Advanced Technology Composite Aircraft Structures (ATCAS) program was to develop the technology required for cost and weight efficient use of composite materials in transport fuselage structure. This contractor report describes results of material and process selection, development, and characterization activities. Carbon fiber reinforced epoxy was chosen for fuselage skins and stiffening elements and for passenger and cargo floor structures. The automated fiber placement (AFP) process was selected for fabrication of monolithic and sandwich skin panels. Circumferential frames and window frames were braided and resin transfer molded (RTM'd). Pultrusion was selected for fabrication of floor beams and constant section stiffening elements. Drape forming was chosen for stringers and other stiffening elements. Significant development efforts were expended on the AFP, braiding, and RTM processes. Sandwich core materials and core edge close-out design concepts were evaluated. Autoclave cure processes were developed for stiffened skin and sandwich structures. The stiffness, strength, notch sensitivity, and bearing/bypass properties of fiber-placed skin materials and braided/RTM'd circumferential frame materials were characterized. The strength and durability of cocured and cobonded joints were evaluated. Impact damage resistance of stiffened skin and sandwich structures typical of fuselage panels was investigated. Fluid penetration and migration mechanisms for sandwich panels were studied.

  9. 75 FR 66319 - State Systems Advance Planning Document (APD) Process

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-28

    ... HUMAN SERVICES 45 CFR Part 95 RIN 0970-AC33 State Systems Advance Planning Document (APD) Process AGENCY... Health and Human Services (HHS). ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Advance Planning Document (APD) process... support programs for children and families. The Advance Planning Document (APD) process governs...

  10. DENSE MEDIUM CYCLONE OPTIMIZATON

    SciTech Connect

    Gerald H. Luttrell; Chris J. Barbee; Peter J. Bethell; Chris J. Wood

    2005-06-30

    Dense medium cyclones (DMCs) are known to be efficient, high-tonnage devices suitable for upgrading particles in the 50 to 0.5 mm size range. This versatile separator, which uses centrifugal forces to enhance the separation of fine particles that cannot be upgraded in static dense medium separators, can be found in most modern coal plants and in a variety of mineral plants treating iron ore, dolomite, diamonds, potash and lead-zinc ores. Due to the high tonnage, a small increase in DMC efficiency can have a large impact on plant profitability. Unfortunately, the knowledge base required to properly design and operate DMCs has been seriously eroded during the past several decades. In an attempt to correct this problem, a set of engineering tools have been developed to allow producers to improve the efficiency of their DMC circuits. These tools include (1) low-cost density tracers that can be used by plant operators to rapidly assess DMC performance, (2) mathematical process models that can be used to predict the influence of changes in operating and design variables on DMC performance, and (3) an expert advisor system that provides plant operators with a user-friendly interface for evaluating, optimizing and trouble-shooting DMC circuits. The field data required to develop these tools was collected by conducting detailed sampling and evaluation programs at several industrial plant sites. These data were used to demonstrate the technical, economic and environmental benefits that can be realized through the application of these engineering tools.

  11. A FIVE-STAGE CYCLONE SYSTEM FOR IN SITU SAMPLING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper describes the development and calibration of a five-stage cyclone system for in situ sampling of process streams. Cyclones may be used to advantage for collecting large samples and in sampling aerosols of high particulate concentration. At 25C, 28.3 L/min, and for a par...

  12. Novel imazethapyr detoxification applying advanced oxidation processes.

    PubMed

    Stathis, Ioannis; Hela, Dimitra G; Scrano, Laura; Lelario, Filomena; Emanuele, Lucia; Bufo, Sabino A

    2011-01-01

    Different degradation methods have been applied to assess the suitability of advanced oxidation process (AOPs) to promote mineralization of imazethapyr [(RS)-5-ethyl-2-(4-isopropyl-4-methyl-5-oxo-2-imidazolin-2-yl)nicotinic acid], a widely used imidazolinone class herbicide, the persistence of which has been demonstrated in surface and ground waters destined to human uses. Independent of the oxidation process assessed, the decomposition of imazethapyr always followed a pseudo-first order kinetic. The direct UV-irradiation (UV) of the herbicide as well as its oxidation with ozone (O₃), and hydrogen peroxide tied to UV-irradiation (H₂O₂/UV) were sufficiently slow to permit the identification of intermediate products, the formation pathway of which has been proposed. Ozonation joined to UV-irradiation (O₃/UV), ozonation joined to titanium dioxide photo-catalysis (TiO₂/UV+O₃), sole photo-catalysis (TiO₂/UV), and photo-catalysis reinforced with hydrogen peroxide-oxidation (TiO₂/UV+H₂O₂) were characterized by a faster degradation and rapid formation of a lot of small molecules, which were quickly degraded to complete mineralization. The most effective oxidation methods were those using titanium dioxide photo-catalysis enhanced either by ozonation or hydrogen peroxide. Most of all, these last processes were useful to avoid the development of dangerous by-products. PMID:21726140

  13. More than monitoring: advanced lithographic process tuning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cantrell, G. R.; Dumaya, Jo Alvin; Bürgel, Christian; Feicke, Axel; Häcker, Martin; Utzny, Clemens

    2011-11-01

    Critical dimensions (CD) measured in resist are key to understanding the CD distribution on photomasks. Vital to this understanding is the separation of spatially random and systematic contributions to the CD distribution. Random contributions will not appear in post etch CD measurements (final) whereas systematic contributions will strongly impact final CDs. Resist CD signatures and their variations drive final CD distributions, thus an understanding of the mechanisms influencing the resist CD signature and its variation play a pivotal role in CD distribution improvements. Current technological demands require strict control of reticle critical dimension uniformity (CDU) and the Advanced Mask Technology Center (AMTC) has found significant reductions in reticle CDU are enabled through the statistical analysis of large data sets. To this end, we employ Principle Component Analysis (PCA) - a methodology well established at the AMTC1- to show how different portions of the lithographic process contribute to CD variations. These portions include photomask blank preparation as well as a correction parameter in the front end process. CD variations were markedly changed by modulating these two lithographic portions, leading to improved final CDU on test reticles in two different chemically amplified resist (CAR) processes.

  14. Grey swan tropical cyclones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Ning; Emanuel, Kerry

    2016-01-01

    We define `grey swan’ tropical cyclones as high-impact storms that would not be predicted based on history but may be foreseeable using physical knowledge together with historical data. Here we apply a climatological-hydrodynamic method to estimate grey swan tropical cyclone storm surge threat for three highly vulnerable coastal regions. We identify a potentially large risk in the Persian Gulf, where tropical cyclones have never been recorded, and larger-than-expected threats in Cairns, Australia, and Tampa, Florida. Grey swan tropical cyclones striking Tampa, Cairns and Dubai can generate storm surges of about 6 m, 5.7 m and 4 m, respectively, with estimated annual exceedance probabilities of about 1/10,000. With climate change, these probabilities can increase significantly over the twenty-first century (to 1/3,100-1/1,100 in the middle and 1/2,500-1/700 towards the end of the century for Tampa). Worse grey swan tropical cyclones, inducing surges exceeding 11 m in Tampa and 7 m in Dubai, are also revealed with non-negligible probabilities, especially towards the end of the century.

  15. Drying in cyclones -- A review

    SciTech Connect

    Nebra, S.A.; Silva, M.A.; Mujumdar, A.S.

    2000-03-01

    This paper presents an overview of the flow, heat and mass transfer characteristics of vortex (or cyclone) dryers. The focus is on the potential of the cyclone configuration for drying of particulates. A selective review is made of the literature pertains to single phase and gas-particle flow in cyclone geometries. Recent data on drying of particulates in cyclone dryers are summarized. 56 refs.

  16. Advanced Integrated Optical Signal Processing Components.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rastani, Kasra

    This research was aimed at the development of advanced integrated optical components suitable for devices capable of processing multi-dimensional inputs. In such processors, densely packed waveguide arrays with low crosstalk are needed to provide dissection of the information that has been partially processed. Waveguide arrays also expand the information in the plane of the processor while maintaining its coherence. Rib waveguide arrays with low loss, high mode confinement and highly uniform surface quality (660 elements, 8 μm wide, 1 μm high, and 1 cm long with 2 mu m separations) were fabricated on LiNbO _3 substrates through the ion beam milling technique. A novel feature of the multi-dimensional IO processor architecture proposed herein is the implementation of large area uniform outcoupling (with low to moderate outcoupling efficiencies) from rib waveguide arrays in order to access the third dimension of the processor structure. As a means of outcoupling, uniform surface gratings (2 μm and 4 μm grating periods, 0.05 μm high and 1 mm long) with low outcoupling efficiencies (of approximately 2-18%/mm) were fabricated on the nonuniform surface of the rib waveguide arrays. As a practical technique of modulating the low outcoupling efficiencies of the surface gratings, it was proposed to alter the period of the grating as a function of position along each waveguide. Large aperture (2.5 mm) integrated lenses with short positive focal lengths (1.2-2.5 cm) were developed through a modification of the titanium-indiffused proton exchanged (TIPE) technique. Such integrated lenses were fabricated by increasing the refractive index of the slab waveguides by the TIPE process while maintaining the refractive index of the lenses at the lower level of Ti:LiNbO _3 waveguide. By means of curvature reversal of the integrated lenses, positive focal length lenses have been fabricated while providing high mode confinement for the slab waveguide. The above elements performed as

  17. Induced effects of advanced oxidation processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Peng; Li, Chaolin; Zhao, Zhuanjun; Lu, Gang; Cui, Haibo; Zhang, Wenfang

    2014-02-01

    Hazardous organic wastes from industrial, military, and commercial activities represent one of the greatest challenges to human beings. Advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) are alternatives to the degradation of those organic wastes. However, the knowledge about the exact mechanisms of AOPs is still incomplete. Here we report a phenomenon in the AOPs: induced effects, which is a common property of combustion reaction. Through analysis EDTA oxidation processes by Fenton and UV-Fenton system, the results indicate that, just like combustion, AOPs are typical induction reactions. One most compelling example is that pre-feeding easily oxidizable organic matter can promote the oxidation of refractory organic compound when it was treated by AOPs. Connecting AOPs to combustion, it is possible to achieve some helpful enlightenment from combustion to analyze, predict and understand AOPs. In addition, we assume that maybe other oxidation reactions also have induced effects, such as corrosion, aging and passivation. Muchmore research is necessary to reveal the possibilities of induced effects in those fields.

  18. Induced effects of advanced oxidation processes

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Peng; Li, Chaolin; Zhao, Zhuanjun; Lu, Gang; Cui, Haibo; Zhang, Wenfang

    2014-01-01

    Hazardous organic wastes from industrial, military, and commercial activities represent one of the greatest challenges to human beings. Advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) are alternatives to the degradation of those organic wastes. However, the knowledge about the exact mechanisms of AOPs is still incomplete. Here we report a phenomenon in the AOPs: induced effects, which is a common property of combustion reaction. Through analysis EDTA oxidation processes by Fenton and UV-Fenton system, the results indicate that, just like combustion, AOPs are typical induction reactions. One most compelling example is that pre-feeding easily oxidizable organic matter can promote the oxidation of refractory organic compound when it was treated by AOPs. Connecting AOPs to combustion, it is possible to achieve some helpful enlightenment from combustion to analyze, predict and understand AOPs. In addition, we assume that maybe other oxidation reactions also have induced effects, such as corrosion, aging and passivation. Muchmore research is necessary to reveal the possibilities of induced effects in those fields. PMID:24503715

  19. High performance cyclone development

    SciTech Connect

    Giles, W.B.

    1981-01-01

    The results of cold flow experiments at atmospheric conditions of an air-shielded 18 in-dia electrocyclone with a central cusped electrode are reported using fine test dusts of both flyash and nickel powder. These results are found to confirm expectations of enhanced performance, similar to earlier work on a 12 in-dia model. An analysis of the combined inertial-electrostatic force field is also presented which identifies general design goals and scaling laws. From this, it is found that electrostatic enhancement will be particularly beneficial for fine dusts in large cyclones. Recommendations for further improvement in cyclone collection efficiency are proposed.

  20. Sampling for advanced overlay process control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, DongSub; Izikson, Pavel; Sutherland, Doug; Sherman, Kara; Manka, Jim; Robinson, John C.

    2008-03-01

    Overlay metrology and control have been critical for successful advanced microlithography for many years, and are taking on an even more important role as time goes on. Due to throughput constraints it is necessary to sample only a small subset of overlay metrology marks, and typical sample plans are static over time. Standard production monitoring and control involves measuring sufficient samples to calculate up to 6 linear correctables. As design rules shrink and processing becomes more complex, however, it is necessary to consider higher order modeled terms for control, fault detection, and disposition. This in turn, requires a higher level of sampling. Due to throughput concerns, however, careful consideration is needed to establish a base-line sampling, and higher levels of sampling can be considered on an exception-basis based on automated trigger mechanisms. The goal is improved scanner control and lithographic cost of ownership. This study addresses tools for establishing baseline sampling as well as motivation and initial results for dynamic sampling for application to higher order modeling.

  1. Sampling for advanced overlay process control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Cindy; Kurita, Hiroyuki; Izikson, Pavel; Robinson, John C.

    2009-03-01

    Overlay metrology and control have been critical for successful advanced microlithography for many years, and are taking on an even more important role as time goes on. Due to throughput constraints it is necessary to sample only a small subset of overlay metrology marks, and typical sample plans are static over time. Standard production monitoring and control involves measuring sufficient samples to calculate up to 6 linear correctables. As design rules shrink and processing becomes more complex, however, it is necessary to consider higher order models with additional degrees of freedom for control, fault detection, and disposition. This in turn, requires a higher level of sampling and a careful consideration of flyer removal. Due to throughput concerns, however, careful consideration is needed to establish a baseline sampling plan using rigorous statistical methods. This study focuses on establishing a 3x nm node immersion lithography production-worthy sampling plan for 3rd order modeling, verification of the accuracy, and proof of robustness of the sampling. In addition we discuss motivation for dynamic sampling for application to higher order modeling.

  2. Advanced information processing system: Local system services

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burkhardt, Laura; Alger, Linda; Whittredge, Roy; Stasiowski, Peter

    1989-01-01

    The Advanced Information Processing System (AIPS) is a multi-computer architecture composed of hardware and software building blocks that can be configured to meet a broad range of application requirements. The hardware building blocks are fault-tolerant, general-purpose computers, fault-and damage-tolerant networks (both computer and input/output), and interfaces between the networks and the computers. The software building blocks are the major software functions: local system services, input/output, system services, inter-computer system services, and the system manager. The foundation of the local system services is an operating system with the functions required for a traditional real-time multi-tasking computer, such as task scheduling, inter-task communication, memory management, interrupt handling, and time maintenance. Resting on this foundation are the redundancy management functions necessary in a redundant computer and the status reporting functions required for an operator interface. The functional requirements, functional design and detailed specifications for all the local system services are documented.

  3. Advanced Coal Conversion Process Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-04-01

    Western Energy Company (WECO) was selected by the Department of Energy (DOE) to demonstrate the Advanced Coal Conversion Process (ACCP) which upgrades low rank coals into high Btu, low sulfur, synthetic bituminous coal. As specified in the Corporate Agreement, RSCP is required to develop an Environmental Monitoring Plan (EMP) which describes in detail the environmental monitoring activities to be performed during the project execution. The purpose of the EMP is to: (1) identify monitoring activities that will be undertaken to show compliance to applicable regulations, (2) confirm the specific environmental impacts predicted in the National Environmental Policy Act documentation, and (3) establish an information base of the assessment of the environmental performance of the technology demonstrated by the project. The EMP specifies the streams to be monitored (e.g. gaseous, aqueous, and solid waste), the parameters to be measured (e.g. temperature, pressure, flow rate), and the species to be analyzed (e.g. sulfur compounds, nitrogen compounds, trace elements) as well as human health and safety exposure levels. The operation and frequency of the monitoring activities is specified, as well as the timing for the monitoring activities related to project phase (e.g. preconstruction, construction, commissioning, operational, post-operational). The EMP is designed to assess the environmental impacts and the environmental improvements resulting from construction and operation of the project.

  4. Natural language processing and advanced information management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoard, James E.

    1989-01-01

    Integrating diverse information sources and application software in a principled and general manner will require a very capable advanced information management (AIM) system. In particular, such a system will need a comprehensive addressing scheme to locate the material in its docuverse. It will also need a natural language processing (NLP) system of great sophistication. It seems that the NLP system must serve three functions. First, it provides an natural language interface (NLI) for the users. Second, it serves as the core component that understands and makes use of the real-world interpretations (RWIs) contained in the docuverse. Third, it enables the reasoning specialists (RSs) to arrive at conclusions that can be transformed into procedures that will satisfy the users' requests. The best candidate for an intelligent agent that can satisfactorily make use of RSs and transform documents (TDs) appears to be an object oriented data base (OODB). OODBs have, apparently, an inherent capacity to use the large numbers of RSs and TDs that will be required by an AIM system and an inherent capacity to use them in an effective way.

  5. Sensitivity of tropical cyclone intensity to sea surface temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, J.L. )

    1993-06-01

    Increased occurrence of more intense tropical storms intruding further poleward has been foreshadowed as one of the potential consequences of global warming. This scenario is based almost entirely on the general circulation model predictions of warmer sea surface temperature (SST) with increasing levels of atmospheric CO[sub 2] and some theories of tropical cyclone intensification that support the notion of more intense systems with warmer SST. Whether storms are able to achieve this theoretically determined more intense state depends on whether the temperature of the underlying water is the dominant factor in tropical cyclone intensification. An examination of the historical data record in a number of ocean basins is used to identify the relative importance of SST in the tropical cyclone intensification process. The results reveal that SST alone is an inadequate predictor of tropical cyclone intensity. Other factors known to affect tropical cyclone frequency and intensity are discussed. 16 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  6. Ocean Barrier Layers’ Effect on Tropical Cyclone Intensification

    SciTech Connect

    Balaguru, Karthik; Chang, P.; Saravanan, R.; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Xu, Zhao; Li, M.; Hsieh, J.

    2012-09-04

    Improving a tropical cyclone's forecast and mitigating its destructive potential requires knowledge of various environmental factors that influence the cyclone's path and intensity. Herein, using a combination of observations and model simulations, we systematically demonstrate that tropical cyclone intensification is significantly affected by salinity-induced barrier layers, which are 'quasi-permanent' features in the upper tropical oceans. When tropical cyclones pass over regions with barrier layers, the increased stratification and stability within the layer reduce storm-induced vertical mixing and sea surface temperature cooling. This causes an increase in enthalpy flux from the ocean to the atmosphere and, consequently, an intensification of tropical cyclones. On average, the tropical cyclone intensification rate is nearly 50% higher over regions with barrier layers, compared to regions without. Our finding, which underscores the importance of observing not only the upper-ocean thermal structure but also the salinity structure in deep tropical barrier layer regions, may be a key to more skillful predictions of tropical cyclone intensities through improved ocean state estimates and simulations of barrier layer processes. As the hydrological cycle responds to global warming, any associated changes in the barrier layer distribution must be considered in projecting future tropical cyclone activity.

  7. Cyclone disaster vulnerability and response experiences in coastal Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Alam, Edris; Collins, Andrew E

    2010-10-01

    For generations, cyclones and tidal surges have frequently devastated lives and property in coastal and island Bangladesh. This study explores vulnerability to cyclone hazards using first-hand coping recollections from prior to, during and after these events. Qualitative field data suggest that, beyond extreme cyclone forces, localised vulnerability is defined in terms of response processes, infrastructure, socially uneven exposure, settlement development patterns, and livelihoods. Prior to cyclones, religious activities increase and people try to save food and valuable possessions. Those in dispersed settlements who fail to reach cyclone shelters take refuge in thatched-roof houses and big-branch trees. However, women and children are affected more despite the modification of traditional hierarchies during cyclone periods. Instinctive survival strategies and intra-community cooperation improve coping post cyclone. This study recommends that disaster reduction programmes encourage cyclone mitigation while being aware of localised realities, endogenous risk analyses, and coping and adaptation of affected communities (as active survivors rather than helpless victims). PMID:20561338

  8. Assessing Tropical Cyclone Damage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Done, J.; Czajkowski, J.

    2012-12-01

    Landfalling tropical cyclones impact large coastal and inland areas causing direct damage due to winds, storm-surge flooding, tornadoes, and precipitation; as well as causing substantial indirect damage such as electrical outages and business interruption. The likely climate change impact of increased tropical cyclone intensity, combined with increases in exposure, bring the possibility of increased damage in the future. A considerable amount of research has focused on modeling economic damage due to tropical cyclones, and a series of indices have been developed to assess damages under climate change. We highlight a number of ways this research can be improved through a series of case study analyses. First, historical loss estimates are revisited to properly account for; time, impacted regions, the source of damage by type, and whether the damage was direct/indirect and insured/uninsured. Second, the drivers of loss from both the socio-economic and physical side are examined. A case is made to move beyond the use of maximum wind speed to more stable metrics and the use of other characteristics of the wind field such as direction, degree of gustiness, and duration is explored. A novel approach presented here is the potential to model losses directly as a function of climate variables such as sea surface temperature, greenhouse gases, and aerosols. This work is the first stage in the development of a tropical cyclone loss model to enable projections of losses under scenarios of both socio-economic change (such as population migration or altered policy) and physical change (such as shifts in tropical cyclone activity one from basin to another or within the same basin).

  9. Arabian Sea cyclone: Structure analysis using satellite data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rafiq, Lubna; Blaschke, Thomas; Tajbar, Sapna

    2015-11-01

    Advances in earth observation technology over the last two decades have resulted in improved forecasting of various hydrometeorological-related disasters. In this study the severe tropical cyclone Gonu (2-7 June, 2007) was investigated using multi-sensor satellite data sets (i.e. AIRS, METEOSAT, MODIS and QSCAT data) to monitor its overall structure, position, intensity, and motion. A high sea surface temperature and warm core anomalies (at 200 hPa and above) with respect to the pressure minima in the central core were found to have influenced the pattern of development of the tropical cyclone. High relative humidity in the middle troposphere was aligned with temperature minima at 850 hPa and 700 hPa; high winds (above 120 knots) and closed pressure contours were observed during the intensification stage. A contour analysis of outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) provided an explanation for the direction of movement of the cyclone. The translational movement and velocities (ground speed) of the tropical cyclone were calculated using the surface pressure of the cyclone's central core. Statistical analyses revealed a strong correlation between the maximum wind speeds within the cyclone and various atmospheric parameters. We conclude with a discussion of the significance of these findings with regard to cyclone forecasting within the framework of early warning and disaster management.

  10. Plan for advanced microelectronics processing technology application

    SciTech Connect

    Goland, A.N.

    1990-10-01

    The ultimate objective of the tasks described in the research agreement was to identify resources primarily, but not exclusively, within New York State that are available for the development of a Center for Advanced Microelectronics Processing (CAMP). Identification of those resources would enable Brookhaven National Laboratory to prepare a program plan for the CAMP. In order to achieve the stated goal, the principal investigators undertook to meet the key personnel in relevant NYS industrial and academic organizations to discuss the potential for economic development that could accompany such a Center and to gauge the extent of participation that could be expected from each interested party. Integrated of these discussions was to be achieved through a workshop convened in the summer of 1990. The culmination of this workshop was to be a report (the final report) outlining a plan for implementing a Center in the state. As events unfolded, it became possible to identify the elements of a major center for x-ray lithography on Lone Island at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The principal investigators were than advised to substitute a working document based upon that concept in place of a report based upon the more general CAMP workshop originally envisioned. Following that suggestion from the New York State Science and Technology Foundation, the principals established a working group consisting of representatives of the Grumman Corporation, Columbia University, the State University of New York at Stony Brook, and Brookhaven National Laboratory. Regular meetings and additional communications between these collaborators have produced a preproposal that constitutes the main body of the final report required by the contract. Other components of this final report include the interim report and a brief description of the activities which followed the establishment of the X-ray Lithography Center working group.

  11. Advanced Reduction Processes: A New Class of Treatment Processes

    PubMed Central

    Vellanki, Bhanu Prakash; Batchelor, Bill; Abdel-Wahab, Ahmed

    2013-01-01

    Abstract A new class of treatment processes called advanced reduction processes (ARPs) is proposed. ARPs combine activation methods and reducing agents to form highly reactive reducing radicals that degrade oxidized contaminants. Batch screening experiments were conducted to identify effective ARPs by applying several combinations of activation methods (ultraviolet light, ultrasound, electron beam, and microwaves) and reducing agents (dithionite, sulfite, ferrous iron, and sulfide) to degradation of four target contaminants (perchlorate, nitrate, perfluorooctanoic acid, and 2,4 dichlorophenol) at three pH-levels (2.4, 7.0, and 11.2). These experiments identified the combination of sulfite activated by ultraviolet light produced by a low-pressure mercury vapor lamp (UV-L) as an effective ARP. More detailed kinetic experiments were conducted with nitrate and perchlorate as target compounds, and nitrate was found to degrade more rapidly than perchlorate. Effectiveness of the UV-L/sulfite treatment process improved with increasing pH for both perchlorate and nitrate. We present the theory behind ARPs, identify potential ARPs, demonstrate their effectiveness against a wide range of contaminants, and provide basic experimental evidence in support of the fundamental hypothesis for ARP, namely, that activation methods can be applied to reductants to form reducing radicals that degrade oxidized contaminants. This article provides an introduction to ARPs along with sufficient data to identify potentially effective ARPs and the target compounds these ARPs will be most effective in destroying. Further research will provide a detailed analysis of degradation kinetics and the mechanisms of contaminant destruction in an ARP. PMID:23840160

  12. Cyclone vibration effects

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, D.C.; Tillery, M.I.

    1981-09-01

    A Government Accounting Office review of coal mine dust sampling procedures recommended studies be performed to determine accuracy and precision of dust measurements taken with current equipment. The effects of vibration on the 10-mm Dorr-Oliver nylon cyclone run at a flow rate of 2 L/min were investigated. A total of 271 samples were taken during 95 tests. All tests lasted about 7 h each and were performed inside a 19 l capacity aerosol chamber. Coal dust concentrations of about 2 mg/m/SUP/3 in air and a respirable fraction of 25-30% were used. The effects of a variety of vibration frequencies and stroke lengths were tested in two modes (horizontal and vertical). At most frequencies and stroke lengths, vibration was found to have an insignificant effect on cyclone performance.

  13. DENSE MEDIA CYCLONE OPTIMIZATION

    SciTech Connect

    Gerald H. Luttrell

    2001-09-10

    The fieldwork associated with Task 1 (Baseline Assessment) was completed this quarter. Detailed cyclone inspections completed at all but one plant during maintenance shifts. Analysis of the test samples is also currently underway in Task 4 (Sample Analysis). A Draft Recommendation was prepared for the management at each test site in Task 2 (Circuit Modification). All required procurements were completed. Density tracers were manufactured and tested for quality control purposes. Special sampling tools were also purchased and/or fabricated for each plant site. The preliminary experimental data show that the partitioning performance for all seven HMC circuits was generally good. This was attributed to well-maintained cyclones and good operating practices. However, the density tracers detected that most circuits suffered from poor control of media cutpoint. These problems were attributed to poor x-ray calibration and improper manual density measurements. These conclusions will be validated after the analyses of the composite samples have been completed.

  14. Tropical Cyclone Indlala

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    On March 14, 2007, storm-weary Madagascar braced for its fourth land-falling tropical cyclone in as many months. Cyclone Indlala was hovering off the island's northeast coast when the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA's Aqua satellite captured this photo-like image at 1:40 p.m. local time (10:40 UTC). Just over a hundred kilometers offshore, the partially cloudy eye at the heart of the storm seems like a vast drain sucking in a disk of swirling clouds. According to reports from the Joint Typhoon Warning Center issued less than three hours after MODIS captured this image, Indlala had winds of 115 knots (132 miles per hour), with gusts up to 140 knots (161 mph). Wave heights were estimated to be 36 feet. At the time of the report, the storm was predicted to intensify through the subsequent 12-hour period, to turn slightly southwest, and to strike eastern Madagascar as a Category 4 storm with sustained winds up to 125 knots (144 mph), and gusts up to 150 knots (173 mph). According to Reuters AlertNet news service, Madagascar's emergency response resources were taxed to their limit in early March 2007 as a result of extensive flooding in the North, drought and food shortages in the South, and three previous hits from cyclones in the preceding few months: Bondo in December 2006, Clovis in January 2007, and Gamede in February.

  15. Cyclone Center: Using Crowdsourcing to Determine Tropical Cyclone Intensity (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hennon, C. C.; Knapp, K. R.; Schreck, C. J.; Stevens, S. E.; Kossin, J. P.

    2013-12-01

    The strength of tropical cyclones (TCs) is traditionally determined using the sustained maximum wind speed. Because TCs develop and spend most of their lifetime over tropical oceans, it is rare to directly observe a storm well enough to determine its strength accurately. The Dvorak technique was developed in the 1970s and 1980s to address this problem. By determining a number of cloud and structural characteristics from satellite images, a forecaster could now arrive at a reasonable maximum sustained wind without direct observations. However, the Dvorak technique by nature is subjective and it has been shown that trained experts frequently disagree on storm intensities. Furthermore, the application of the rules and constraints of the process has diverged with time across different forecast centers. This has led in several cases to severe disagreements in storm intensities when two or more forecast centers track the same TC. The accumulation of these differences has caused heterogeneous trends in TC intensity to arise at decadal time scales. A global reanalysis of TC intensity is required to resolve these discrepancies, but such an undertaking is unrealistic. Cyclone Center, an Internet crowd sourcing site for TCs, was created to resolve differences in TC intensities and produce a consistent 32-year (1978-2009) record of it. By using a homogeneous satellite dataset (HURSAT) and adapting the Dvorak technique into a set of three or four simple questions, laypersons perform the actions of the expert. User responses are converted into 3-hourly storm intensities. To capitalize on the crowd sourcing approach, at least 10 different users are shown the same image; this allows critical data such as cloud pattern uncertainties and storm metadata (e.g. eye size, center location, cloud pattern) to be collected. Preliminary analyses show that our citizen scientists many times outperform computer classifications in pattern matching and exhibit low bias and mean error when

  16. Project T.E.A.M. (Technical Education Advancement Modules). Advanced Statistical Process Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunlap, Dale

    This instructional guide, one of a series developed by the Technical Education Advancement Modules (TEAM) project, is a 20-hour advanced statistical process control (SPC) and quality improvement course designed to develop the following competencies: (1) understanding quality systems; (2) knowing the process; (3) solving quality problems; and (4)…

  17. Advanced materials for geothermal energy processes

    SciTech Connect

    Kukacka, L.E.

    1985-08-01

    The primary goal of the geothermal materials program is to ensure that the private sector development of geothermal energy resources is not constrained by the availability of technologically and economically viable materials of construction. This requires the performance of long-term high risk GHTD-sponsored materials R and D. Ongoing programs described include high temperature elastomers for dynamic sealing applications, advanced materials for lost circulation control, waste utilization and disposal, corrosion resistant elastomeric liners for well casing, and non-metallic heat exchangers. 9 refs.

  18. Cyclonic incineration of low heating-value off-gas. Technology spotlight report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-01

    Institute of Gas Technology (IGT) investigated the combustion characteristics of low-Btu off-gas and the operating performance of a pilot-scale cyclonic combustor to evaluate the incineration and heat recovery potential. The successful results suggested, among other things, that the cyclonic combustion approach has good potential for developing an advanced, highly efficient afterburner design for a variety of incinerators.

  19. ADVANCED CONCEPTS: SO2 REMOVAL PROCESS IMPROVEMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a study of a potassium scrubbing system that recovers useful forms of sulfur from pollutants while using a low-energy process to regenerate the absorbing medium. The report also describes two versions of a new, regenerable process for SO2 scrubbing tha...

  20. The contribution of tropical cyclones to rainfall in Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agustín Breña-Naranjo, J.; Pedrozo-Acuña, Adrián; Pozos-Estrada, Oscar; Jiménez-López, Salma A.; López-López, Marco R.

    Investigating the contribution of tropical cyclones to the terrestrial water cycle can help quantify the benefits and hazards caused by the rainfall generated from this type of hydro-meteorological event. Rainfall induced by tropical cyclones can enhance both flood risk and groundwater recharge, and it is therefore important to characterise its minimum, mean and maximum contributions to a region or country's water balance. This work evaluates the rainfall contribution of tropical depressions, storms and hurricanes across Mexico from 1998 to 2013 using the satellite-derived precipitation dataset TMPA 3B42. Additionally, the sensitivity of rainfall to other datasets was assessed: the national rain gauge observation network, real-time satellite rainfall and a merged product that combines rain gauges with non-calibrated space-borne rainfall measurements. The lower Baja California peninsula had the highest contribution from cyclonic rainfall in relative terms (∼40% of its total annual rainfall), whereas the contributions in the rest of the country showed a low-to-medium dependence on tropical cyclones, with mean values ranging from 0% to 20%. In quantitative terms, southern regions of Mexico can receive more than 2400 mm of cyclonic rainfall during years with significant TC activity. Moreover, (a) the number of tropical cyclones impacting Mexico has been significantly increasing since 1998, but cyclonic contributions in relative and quantitative terms have not been increasing, and (b) wind speed and rainfall intensity during cyclones are not highly correlated. Future work should evaluate the impacts of such contributions on surface and groundwater hydrological processes and connect the knowledge gaps between the magnitude of tropical cyclones, flood hazards, and economic losses.

  1. Extratropical Cyclone in the Southern Ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    These images from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer portray an occluded extratropical cyclone situated in the Southern Ocean, about 650 kilometers south of the Eyre Peninsula, South Australia.

    Parts of the Yorke Peninsula and a portion of the Murray-Darling River basin are visible between the clouds near the top of the left-hand image, a true-color view from MISR's nadir(vertical-viewing) camera. Retrieved cloud-tracked wind velocities are indicated by the superimposed arrows. The image on the right displays cloud-top heights. Areas where cloud heights could not be retrieved are shown in black. Both the wind vectors and the cloud heights were derived using data from multiple MISR cameras within automated computer processing algorithms. The stereoscopic algorithms used to generate these results are still being refined, and future versions of these products may show modest changes.

    Extratropical cyclones are the dominant weather system at midlatitudes, and the term is used generically for region allow-pressure systems in the mid- to high-latitudes. In the southern hemisphere, cyclonic rotation is clockwise. These storms obtain their energy from temperature differences between air masses on either side of warm and cold fronts, and their characteristic pattern is of warm and cold fronts radiating out from a migrating low pressure center which forms, deepens, and dissipates as the fronts fold and collapse on each other. The center of this cyclone has started to decay, with the band of cloud to the south most likely representing the main front that was originally connected with the cyclonic circulation.

    These views were acquired on October 11, 2001 during Terra orbit 9650, and represent an area of about 380 kilometers x 1900 kilometers.

  2. Extratropical Cyclone in the Southern Ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    These images from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) portray an occluded extratropical cyclone situated in the Southern Ocean, about 650 kilometers south of the Eyre Peninsula, South Australia. The left-hand image, a true-color view from MISR's nadir (vertical-viewing) camera, shows clouds just south of the Yorke Peninsula and the Murray-Darling river basin in Australia. Retrieved cloud-tracked wind velocities are indicated by the superimposed arrows. The image on the right displays cloud-top heights. Areas where cloud heights could not be retrieved are shown in black. Both the wind vectors and the cloud heights were derived using data from multiple MISR cameras within automated computer processing algorithms. The stereoscopic algorithms used to generate these results are still being refined, and future versions of these products may show modest changes. Extratropical cyclones are the dominant weather system at midlatitudes, and the term is used generically for regional low-pressure systems in the mid- to high-latitudes. In the southern hemisphere, cyclonic rotation is clockwise. These storms obtain their energy from temperature differences between air masses on either side of warm and cold fronts, and their characteristic pattern is of warm and cold fronts radiating out from a migrating low pressure center which forms, deepens, and dissipates as the fronts fold and collapse on each other. The center of this cyclone has started to decay, with the band of cloud to the south most likely representing the main front that was originally connected with the cyclonic circulation. These views were acquired on October 11, 2001, and the large view represents an area of about 380 kilometers x 1900 kilometers. Image courtesy NASA/GSFC/LaRC/JPL, MISR Team.

  3. Recent advances in imaging subcellular processes

    PubMed Central

    Myers, Kenneth A.; Janetopoulos, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Cell biology came about with the ability to first visualize cells. As microscopy techniques advanced, the early microscopists became the first cell biologists to observe the inner workings and subcellular structures that control life. This ability to see organelles within a cell provided scientists with the first understanding of how cells function. The visualization of the dynamic architecture of subcellular structures now often drives questions as researchers seek to understand the intricacies of the cell. With the advent of fluorescent labeling techniques, better and new optical techniques, and more sensitive and faster cameras, a whole array of questions can now be asked. There has been an explosion of new light microscopic techniques, and the race is on to build better and more powerful imaging systems so that we can further our understanding of the spatial and temporal mechanisms controlling molecular cell biology. PMID:27408708

  4. Recent advances in imaging subcellular processes.

    PubMed

    Myers, Kenneth A; Janetopoulos, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Cell biology came about with the ability to first visualize cells. As microscopy techniques advanced, the early microscopists became the first cell biologists to observe the inner workings and subcellular structures that control life. This ability to see organelles within a cell provided scientists with the first understanding of how cells function. The visualization of the dynamic architecture of subcellular structures now often drives questions as researchers seek to understand the intricacies of the cell. With the advent of fluorescent labeling techniques, better and new optical techniques, and more sensitive and faster cameras, a whole array of questions can now be asked. There has been an explosion of new light microscopic techniques, and the race is on to build better and more powerful imaging systems so that we can further our understanding of the spatial and temporal mechanisms controlling molecular cell biology. PMID:27408708

  5. Atlantic tropical cyclones revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mann, Michael E.; Emanuel, Kerry A.; Holland, Greg J.; Webster, Peter J.

    Vigorous discussions have taken place recently in Eos [e.g., Mann and Emanuel, 2006; Landsea, 2007] and elsewhere [Emanuel, 2005; Webster et al., 2005; Hoyos et al., 2006; Trenberth and Shea, 2006; Kossin et al., 2007] regarding trends in North Atlantic tropical cyclone (TC) activity and their potential connection with anthropogenic climate change. In one study, for example [Landsea, 2007], it is argued that a substantial underestimate of Atlantic tropical cyclone counts in earlier decades arising from insufficient observing systems invalidates the conclusion that trends in TC behavior may be connected to climate change. Here we argue that such connections are in fact robust with respect to uncertainties in earlier observations.Several recent studies have investigated trends in various measures of TC activity. Emanuel [2005] showed that a measure of total power dissipation by TCs (the power dissipation index, or PDI) is highly correlated with August-October sea surface temperatures (SST) over the main development region (MDR) for Atlantic TCs over at least the past half century. Some support for this conclusion was provided by Sriver and Ruber [2006]. Webster et al. [2005] demonstrated a statistically significant increase in recent decades in both the total number of the strongest category cyclones (categories 4 and 5) and the proportion of storms reaching hurricane intensity. Hoyos et al. [2006] showed that these increases were closely tied to warming trends in tropical Atlantic SST, while, for example, the modest decrease in vertical wind shear played a more secondary role. Kossin et al. [2007] called into question some trends in other basins, based on a reanalysis of past TC data, but they found the North Atlantic trends to be robust.

  6. Challenge to advanced materials processing with lasers in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyamoto, Isamu

    2003-02-01

    Japan is one of the most advanced countries in manufacturing technology, and lasers have been playing an important role for advancement of manufacturing technology in a variety of industrial fields. Contribution of laser materials processing to Japanese industry is significant for both macroprocessing and microprocessing. The present paper describes recent trend and topics of industrial applications in terms of the hardware and the software to show how Japanese industry challenges to advanced materials processing using lasers, and national products related to laser materials processing are also briefly introduced.

  7. Classifying Southern Hemisphere extratropical cyclones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catto, Jennifer

    2015-04-01

    There is a wide variety of flavours of extratropical cyclones in the Southern Hemisphere, with differing structures and lifecycles. Previous studies have classified these manually using upper level flow features or satellite data. In order to be able to evaluate climate models and understand how extratropical cyclones might change in the future, we need to be able to use an automated method to classify cyclones. Extratropical cyclones have been identified in the Southern Hemisphere from the ERA-Interim reanalysis dataset with a commonly used identification and tracking algorithm that employs 850hPa relative vorticity. A clustering method applied to large-scale fields from ERA-Interim at the time of cyclone genesis (when the cyclone is first identified), has been used to objectively classify these cyclones in the Southern Hemisphere. This simple method is able to separate the cyclones into classes with quite different development mechanisms and lifecycle characteristics. Some of the classes seem to coincide with previous manual classifications on shorter timescales, showing their utility for climate model evaluation and climate change studies.

  8. Conceptual Models of Frontal Cyclones.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eagleman, Joe R.

    1981-01-01

    This discussion of weather models uses maps to illustrate the differences among three types of frontal cyclones (long wave, short wave, and troughs). Awareness of these cyclones can provide clues to atmospheric conditions which can lead toward accurate weather forecasting. (AM)

  9. DENSE MEDIA CYCLONE OPTIMIZATION

    SciTech Connect

    Gerald H. Luttrell

    2002-09-14

    All project activities are now winding down. Follow-up tracer tests were conducted at several of the industrial test sites and analysis of the experimental data is currently underway. All required field work was completed during this quarter. In addition, the heavy medium cyclone simulation and expert system programs are nearly completed and user manuals are being prepared. Administrative activities (e.g., project documents, cost-sharing accounts, etc.) are being reviewed and prepared for final submission to DOE. All project reporting requirements are up to date. All financial expenditures are within approved limits.

  10. Recent advances in process assessment and optimisation.

    PubMed

    Van Loey, A; Hendrickx, M; Smout, C; Haentjens, T; Tobback, P

    1996-01-01

    After stating the general principle of food preservation, this paper focuses on currently available methods to evaluate quantitatively the integrated time temperature impact during and/or after a thermal preservation process. In this context, both the physical-mathematical approach and the use of time temperature integrators are briefly reviewed and recent evolutions are indicated. Also new trends with regard to thermal process optimisation are highlighted. PMID:22060643

  11. Advances in iridium alloy processing in 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Heestand, R.L.; Ohriner, E.K.; Roche, T.K.

    1988-08-01

    A new process for the production of DOP-26 iridium alloy blanks is being evaluated and optimized. The alloy is prepared by electron-beam (EB) melting of Ir-0.3% W powder compacts followed by doping with aluminum and thorium by arc melting. Drop-cast alloy rod segments are EB welded to produce an electrode that is consumable arc melted to produce an ingot for extrusion and subsequent rolling. Initial results showed rejections for ultrasonic indications of alloy blanks produced by this process to be very low. Subsequently, some ingots have exhibited delaminations in the sheet, leading to rejection rates similar to that obtained in the standard process. The increase in delaminations is related to near-surface porosity in the consumable arc-melted ingot. A number of modifications to the arc-melting process and plans for further experimental work are described. In addition, the tensile properties of the DOP-26 iridium alloys have been measured over a range of test temperatures and strain rates. A laboratory evaluation of alternative cleaning procedures indicates that electrolytic dissolution of DOP-26 iridium alloy in an HCl solution is a potential substitute to the KCN process now in use. 7 refs., 13 figs., 6 tabs.

  12. Optical Multiple Access Network (OMAN) for advanced processing satellite applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mendez, Antonio J.; Gagliardi, Robert M.; Park, Eugene; Ivancic, William D.; Sherman, Bradley D.

    1991-01-01

    An OMAN breadboard for exploring advanced processing satellite circuit switch applications is introduced. Network architecture, hardware trade offs, and multiple user interference issues are presented. The breadboard test set up and experimental results are discussed.

  13. ADVANCED OXIDATION PROCESSES (AOP'S FOR THE TREATMENT OF CCL CHEMICALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Research on treatment of Contaminant Candidate List (CCL) chemicals is being conducted. Specific groups of contaminants on the CCL will be evaluated using numerous advanced oxidation processes (AOPs). Initially, these CCL contaminants will be evaluated in groups based on chemical...

  14. Process Technology and Advanced Concepts: Organic Solar Cells (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-06-01

    Capabilities fact sheet for the National Center for Photovoltaics: Process Technology and Advanced Concepts: Organic Solar Cell that includes scope, core competencies and capabilities, and contact/web information.

  15. Cold plasma processing technology makes advances

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cold plasma (AKA nonthermal plasma, cool plasma, gas plasma, etc.) is a rapidly maturing antimicrobial process being developed for applications in the food industry. A wide array of devices can be used to create cold plasma, but the defining characteristic is that they operate at or near room temper...

  16. Photonics in advanced process control applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lundqvist, Stefan H.; Andersson, Torbjoern; Grimbrandt, Jan

    1999-02-01

    A measurement system optimized for process control in the industrial environment has been developed and successfully commercialized. The system comprises a central unit, which contains all sensitive electronic and electro-optic parts. Fiber optics is used to transport the probing laser light to the measuring points in the process. Extremely rugged sensor heads are used to interface to the harsh industrial environment. Adaptation to the different applications is solely made up by changing the type of sensor head used. Six different process control applications will be presented. Ammonia slip monitoring in the NO(subscript x4/ reduction process in power stations, waste incinerators and heavy-duty diesel engines. Measurement of water vapor and oxygen in municipal waste to energy plants. Monitoring of oxygen and the thermodynamic gas temperature in steel pellets manufacturing. Monitoring HF reduction in a dry scrubber and HF emission from a pot room. Experiences of CO emission peak monitoring to protect electro filter in a chemical waste incinerator. Finally, we will describe measurements of HCI in the raw gas to access the calorific value of waste and to optimize bag-house filter operation.

  17. Parameters of flow in cyclonic elements of separator battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasilevskiy, Mihail; Zyatikov, Pavel; Roslyak, Alecsander; Shishmina, Ludmila

    2014-08-01

    Peculiarities of separation processes in cyclone battery separators have been considered on liquid and solid disperse phases. The difference in efficiency between individual and battery liquid separators is slight .Concentration of disperse liquid phase in refined gases is 0.1-0.3 kg/kg. In operating on dry gases with abundance of dust the separation condition changes due to peculiarities of disperse phase behavior from solid particles .Flow parameter assessments in cyclones by different correlation of flow areas at the input and output have been conducted. Differences of flow parameters in conical and cylindrical cyclones have been explored. The analysis and causes of unsatisfied work of industrial battery separator with cyclone elements have been carried out.

  18. Trapped rubber processing for advanced composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marra, P. J.

    1976-01-01

    Trapped rubber processing is a molding technique for composites in which precast silicone rubber is placed within a closed cavity where it thermally expands against the composite's surface supported by the vessel walls. The method has been applied by the Douglas Aircraft Company, under contract to NASA-Langley, to the design and fabrication of 10 DC-10 graphite/epoxy upper aft rudder assemblies. A three-bay development tool form mold die has been designed and manufactured, and tooling parameters have been established. Fabrication procedures include graphite layup, assembly of details in the tool, and a cure cycle. The technique has made it possible for the cocured fabrication of complex primary box structures otherwise impracticable via standard composite material processes.

  19. Advances in the shell coal gasification process

    SciTech Connect

    Doering, E.L.; Cremer, G.A.

    1995-12-31

    The Shell Coal Gasification Process (SCGP) is a dry-feed, oxygen-blown, entrained flow coal gasification process which has the capability to convert virtually any coal or petroleum coke into a clean medium Btu synthesis gas, or syngas, consisting predominantly of carbon monoxide and hydrogen. In SCGP, high pressure nitrogen or recycled syngas is used to pneumatically convey dried, pulverized coal to the gasifier. The coal enters the gasifier through diametrically opposed burners where it reacts with oxygen at temperatures in excess of 2500{degrees}F. The gasification temperature is maintained to ensure that the mineral matter in the coal is molten and will flow smoothly down the gasifier wall and out the slag tap. Gasification conditions are optimized, depending on coal properties, to achieve the highest coal to gas conversion efficiency, with minimum formation of undesirable byproducts.

  20. Dense medium cyclones on fine coal-The Australian experience

    SciTech Connect

    Kempnich, R.J.; Barneveld, S. Van; Lusan, A.

    1995-08-01

    Dense medium cyclones have been widely used to clean coarse coal (plus 30 mesh). Efficiency of separation, tolerance of near gravity material and separation density control being the primary advantage of the systems. Historically there has been a lack of accurate flexible density based processes available to treat fine material, in the size ranges less than 30 mesh. Spirals have found acceptance in cleaning fines in the size range minus 16 mesh plus 100 mesh, but are limited in their application due to process efficiency and separation density control. Conventional froth flotation also suffers from efficiency and product quality control, especially in the size ranges above 40 mesh. The fine coal dense medium has been the Holy Grail of coal preparation since the earliest dense medium developments by Dutch State Mines in the early 1950`s. The application of the technology has been significantly advanced by the 135 tph fine coal dense medium circuit commissioned at the CURRAGH Queensland Mining Pty Ltd, Blackwater, Queensland, Australia. The Curragh plant is not an R&D project and was built under a hard money turnkey contract. The data reported has been gathered during normal commissioning and production tuning of the circuits. This paper describes the circuit design and process control system implemented, discusses the commissioning experience and the optimisation of process parameters. There are a number of fundamental process parameters critical to achieving acceptable, stable separation efficiency. Effects of cyclone feed pressure and medium rheology on efficiency are discussed. The ability to recover and retain fine magnetite and control the level of non-magnetics in recirculation, were fundamental to achieving extremely low magnetite consumption. The experience at Curragh is a significant step forward and provides a foundation for future applications of fine coal dense medium technology.

  1. Advanced processes for metallurgical coke. Appendices

    SciTech Connect

    Straus, R.W.; Carsey, J.N.; von Bismarck, G.; Fujishima, C.

    1980-12-01

    Material collected in a survey of German coking plants (some in German, some in English) is presented: Ancit hot briquetting (including blast furnace tests), by-products of Ancit process, coal preparation, high volatile coking coals, preheating, briquetting blending, compacting and preheating, short coking time, wet charges, temperature control and heat consumption, supplies of coke, Solmer coke oven complex at Fos-sur-Mer, etc. (LTN)

  2. Advanced plasma diagnostics for plasma processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malyshev, Mikhail Victorovich

    1999-10-01

    A new, non-intrusive, non-perturbing diagnostic method was developed that can be broadly applied to low pressure, weakly ionized plasmas and glow discharges-trace rare gases optical emission spectroscopy (TRG-OES). The method is based on a comparison of intensities of atomic emission from trace amounts of inert gases (He, Ne, Ar, Kr, and Xe) that are added to the discharge to intensities calculated from the theoretical model. The model assumes a Maxwellian electron energy distribution function (EEDF), computes the population of emitting levels both from the ground state and the metastable states of rare gases, and from the best fit between theory and experiment determines electron temperature (Te). Subject to conditions, TRG-OES can also yield electron density or its upper or lower limit. From the comparison of the emission from levels excited predominantly by high energy electrons to that excited by low energy electrons, information about the EEDF can be obtained. The use of TRG-OES also allows a traditionally qualitative actinometry technique (determination of concentration of radical species in plasma through optical emission) to become a precise quantitative method by including Te and rare gases metastables effects. A combination of TRG-OES, advanced actinometry, and Langmuir probe measurements was applied to several different plasma reactors and regimes of operation. Te measurements and experiments to correct excitation cross section were conducted in a laboratory helical resonator. Two chamber configuration of a commercial (Lam Research) metal etcher were studied to determine the effects of plasma parameters on plasma-induced damage. Two different methods (RF inductive coupling and ultra-high frequency coupling) for generating a plasma in a prototype reactor were also studied. Pulsed plasmas, a potential candidate to eliminate the plasma-induced damage to microelectronics devices that occurs in manufacturing due to differential charging of the wafer, have

  3. Advanced alarm systems: Display and processing issues

    SciTech Connect

    O`Hara, J.M.; Wachtel, J.; Perensky, J.

    1995-05-01

    This paper describes a research program sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission to address the human factors engineering (HFE) deficiencies associated with nuclear power plant alarm systems. The overall objective of the study is to develop HFE review guidance for alarm systems. In support of this objective, human performance issues needing additional research were identified. Among the important issues were alarm processing strategies and alarm display techniques. This paper will discuss these issues and briefly describe our current research plan to address them.

  4. Technology advances for Space Shuttle processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiskerchen, M. J.; Mollakarimi, C. L.

    1988-01-01

    One of the major initial tasks of the Space Systems Integration and Operations Research Applications (SIORA) Program was the application of automation and robotics technology to all aspects of the Shuttle tile processing and inspection system. The SIORA Program selected a nonlinear systems engineering methodology which emphasizes a team approach for defining, developing, and evaluating new concepts and technologies for the operational system. This is achieved by utilizing rapid prototyping testbeds whereby the concepts and technologies can be iteratively tested and evaluated by the team. The present methodology has clear advantages for the design of large complex systems as well as for the upgrading and evolution of existing systems.

  5. Advanced colour processing for mobile devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillich, Eugen; Dörksen, Helene; Lohweg, Volker

    2015-02-01

    Mobile devices such as smartphones are going to play an important role in professionally image processing tasks. However, mobile systems were not designed for such applications, especially in terms of image processing requirements like stability and robustness. One major drawback is the automatic white balance, which comes with the devices. It is necessary for many applications, but of no use when applied to shiny surfaces. Such an issue appears when image acquisition takes place in differently coloured illuminations caused by different environments. This results in inhomogeneous appearances of the same subject. In our paper we show a new approach for handling the complex task of generating a low-noise and sharp image without spatial filtering. Our method is based on the fact that we analyze the spectral and saturation distribution of the channels. Furthermore, the RGB space is transformed into a more convenient space, a particular HSI space. We generate the greyscale image by a control procedure that takes into account the colour channels. This leads in an adaptive colour mixing model with reduced noise. The results of the optimized images are used to show how, e. g., image classification benefits from our colour adaptation approach.

  6. Advances in Processing of Bulk Ferroelectric Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galassi, Carmen

    The development of ferroelectric bulk materials is still under extensive investigation, as new and challenging issues are growing in relation to their widespread applications. Progress in understanding the fundamental aspects requires adequate technological tools. This would enable controlling and tuning the material properties as well as fully exploiting them into the scale production. Apart from the growing number of new compositions, interest in the first ferroelectrics like BaTiO3 or PZT materials is far from dropping. The need to find new lead-free materials, with as high performance as PZT ceramics, is pushing towards a full exploitation of bariumbased compositions. However, lead-based materials remain the best performing at reasonably low production costs. Therefore, the main trends are towards nano-size effects and miniaturisation, multifunctional materials, integration, and enhancement of the processing ability in powder synthesis. Also, in control of dispersion and packing, to let densification occur in milder conditions. In this chapter, after a general review of the composition and main properties of the principal ferroelectric materials, methods of synthesis are analysed with emphasis on recent results from chemical routes and cold consolidation methods based on the colloidal processing.

  7. Optical metrology for advanced process control: full module metrology solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bozdog, Cornel; Turovets, Igor

    2016-03-01

    Optical metrology is the workhorse metrology in manufacturing and key enabler to patterning process control. Recent advances in device architecture are gradually shifting the need for process control from the lithography module to other patterning processes (etch, trim, clean, LER/LWR treatments, etc..). Complex multi-patterning integration solutions, where the final pattern is the result of multiple process steps require a step-by-step holistic process control and a uniformly accurate holistic metrology solution for pattern transfer for the entire module. For effective process control, more process "knobs" are needed, and a tighter integration of metrology with process architecture.

  8. Digraph reliability model processing advances and applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iverson, D. L.; Patterson-Hine, F. A.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes a new algorithm, called SourceDoubls, which efficiently solves for singletons and doubletons of a digraph reliability model. Compared with previous methods, the SourceDoubls algorithm provides up to a two order of magnitude reduction in the amount of time required to solve large digraph models. This significant increase in model solution speed allows complex digraphs containing thousands of nodes to be used as knowledge bases for real time automated monitoring and diagnosis applications. Currently, an application to provide monitoring and diagnosis of the Space Station Freedom Data Management System is under development at NASA/Ames Research Center and NASA/Johnson Space Center. This paper contains an overview of this system and provides details of how it will use digraph models processed by the SourceDoubls algorithm to accomplish its task.

  9. Advanced information processing system for advanced launch system: Avionics architecture synthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lala, Jaynarayan H.; Harper, Richard E.; Jaskowiak, Kenneth R.; Rosch, Gene; Alger, Linda S.; Schor, Andrei L.

    1991-01-01

    The Advanced Information Processing System (AIPS) is a fault-tolerant distributed computer system architecture that was developed to meet the real time computational needs of advanced aerospace vehicles. One such vehicle is the Advanced Launch System (ALS) being developed jointly by NASA and the Department of Defense to launch heavy payloads into low earth orbit at one tenth the cost (per pound of payload) of the current launch vehicles. An avionics architecture that utilizes the AIPS hardware and software building blocks was synthesized for ALS. The AIPS for ALS architecture synthesis process starting with the ALS mission requirements and ending with an analysis of the candidate ALS avionics architecture is described.

  10. Integration of advanced nuclear materials separation processes

    SciTech Connect

    Jarvinen, G.D.; Worl, L.A.; Padilla, D.D.; Berg, J.M.; Neu, M.P.; Reilly, S.D.; Buelow, S.

    1998-12-31

    This is the final report of a two-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). This project has examined the fundamental chemistry of plutonium that affects the integration of hydrothermal technology into nuclear materials processing operations. Chemical reactions in high temperature water allow new avenues for waste treatment and radionuclide separation.Successful implementation of hydrothermal technology offers the potential to effective treat many types of radioactive waste, reduce the storage hazards and disposal costs, and minimize the generation of secondary waste streams. The focus has been on the chemistry of plutonium(VI) in solution with carbonate since these are expected to be important species in the effluent from hydrothermal oxidation of Pu-containing organic wastes. The authors investigated the structure, solubility, and stability of the key plutonium complexes. Installation and testing of flow and batch hydrothermal reactors in the Plutonium Facility was accomplished. Preliminary testing with Pu-contaminated organic solutions gave effluent solutions that readily met discard requirements. A new effort in FY 1998 will build on these promising initial results.

  11. Potential Application of Airborne Passive Microwave Observations for Monitoring Inland Flooding Caused by Tropical Cyclones

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hood, Robbie E.; Radley, C.D.; LaFontaine, F.J.

    2008-01-01

    Inland flooding from tropical cyclones can be a significant factor in storm-related deaths in the United States and other countries. Information collected during NASA tropical cyclone field studies suggest surface water and flooding induced by tropical cyclone precipitation can be detected and therefore monitored using passive microwave airborne radiometers. In particular, the 10.7 GHz frequency of the NASA Advanced Microwave Precipitation Radiometer (AMPR) flown on the NASA ER-2 has demonstrated high resolution detection of anomalous surface water and flooding in numerous situations. This presentation will highlight the analysis of three cases utilizing primarily satellite and airborne radiometer data. Radiometer data from the 1998 Third Convection and Moisture Experiment (CAMEX-3) are utilized to detect surface water during landfalling Hurricane Georges in both the Dominican Republic and Louisiana. A third case is landfalling Tropical Storm Gert in Eastern Mexico during the Tropical Cloud Systems and Processes (TCSP) experiment in 2005. AMPR data are compared to topographic data and vegetation indices to evaluate the significance of the surface water signature visible in the 10.7 GHz information. The results of this study suggest the benefit of an aircraft 10 GHz radiometer to provide real-time observations of surface water conditions as part of a multi-sensor flood monitoring network.

  12. Extratropical cyclone classification and its use in climate studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catto, J. L.

    2016-06-01

    Extratropical cyclones have long been known to be important for midlatitude weather. It is therefore important that our current state-of-the-art climate models are able to realistically represent these features, in order that we can have confidence in how they are projected to change in a warming climate. Despite the observation that these cyclones are extremely variable in their structure and features, there have, over the years, been numerous attempts to classify or group them. Such classifications can provide insight into the different cloud structures, airflows, and dynamical forcing mechanisms within the different cyclone types. This review collects and details as many classification techniques as possible, and may therefore act as a reference guide to classifications. These classifications offer the opportunity to improve the way extratropical cyclone evaluation in climate models is currently done by giving more insight into the dynamical and physical processes that occur in climate models (rather than just evaluating the mean state over a broad region as is often done). Examples of where these ideas have been used, or could be used, are reviewed. Finally, the potential impacts of future climate changes on extratropical cyclones are detailed. The ways in which the classification techniques could improve our understanding of future changes in extratropical cyclones and their impacts are given.

  13. TECHNOLOGY SUMMARY ADVANCING TANK WASTE RETREIVAL AND PROCESSING

    SciTech Connect

    SAMS TL

    2010-07-07

    This technology overview provides a high-level summary of technologies being investigated and developed by Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS) to advance Hanford Site tank waste retrieval and processing. Technology solutions are outlined, along with processes and priorities for selecting and developing them.

  14. A Reverse Osmosis System for an Advanced Separation Process Laboratory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slater, C. S.; Paccione, J. D.

    1987-01-01

    Focuses on the development of a pilot unit for use in an advanced separations process laboratory in an effort to develop experiments on such processes as reverse osmosis, ultrafiltration, adsorption, and chromatography. Discusses reverse osmosis principles, the experimental system design, and some experimental studies. (TW)

  15. TECHNOLOGY SUMMARY ADVANCING TANK WASTE RETRIEVAL AND PROCESSING

    SciTech Connect

    SAMS TL; MENDOZA RE

    2010-08-11

    This technology overview provides a high-level summary of technologies being investigated and developed by Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS) to advance Hanford Site tank waste retrieval and processing. Technology solutions are outlined, along with processes and priorities for selecting and developing them.

  16. Advanced oxidation processes with coke plant wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Krzywicka, A; Kwarciak-Kozłowska, A

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the most efficient method of coke wastewater treatment. This research examined two processes - advanced oxidation with Fenton and photo-Fenton reaction. It was observed that the use of ultraviolet radiation with Fenton process had a better result in removal of impurities. PMID:24804662

  17. Advanced computational research in materials processing for design and manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Zacharia, T.

    1995-04-01

    Advanced mathematical techniques and computer simulation play a major role in providing enhanced understanding of conventional and advanced materials processing operations. Development and application of mathematical models and computer simulation techniques can provide a quantitative understanding of materials processes and will minimize the need for expensive and time consuming trial- and error-based product development. As computer simulations and materials databases grow in complexity, high performance computing and simulation are expected to play a key role in supporting the improvements required in advanced material syntheses and processing by lessening the dependence on expensive prototyping and re-tooling. Many of these numerical models are highly compute-intensive. It is not unusual for an analysis to require several hours of computational time on current supercomputers despite the simplicity of the models being studied. For example, to accurately simulate the heat transfer in a 1-m{sup 3} block using a simple computational method requires 10`2 arithmetic operations per second of simulated time. For a computer to do the simulation in real time would require a sustained computation rate 1000 times faster than that achievable by current supercomputers. Massively parallel computer systems, which combine several thousand processors able to operate concurrently on a problem are expected to provide orders of magnitude increase in performance. This paper briefly describes advanced computational research in materials processing at ORNL. Continued development of computational techniques and algorithms utilizing the massively parallel computers will allow the simulation of conventional and advanced materials processes in sufficient generality.

  18. Tropical Cyclone Bejisa Near Madagascar

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA's TRMM satellite flew over Cyclone Bejisa on December 29, 2013 at 1507 UTC. This 3-D animation of TRMM data revealed strong thunderstorms around Bejisa's center were reaching heights above 16....

  19. The Life Cycles of Intense Cyclonic and Anticyclonic Circulation Systems Observed over Oceans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Phillip J.

    1996-01-01

    This report presents a summary of research accomplished over the past four years under the sponsorship of NASA grant #NAG8-915. Building on previously funded NASA grants, this part of the project focused on the following specific goals relative to cyclone/anticyclone systems: the jet streak link between block formation and upstream cyclone activity; the role of northward warm air advection in block formation; the importance of cooperative participation of several forcing mechanisms during explosive cyclone development; and the significance of the vertical distribution of forcing processes during cyclone/anticyclone development.

  20. Advanced information processing system for advanced launch system: Hardware technology survey and projections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cole, Richard

    1991-01-01

    The major goals of this effort are as follows: (1) to examine technology insertion options to optimize Advanced Information Processing System (AIPS) performance in the Advanced Launch System (ALS) environment; (2) to examine the AIPS concepts to ensure that valuable new technologies are not excluded from the AIPS/ALS implementations; (3) to examine advanced microprocessors applicable to AIPS/ALS, (4) to examine radiation hardening technologies applicable to AIPS/ALS; (5) to reach conclusions on AIPS hardware building blocks implementation technologies; and (6) reach conclusions on appropriate architectural improvements. The hardware building blocks are the Fault-Tolerant Processor, the Input/Output Sequencers (IOS), and the Intercomputer Interface Sequencers (ICIS).

  1. Advanced Process Technology: Combi Materials Science and Atmospheric Processing (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-06-01

    Capabilities fact sheet for the National Center for Photovoltaics: Process Technology and Advanced Concepts -- High-Throughput Combi Material Science and Atmospheric Processing that includes scope, core competencies and capabilities, and contact/web information.

  2. Cofiring coal-water slurry in cyclone boilers: Some combustion issues and considerations

    SciTech Connect

    Carson, W.R.; Tillman, D.

    1997-07-01

    Coal-water slurry (CWS) has become a fuel of opportunity with the ability to impact fuel cost at selected power plants; at the same time it has the potential to reduce emissions of oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub x}) by driving specific combustion mechanisms. CWS, produced from selected fines generated during coal cleaning operations, has been fired extensively at the Seward Generating Station of General Public Utilities (GPU), and testing has been initiated at cyclone plants as well. Initial combustion modeling of cyclones has shown that the critical issues associated with CWS firing in cyclones include the following: (1) the impact of CWS on fuel chemistry, with particular attention to fuel ash chemistry; (2) the impact of CWS on combustion temperatures; (3) the impact of CWS, and the consequent increased gas flow in the cyclones, on combustion processes in the cyclone barrel and potentially on combustion in the primary furnace as well; (4) the consequence of combustion process changes on patterns of heat release in the cyclone barrel and in the primary furnace; (5) the ability of the CWS to impact NO{sub x} emissions in the cyclone; and (6) the impact of CWS on the formation of trace metal emissions. This paper reviews the results of cyclone boiler modeling, and also reviews some results of initial cyclone testing related to the results of the modeling efforts.

  3. Advanced processing for high-bandwidth sensor systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szymanski, John J.; Blain, Phil C.; Bloch, Jeffrey J.; Brislawn, Christopher M.; Brumby, Steven P.; Cafferty, Maureen M.; Dunham, Mark E.; Frigo, Janette R.; Gokhale, Maya; Harvey, Neal R.; Kenyon, Garrett; Kim, Won-Ha; Layne, J.; Lavenier, Dominique D.; McCabe, Kevin P.; Mitchell, Melanie; Moore, Kurt R.; Perkins, Simon J.; Porter, Reid B.; Robinson, S.; Salazar, Alfonso; Theiler, James P.; Young, Aaron C.

    2000-11-01

    Compute performance and algorithm design are key problems of image processing and scientific computing in general. For example, imaging spectrometers are capable of producing data in hundreds of spectral bands with millions of pixels. These data sets show great promise for remote sensing applications, but require new and computationally intensive processing. The goal of the Deployable Adaptive Processing Systems (DAPS) project at Los Alamos National Laboratory is to develop advanced processing hardware and algorithms for high-bandwidth sensor applications. The project has produced electronics for processing multi- and hyper-spectral sensor data, as well as LIDAR data, while employing processing elements using a variety of technologies. The project team is currently working on reconfigurable computing technology and advanced feature extraction techniques, with an emphasis on their application to image and RF signal processing. This paper presents reconfigurable computing technology and advanced feature extraction algorithm work and their application to multi- and hyperspectral image processing. Related projects on genetic algorithms as applied to image processing will be introduced, as will the collaboration between the DAPS project and the DARPA Adaptive Computing Systems program. Further details are presented in other talks during this conference and in other conferences taking place during this symposium.

  4. The dynamic mathematical model of heavy-medium cyclone

    SciTech Connect

    Xu Jianping

    1997-12-31

    For ascertaining the effect of the various variables during the coal separation process of heavy medium (HM) cyclone, a dynamic mathematical model for simulating the separating process of the HM cyclone has been developed based on data obtained through both laboratory and industrial experiments. As evidenced by the result of study, increase to a certain extent of inlet pressure and media-coal ratio may result in higher separating precision. The effect of rheological property of the suspension is particularly important, and often plays a decisive role in this respect. The research-derived model can either be used for predicting the separating process and performance or for effecting process control of a HM cyclone through simulating its operation.

  5. Black Swan Tropical Cyclones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emanuel, K.; Lin, N.

    2012-12-01

    Virtually all assessments of tropical cyclone risk are based on historical records, which are limited to a few hundred years at most. Yet stronger TCs may occur in the future and at places that have not been affected historically. Such events lie outside the realm of historically based expectations and may have extreme impacts. Their occurrences are also often made explainable after the fact (e.g., Hurricane Katrina). We nickname such potential future TCs, characterized by rarity, extreme impact, and retrospective predictability, "black swans" (Nassim Nicholas Taleb, 2007). As, by definition, black swan TCs have yet to happen, statistical methods that solely rely on historical track data cannot predict their occurrence. Global climate models lack the capability to predict intense storms, even with a resolution as high as 14 km (Emanuel et al. 2010). Also, most dynamic downscaling methods (e.g., Bender et al. 2010) are still limited in horizontal resolution and are too expensive to implement to generate enough events to include rare ones. In this study, we apply a simpler statistical/deterministic hurricane model (Emanuel et al. 2006) to simulate large numbers of synthetic storms under a given (observed or projected) climate condition. The method has been shown to generate realistic extremes in various basins (Emanuel et al. 2008 and 2010). We also apply a hydrodynamic model (ADCIRC; Luettich et al. 1992) to simulate the storm surges generated by these storms. We then search for black swan TCs, in terms of the joint wind and surge damage potential, in the generated large databases. Heavy rainfall is another important TC hazard and will be considered in a future study. We focus on three areas: Tampa Bay in the U.S., the Persian Gulf, and Darwin in Australia. Tampa Bay is highly vulnerable to storm surge as it is surrounded by shallow water and low-lying lands, much of which may be inundated by a storm tide of 6 m. High surges are generated by storms with a broad

  6. Aircraft borne combined measurements of the Fukushima radionuclide Xe-133 and fossil fuel combustion generated pollutants in the TIL - Implications for Cyclone induced lift and TIL physical-chemical processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnold, Frank; Schlager, Hans; Simgen, Hardy; Aufmhoff, Heinfried; Baumann, Robert; Lindemann, Sigfried; Rauch, Ludwig; Kaether, Frank; Pirjolla, Liisa; Schumann, Ulrich

    2013-04-01

    The radionuclide Xe-133, released by the March 2011 nuclear disaster at Fukushima/Daiichi (hereafter FD), represents an ideal tracer for atmospheric transport. We report the, to our best knowledge, only aircraft borne measurements of FD Xe-133 in the Tropopause Inversion Layer (TIL), indicating rapid lift of Xe-133 rich planetary boundary layer air to the TIL. On the same research aircraft (FALCON), we have also conducted on-line measurements of fossil fuel combustion generated pollutant gases (SO2, NOx, HNO3,NOy), which were found to have increased concentrations in the TIL. In addition, we have conducted supporting model simulations of transport, chemical processes, and aerosol processes. Our investigations reveal a potentially important influence of East-Asian cyclone induced pollutants transport to the TIL, particularly influencing aerosol formation in the TIL.

  7. Experimental analysis of the six-channel cyclone with spiral shell.

    PubMed

    Baltrėnas, Pranas; Platova, Diana

    2016-01-01

    Experimental analysis is conducted in order to estimate the distribution of air (gas) flow velocity in the advanced six-channel cyclone with spiral shell, and to measure the resistance and purifying effectiveness of the cyclone with spiral shell. The device is used for separating the minuscule solid particles from contaminated air (gas) flow. The multifunctional measuring instrument TESTO-452 with the attached Pito-Prandtl tube was used for carrying out the experiments. The air (gas) velocity in all six-cyclone channels, the resistance of six-channel cyclone with spiral shell and the effectiveness of air (gas) flow purification, depending on the position of curvilinear semi-rings and the average air (gas) flow velocity in the cyclone channels, were measured during the experiments. PMID:26370836

  8. Advanced solidification processing of an industrial gas turbine engine component

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clemens, Mei Ling; Price, Allen; Bellows, Richard S.

    2003-03-01

    This paper will describe the efforts of the Advanced Turbine Airfoil Manufacturing Technology Program sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy through the Oak Ridge National Laboratory and Howmet Research Corporation. The purpose of the program is to develop single-crystal and directionally solidified casting technologies to benefit Advanced Turbine Systems (ATS) industrial and utility gas turbine engines. The focus is on defining and implementing advanced Vacuum Induction Melting (VIM) furnace enhancements that provide precise control of mold temperatures during solidification. Emphasis was placed on increasing the total magnitude of thermal gradients while minimizing the difference in maximum and minimum gradients produced during the solidification process. Advanced VIM casting techniques were applied to Solar Turbines Incorporated’s Titan 130 First Stage High Pressure Turbine Blade under the ATS program. A comparison of the advanced VIM casting process to the conventional Bridgeman casting process will be presented as it pertains to the thermal gradients achieved during solidification, microstructure, elemental partitioning characterization, and solution heat treat response.

  9. Microwave systems for the processing of advanced ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, O. Jr.; Carmel, Y.; Lloyd, I.

    1999-07-01

    Microwave processing systems are continually evolving to incorporate more unique capabilities and design features. These new developments are instrumental in expanding the scope of microwave systems for studying complex phenomena in materials synthesis and processing. On a more fundamental level, questions concerning the nature of interactions between microwaves and ceramic materials systems can be addressed to provide direct impact on processing strategies for advanced ceramic materials. A novel microwave processing system is being developed to study fundamental issues in the sintering of advanced ceramic materials with enhanced dielectric, thermal, optical, and mechanical properties for applications in microelectronics, biomaterials, and structural applications. The system consists of a single and dual frequency microwave furnace that operates at 2.45 and 28 GHz, an optical pyrometric temperature measuring system, and an optical, non-invasive, non-contact, extensometer for measuring sintering shrinkage and kinetics. The additional ability to process at 28 GHz provides opportunities to sinter a wider range of ceramic materials by direct coupling. An even more exciting benefit of the dual frequency system is the potential to process ceramics at two frequencies simultaneously. This capability can provide a unique way to tailor the microstructure of advanced ceramics by controlling the extent of both volumetric and surface heating. Experimental results for microwave sintering studies involving ZnO, hydroxyapatite, AlN-SiC composites, and alumina composites will be presented, with an emphasis on the processing of nanograin ceramics. In particular, the role of surface modification and microwave field intensification effects will be discussed.

  10. Microeconomics of advanced process window control for 50-nm gates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monahan, Kevin M.; Chen, Xuemei; Falessi, Georges; Garvin, Craig; Hankinson, Matt; Lev, Amir; Levy, Ady; Slessor, Michael D.

    2002-07-01

    Fundamentally, advanced process control enables accelerated design-rule reduction, but simple microeconomic models that directly link the effects of advanced process control to profitability are rare or non-existent. In this work, we derive these links using a simplified model for the rate of profit generated by the semiconductor manufacturing process. We use it to explain why and how microprocessor manufacturers strive to avoid commoditization by producing only the number of dies required to satisfy the time-varying demand in each performance segment. This strategy is realized using the tactic known as speed binning, the deliberate creation of an unnatural distribution of microprocessor performance that varies according to market demand. We show that the ability of APC to achieve these economic objectives may be limited by variability in the larger manufacturing context, including measurement delays and process window variation.

  11. Advanced Instruction: Facilitation of Individual Learning Processes in Large Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Putz, Claus; Intveen, Geesche

    2009-01-01

    By supplying various combinations of advanced instructions and different forms of exercises individual learning processes within the impartation of basic knowledge can be activated and supported at best. The fundamentals of our class "Introduction to spatial-geometric cognition using CAD" are constructional inputs, which systematically induce the…

  12. Adding Structure to the Transition Process to Advanced Mathematical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engelbrecht, Johann

    2010-01-01

    The transition process to advanced mathematical thinking is experienced as traumatic by many students. Experiences that students had of school mathematics differ greatly to what is expected from them at university. Success in school mathematics meant application of different methods to get an answer. Students are not familiar with logical…

  13. Data Processing (Advanced Business Programming) Volume II. Instructor's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Litecky, Charles R.; Lamkin, Tim

    This curriculum guide for an advanced course in data processing is for use as a companion publication to a textbook or textbooks; references to appropriate textbooks are given in most units. Student completion of assignments in Volume I, available separately (see ED 220 604), is a prerequisite. Topics covered in the 18 units are introduction,…

  14. Advanced potato breeding clones: storage and processing evaluation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The accumulation of reducing sugars during cold storage of potato tubers is a serious and costly problem for producers and processors. The degree to which cultivars accumulate reducing sugars during storage determines their processing and market potential. Cultivars or advanced breeding lines with...

  15. Ceramic component processing development for advanced gas-turbine engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcentire, B. J.; Hengst, R. R.; Collins, W. T.; Taglialavore, A. P.; Yeckley, R. L.; Bright, E.; Bingham, M. G.

    1991-01-01

    A review of ceramic component advancements directed at developing manufacturing technologies for rotors, stators, vane-seat platforms and scrolls is presented. The first three components are being produced from HIPed Si3N4, while scrolls were prepared from a series of siliconized silicon-carbide materials. Developmental work has been conducted on all aspects of the fabrication process utilizing Taguchi experimental design methods. An assessment of material properties for various components from each process and material are made.

  16. Evaluation of advanced oxidation process for the treatment of groundwater

    SciTech Connect

    Garland, S.B. II ); Peyton, G.R. ); Rice, L.E. . Kansas City Div.)

    1990-01-01

    An advanced oxidation process utilizing ozone, ultraviolet radiation, and hydrogen peroxide was selected for the removal of chlorinated hydrocarbons, particularly trichlorethene and 1,2-dichlorethene, from groundwater underlying the US Department of Energy Kansas City Plant. Since the performance of this process for the removal of organics from groundwater is not well-documented, an evaluation was initiated to determine the performance of the treatment plant, document the operation and maintenance costs experience, and evaluate contaminant removal mechanisms. 11 refs., 3 figs.

  17. Advanced Information Processing System - Fault detection and error handling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lala, J. H.

    1985-01-01

    The Advanced Information Processing System (AIPS) is designed to provide a fault tolerant and damage tolerant data processing architecture for a broad range of aerospace vehicles, including tactical and transport aircraft, and manned and autonomous spacecraft. A proof-of-concept (POC) system is now in the detailed design and fabrication phase. This paper gives an overview of a preliminary fault detection and error handling philosophy in AIPS.

  18. Advanced aerial film processing system for long range reconnaissance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryman, I. G.

    1980-01-01

    An introduction is given to the system features and development histories of continuous aerial film processing equipment. The advantages and disadvantages of (1) deep tank, full immersion processing, (2) spray processing, and (3) viscous processing are enumerated, with respect to load end, supply accumulator, spray cabinet, squeegee section, dryer, film take-up section and film transport system functions. Future research efforts are recommended toward the incorporation of water regeneration, pollution control, and pH monitoring and control systems, and the greater use of computer technology to prevent operator errors and permit the handling of thinner, advanced films.

  19. Discontinuous Cyclone Movement of Mediterranean cyclones identified through formation analysis of daughter cyclones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziv, Baruch; Saaroni, Hadas; Harpaz, Tzvi

    2016-04-01

    A new algorithm developed performs an automated classification methodology for daughter cyclones (DCs) formation, with respect to the thermal field of the parent cyclones (PCs). The classification has been applied to winter Mediterranean Cyclones. The algorithm assigns a DC to one of seven types, according to the following considerations: Has the cyclone formed on a front? Is that a cold, a warm or a quasi-stationary front? Is this front part of the frontal system of the PC or of a non-parental system? If none of the above applies, has the cyclone formed within the warm sector? The measures used are the temperature gradient, temperature advection and temperature Laplacian, computed at the formation location of the DC and the temperature difference between the DC and the PC, each derived from the 850-hPa wind and temperature fields. Out of 4,303 DCs analyzed, 85% were identified to belong to one of the 7 predefined types, implying that 15% cannot be related to either baroclinic or thermal factors. More than half were formed at their PCs' frontal system, third on a non-parental frontal system and only 13% within the warm sector of the PC. Most of the cyclones, formed on the PC's cold front, were found at mountain lee locations, whereas cyclones formed on the warm front were generated mostly over the Aegean and the Adriatic Sea. The new methodology exposed a unique DC formation which is actually a Discontinuous Cyclone Movement (DCM), imposed by an encounter with geographical forcing. This formation was identified in 5.9% of the DC formations and is characterized by the following features: 1) parent-daughter distance (d) <1000 Km, 2) the area enclosed by the inner isobar surrounding both the PC and the DC should be less than 2d, 3) the PC should last no more than 18 hours after the DC has been first detected. DCM events found among DCs formed on warm fronts of PCs, to their east, are suggested as a mechanism which enables the PC to cross topographic barriers

  20. Analysis of North Atlantic Tropical Cyclone Intensify Change Using Data Mining

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tang, Jiang

    2010-01-01

    Tropical cyclones (TC), especially when their intensity reaches hurricane scale, can become a costly natural hazard. Accurate prediction of tropical cyclone intensity is very difficult because of inadequate observations on TC structures, poor understanding of physical processes, coarse model resolution and inaccurate initial conditions, etc. This…

  1. Advanced Reactors Thermal Energy Transport for Process Industries

    SciTech Connect

    P. Sabharwall; S.J. Yoon; M.G. McKellar; C. Stoots; George Griffith

    2014-07-01

    The operation temperature of advanced nuclear reactors is generally higher than commercial light water reactors and thermal energy from advanced nuclear reactor can be used for various purposes such as liquid fuel production, district heating, desalination, hydrogen production, and other process heat applications, etc. Some of the major technology challenges that must be overcome before the advanced reactors could be licensed on the reactor side are qualification of next generation of nuclear fuel, materials that can withstand higher temperature, improvement in power cycle thermal efficiency by going to combined cycles, SCO2 cycles, successful demonstration of advanced compact heat exchangers in the prototypical conditions, and from the process side application the challenge is to transport the thermal energy from the reactor to the process plant with maximum efficiency (i.e., with minimum temperature drop). The main focus of this study is on doing a parametric study of efficient heat transport system, with different coolants (mainly, water, He, and molten salts) to determine maximum possible distance that can be achieved.

  2. Advanced CO2 removal process control and monitor instrumentation development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heppner, D. B.; Dalhausen, M. J.; Klimes, R.

    1982-01-01

    A progam to evaluate, design and demonstrate major advances in control and monitor instrumentation was undertaken. A carbon dioxide removal process, one whose maturity level makes it a prime candidate for early flight demonstration was investigated. The instrumentation design incorporates features which are compatible with anticipated flight requirements. Current electronics technology and projected advances are included. In addition, the program established commonality of components for all advanced life support subsystems. It was concluded from the studies and design activities conducted under this program that the next generation of instrumentation will be greatly smaller than the prior one. Not only physical size but weight, power and heat rejection requirements were reduced in the range of 80 to 85% from the former level of research and development instrumentation. Using a microprocessor based computer, a standard computer bus structure and nonvolatile memory, improved fabrication techniques and aerospace packaging this instrumentation will greatly enhance overall reliability and total system availability.

  3. Advanced titanium alloys and processes for minimally invasive surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rack, H. J.; Qazi, Javaid

    2005-11-01

    Major advances continue to be made in enhancing patient care while at the same time attempting to slow ever-rising health costs. Among the most innovative of these advances are minimally invasive surgical techniques, which allow patients to undergo life-saving and quality-of-life enhancing surgery with minimized risk and substantially reduced hospital stays. Recently this approach was introduced for orthopedic procedures (e.g., during total hip replacement surgery). In this instance, the implantable devices will bear the same loads and will therefore be subject to higher stress. This paper provides a brief overview of several potential approaches for developing new advanced titanium alloys and processes that should provide substantial benefit for this application in minimally invasive devices.

  4. Development of multi-size classifying cyclone

    SciTech Connect

    Zhan Hanhui; Wang Zuna

    1994-12-31

    The authors have developed a multi-size classifying cyclone, which is characterized by its distinctive structure and quasi forced vortex in a rotary flow region. The cyclone differs from a conventional cyclone in three-dimensional velocity distribution in a rotary flow region, but the former has the same pressure distribution law as the latter. Tests show that satisfactory multi-size classification can be achieved using the cyclone.

  5. TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT: BABCOCK AND WILCOX CYCLONE FURNACE VITRIFICATION TECHNOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Babcock & Wilcox (B&W) Cyclone Furnace Vitrification Technology is a treatment process for contaminated soils. he process was evaluated to determine its ability to destroy semivolatile organics and to isolate metals and simulated radionuclides into a non-leachable slag materi...

  6. The dynamical structure of intense Mediterranean cyclones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flaounas, Emmanouil; Raveh-Rubin, Shira; Wernli, Heini; Drobinski, Philippe; Bastin, Sophie

    2015-05-01

    This paper presents and analyzes the three-dimensional dynamical structure of intense Mediterranean cyclones. The analysis is based on a composite approach of the 200 most intense cyclones during the period 1989-2008 that have been identified and tracked using the output of a coupled ocean-atmosphere regional simulation with 20 km horizontal grid spacing and 3-hourly output. It is shown that the most intense Mediterranean cyclones have a common baroclinic life cycle with a potential vorticity (PV) streamer associated with an upper-level cyclonic Rossby wave breaking, which precedes cyclogenesis in the region and triggers baroclinic instability. It is argued that this common baroclinic life cycle is due to the strongly horizontally sheared environment in the Mediterranean basin, on the poleward flank of the quasi-persistent subtropical jet. The composite life cycle of the cyclones is further analyzed considering the evolution of key atmospheric elements as potential temperature and PV, as well as the cyclones' thermodynamic profiles and rainfall. It is shown that most intense Mediterranean cyclones are associated with warm conveyor belts and dry air intrusions, similar to those of other strong extratropical cyclones, but of rather small scale. Before cyclones reach their mature stage, the streamer's role is crucial to advect moist and warm air towards the cyclones center. These dynamical characteristics, typical for very intense extratropical cyclones in the main storm track regions, are also valid for these Mediterranean cases that have features that are visually similar to tropical cyclones.

  7. The dynamical structure of intense Mediterranean cyclones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flaounas, Emmanouil; Raveh-Rubin, Shira; Wernli, Heini; Drobinski, Philippe; Bastin, Sophie

    2014-09-01

    This paper presents and analyzes the three-dimensional dynamical structure of intense Mediterranean cyclones. The analysis is based on a composite approach of the 200 most intense cyclones during the period 1989-2008 that have been identified and tracked using the output of a coupled ocean-atmosphere regional simulation with 20 km horizontal grid spacing and 3-hourly output. It is shown that the most intense Mediterranean cyclones have a common baroclinic life cycle with a potential vorticity (PV) streamer associated with an upper-level cyclonic Rossby wave breaking, which precedes cyclogenesis in the region and triggers baroclinic instability. It is argued that this common baroclinic life cycle is due to the strongly horizontally sheared environment in the Mediterranean basin, on the poleward flank of the quasi-persistent subtropical jet. The composite life cycle of the cyclones is further analyzed considering the evolution of key atmospheric elements as potential temperature and PV, as well as the cyclones' thermodynamic profiles and rainfall. It is shown that most intense Mediterranean cyclones are associated with warm conveyor belts and dry air intrusions, similar to those of other strong extratropical cyclones, but of rather small scale. Before cyclones reach their mature stage, the streamer's role is crucial to advect moist and warm air towards the cyclones center. These dynamical characteristics, typical for very intense extratropical cyclones in the main storm track regions, are also valid for these Mediterranean cases that have features that are visually similar to tropical cyclones.

  8. Advances in biologically inspired on/near sensor processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCarley, Paul L.

    1999-07-01

    As electro-optic sensors increase in size and frame rate, the data transfer and digital processing resource requirements also increase. In many missions, the spatial area of interest is but a small fraction of the available field of view. Choosing the right region of interest, however, is a challenge and still requires an enormous amount of downstream digital processing resources. In order to filter this ever-increasing amount of data, we look at how nature solves the problem. The Advanced Guidance Division of the Munitions Directorate, Air Force Research Laboratory at Elgin AFB, Florida, has been pursuing research in the are of advanced sensor and image processing concepts based on biologically inspired sensory information processing. A summary of two 'neuromorphic' processing efforts will be presented along with a seeker system concept utilizing this innovative technology. The Neuroseek program is developing a 256 X 256 2-color dual band IRFPA coupled to an optimized silicon CMOS read-out and processing integrated circuit that provides simultaneous full-frame imaging in MWIR/LWIR wavebands along with built-in biologically inspired sensor image processing functions. Concepts and requirements for future such efforts will also be discussed.

  9. Field study of disposed wastes from advanced coal processes

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    The objective of this research is to develop information to be used by private industry and government agencies for planning waste disposal practices associated with advanced coal processes. DOE has contracted Radian Corporation and the North Dakota Energy Environmental Research Center (EERC) to design, construct and monitor a limited number of field disposal tests with advanced coal process wastes. These field tests will be monitored over a three year period with the emphasis on collecting data on the field disposal of these wastes. This report discusses waste composition from fluidized bed coal combustion. Also presented is analytical data from the leaching of waste sampled from storage soils and of soil samples collected. 6 figs., 13 tabs.

  10. Advanced information processing system: Input/output network management software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nagle, Gail; Alger, Linda; Kemp, Alexander

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide the software requirements and specifications for the Input/Output Network Management Services for the Advanced Information Processing System. This introduction and overview section is provided to briefly outline the overall architecture and software requirements of the AIPS system before discussing the details of the design requirements and specifications of the AIPS I/O Network Management software. A brief overview of the AIPS architecture followed by a more detailed description of the network architecture.

  11. Recent advances in natural language processing for biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Collier, Nigel; Nazarenko, Adeline; Baud, Robert; Ruch, Patrick

    2006-06-01

    We survey a set a recent advances in natural language processing applied to biomedical applications, which were presented in Geneva, Switzerland, in 2004 at an international workshop. While text mining applied to molecular biology and biomedical literature can report several interesting achievements, we observe that studies applied to clinical contents are still rare. In general, we argue that clinical corpora, including electronic patient records, must be made available to fill the gap between bioinformatics and medical informatics. PMID:16139564

  12. Advanced technology development for image gathering, coding, and processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huck, Friedrich O.

    1990-01-01

    Three overlapping areas of research activities are presented: (1) Information theory and optimal filtering are extended to visual information acquisition and processing. The goal is to provide a comprehensive methodology for quantitatively assessing the end-to-end performance of image gathering, coding, and processing. (2) Focal-plane processing techniques and technology are developed to combine effectively image gathering with coding. The emphasis is on low-level vision processing akin to the retinal processing in human vision. (3) A breadboard adaptive image-coding system is being assembled. This system will be used to develop and evaluate a number of advanced image-coding technologies and techniques as well as research the concept of adaptive image coding.

  13. Impact of Vertical Wind Shear on Tropical Cyclone Rainfall

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cecil, Dan; Marchok, Tim

    2014-01-01

    While tropical cyclone rainfall has a large axisymmetric component, previous observational and theoretical studies have shown that environmental vertical wind shear leads to an asymmetric component of the vertical motion and precipitation fields. Composites consistently depict a precipitation enhancement downshear and also cyclonically downwind from the downshear direction. For consistence with much of the literature and with Northern Hemisphere observations, this is subsequently referred to as "Downshear-Left". Stronger shear magnitudes are associated with greater amplitude precipitation asymmetries. Recent work has reinforced the prior findings, and explored details of the response of the precipitation and kinematic fields to environmental vertical wind shear. Much of this research has focused on tropical cyclones away from land, to limit the influence of other processes that might distort the signal related to vertical wind shear. Recent evidence does suggest vertical wind shear can also play a major role in precipitation asymmetries during and after landfall.

  14. Process development status report for advanced manufacturing projects

    SciTech Connect

    Brinkman, J.R.; Homan, D.A.

    1990-03-30

    This is the final status report for the approved Advanced Manufacturing Projects for FY 1989. Five of the projects were begun in FY 1987, one in FY 1988, and one in FY 1989. The approved projects cover technology areas in welding, explosive material processing and evaluation, ion implantation, and automated manufacturing. It is expected that the successful completion of these projects well result in improved quality and/or reduced cost for components produced by Mound. Those projects not brought to completion will be continued under Process development in FY 1990.

  15. Advanced biologically plausible algorithms for low-level image processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gusakova, Valentina I.; Podladchikova, Lubov N.; Shaposhnikov, Dmitry G.; Markin, Sergey N.; Golovan, Alexander V.; Lee, Seong-Whan

    1999-08-01

    At present, in computer vision, the approach based on modeling the biological vision mechanisms is extensively developed. However, up to now, real world image processing has no effective solution in frameworks of both biologically inspired and conventional approaches. Evidently, new algorithms and system architectures based on advanced biological motivation should be developed for solution of computational problems related to this visual task. Basic problems that should be solved for creation of effective artificial visual system to process real world imags are a search for new algorithms of low-level image processing that, in a great extent, determine system performance. In the present paper, the result of psychophysical experiments and several advanced biologically motivated algorithms for low-level processing are presented. These algorithms are based on local space-variant filter, context encoding visual information presented in the center of input window, and automatic detection of perceptually important image fragments. The core of latter algorithm are using local feature conjunctions such as noncolinear oriented segment and composite feature map formation. Developed algorithms were integrated into foveal active vision model, the MARR. It is supposed that proposed algorithms may significantly improve model performance while real world image processing during memorizing, search, and recognition.

  16. Advances in process intensification through multifunctional reactor engineering

    SciTech Connect

    O'Hern, T. J.

    2012-03-01

    This project was designed to advance the art of process intensification leading to a new generation of multifunctional chemical reactors. Experimental testing was performed in order to fully characterize the hydrodynamic operating regimes critical to process intensification and implementation in commercial applications. Physics of the heat and mass transfer and chemical kinetics and how these processes are ultimately scaled were investigated. Specifically, we progressed the knowledge and tools required to scale a multifunctional reactor for acid-catalyzed C4 paraffin/olefin alkylation to industrial dimensions. Understanding such process intensification strategies is crucial to improving the energy efficiency and profitability of multifunctional reactors, resulting in a projected energy savings of 100 trillion BTU/yr by 2020 and a substantial reduction in the accompanying emissions.

  17. Integrated Seismic Event Detection and Location by Advanced Array Processing

    SciTech Connect

    Kvaerna, T; Gibbons, S J; Ringdal, F; Harris, D B

    2007-02-09

    The principal objective of this two-year study is to develop and test a new advanced, automatic approach to seismic detection/location using array processing. We address a strategy to obtain significantly improved precision in the location of low-magnitude events compared with current fully-automatic approaches, combined with a low false alarm rate. We have developed and evaluated a prototype automatic system which uses as a basis regional array processing with fixed, carefully calibrated, site-specific parameters in conjuction with improved automatic phase onset time estimation. We have in parallel developed tools for Matched Field Processing for optimized detection and source-region identification of seismic signals. This narrow-band procedure aims to mitigate some of the causes of difficulty encountered using the standard array processing system, specifically complicated source-time histories of seismic events and shortcomings in the plane-wave approximation for seismic phase arrivals at regional arrays.

  18. Tropical Cyclone Monty Strikes Western Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) acquired these natural color images and cloud top height measurements for Monty before and after the storm made landfall over the remote Pilbara region of Western Australia, on February 29 and March 2, 2004 (shown as the left and right-hand image sets, respectively). On February 29, Monty was upgraded to category 4 cyclone status. After traveling inland about 300 kilometers to the south, the cyclonic circulation had decayed considerably, although category 3 force winds were reported on the ground. Some parts of the drought-affected Pilbara region received more than 300 millimeters of rainfall, and serious and extensive flooding has occurred.

    The natural color images cover much of the same area, although the right-hand panels are offset slightly to the east. Automated stereoscopic processing of data from multiple MISR cameras was utilized to produce the cloud-top height fields. The distinctive spatial patterns of the clouds provide the necessary contrast to enable automated feature matching between images acquired at different view angles. The height retrievals are at this stage uncorrected for the effects of the high winds associated with cyclone rotation. Areas where heights could not be retrieved are shown in dark gray.

    The Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer observes the daylit Earth continuously and every 9 days views the entire globe between 82 degrees north and 82 degrees south latitude. These data products were generated from a portion of the imagery acquired during Terra orbits 22335 and 22364. The panels cover an area of about 380 kilometers x 985 kilometers, and utilize data from blocks 105 to 111 within World Reference System-2 paths 115 and 113.

    MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington, DC. The Terra satellite is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. JPL is a division of the

  19. A graphene superficial layer for the advanced electroforming process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rho, Hokyun; Park, Mina; Lee, Seungmin; Bae, Sukang; Kim, Tae-Wook; Ha, Jun-Seok; Lee, Sang Hyun

    2016-06-01

    Advances in electroplating technology facilitate the progress of modern electronic devices, including computers, microprocessors and other microelectronic devices. Metal layers with high electrical and thermal conductivities are essential for high speed and high power devices. In this paper, we report an effective route to fabricate free-standing metal films using graphene as a superficial layer in the electroforming process. Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) graphene grown on a Cu foil was used as a template, which provides high electrical conductivity and low adhesive force with the template, thus enabling an effective electroforming process. The required force for delamination of the electroplated Cu layer from graphene is more than one order smaller than the force required for removing graphene from the Cu foil. We also demonstrated that the electroformed free-standing Cu thin films could be utilized for patterning microstructures and incorporated onto a flexible substrate for LEDs. This innovative process could be beneficial for the advancement of flexible electronics and optoelectronics, which require a wide range of mechanical and physical properties.Advances in electroplating technology facilitate the progress of modern electronic devices, including computers, microprocessors and other microelectronic devices. Metal layers with high electrical and thermal conductivities are essential for high speed and high power devices. In this paper, we report an effective route to fabricate free-standing metal films using graphene as a superficial layer in the electroforming process. Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) graphene grown on a Cu foil was used as a template, which provides high electrical conductivity and low adhesive force with the template, thus enabling an effective electroforming process. The required force for delamination of the electroplated Cu layer from graphene is more than one order smaller than the force required for removing graphene from the Cu foil

  20. Virus Reduction during Advanced Bardenpho and Conventional Wastewater Treatment Processes.

    PubMed

    Schmitz, Bradley W; Kitajima, Masaaki; Campillo, Maria E; Gerba, Charles P; Pepper, Ian L

    2016-09-01

    The present study investigated wastewater treatment for the removal of 11 different virus types (pepper mild mottle virus; Aichi virus; genogroup I, II, and IV noroviruses; enterovirus; sapovirus; group-A rotavirus; adenovirus; and JC and BK polyomaviruses) by two wastewater treatment facilities utilizing advanced Bardenpho technology and compared the results with conventional treatment processes. To our knowledge, this is the first study comparing full-scale treatment processes that all received sewage influent from the same region. The incidence of viruses in wastewater was assessed with respect to absolute abundance, occurrence, and reduction in monthly samples collected throughout a 12 month period in southern Arizona. Samples were concentrated via an electronegative filter method and quantified using TaqMan-based quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Results suggest that Plant D, utilizing an advanced Bardenpho process as secondary treatment, effectively reduced pathogenic viruses better than facilities using conventional processes. However, the absence of cell-culture assays did not allow an accurate assessment of infective viruses. On the basis of these data, the Aichi virus is suggested as a conservative viral marker for adequate wastewater treatment, as it most often showed the best correlation coefficients to viral pathogens, was always detected at higher concentrations, and may overestimate the potential virus risk. PMID:27447291

  1. Advanced materials and biochemical processes for geothermal applications

    SciTech Connect

    Kukacka, L.E.; van Rooyen, D.; Premuzic, E.T.

    1987-04-01

    Two Geothermal Technology Division (GTD)-sponsored programs: (1) Geothermal Materials Development, and (2) Advanced Biochemical Processes for Geothermal Brines, are described. In the former, work in the following tasks is in progress: (1) high temperature elastomeric materials for dynamic sealing applications, (2) advanced high temperature (300/sup 0/C) lightweight (1.1 g/cc) well cementing materials, (3) thermally conductive composites for heat exchanger tubing, (4) corrosion rates for metals in brine-contaminated binary plant working fluids, and (5) elastomeric liners for well casing. Methods for the utilization and/or the low cost environmentally acceptable disposal of toxic geothermal residues are being developed in the second program. This work is performed in two tasks. In one, microorganisms that can interact with toxic metals found in geothermal residues to convert them into soluble species for subsequent reinjection back into the reservoir or to concentrate them for removal by conventional processes are being identified. In the second task, process conditions are being defined for the encapsulation of untreated or partially biochemically treated residues in Portland cement-based formulations and the subsequent utilization of the waste fractions in building materials. Both processing methods yield materials which appear to meet disposal criteria for non-toxic solid waste, and their technical and economic feasibilities have been established.

  2. Technology advancement of the static feed water electrolysis process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schubert, F. H.; Wynveen, R. A.

    1977-01-01

    A program to advance the technology of oxygen- and hydrogen-generating subsystems based on water electrolysis was studied. Major emphasis was placed on static feed water electrolysis, a concept characterized by low power consumption and high intrinsic reliability. The static feed based oxygen generation subsystem consists basically of three subassemblies: (1) a combined water electrolysis and product gas dehumidifier module; (2) a product gas pressure controller and; (3) a cyclically filled water feed tank. Development activities were completed at the subsystem as well as at the component level. An extensive test program including single cell, subsystem and integrated system testing was completed with the required test support accessories designed, fabricated, and assembled. Mini-product assurance activities were included throughout all phases of program activities. An extensive number of supporting technology studies were conducted to advance the technology base of the static feed water electrolysis process and to resolve problems.

  3. Bridging Microstructure, Properties and Processing of Polymer Based Advanced Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Dongsheng; Ahzi, Said; Khaleel, Mohammad A.

    2012-01-01

    This is a guest editorial for a special issue in Journal of Engineering Materials and Technology. The papers collected in this special issue emphasize significant challenges, current approaches and future strategies necessary to advance the development of polymer-based materials. They were partly presented at the symposium of 'Bridging microstructure, properties and processing of polymer based advanced materials' in the TMS 2011 annual conference meeting, which was held in San Diego, US, on Feb 28 to March 3, 2011. This symposium was organized by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (USA) and the Institute of Mechanics of Fluids and Solids of the University of Strasbourg (France). The organizers were D.S. Li, S. Ahzi, and M. Khaleel.

  4. Advanced Plasma Pyrolysis Assembly (PPA) Reactor and Process Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheeler, Richard R., Jr.; Hadley, Neal M.; Dahl, Roger W.; Abney, Morgan B.; Greenwood, Zachary; Miller, Lee; Medlen, Amber

    2012-01-01

    Design and development of a second generation Plasma Pyrolysis Assembly (PPA) reactor is currently underway as part of NASA's Atmosphere Revitalization Resource Recovery effort. By recovering up to 75% of the hydrogen currently lost as methane in the Sabatier reactor effluent, the PPA helps to minimize life support resupply costs for extended duration missions. To date, second generation PPA development has demonstrated significant technology advancements over the first generation device by doubling the methane processing rate while, at the same time, more than halving the required power. One development area of particular interest to NASA system engineers is fouling of the PPA reactor with carbonaceous products. As a mitigation plan, NASA MSFC has explored the feasibility of using an oxidative plasma based upon metabolic CO2 to regenerate the reactor window and gas inlet ports. The results and implications of this testing are addressed along with the advanced PPA reactor development.

  5. Tropical cyclone intensities from satellite microwave data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vonderhaar, T. H.; Kidder, S. Q.

    1980-01-01

    Radial profiles of mean 1000 mb to 250 mb temperature from the Nimbus 6 scanning microwave spectrometer (SCAMS) were constructed around eight intensifying tropical storms in the western Pacific. Seven storms showed distinct inward temperature gradients required for intensification; the eighth displayed no inward gradient and was decaying 24 hours later. The possibility that satellite data might be used to forecast tropical cyclone turning motion was investigated using estimates obtained from Nimbus 6 SCAMS data tapes of the mean 1000 mb to 250 mb temperature field around eleven tropical storms in 1975. Analysis of these data show that for turning storms, in all but one case, the turn was signaled 24 hours in advance by a significant temperature gradient perpendicular to the storm's path, at a distance of 9 deg to 13 deg in front of the storm. A thresholding technique was applied to the North Central U.S. during the summer to estimate precipitation frequency. except

  6. Effect of fuel quality on slagging behavior in a cyclone-fired boiler

    SciTech Connect

    Katrinak, K.; Laumb, J.; Peterson, W.; Schwalbe, R.

    1998-12-31

    Relationships between the occurrence of poor slag flow episodes at a cyclone-fired boiler, coal mineral content, heating value, and other fuel quality parameters have been investigated. In addition, optimization of boiler operating conditions to match coal quality is the major emphasis of current activities. The boiler fires North Dakota lignite, a highly variable fuel, and experiences intermittent cyclone slagging problems related to coal quality. Cyclone slagging episodes were found to occur when the heating value of the fuel was less than 6600 Btu/lb and the T250 was greater than 2250 F. Higher-Btu coals burn hotter and appear to be able to handle higher T250 values without slagging. Other fuel quality parameters related to cyclone slag flow behavior include high silicon and aluminum concentrations and high concentrations of the silicon- and aluminum-rich clay minerals illite and montmorillonite. These minerals are thought to contribute to cyclone slagging episodes by reducing the ability of the slag to incorporate calcium, thus leading to increased slag viscosity. To improve slag flow behavior, operating conditions have been modified to maintain high temperatures in the cyclones. Changes include increasing coal drying temperature and balancing the air/fuel ratio. T250 can be readily calculated from coal ash composition. Clays and other minerals can be identified in individual coal particles using automated scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry. Use of these analytical techniques can enable potential cyclone slagging problems to be predicted in advance.

  7. High-power ultrasonic processing: Recent developments and prospective advances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallego-Juarez, Juan A.

    2010-01-01

    Although the application of ultrasonic energy to produce or to enhance a wide variety of processes have been explored since about the middle of the 20th century, only a reduced number of ultrasonic processes have been established at industrial level. However, during the last ten years the interest in ultrasonic processing has revived particularly in industrial sectors where the ultrasonic technology may represent a clean and efficient tool to improve classical existing processes or an innovation alternative for the development of new processes. Such seems to be the case of relevant sectors such as food industry, environment, pharmaceuticals and chemicals manufacture, machinery, mining, etc where power ultrasound is becoming an emerging technology for process development. The possible major problem in the application of high-intensity ultrasound on industrial processing is the design and development of efficient power ultrasonic systems (generators and reactors) capable of large scale successful operation specifically adapted to each individual process. In the area of ultrasonic processing in fluid media and more specifically in gases, the development of the steppedplate transducers and other power ge with extensive radiating surface has strongly contributed to the implementation at semi-industrial and industrial stage of several commercial applications, in sectors such as food and beverage industry (defoaming, drying, extraction, etc), environment (air cleaning, sludge filtration, etc...), machinery and process for manufacturing (textile washing, paint manufacture, etc). The development of different cavitational reactors for liquid treatment in continuous flow is helping to introduce into industry the wide potential of the area of sonochemistry. Processes such as water and effluent treatment, crystallization, soil remediation, etc have been already implemented at semi-industrial and/or industrial stage. Other single advances in sectors like mining or energy have

  8. Field theoretical prediction of a property of the tropical cyclone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spineanu, F.; Vlad, M.

    2014-01-01

    The large scale atmospheric vortices (tropical cyclones, tornadoes) are complex physical systems combining thermodynamics and fluid-mechanical processes. The late phase of the evolution towards stationarity consists of the vorticity concentration, a well known tendency to self-organization , an universal property of the two-dimensional fluids. It may then be expected that the stationary state of the tropical cyclone has the same nature as the vortices of many other systems in nature: ideal (Euler) fluids, superconductors, Bose-Einsetin condensate, cosmic strings, etc. Indeed it was found that there is a description of the atmospheric vortex in terms of a classical field theory. It is compatible with the more conventional treatment based on conservation laws, but the field theoretical model reveals properties that are almost inaccessible to the conventional formulation: it identifies the stationary states as being close to self-duality. This is of highest importance: the self-duality is known to be the origin of all coherent structures known in natural systems. Therefore the field theoretical (FT) formulation finds that the cuasi-coherent form of the atmospheric vortex (tropical cyclone) at stationarity is an expression of this particular property. In the present work we examine a strong property of the tropical cyclone, which arises in the FT formulation in a natural way: the equality of the masses of the particles associated to the matter field and respectively to the gauge field in the FT model is translated into the equality between the maximum radial extension of the tropical cyclone and the Rossby radius. For the cases where the FT model is a good approximation we calculate characteristic quantities of the tropical cyclone and find good comparison with observational data.

  9. Improving NASA's Multiscale Modeling Framework for Tropical Cyclone Climate Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shen, Bo-Wen; Nelson, Bron; Cheung, Samson; Tao, Wei-Kuo

    2013-01-01

    One of the current challenges in tropical cyclone (TC) research is how to improve our understanding of TC interannual variability and the impact of climate change on TCs. Recent advances in global modeling, visualization, and supercomputing technologies at NASA show potential for such studies. In this article, the authors discuss recent scalability improvement to the multiscale modeling framework (MMF) that makes it feasible to perform long-term TC-resolving simulations. The MMF consists of the finite-volume general circulation model (fvGCM), supplemented by a copy of the Goddard cumulus ensemble model (GCE) at each of the fvGCM grid points, giving 13,104 GCE copies. The original fvGCM implementation has a 1D data decomposition; the revised MMF implementation retains the 1D decomposition for most of the code, but uses a 2D decomposition for the massive copies of GCEs. Because the vast majority of computation time in the MMF is spent computing the GCEs, this approach can achieve excellent speedup without incurring the cost of modifying the entire code. Intelligent process mapping allows differing numbers of processes to be assigned to each domain for load balancing. The revised parallel implementation shows highly promising scalability, obtaining a nearly 80-fold speedup by increasing the number of cores from 30 to 3,335.

  10. Advanced automation for in-space vehicle processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sklar, Michael; Wegerif, D.

    1990-01-01

    The primary objective of this 3-year planned study is to assure that the fully evolved Space Station Freedom (SSF) can support automated processing of exploratory mission vehicles. Current study assessments show that required extravehicular activity (EVA) and to some extent intravehicular activity (IVA) manpower requirements for required processing tasks far exceeds the available manpower. Furthermore, many processing tasks are either hazardous operations or they exceed EVA capability. Thus, automation is essential for SSF transportation node functionality. Here, advanced automation represents the replacement of human performed tasks beyond the planned baseline automated tasks. Both physical tasks such as manipulation, assembly and actuation, and cognitive tasks such as visual inspection, monitoring and diagnosis, and task planning are considered. During this first year of activity both the Phobos/Gateway Mars Expedition and Lunar Evolution missions proposed by the Office of Exploration have been evaluated. A methodology for choosing optimal tasks to be automated has been developed. Processing tasks for both missions have been ranked on the basis of automation potential. The underlying concept in evaluating and describing processing tasks has been the use of a common set of 'Primitive' task descriptions. Primitive or standard tasks have been developed both for manual or crew processing and automated machine processing.

  11. Development of advanced hot-gas desulfurization processes

    SciTech Connect

    Jothimurugesan, K.

    1999-10-14

    Advanced integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants nearing completion, such as Sierra-Pacific, employ a circulating fluidized-bed (transport) reactor hot-gas desulfurization (HGD) process that uses 70-180 {micro}m average particle size (aps) zinc-based mixed-metal oxide sorbent for removing H{sub 2}S from coal gas down to less than 20 ppmv. The sorbent undergoes cycles of absorption (sulfidation) and air regeneration. The key barrier issues associated with a fluidized-bed HGD process are chemical degradation, physical attrition, high regeneration light-off (initiation) temperature, and high cost of the sorbent. Another inherent complication in all air-regeneration-based HGD processes is the disposal of the problematic dilute SO{sub 2} containing regeneration tail-gas. Direct Sulfur Recovery Process (DSRP), a leading first generation technology, efficiently reduces this SO{sub 2} to desirable elemental sulfur, but requires the use of 1-3 % of the coal gas, thus resulting in an energy penalty to the plant. Advanced second-generation processes are under development that can reduce this energy penalty by modifying the sorbent so that it could be directly regenerated to elemental sulfur. The objective of this research is to support the near and long term DOE efforts to commercialize the IGCC-HGD process technology. Specifically we aim to develop: optimized low-cost sorbent materials with 70-80 {micro}m average aps meeting all Sierra specs; attrition resistant sorbents with 170 {micro}m aps that allow greater flexibility in the choice of the type of fluidized-bed reactor e.g. they allow increased throughput in a bubbling-bed reactor; and modified fluidizable sorbent materials that can be regenerated to produce elemental sulfur directly with minimal or no use of coal gas The effort during the reporting period has been devoted to development of an advanced hot-gas process that can eliminate the problematic SO{sub 2} tail gas and yield elemental sulfur

  12. A graphene superficial layer for the advanced electroforming process.

    PubMed

    Rho, Hokyun; Park, Mina; Lee, Seungmin; Bae, Sukang; Kim, Tae-Wook; Ha, Jun-Seok; Lee, Sang Hyun

    2016-07-01

    Advances in electroplating technology facilitate the progress of modern electronic devices, including computers, microprocessors and other microelectronic devices. Metal layers with high electrical and thermal conductivities are essential for high speed and high power devices. In this paper, we report an effective route to fabricate free-standing metal films using graphene as a superficial layer in the electroforming process. Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) graphene grown on a Cu foil was used as a template, which provides high electrical conductivity and low adhesive force with the template, thus enabling an effective electroforming process. The required force for delamination of the electroplated Cu layer from graphene is more than one order smaller than the force required for removing graphene from the Cu foil. We also demonstrated that the electroformed free-standing Cu thin films could be utilized for patterning microstructures and incorporated onto a flexible substrate for LEDs. This innovative process could be beneficial for the advancement of flexible electronics and optoelectronics, which require a wide range of mechanical and physical properties. PMID:26949072

  13. Advanced Manufacturing Processes Laboratory Building 878 hazards assessment document

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, C.; Thornton, W.; Swihart, A.; Gilman, T.

    1994-07-01

    The introduction of the hazards assessment process is to document the impact of the release of hazards at the Advanced Manufacturing Processes Laboratory (AMPL) that are significant enough to warrant consideration in Sandia National Laboratories` operational emergency management program. This hazards assessment is prepared in accordance with the Department of Energy Order 5500.3A requirement that facility-specific hazards assessments be prepared, maintained, and used for emergency planning purposes. This hazards assessment provides an analysis of the potential airborne release of chemicals associated with the operations and processes at the AMPL. This research and development laboratory develops advanced manufacturing technologies, practices, and unique equipment and provides the fabrication of prototype hardware to meet the needs of Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico (SNL/NM). The focus of the hazards assessment is the airborne release of materials because this requires the most rapid, coordinated emergency response on the part of the AMPL, SNL/NM, collocated facilities, and surrounding jurisdiction to protect workers, the public, and the environment.

  14. Effects of cyclone diameter on performance of 1D3D and 2D2D cyclones

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cyclones are the most commonly used air pollution abatement device for separating particulate matter (PM) from air streams in agricultural processes such as cotton gins. This paper describes a system and the experimental design that will be used to empirically determine the relationship between the ...

  15. H Scan/AHP advanced technology proposal evaluation process

    SciTech Connect

    Mack, S.; Valladares, M.R.S. de

    1996-10-01

    It is anticipated that a family of high value/impact projects will be funded by the Hydrogen Program to field test hydrogen technologies that are at advanced stages of development. These projects will add substantial value to the Program in several ways, by: demonstrating successful integration of multiple advanced technologies, providing critical insight on issues of larger scale equipment design, construction and operations management, yielding cost and performance data for competitive analysis, refining and deploying enhanced safety measures. These projects will be selected through a competitive proposal evaluation process. Because of the significant scope and funding levels of projects at these development phases, Program management has indicated the need for an augmented proposal evaluation strategy to ensure that supported projects are implemented by capable investigative teams and that their successful completion will optimally advance programmatic objectives. These objectives comprise a complex set of both quantitative and qualitative factors, many of which can only be estimated using expert judgment and opinion. To meet the above need, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and Energetics Inc. have jointly developed a proposal evaluation methodology called H Scan/AHP. The H Scan component of the process was developed by NREL. It is a two-part survey instrument that substantially augments the type and scope of information collected in a traditional proposal package. The AHP (Analytic Hierarchy Process) component was developed by Energetics. The AHP is an established decision support methodology that allows the Program decision makers to evaluate proposals relatively based on a unique set of weighted criteria that they have determined.

  16. Advanced computational research in materials processing for design and manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Zacharia, T.

    1994-12-31

    The computational requirements for design and manufacture of automotive components have seen dramatic increases for producing automobiles with three times the mileage. Automotive component design systems are becoming increasingly reliant on structural analysis requiring both overall larger analysis and more complex analyses, more three-dimensional analyses, larger model sizes, and routine consideration of transient and non-linear effects. Such analyses must be performed rapidly to minimize delays in the design and development process, which drives the need for parallel computing. This paper briefly describes advanced computational research in superplastic forming and automotive crash worthiness.

  17. A climatological analysis of Saharan cyclones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ammar, K.; El-Metwally, Mossad; Almazroui, Mansour; Abdel Wahab, M. M.

    2014-07-01

    In this study, the climatology of Saharan cyclones is presented in order to understand the Saharan climate, its variability and its changes. This climatology includes an analysis of seasonal and interannual variations, the identification and classification of cyclone tracks, and a presentation of their chief characteristics. The data used are drawn from the 1980-2009, 2.5° × 2.5°, NCEP/NCAR reanalysis (NNRP I) dataset. It is found that cyclone numbers increase in September-October-November (SON) at 4.9 cyclones per decade, while they decrease in June-July-August at 12.3 cyclones per decade. The identification algorithm constructed 562 tracks, which are categorized into 12 distinct clusters. Around 75 % of the Saharan cyclones originate south of the Atlas Mountains. The percentage of tracks that move over the Sahara is around 48 %. The eastern Mediterranean receives 27 % of the Saharan tracks, while the western basin receives only 17 and 8 % of all the Saharan cyclones decay over the Arabian Peninsula. The maximum cyclonic activity occurs in April. There is a general decrease in the number of tracks in all categories between 1993 and 2009, compared with the period between 1980 and 1992. About 72 % of the Saharan cyclones do not live more than 3 days, and about 80 % of the cyclones in the tracks never reach central pressures 1,000 hPa during their lifetimes. The maximum deepening in the tracks occurs over the western Mediterranean and over northern Algeria.

  18. A flexible architecture for advanced process control solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faron, Kamyar; Iourovitski, Ilia

    2005-05-01

    Advanced Process Control (APC) is now mainstream practice in the semiconductor manufacturing industry. Over the past decade and a half APC has evolved from a "good idea", and "wouldn"t it be great" concept to mandatory manufacturing practice. APC developments have primarily dealt with two major thrusts, algorithms and infrastructure, and often the line between them has been blurred. The algorithms have evolved from very simple single variable solutions to sophisticated and cutting edge adaptive multivariable (input and output) solutions. Spending patterns in recent times have demanded that the economics of a comprehensive APC infrastructure be completely justified for any and all cost conscious manufacturers. There are studies suggesting integration costs as high as 60% of the total APC solution costs. Such cost prohibitive figures clearly diminish the return on APC investments. This has limited the acceptance and development of pure APC infrastructure solutions for many fabs. Modern APC solution architectures must satisfy the wide array of requirements from very manual R&D environments to very advanced and automated "lights out" manufacturing facilities. A majority of commercially available control solutions and most in house developed solutions lack important attributes of scalability, flexibility, and adaptability and hence require significant resources for integration, deployment, and maintenance. Many APC improvement efforts have been abandoned and delayed due to legacy systems and inadequate architectural design. Recent advancements (Service Oriented Architectures) in the software industry have delivered ideal technologies for delivering scalable, flexible, and reliable solutions that can seamlessly integrate into any fabs" existing system and business practices. In this publication we shall evaluate the various attributes of the architectures required by fabs and illustrate the benefits of a Service Oriented Architecture to satisfy these requirements. Blue

  19. Safety Analysis of Soybean Processing for Advanced Life Support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hentges, Dawn L.

    1999-01-01

    Soybeans (cv. Hoyt) is one of the crops planned for food production within the Advanced Life Support System Integration Testbed (ALSSIT), a proposed habitat simulation for long duration lunar/Mars missions. Soybeans may be processed into a variety of food products, including soymilk, tofu, and tempeh. Due to the closed environmental system and importance of crew health maintenance, food safety is a primary concern on long duration space missions. Identification of the food safety hazards and critical control points associated with the closed ALSSIT system is essential for the development of safe food processing techniques and equipment. A Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) model was developed to reflect proposed production and processing protocols for ALSSIT soybeans. Soybean processing was placed in the type III risk category. During the processing of ALSSIT-grown soybeans, critical control points were identified to control microbiological hazards, particularly mycotoxins, and chemical hazards from antinutrients. Critical limits were suggested at each CCP. Food safety recommendations regarding the hazards and risks associated with growing, harvesting, and processing soybeans; biomass management; and use of multifunctional equipment were made in consideration of the limitations and restraints of the closed ALSSIT.

  20. Structural analysis of tropical cyclone using INSAT-3D observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaiswal, Neeru; Kishtawal, C. M.

    2016-05-01

    The continuous observations from visible and thermal infrared (TIR) channels of geostationary satellites are highly useful for obtaining the features associated with the shape and dynamics of cloud structures within the tropical cyclones (TCs). As TC develops from an unstructured cloud cluster and intensifies, the cloud structures become more axisymmetric around the centre of the TC. To better understand the structure of TC during different stages of its evolution i.e. from its cyclogenesis to maturity and dissipation, the continuous satellite observations plays a key role. The high spatial and temporal resolution observations from geostationary satellites are very useful in order to analyze the cloud organization during the cyclogenesis. The gradient of the brightness temperatures measures the level of symmetry of each structure, which characterizes the degree of cloud organization of the TC. In the present work, the structural analysis of TC during its life period using the observations from Indian geostationary satellite INSAT-3D has been discussed. The visible and TIR observations from INSAT-3D satellite were used to fix the center position of the cyclone which is an input for the cyclone track and intensity prediction models. This data is also used to estimate the intensity of cyclone in the advanced Dvorak technique (ADT), and in the estimation of radius of maximum winds (Rmax) of TC which is an essential input parameter for the prediction of storm surge associated to the cyclones. The different patterns of cloud structure during the intensification stage, eye-wall formation and dissipation have been discussed. The early identification of these features helps in predicting the rapid intensification of TC which in turn improves the intensity predictions.

  1. Characterization of Rice Husk for Cyclone Gasifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohamad Yusof, I.; Farid, N. A.; Zainal, Z. A.; Azman, M.

    The characterization of rice husk from local rice mills has been studied and evaluated to determine its potential utilization as a biomass fuel for a cyclone gasifier. The raw rice husk was pre-treated throughout a grinding process into smaller sizes of particles which is within a range of 0.4 to 1 mm and the sample of ground rice husk was analyzed for its fuel characteristics. The result of proximate analysis shows that the ground rice husk with size distribution within 0.4 to 1 mm contains 13.4% of fixed carbon, 62.95% of volatile matter and 18.5% of ash on dry basis. The moisture content of the sample was measured and determined as 10.4% (wet basis) and the calorific value was found to be approximately 14.8 MJ kg-1 with bulk density of 91.46 kg m-3. The result of ultimate analysis validates both ash and moisture content which are found to be 18.15 and 10.4%, respectively. Other elemental compositions determined by the ultimate analysis are carbon (37.9%), hydrogen (5.2%), nitrogen (0.14%), sulfur (0.61%) and oxygen (27.7% by difference). The study has identified that the fuel characteristics of the ground rice husk is comparable with other types of biomass and thus, making it another potential source of fuel for the cyclone gasification system.

  2. Stratified coastal ocean interactions with tropical cyclones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glenn, S. M.; Miles, T. N.; Seroka, G. N.; Xu, Y.; Forney, R. K.; Yu, F.; Roarty, H.; Schofield, O.; Kohut, J.

    2016-03-01

    Hurricane-intensity forecast improvements currently lag the progress achieved for hurricane tracks. Integrated ocean observations and simulations during hurricane Irene (2011) reveal that the wind-forced two-layer circulation of the stratified coastal ocean, and resultant shear-induced mixing, led to significant and rapid ahead-of-eye-centre cooling (at least 6 °C and up to 11 °C) over a wide swath of the continental shelf. Atmospheric simulations establish this cooling as the missing contribution required to reproduce Irene's accelerated intensity reduction. Historical buoys from 1985 to 2015 show that ahead-of-eye-centre cooling occurred beneath all 11 tropical cyclones that traversed the Mid-Atlantic Bight continental shelf during stratified summer conditions. A Yellow Sea buoy similarly revealed significant and rapid ahead-of-eye-centre cooling during Typhoon Muifa (2011). These findings establish that including realistic coastal baroclinic processes in forecasts of storm intensity and impacts will be increasingly critical to mid-latitude population centres as sea levels rise and tropical cyclone maximum intensities migrate poleward.

  3. Stratified coastal ocean interactions with tropical cyclones

    PubMed Central

    Glenn, S. M.; Miles, T. N.; Seroka, G. N.; Xu, Y.; Forney, R. K.; Yu, F.; Roarty, H.; Schofield, O.; Kohut, J.

    2016-01-01

    Hurricane-intensity forecast improvements currently lag the progress achieved for hurricane tracks. Integrated ocean observations and simulations during hurricane Irene (2011) reveal that the wind-forced two-layer circulation of the stratified coastal ocean, and resultant shear-induced mixing, led to significant and rapid ahead-of-eye-centre cooling (at least 6 °C and up to 11 °C) over a wide swath of the continental shelf. Atmospheric simulations establish this cooling as the missing contribution required to reproduce Irene's accelerated intensity reduction. Historical buoys from 1985 to 2015 show that ahead-of-eye-centre cooling occurred beneath all 11 tropical cyclones that traversed the Mid-Atlantic Bight continental shelf during stratified summer conditions. A Yellow Sea buoy similarly revealed significant and rapid ahead-of-eye-centre cooling during Typhoon Muifa (2011). These findings establish that including realistic coastal baroclinic processes in forecasts of storm intensity and impacts will be increasingly critical to mid-latitude population centres as sea levels rise and tropical cyclone maximum intensities migrate poleward. PMID:26953963

  4. Stratified coastal ocean interactions with tropical cyclones.

    PubMed

    Glenn, S M; Miles, T N; Seroka, G N; Xu, Y; Forney, R K; Yu, F; Roarty, H; Schofield, O; Kohut, J

    2016-01-01

    Hurricane-intensity forecast improvements currently lag the progress achieved for hurricane tracks. Integrated ocean observations and simulations during hurricane Irene (2011) reveal that the wind-forced two-layer circulation of the stratified coastal ocean, and resultant shear-induced mixing, led to significant and rapid ahead-of-eye-centre cooling (at least 6 °C and up to 11 °C) over a wide swath of the continental shelf. Atmospheric simulations establish this cooling as the missing contribution required to reproduce Irene's accelerated intensity reduction. Historical buoys from 1985 to 2015 show that ahead-of-eye-centre cooling occurred beneath all 11 tropical cyclones that traversed the Mid-Atlantic Bight continental shelf during stratified summer conditions. A Yellow Sea buoy similarly revealed significant and rapid ahead-of-eye-centre cooling during Typhoon Muifa (2011). These findings establish that including realistic coastal baroclinic processes in forecasts of storm intensity and impacts will be increasingly critical to mid-latitude population centres as sea levels rise and tropical cyclone maximum intensities migrate poleward. PMID:26953963

  5. New Perspectives on Intermountain Cyclones and Cold Fronts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steenburgh, W. J.; West, G.; Neuman, C.; Shafer, J.; Jeglum, M.; Bosart, L. F.; Lee, T.

    2011-12-01

    The topography in and around the Intermountain West strongly affects the genesis, migration, and lysis of extratropical cyclones and cold fronts. In this presentation, we summarize new perspectives on Intermountain cyclone and cold-front evolution derived from recent climatological, observational, and modeling studies based on high-density observations and high-resolution reanalyses and numerical simulations. Recent high-resolution reanalyses show that Intermountain cyclone activity is greatest in two distinct regions. The first, which we call the Great Basin cyclone region, extends northeastward from the southern high Sierra to the Great Salt Lake Basin of northwest Utah. The second, which we call the Canyonlands cyclone region, lies over the upper Colorado River Basin of southeast Utah, a lowland region between the mountains and plateaus of central Utah and the Colorado Rockies. Composites of strong Intermountain cyclones generated in cross-Sierra (210-300°) 500-hPa flow show that cyclogenesis is preceeded by the development of the Great Basin Confluence Zone (GBCZ), a regional airstream boundary that extends downstream from the Sierra Nevada. Cyclogenesis occurs along the GBCZ as large-scale ascent develops over the Intermountain West in advance of an approaching upper-level trough. Flow splitting around the high Sierra and the presence of low-level baroclinity along the GBCZ suggest that Intermountain Cyclogenesis might be better conceptualized from a potential vorticity perspective than from traditional quasigeostrophic models of lee cyclogenesis. Surface observations indicate that the frequency of strong cold-frontal passages increases dramatically from the Cascade-Sierra Mountains to northern Utah, suggesting that the Intermountain West is a frequent cold-frontal breeding ground. Two case studies help illustrate the mechanisms contributing to these strong cold-frontal passages. During the 2002 Tax Day Cyclone, strong contraction (i.e., deformation and

  6. Integration of Advanced Simulation and Visualization for Manufacturing Process Optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Chenn; Wang, Jichao; Tang, Guangwu; Moreland, John; Fu, Dong; Wu, Bin

    2016-05-01

    The integration of simulation and visualization can provide a cost-effective tool for process optimization, design, scale-up and troubleshooting. The Center for Innovation through Visualization and Simulation (CIVS) at Purdue University Northwest has developed methodologies for such integration with applications in various manufacturing processes. The methodologies have proven to be useful for virtual design and virtual training to provide solutions addressing issues on energy, environment, productivity, safety, and quality in steel and other industries. In collaboration with its industrial partnerships, CIVS has provided solutions to companies, saving over US38 million. CIVS is currently working with the steel industry to establish an industry-led Steel Manufacturing Simulation and Visualization Consortium through the support of National Institute of Standards and Technology AMTech Planning Grant. The consortium focuses on supporting development and implementation of simulation and visualization technologies to advance steel manufacturing across the value chain.

  7. Integrated metrology: an enabler for advanced process control (APC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Claus; Pfitzner, Lothar; Ryssel, Heiner

    2001-04-01

    Advanced process control (APC) techniques become more and more important as short innovation cycles in microelectronics and a highly competitive market requires cost-effective solutions in semiconductor manufacturing. APC marks a paradigm shift from statistically based techniques (SPC) using monitor wafers for sampling measurement data towards product wafer control. The APC functionalities including run-to-run control, fault detection, and fault analysis allow to detect process drifts and excursions at an early stage and to minimize the number of misprocessed wafers. APC is being established as part of factory control systems through the definition of an APC framework. A precondition for APC is the availability of sensors and measurement methods providing the necessary wafer data. This paper discusses integrated metrology as an enabler for APC and demonstrates practical implementations in semiconductor manufacturing.

  8. Co-Simulation for Advanced Process Design and Optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Stephen E. Zitney

    2009-01-01

    Meeting the increasing demand for clean, affordable, and secure energy is arguably the most important challenge facing the world today. Fossil fuels can play a central role in a portfolio of carbon-neutral energy options provided CO{sub 2} emissions can be dramatically reduced by capturing CO{sub 2} and storing it safely and effectively. Fossil energy industry faces the challenge of meeting aggressive design goals for next-generation power plants with CCS. Process designs will involve large, highly-integrated, and multipurpose systems with advanced equipment items with complex geometries and multiphysics. APECS is enabling software to facilitate effective integration, solution, and analysis of high-fidelity process/equipment (CFD) co-simulations. APECS helps to optimize fluid flow and related phenomena that impact overall power plant performance. APECS offers many advanced capabilities including ROMs, design optimization, parallel execution, stochastic analysis, and virtual plant co-simulations. NETL and its collaborative R&D partners are using APECS to reduce the time, cost, and technical risk of developing high-efficiency, zero-emission power plants with CCS.

  9. Integration of advanced oxidation technologies and biological processes: recent developments, trends, and advances.

    PubMed

    Tabrizi, Gelareh Bankian; Mehrvar, Mehrab

    2004-01-01

    The greatest challenge of today's wastewater treatment technology is to optimize the use of biological and chemical wastewater treatment processes. The choice of the process and/or integration of the processes depend strongly on the wastewater characteristics, concentrations, and the desired efficiencies. It has been observed by many investigators that the coupling of a bioreactor and advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) could reduce the final concentrations of the effluent to the desired values. However, optimizing the total cost of the treatment is a challenge, as AOPs are much more expensive than biological processes alone. Therefore, an appropriate design should not only consider the ability of this coupling to reduce the concentration of organic pollutants, but also try to obtain the desired results in a cost effective process. To consider the total cost of the treatment, the residence time in biological and photochemical reactors, the kinetic rates, and the capital and operating costs of the reactors play significant roles. In this study, recent developments and trends (1996-2003) on the integration of photochemical and biological processes for the degradation of problematic pollutants in wastewater have been reviewed. The conditions to get the optimum results from this integration have also been considered. In most of the studies, it has been shown that the integrated processes were more efficient than individual processes. However, slight changes in the configuration of the reactors, temperature, pH, treatment time, concentration of the oxidants, and microorganism's colonies could lead to a great deviation in results. It has also been demonstrated that the treatment cost in both reactors is a function of time, which changes by the flow rate. The minimum cost in the coupling of the processes cannot be achieved unless considering the best treatment time in chemical and biological reactors individually. PMID:15533022

  10. NOx reduction in a lignite cyclone furnace

    SciTech Connect

    Melland, C.; O`Connor, D.

    1998-12-31

    Reburning, selective catalytic reduction, and selective noncatalytic reduction techniques have demonstrated some potential for NOx reduction in cyclone boilers. These techniques are costly in terms of both capital and operating costs. Lignite cyclone combustion modeling studies indicated that modifying combustion inside the cyclone barrel could reduce cyclone NOx emissions. The modeling showed that air staging, secondary air basing, flue gas injection and variations in coal moisture content could affect NOx emissions. Short term lignite boiler tests and now longer term boiler operation have confirmed that significant NOx reductions can be accomplished merely by modifying cyclone combustion. The low NOx operation does not appear to significantly impact maintenance, reliability or capacity of the cyclone burner or furnace.