Science.gov

Sample records for advanced fuel elements

  1. Finite element analysis of advanced neutron source fuel plates

    SciTech Connect

    Luttrell, C.R.

    1995-08-01

    The proposed design for the Advanced Neutron Source reactor core consists of closely spaced involute fuel plates. Coolant flows between the plates at high velocities. It is vital that adjacent plates do not come in contact and that the coolant channels between the plates remain open. Several scenarios that could result in problems with the fuel plates are studied. Finite element analyses are performed on fuel plates under pressure from the coolant flowing between the plates at a high velocity, under pressure because of a partial flow blockage in one of the channels, and with different temperature profiles.

  2. Advanced Ceramics for Use as Fuel Element Materials in Nuclear Thermal Propulsion Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Valentine, Peter G.; Allen, Lee R.; Shapiro, Alan P.

    2012-01-01

    With the recent start (October 2011) of the joint National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and Department of Energy (DOE) Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Nuclear Cryogenic Propulsion Stage (NCPS) Program, there is renewed interest in developing advanced ceramics for use as fuel element materials in nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) systems. Three classes of fuel element materials are being considered under the NCPS Program: (a) graphite composites - consisting of coated graphite elements containing uranium carbide (or mixed carbide), (b) cermets (ceramic/metallic composites) - consisting of refractory metal elements containing uranium oxide, and (c) advanced carbides consisting of ceramic elements fabricated from uranium carbide and one or more refractory metal carbides [1]. The current development effort aims to advance the technology originally developed and demonstrated under Project Rover (1955-1973) for the NERVA (Nuclear Engine for Rocket Vehicle Application) [2].

  3. FUEL ELEMENT

    DOEpatents

    Bean, R.W.

    1963-11-19

    A ceramic fuel element for a nuclear reactor that has improved structural stability as well as improved cooling and fission product retention characteristics is presented. The fuel element includes a plurality of stacked hollow ceramic moderator blocks arranged along a tubular raetallic shroud that encloses a series of axially apertured moderator cylinders spaced inwardly of the shroud. A plurality of ceramic nuclear fuel rods are arranged in the annular space between the shroud and cylinders of moderator and appropriate support means and means for directing gas coolant through the annular space are also provided. (AEC)

  4. Enhanced Low-Enriched Uranium Fuel Element for the Advanced Test Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Pope, M. A.; DeHart, M. D.; Morrell, S. R.; Jamison, R. K.; Nef, E. C.; Nigg, D. W.

    2015-03-01

    Under the current US Department of Energy (DOE) policy and planning scenario, the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) and its associated critical facility (ATRC) will be reconfigured to operate on low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel. This effort has produced a conceptual design for an Enhanced LEU Fuel (ELF) element. This fuel features monolithic U-10Mo fuel foils and aluminum cladding separated by a thin zirconium barrier. As with previous iterations of the ELF design, radial power peaking is managed using different U-10Mo foil thicknesses in different plates of the element. The lead fuel element design, ELF Mk1A, features only three fuel meat thicknesses, a reduction from the previous iterations meant to simplify manufacturing. Evaluation of the ELF Mk1A fuel design against reactor performance requirements is ongoing, as are investigations of the impact of manufacturing uncertainty on safety margins. The element design has been evaluated in what are expected to be the most demanding design basis accident scenarios and has met all initial thermal-hydraulic criteria.

  5. FUEL ELEMENT

    DOEpatents

    Fortescue, P.; Zumwalt, L.R.

    1961-11-28

    A fuel element was developed for a gas cooled nuclear reactor. The element is constructed in the form of a compacted fuel slug including carbides of fissionable material in some cases with a breeder material carbide and a moderator which slug is disposed in a canning jacket of relatively impermeable moderator material. Such canned fuel slugs are disposed in an elongated shell of moderator having greater gas permeability than the canning material wherefore application of reduced pressure to the space therebetween causes gas diffusing through the exterior shell to sweep fission products from the system. Integral fission product traps and/or exterior traps as well as a fission product monitoring system may be employed therewith. (AEC)

  6. FUEL ELEMENT

    DOEpatents

    Howard, R.C.; Bokros, J.C.

    1962-03-01

    A fueled matrlx eontnwinlng uncomblned carbon is deslgned for use in graphlte-moderated gas-cooled reactors designed for operatlon at temperatures (about 1500 deg F) at which conventional metallic cladding would ordlnarily undergo undesired carburization or physical degeneratlon. - The invention comprlses, broadly a fuel body containlng uncombined earbon, clad with a nickel alloy contalning over about 28 percent by' weight copper in the preferred embodlment. Thls element ls supporirted in the passageways in close tolerance with the walls of unclad graphite moderator materlal. (AEC)

  7. Pumped lithium loop test to evaluate advanced refractory metal alloys and simulated nuclear fuel elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brandenburf, G. P.; Hoffman, E. E.; Smith, J. P.

    1974-01-01

    The performance was determined of refractory metal alloys and uranium nitride fuel element specimens in flowing 1900F (1083C) lithium. The results demonstrate the suitability of the selected materials to perform satisfactorily from a chemical compatibility standpoint.

  8. 15. VIEW OF DUMMY FUEL ELEMENT ON FUEL ELEMENT HOLDER. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. VIEW OF DUMMY FUEL ELEMENT ON FUEL ELEMENT HOLDER. SHOWS AIR FORCE MAN AT EDGE OF TANK. INEL PHOTO NUMBER 65-6176, TAKEN NOVEMBER 10, 1965. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Advanced Reentry Vehicle Fusing System, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  9. FUEL ELEMENT SUPPORT

    DOEpatents

    Wyman, W.L.

    1961-06-27

    The described cylindrical fuel element has longitudinally spaced sets of short longitudinal ribs circumferentially spaced from one another. The ribs support the fuel element in a coolant tube so that there is an annular space for coolant flow between the fuel element and the interior of the coolant tube. If the fuel element grows as a result of reactor operation, the circumferential distribution of the ribs maintains the uniformity of the annular space between the coolant tube and the fuel element, and the collapsibility of the ribs prevents the fuel element from becoming jammed in the coolant tube.

  10. NUCLEAR REACTOR FUEL ELEMENT

    DOEpatents

    Wheelock, C.W.; Baumeister, E.B.

    1961-09-01

    A reactor fuel element utilizing fissionable fuel materials in plate form is described. This fuel element consists of bundles of fuel-bearing plates. The bundles are stacked inside of a tube which forms the shell of the fuel element. The plates each have longitudinal fins running parallel to the direction of coolant flow, and interspersed among and parallel to the fins are ribs which position the plates relative to each other and to the fuel element shell. The plate bundles are held together by thin bands or wires. The ex tended surface increases the heat transfer capabilities of a fuel element by a factor of 3 or more over those of a simple flat plate.

  11. Neutronic fuel element fabrication

    DOEpatents

    Korton, George

    2004-02-24

    This disclosure describes a method for metallurgically bonding a complete leak-tight enclosure to a matrix-type fuel element penetrated longitudinally by a multiplicity of coolant channels. Coolant tubes containing solid filler pins are disposed in the coolant channels. A leak-tight metal enclosure is then formed about the entire assembly of fuel matrix, coolant tubes and pins. The completely enclosed and sealed assembly is exposed to a high temperature and pressure gas environment to effect a metallurgical bond between all contacting surfaces therein. The ends of the assembly are then machined away to expose the pin ends which are chemically leached from the coolant tubes to leave the coolant tubes with internal coolant passageways. The invention described herein was made in the course of, or under, a contract with the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission. It relates generally to fuel elements for neutronic reactors and more particularly to a method for providing a leak-tight metal enclosure for a high-performance matrix-type fuel element penetrated longitudinally by a multiplicity of coolant tubes. The planned utilization of nuclear energy in high-performance, compact-propulsion and mobile power-generation systems has necessitated the development of fuel elements capable of operating at high power densities. High power densities in turn require fuel elements having high thermal conductivities and good fuel retention capabilities at high temperatures. A metal clad fuel element containing a ceramic phase of fuel intimately mixed with and bonded to a continuous refractory metal matrix has been found to satisfy the above requirements. Metal coolant tubes penetrate the matrix to afford internal cooling to the fuel element while providing positive fuel retention and containment of fission products generated within the fuel matrix. Metal header plates are bonded to the coolant tubes at each end of the fuel element and a metal cladding or can completes the fuel-matrix enclosure

  12. COMPOSITE FUEL ELEMENT

    DOEpatents

    Hurford, W.J.; Gordon, R.B.; Johnson, W.A.

    1962-12-25

    A sandwich-type fuel element for a reactor is described. This fuel element has the shape of an elongated flat plate and includes a filler plate having a plurality of compartments therein in which the fuel material is located. The filler plate is clad on both sides with a thin cladding material which is secured to the filler plate only to completely enclose the fuel material in each compartment. (AEC)

  13. Nuclear fuel element

    DOEpatents

    Zocher, Roy W.

    1991-01-01

    A nuclear fuel element and a method of manufacturing the element. The fuel element is comprised of a metal primary container and a fuel pellet which is located inside it and which is often fragmented. The primary container is subjected to elevated pressure and temperature to deform the container such that the container conforms to the fuel pellet, that is, such that the container is in substantial contact with the surface of the pellet. This conformance eliminates clearances which permit rubbing together of fuel pellet fragments and rubbing of fuel pellet fragments against the container, thus reducing the amount of dust inside the fuel container and the amount of dust which may escape in the event of container breach. Also, as a result of the inventive method, fuel pellet fragments tend to adhere to one another to form a coherent non-fragmented mass; this reduces the tendency of a fragment to pierce the container in the event of impact.

  14. NUCLEAR REACTOR FUEL ELEMENT

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, W.F.; Tellefson, D.R.; Shimazaki, T.T.

    1962-04-10

    A plate type fuel element which is particularly useful for organic cooled reactors is described. Generally, the fuel element comprises a plurality of fissionable fuel bearing plates held in spaced relationship by a frame in which the plates are slidably mounted in grooves. Clearance is provided in the grooves to allow the plates to expand laterally. The plates may be rigidly interconnected but are floatingly supported at their ends within the frame to allow for longi-tudinal expansion. Thus, this fuel element is able to withstand large temperature differentials without great structural stresses. (AEC)

  15. NEUTRONIC REACTOR FUEL ELEMENT

    DOEpatents

    Shackleford, M.H.

    1958-12-16

    A fuel element possessing good stability and heat conducting properties is described. The fuel element comprises an outer tube formed of material selected from the group consisting of stainhess steel, V, Ti. Mo. or Zr, a fuel tube concentrically fitting within the outer tube and containing an oxide of an isotope selected from the group consisting of U/sup 235/, U/sup 233/, and Pu/sup 239/, and a hollow, porous core concentrically fitting within the fuel tube and formed of an oxide of an element selected from the group consisting of Mg, Be, and Zr.

  16. JACKETED FUEL ELEMENT

    DOEpatents

    Wigner, E.P.; Szilard, L.; Creutz, E.C.

    1959-02-01

    These fuel elements are comprised of a homogeneous metallic uranium body completely enclosed and sealed in an aluminum cover. The uranium body and aluminum cover are bonded together by a layer of zinc located between them. The bonding layer serves to improve transfer of heat, provides an additional protection against corrosion of the uranium by the coolant, and also localizes any possible corrosion by preventing travel of corrosive material along the surface of the fuel element.

  17. NEUTRONIC REACTOR FUEL ELEMENT

    DOEpatents

    Gurinsky, D.H.; Powell, R.W.; Fox, M.

    1959-11-24

    A nuclear fuel element comprising a plurality of nuclear fuel bearing strips is presented. The strips are folded along their longitudinal axes to an angle of about 60 deg and are secured at each end by ferrule to form an elongated assembly suitable for occupying a cylindrical coolant channel.

  18. NEUTRONIC REACTOR FUEL ELEMENT

    DOEpatents

    Kesselring, K.A.; Seybolt, A.U.

    1958-12-01

    A reactor fuel element of the capillary tube type is described. The element consists of a thin walled tube, sealed at both ends, and having an interior coatlng of a fissionable material, such as uranium enriched in U-235. The tube wall is gas tight and is constructed of titanium, zirconium, or molybdenum.

  19. CONSTRUCTION OF NUCLEAR FUEL ELEMENTS

    DOEpatents

    Weems, S.J.

    1963-09-24

    >A rib arrangement and an end construction for nuclearfuel elements laid end to end in a coolant tube are described. The rib arrangement is such that each fuel element, when separated from other fuel elements, fits loosely in the coolant tube and so can easily be inserted or withdrawn from the tube. The end construction of the fuel elements is such that the fuel elements when assembled end to end are keyed against relative rotation, and the ribs of each fuel element cooperate with the ribs of the adjacent fuel elements to give the assembled fuel elements a tight fit with the coolant tube. (AEC)

  20. Nuclear fuel element

    DOEpatents

    Meadowcroft, Ronald Ross; Bain, Alastair Stewart

    1977-01-01

    A nuclear fuel element wherein a tubular cladding of zirconium or a zirconium alloy has a fission gas plenum chamber which is held against collapse by the loops of a spacer in the form of a tube which has been deformed inwardly at three equally spaced, circumferential positions to provide three loops. A heat resistant disc of, say, graphite separates nuclear fuel pellets within the cladding from the plenum chamber. The spacer is of zirconium or a zirconium alloy.

  1. FUEL ELEMENT CONSTRUCTION

    DOEpatents

    Simnad, M.T.

    1961-08-15

    A method of preventing diffusible and volatile fission products from diffusing through a fuel element container and contaminating reactor coolant is described. More specifically, relatively volatile and diffusible fission products either are adsorbed by or react with magnesium fluoride or difluoride to form stable, less volatile, less diffusible forms. The magnesium fluoride or difluoride is disposed anywhere inwardly from the outer surface of the fuel element container in order to be contacted by the fission products before they reach and contaminate the reactor coolant. (AEC)

  2. FUEL ELEMENT CONSTRUCTION

    DOEpatents

    Zumwalt, L.R.

    1961-08-01

    Fuel elements having a solid core of fissionable material encased in a cladding material are described. A conversion material is provided within the cladding to react with the fission products to form stable, relatively non- volatile compounds thereby minimizing the migration of the fission products into the coolant. The conversion material is preferably a metallic fluoride, such as lead difluoride, and may be in the form of a coating on the fuel core or interior of the cladding, or dispersed within the fuel core. (AEC)

  3. NEUTRONIC REACTOR FUEL ELEMENT

    DOEpatents

    Stacy, J.T.

    1958-12-01

    A reactor fuel element having a core of molybdenum-uranium alloy jacketed in stainless steel is described. A barrier layer of tungsten, tantalum, molybdenum, columbium, or silver is interposed between the core and jacket to prevent formation of a low melting eutectic between uranium and the varlous alloy constituents of the stainless steel.

  4. JACKETED REACTOR FUEL ELEMENT

    DOEpatents

    Smith, K.F.; Van Thyne, R.J.

    1958-12-01

    A fuel element is described for fast reactors comprised of a core of uranium metal containing material and a jacket around the core, the jacket consisting of from 2.5 to 15 percent of titanium, from 1 to 5 percent of niobium, and from 80 to 96.5 percent of vanadium.

  5. 35. DETAILS AND SECTIONS OF FUEL ELEMENT SUPPORT PLATFORM, FUEL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    35. DETAILS AND SECTIONS OF FUEL ELEMENT SUPPORT PLATFORM, FUEL ELEMENT HOLDER, TRIP MECHANISM COVER, AND OTHER DETAILS. F.C. TORKELSON DRAWING NUMBER 842-ARVFS-701-S-3. INEL INDEX CODE NUMBER: 075 0701 60 851 151977. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Advanced Reentry Vehicle Fusing System, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  6. FUEL ELEMENT FABRICATION METHOD

    DOEpatents

    Hix, J.N.; Cooley, G.E.; Cunningham, J.E.

    1960-05-31

    A method is given for assembling and fabricating a fuel element comprising a plurality of spaced parallel fuel plates of a bowed configuration supported by and between a pair of transperse aluminum side plates. In this method, a brasing alloy is preplated on one surface of the aluminum side plates in the form of a cladding or layer-of uniform thickness. Grooves are then cut into the side plates through the alloy layer and into the base aluminum which results in the utilization of thinner aluminum side plates since a portion of the necessary groove depth is supplied by the brazing alloy.

  7. Nuclear reactor fuel element

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, Carl E.; Crouthamel, Carl E.

    1980-01-01

    A nuclear reactor fuel element is described which has an outer cladding, a central core of fissionable or mixed fissionable and fertile fuel material and a layer of oxygen gettering material on the inner surface of the cladding. The gettering material reacts with oxygen released by the fissionable material during irradiation of the core thereby preventing the oxygen from reacting with and corroding the cladding. Also described is an improved method for coating the inner surface of the cladding with a layer of gettering material.

  8. NUCLEAR REACTOR FUEL-BREEDER FUEL ELEMENT

    DOEpatents

    Currier, E.L. Jr.; Nicklas, J.H.

    1962-08-14

    A fuel-breeder fuel element was developed for a nuclear reactor wherein discrete particles of fissionable material are dispersed in a matrix of fertile breeder material. The fuel element combines the advantages of a dispersion type and a breeder-type. (AEC)

  9. COMPARTMENTED REACTOR FUEL ELEMENT

    DOEpatents

    Cain, F.M. Jr.

    1962-09-11

    A method of making a nuclear reactor fuel element of the elongated red type is given wherein the fissionable fuel material is enclosed within a tubular metal cladding. The method comprises coating the metal cladding tube on its inside wall with a brazing alloy, inserting groups of cylindrical pellets of fissionable fuel material into the tube with spacing members between adjacent groups of pellets, sealing the ends of the tubes to leave a void space therewithin, heating the tube and its contents to an elevated temperature to melt the brazing alloy and to expand the pellets to their maximum dimensions under predetermined operating conditions thereby automatically positioning the spacing members along the tube, and finally cooling the tube to room temperature whereby the spacing disks become permanently fixed at their edges in the brazing alloy and define a hermetically sealed compartment for each fl group of fuel pellets. Upon cooling, the pellets contract thus leaving a space to accommodate thermal expansion of the pellets when in use in a reactor. The spacing members also provide lateral support for the tubular cladding to prevent collapse thereof when subjected to a reactor environment. (AEC)

  10. Nuclear fuel element

    DOEpatents

    Armijo, Joseph S.; Coffin, Jr., Louis F.

    1980-04-29

    A nuclear fuel element for use in the core of a nuclear reactor is disclosed and has an improved composite cladding comprised of a moderate purity metal barrier of zirconium metallurgically bonded on the inside surface of a zirconium alloy tube. The metal barrier forms a shield between the alloy tube and a core of nuclear fuel material enclosed in the composite cladding. There is a gap between the cladding and the core. The metal barrier forms about 1 to about 30 percent of the thickness of the composite cladding and has low neutron absorption characteristics. The metal barrier serves as a preferential reaction site for gaseous impurities and fission products and protects the alloy tube from contact and reaction with such impurities and fission products. Methods of manufacturing the composite cladding are also disclosed.

  11. Nuclear fuel element

    DOEpatents

    Armijo, Joseph S.; Coffin, Jr., Louis F.

    1983-01-01

    A nuclear fuel element for use in the core of a nuclear reactor is disclosed and has a composite cladding having a substrate and a metal barrier metallurgically bonded on the inside surface of the substrate so that the metal barrier forms a shield between the substrate and the nuclear fuel material held within the cladding. The metal barrier forms about 1 to about 30 percent of the thickness of the cladding and is comprised of a low neutron absorption metal of substantially pure zirconium. The metal barrier serves as a preferential reaction site for gaseous impurities and fission products and protects the substrate from contact and reaction with such impurities and fission products. The substrate of the composite cladding is selected from conventional cladding materials and preferably is a zirconium alloy. Methods of manufacturing the composite cladding are also disclosed.

  12. RECONDITIONING FUEL ELEMENTS

    DOEpatents

    Brandt, H.L.

    1962-02-20

    A process is given for decanning fuel elements that consist of a uranium core, an intermediate section either of bronze, silicon, Al-Si, and uranium silicide layers or of lead, Al-Si, and uranium silicide layers around said core, and an aluminum can bonded to said intermediate section. The aluminum can is dissolved in a solution of sodium hydroxide (9 to 20 wt%) and sodium nitrate (35 to 12 wt %), and the layers of the intermediate section are dissolved in a boiling sodium hydroxide solution of a minimum concentration of 50 wt%. (AEC) A method of selectively reducing plutonium oxides and the rare earth oxides but not uranium oxides is described which comprises placing the oxides in a molten solvent of zinc or cadmium and then adding metallic uranium as a reducing agent. (AEC)

  13. FUEL ELEMENT FOR NUCLEAR REACTORS

    DOEpatents

    Bassett, C.H.

    1961-05-16

    A fuel element particularly adapted for use in nuclear reactors of high power density is offered. It has fissionable fuel pellet segments mounted in a tubular housing and defining a central passage in the fuel element. A burnable poison element extends through the central passage, which is designed to contain more poison material at the median portion than at the end portions thereby providing a more uniform hurnup and longer reactivity life.

  14. FUEL ELEMENTS FOR NUCLEAR REACTORS

    DOEpatents

    Blainey, A.; Lloyd, H.

    1961-07-11

    A method of sheathing a tubular fuel element for a nuclear reactor is described. A low melting metal core member is centered in a die, a layer of a powdered sheathing substance is placed on the bottom of the die, the tubular fuel element is inserted in the die, the space between the tubular fuel element and the die walls and core member is filled with the same powdered sheathing substance, a layer of the same substance is placed over the fissile material, and the charge within the die is subjected to pressure in the direction of the axis of the fuel element at the sintering temperature of the protective substance.

  15. FUEL ELEMENT FOR NUCLEAR REACTORS

    DOEpatents

    Dickson, J.J.

    1963-09-24

    A method is described whereby fuel tubes or pins are cut, loaded with fuel pellets and a heat transfer medium, sealed at each end with slotted fittings, and assembled into a rectangular tube bundle to form a fuel element. The tubes comprising the fuel element are laterally connected between their ends by clips and tabs to form a linear group of spaced parallel tubes, which receive their vertical support by resting on a grid. The advantages of this method are that it permits elimination of structural material (e.g., fuel-element cans) within the reactor core, and removal of at least one fuel pin from an element and replacement thereof so that a burnable poison may be utilized during the core lifetime. (AEC)

  16. Polarized advanced fuel reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Kulsrud, R.M.

    1987-07-01

    The d-/sup 3/He reaction has the same spin dependence as the d-t reaction. It produces no neutrons, so that if the d-d reactivity could be reduced, it would lead to a neutron-lean reactor. The current understanding of the possible suppression of the d-d reactivity by spin polarization is discussed. The question as to whether a suppression is possible is still unresolved. Other advanced fuel reactions are briefly discussed. 11 refs.

  17. Vented nuclear fuel element

    DOEpatents

    Grossman, Leonard N.; Kaznoff, Alexis I.

    1979-01-01

    A nuclear fuel cell for use in a thermionic nuclear reactor in which a small conduit extends from the outside surface of the emitter to the center of the fuel mass of the emitter body to permit escape of volatile and gaseous fission products collected in the center thereof by virtue of molecular migration of the gases to the hotter region of the fuel.

  18. NUCLEAR REACTOR FUEL ELEMENT ASSEMBLY

    DOEpatents

    Stengel, F.G.

    1963-12-24

    A method of fabricating nuclear reactor fuel element assemblies having a plurality of longitudinally extending flat fuel elements in spaced parallel relation to each other to form channels is presented. One side of a flat side plate is held contiguous to the ends of the elements and a welding means is passed along the other side of the platertransverse to the direction of the longitudinal extension of the elements. The setting and speed of travel of the welding means is set to cause penetration of the side plate with welds at bridge the gap in each channel between adjacent fuel elements with a weld-through bubble of predetermined size. The fabrication of a high strength, dependable fuel element is provided, and the reduction of distortion and high production costs are facilitated by this method. (AEC)

  19. FUEL ELEMENT FOR NUCLEAR REACTORS

    DOEpatents

    Bassett, C.H.

    1961-11-21

    A fuel element is designed which is particularly adapted for reactors of high power density used to generate steam for the production of electricity. The fuel element consists of inner and outer concentric tubes forming an annular chamber within which is contained fissionable fuel pellet segments, wedge members interposed between the fuel segments, and a spring which, acting with wedge members, urges said fuel pellets radially into contact against the inner surface of the outer tube. The wedge members may be a fertile material convertible into fissionable fuel material by absorbing neutrons emitted from the fissionable fuel pellet segments. The costly grinding of cylindrical fuel pellets to close tolerances for snug engagement is reduced because the need to finish the exact size is eliminated. (AEC)

  20. REACTOR FUEL ELEMENTS TESTING CONTAINER

    DOEpatents

    Whitham, G.K.; Smith, R.R.

    1963-01-15

    This patent shows a method for detecting leaks in jacketed fuel elements. The element is placed in a sealed tank within a nuclear reactor, and, while the reactor operates, the element is sparged with gas. The gas is then led outside the reactor and monitored for radioactive Xe or Kr. (AEC)

  1. Spent graphite fuel element processing

    SciTech Connect

    Holder, N.D.; Olsen, C.W.

    1981-07-01

    The Department of Energy currently sponsors two programs to demonstrate the processing of spent graphite fuel elements. General Atomic in San Diego operates a cold pilot plant to demonstrate the processing of both US and German high-temperature reactor fuel. Exxon Nuclear Idaho Company is demonstrating the processing of spent graphite fuel elements from Rover reactors operated for the Nuclear Rocket Propulsion Program. This work is done at Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, where a hot facility is being constructed to complete processing of the Rover fuel. This paper focuses on the graphite combustion process common to both programs.

  2. NUCLEAR REACTOR FUEL ELEMENT

    DOEpatents

    Currier, E.L. Jr.; Nicklas, J.H.

    1963-06-11

    A fuel plate is designed for incorporation into control rods of the type utilized in high-flux test reactors. The fuel plate is designed so that the portion nearest the poison section of the control rod contains about one-half as much fissionable material as in the rest of the plate, thereby eliminating dangerous flux peaking in that portion. (AEC)

  3. NEUTRONIC REACTOR FUEL ELEMENT

    DOEpatents

    Horning, W.A.; Lanning, D.D.; Donahue, D.J.

    1959-10-01

    A fuel slug for a reactor which acts as a safety device is described. The fuel slug is an aluminum tube with a foil lining the inside surface of the tube, the foil being fabricated of uranium in a lead matrix.

  4. FUEL ELEMENT FOR NEUTRONIC REACTORS

    DOEpatents

    Evans, T.C.; Beasley, E.G.

    1961-01-17

    A fuel element for neutronic reactors, particularly the gas-cooled type of reactor, is described. The element comprises a fuel-bearing plate rolled to form a cylinder having a spiral passageway passing from its periphery to its center. In operation a coolant is admitted to the passageway at the periphery of the element, is passed through the spiral passageway, and emerges into a central channel defined by the inner turn of the rolled plate. The advantage of the element is that the fully heated coolant (i.e., coolant emerging into the central channel) is separated and thus insulated from the periphery of the element, which may be in contact with a low-temperature moderator, by the intermediate turns of the spiral fuel element.

  5. FUEL ELEMENTS FOR NEUTRONIC REACTORS

    DOEpatents

    Foote, F.G.; Jette, E.R.

    1963-05-01

    A fuel element for a nuclear reactor is described that consists of a jacket containing a unitary core of fissionable material and a filling of a metal of the group consisting of sodium and sodium-potassium alloys. (AEC)

  6. Advanced Fuels Campaign 2012 Accomplishments

    SciTech Connect

    Not Listed

    2012-11-01

    The Advanced Fuels Campaign (AFC) under the Fuel Cycle Research and Development (FCRD) program is responsible for developing fuels technologies to support the various fuel cycle options defined in the DOE Nuclear Energy Research and Development Roadmap, Report to Congress, April 2010. The fiscal year 2012 (FY 2012) accomplishments are highlighted below. Kemal Pasamehmetoglu is the National Technical Director for AFC.

  7. FUEL ELEMENT FOR NUCLEAR REACTORS

    DOEpatents

    Bassett, C.H.

    1961-05-01

    A nuclear reactor fuel element comprising high density ceramic fissionable material enclosed in a tubular cladding of corrosion-resistant material is described. The fissionable material is in the form of segments of a tube which have cooperating tapered interfaces which produce outward radial displacement when the segments are urged axially together. A resilient means is provided within the tubular housing to constantly urge the fuel segments axially. This design maintains the fuel material in tight contacting engagement against the inner surface of the outer cladding tube to eliminate any gap therebetween which may be caused by differential thermal expansion between the fuel material and the material of the tube.

  8. Protected Nuclear Fuel Element

    DOEpatents

    Kittel, J. H.; Schumar, J. F.

    1962-12-01

    A stainless steel-clad actinide metal fuel rod for use in fast reactors is reported. In order to prevert cladding failures due to alloy formation between the actinide metal and the stainless steel, a mesh-like sleeve of expanded metal is interposed between them, the sleeve metal being of niobium, tantalum, molybdenum, tungsten, zirconium, or vanadium. Liquid alkali metal is added as a heat transfer agent. (AEC)

  9. Corrosion of spent Advanced Test Reactor fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Lundberg, L.B.; Croson, M.L.

    1994-11-01

    The results of a study of the condition of spent nuclear fuel elements from the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) currently being stored underwater at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) are presented. This study was motivated by a need to estimate the corrosion behavior of dried, spent ATR fuel elements during dry storage for periods up to 50 years. The study indicated that the condition of spent ATR fuel elements currently stored underwater at the INEL is not very well known. Based on the limited data and observed corrosion behavior in the reactor and in underwater storage, it was concluded that many of the fuel elements currently stored under water in the facility called ICPP-603 FSF are in a degraded condition, and it is probable that many have breached cladding. The anticipated dehydration behavior of corroded spent ATR fuel elements was also studied, and a list of issues to be addressed by fuel element characterization before and after forced drying of the fuel elements and during dry storage is presented.

  10. Compact Fuel Element Environment Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bradley, D. E.; Mireles, O. R.; Hickman, R. R.; Broadway, J. W.

    2012-01-01

    Deep space missions with large payloads require high specific impulse (I(sub sp)) and relatively high thrust to achieve mission goals in reasonable time frames. Conventional, storable propellants produce average I(sub sp). Nuclear thermal rockets (NTRs) capable of high I(sub sp) thrust have been proposed. NTR employs heat produced by fission reaction to heat and therefore accelerate hydrogen, which is then forced through a rocket nozzle providing thrust. Fuel element temperatures are very high (up to 3,000 K) and hydrogen is highly reactive with most materials at high temperatures. Data covering the effects of high-temperature hydrogen exposure on fuel elements are limited. The primary concern is the mechanical failure of fuel elements that employ high melting point metals, ceramics, or a combination (cermet) as a structural matrix into which the nuclear fuel is distributed. It is not necessary to include fissile material in test samples intended to explore high-temperature hydrogen exposure of the structural support matrices. A small-scale test bed designed to heat fuel element samples via noncontact radio frequency heating and expose samples to hydrogen for typical mission durations has been developed to assist in optimal material and manufacturing process selection without employing fissile material. This Technical Memorandum details the test bed design and results of testing conducted to date.

  11. Monitoring arrangement for vented nuclear fuel elements

    DOEpatents

    Campana, Robert J.

    1981-01-01

    In a nuclear fuel reactor core, fuel elements are arranged in a closely packed hexagonal configuration, each fuel element having diametrically opposed vents permitting 180.degree. rotation of the fuel elements to counteract bowing. A grid plate engages the fuel elements and forms passages for communicating sets of three, four or six individual vents with respective monitor lines in order to communicate vented radioactive gases from the fuel elements to suitable monitor means in a manner readily permitting detection of leakage in individual fuel elements.

  12. Upgraded HFIR Fuel Element Welding System

    SciTech Connect

    Sease, John D

    2010-02-01

    The welding of aluminum-clad fuel plates into aluminum alloy 6061 side plate tubing is a unique design feature of the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) fuel assemblies as 101 full-penetration circumferential gas metal arc welds (GMAW) are required in the fabrication of each assembly. In a HFIR fuel assembly, 540 aluminum-clad fuel plates are assembled into two nested annular fuel elements 610 mm (24-inches) long. The welding process for the HFIR fuel elements was developed in the early 1960 s and about 450 HFIR fuel assemblies have been successfully welded using the GMAW process qualified in the 1960 s. In recent years because of the degradation of the electronic and mechanical components in the old HFIR welding system, reportable defects in plate attachment or adapter welds have been present in almost all completed fuel assemblies. In October 2008, a contract was awarded to AMET, Inc., of Rexburg, Idaho, to replace the old welding equipment with standard commercially available welding components to the maximum extent possible while maintaining the qualified HFIR welding process. The upgraded HFIR welding system represents a major improvement in the welding system used in welding HFIR fuel elements for the previous 40 years. In this upgrade, the new inner GMAW torch is a significant advancement over the original inner GMAW torch previously used. The innovative breakthrough in the new inner welding torch design is the way the direction of the cast in the 0.762 mm (0.030-inch) diameter aluminum weld wire is changed so that the weld wire emerging from the contact tip is straight in the plane perpendicular to the welding direction without creating any significant drag resistance in the feeding of the weld wire.

  13. Low cost, lightweight fuel cell elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kindler, Andrew (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    New fuel cell elements for use in liquid feed fuel cells are provided. The elements including biplates and endplates are low in cost, light in weight, and allow high efficiency operation. Electrically conductive elements are also a part of the fuel cell elements.

  14. ARPA advanced fuel cell development

    SciTech Connect

    Dubois, L.H.

    1995-08-01

    Fuel cell technology is currently being developed at the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) for several Department of Defense applications where its inherent advantages such as environmental compatibility, high efficiency, and low noise and vibration are overwhelmingly important. These applications range from man-portable power systems of only a few watts output (e.g., for microclimate cooling and as direct battery replacements) to multimegawatt fixed base systems. The ultimate goal of the ARPA program is to develop an efficient, low-temperature fuel cell power system that operates directly on a military logistics fuel (e.g., DF-2 or JP-8). The absence of a fuel reformer will reduce the size, weight, cost, and complexity of such a unit as well as increase its reliability. In order to reach this goal, ARPA is taking a two-fold, intermediate time-frame approach to: (1) develop a viable, low-temperature proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell that operates directly on a simple hydrocarbon fuel (e.g., methanol or trimethoxymethane) and (2) demonstrate a thermally integrated fuel processor/fuel cell power system operating on a military logistics fuel. This latter program involves solid oxide (SOFC), molten carbonate (MCFC), and phosphoric acid (PAFC) fuel cell technologies and concentrates on the development of efficient fuel processors, impurity scrubbers, and systems integration. A complementary program to develop high performance, light weight H{sub 2}/air PEM and SOFC fuel cell stacks is also underway. Several recent successes of these programs will be highlighted.

  15. Advanced development: Fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramohalli, K.

    1981-01-01

    The solar thermal fuels and chemicals program at Jet Propulsion Laboratory are described. High technology is developed and applied to displace fossil fuel (oil) use in the production/processing of valuable fuels and chemicals. The technical and economic feasibility is demonstrated to extent that enables the industry to participate and commercialize the product. A representative process, namely Furfural production with a bottoming of acetone, butanol and ethanol, is described. Experimental data from all solar production of furfural is discussed. Estimates are given to show the attractiveness of this process, considering its flexibility to be adaptable to dishes, troughs or central receivers. Peat, lignite and low rank coal processing, heavy oil stripping and innovative technologies for process diagnostics and control are mentioned as examples of current projects under intensive development.

  16. Advanced development: Fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramohalli, K.

    1981-05-01

    The solar thermal fuels and chemicals program at Jet Propulsion Laboratory are described. High technology is developed and applied to displace fossil fuel (oil) use in the production/processing of valuable fuels and chemicals. The technical and economic feasibility is demonstrated to extent that enables the industry to participate and commercialize the product. A representative process, namely Furfural production with a bottoming of acetone, butanol and ethanol, is described. Experimental data from all solar production of furfural is discussed. Estimates are given to show the attractiveness of this process, considering its flexibility to be adaptable to dishes, troughs or central receivers. Peat, lignite and low rank coal processing, heavy oil stripping and innovative technologies for process diagnostics and control are mentioned as examples of current projects under intensive development.

  17. Fuel elements of thermionic converters

    SciTech Connect

    Hunter, R.L.; Gontar, A.S.; Nelidov, M.V.; Nikolaev, Yu.V.; Schulepov, L.N.

    1997-01-01

    Work on thermionic nuclear power systems has been performed in Russia within the framework of the TOPAZ reactor program since the early 1960s. In the TOPAZ in-core thermionic convertor reactor design, the fuel element`s cladding is also the thermionic convertor`s emitter. Deformation of the emitter can lead to short-circuiting and is the primary cause of premature TRC failure. Such deformation can be the result of fuel swelling, thermocycling, or increased unilateral pressure on the emitter due to the release of gaseous fission products. Much of the work on TRCs has concentrated on preventing or mitigating emitter deformation by improving the following materials and structures: nuclear fuel; emitter materials; electrical insulators; moderator and reflector materials; and gas-exhaust device. In addition, considerable effort has been directed toward the development of experimental techniques that accurately mimic operational conditions and toward the creation of analytical and numerical models that allow operational conditions and behavior to be predicted without the expense and time demands of in-pile tests. New and modified materials and structures for the cores of thermionic NPSs and new fabrication processes for the materials have ensured the possibility of creating thermionic NPSs for a wide range of powers, from tens to several hundreds of kilowatts, with life spans of 5 to 10 years.

  18. Advanced fuel cell development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierce, R. D.; Baumert, B.; Claar, T. D.; Fousek, R. J.; Huang, H. S.; Kaun, T. D.; Krumpelt, M.; Minh, N.; Mrazek, F. C.; Poeppel, R. B.

    1985-01-01

    Fuel cell research and development activities at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) during the period January through March 1984 are described. These efforts have been directed principally toward seeking alternative cathode materials to NiO for molten carbonate fuel cells. Based on an investigation of the thermodynamically stable phases formed under cathode conditions, a number of prospective alternative cathode materials have been identified. From the list of candidates, LiFeO2, Li2MnO3, and ZnO were selected for further investigation. During this quarter, they were doped to promote conductivity and tested for solubility and ion migration in the cell environment. An investigation directed to understanding in cell densification of anode materials was initiated. In addition, calculations were made to evaluate the practicality of controlling sulfur accumulation in molten carbonate fuel cells by bleed off of a portion of the anode gas that could be recycled to the cathode. In addition, a model is being developed to predict the performance of solid oxide fuel cells as a function of cell design and operation.

  19. Advanced fuel chemistry for advanced engines.

    SciTech Connect

    Taatjes, Craig A.; Jusinski, Leonard E.; Zador, Judit; Fernandes, Ravi X.; Miller, James A.

    2009-09-01

    Autoignition chemistry is central to predictive modeling of many advanced engine designs that combine high efficiency and low inherent pollutant emissions. This chemistry, and especially its pressure dependence, is poorly known for fuels derived from heavy petroleum and for biofuels, both of which are becoming increasingly prominent in the nation's fuel stream. We have investigated the pressure dependence of key ignition reactions for a series of molecules representative of non-traditional and alternative fuels. These investigations combined experimental characterization of hydroxyl radical production in well-controlled photolytically initiated oxidation and a hybrid modeling strategy that linked detailed quantum chemistry and computational kinetics of critical reactions with rate-equation models of the global chemical system. Comprehensive mechanisms for autoignition generally ignore the pressure dependence of branching fractions in the important alkyl + O{sub 2} reaction systems; however we have demonstrated that pressure-dependent 'formally direct' pathways persist at in-cylinder pressures.

  20. METHOD OF MAKING FUEL ELEMENTS

    DOEpatents

    Bean, C.H.; Macherey, R.E.

    1959-12-01

    A method is described for fabricating fuel elements, particularly for enclosing a plate of metal with a second metal by inserting the plate into an aperture of a frame of a second plate, placing a sheet of the second metal on each of opposite faces of the assembled plate and frame, purging with an inert gas the air from the space within the frame and the sheets while sealing the seams between the frame and the sheets, exhausting the space, purging the space with air, re-exhausting the spaces, sealing the second aperture, and applying heat and pressure to bond the sheets, the plate, and the frame to one another.

  1. Advanced optical document security elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Škereš, Marek; Svoboda, Jakub; Possolt, Martin; Květoš, Milan; Fiala, Pavel

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Synthetic diffractive structures represent an important tool in the optical document security. Their macroscopic visual behavior is based on properties of a very fine micro-structure which cannot be copied using common copying techniques. The visual effects can be easily observed by a common observer without any special inspection tools. However, when a high level of security is needed, additional features are often included based on an optical encryption of information. In this paper, a novel encryption technique is presented, which is based on utilizing the plastic holographic foil as a waveguide and special diffractive structures as coupling elements. When an in-coupling area is illuminated with a defined light beam, the light is coupled into the waveguide and travels to an out-coupling part. The encrypted information is encoded either in the shape of the out-coupling area or it can be formed from an out-coupling hologram in free space above the element. Both laser and normal white light sources can be used for reading the information. The coupling areas can be mixed with diffractive micro-structures forming visual effects and can be invisible during a normal observation of the hologram. The couplers can be realized using the technology fully compatible with the standard process for mastering and replication of the security elements. Several extensions of the described idea of waveguide cryptograms are also included. Finally, a set of real samples of the security elements is presented, which were realized using an advanced matrix laser lithography technique.

  2. Advanced thermally stable jet fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Schobert, H.H.

    1999-01-31

    The Pennsylvania State University program in advanced thermally stable coal-based jet fuels has five broad objectives: (1) Development of mechanisms of degradation and solids formation; (2) Quantitative measurement of growth of sub-micrometer and micrometer-sized particles suspended in fuels during thermal stressing; (3) Characterization of carbonaceous deposits by various instrumental and microscopic methods; (4) Elucidation of the role of additives in retarding the formation of carbonaceous solids; (5) Assessment of the potential of production of high yields of cycloalkanes by direct liquefaction of coal. Future high-Mach aircraft will place severe thermal demands on jet fuels, requiring the development of novel, hybrid fuel mixtures capable of withstanding temperatures in the range of 400--500 C. In the new aircraft, jet fuel will serve as both an energy source and a heat sink for cooling the airframe, engine, and system components. The ultimate development of such advanced fuels requires a thorough understanding of the thermal decomposition behavior of jet fuels under supercritical conditions. Considering that jet fuels consist of hundreds of compounds, this task must begin with a study of the thermal degradation behavior of select model compounds under supercritical conditions. The research performed by The Pennsylvania State University was focused on five major tasks that reflect the objectives stated above: Task 1: Investigation of the Quantitative Degradation of Fuels; Task 2: Investigation of Incipient Deposition; Task 3: Characterization of Solid Gums, Sediments, and Carbonaceous Deposits; Task 4: Coal-Based Fuel Stabilization Studies; and Task 5: Exploratory Studies on the Direct Conversion of Coal to High Quality Jet Fuels. The major findings of each of these tasks are presented in this executive summary. A description of the sub-tasks performed under each of these tasks and the findings of those studies are provided in the remainder of this volume

  3. ADVANCED FUELS CAMPAIGN 2013 ACCOMPLISHMENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Not Listed

    2013-10-01

    The mission of the Advanced Fuels Campaign (AFC) is to perform Research, Development, and Demonstration (RD&D) activities for advanced fuel forms (including cladding) to enhance the performance and safety of the nation’s current and future reactors; enhance proliferation resistance of nuclear fuel; effectively utilize nuclear energy resources; and address the longer-term waste management challenges. This includes development of a state-of-the art Research and Development (R&D) infrastructure to support the use of “goal-oriented science-based approach.” In support of the Fuel Cycle Research and Development (FCRD) program, AFC is responsible for developing advanced fuels technologies to support the various fuel cycle options defined in the Department of Energy (DOE) Nuclear Energy Research and Development Roadmap, Report to Congress, April 2010. Accomplishments made during fiscal year (FY) 2013 are highlighted in this report, which focuses on completed work and results. The process details leading up to the results are not included; however, the technical contact is provided for each section.

  4. Advanced Nuclear Fuel Cycle Options

    SciTech Connect

    Roald Wigeland; Temitope Taiwo; Michael Todosow; William Halsey; Jess Gehin

    2010-06-01

    A systematic evaluation has been conducted of the potential for advanced nuclear fuel cycle strategies and options to address the issues ascribed to the use of nuclear power. Issues included nuclear waste management, proliferation risk, safety, security, economics and affordability, and sustainability. The two basic strategies, once-through and recycle, and the range of possibilities within each strategy, are considered for all aspects of the fuel cycle including options for nuclear material irradiation, separations if needed, and disposal. Options range from incremental changes to today’s implementation to revolutionary concepts that would require the development of advanced nuclear technologies.

  5. Advanced Fuels Campaign Execution Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Kemal Pasamehmetoglu

    2010-10-01

    The purpose of the Advanced Fuels Campaign (AFC) Execution Plan is to communicate the structure and management of research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) activities within the Fuel Cycle Research and Development (FCRD) program. Included in this document is an overview of the FCRD program, a description of the difference between revolutionary and evolutionary approaches to nuclear fuel development, the meaning of science-based development of nuclear fuels, and the “Grand Challenge” for the AFC that would, if achieved, provide a transformational technology to the nuclear industry in the form of a high performance, high reliability nuclear fuel system. The activities that will be conducted by the AFC to achieve success towards this grand challenge are described and the goals and milestones over the next 20 to 40 year period of research and development are established.

  6. Advanced Fuels Campaign Execution Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Kemal Pasamehmetoglu

    2011-09-01

    The purpose of the Advanced Fuels Campaign (AFC) Execution Plan is to communicate the structure and management of research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) activities within the Fuel Cycle Research and Development (FCRD) program. Included in this document is an overview of the FCRD program, a description of the difference between revolutionary and evolutionary approaches to nuclear fuel development, the meaning of science-based development of nuclear fuels, and the 'Grand Challenge' for the AFC that would, if achieved, provide a transformational technology to the nuclear industry in the form of a high performance, high reliability nuclear fuel system. The activities that will be conducted by the AFC to achieve success towards this grand challenge are described and the goals and milestones over the next 20 to 40 year period of research and development are established.

  7. FUEL-BREEDER FUEL ELEMENT FOR NUCLEAR REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Abbott, W.E.; Balent, R.

    1958-09-16

    A fuel element design to facilitate breeding reactor fuel is described. The fuel element is comprised of a coatainer, a central core of fertile material in the container, a first bonding material surrounding the core, a sheet of fissionable material immediately surrounding the first bonding material, and a second bonding material surrounding the fissionable material and being in coniact with said container.

  8. Rack for storing spent nuclear fuel elements

    DOEpatents

    Rubinstein, Herbert J.; Clark, Philip M.; Gilcrest, James D.

    1978-06-20

    A rack for storing spent nuclear fuel elements in which a plurality of aligned rows of upright enclosures of generally square cross-sectional areas contain vertically disposed fuel elements. The enclosures are fixed at the lower ends thereof to a base. Pockets are formed between confronting walls of adjacent enclosures for receiving high absorption neutron absorbers, such as Boral, cadmium, borated stainless steel and the like for the closer spacing of spent fuel elements.

  9. Advanced Fuel Cycle Cost Basis

    SciTech Connect

    D. E. Shropshire; K. A. Williams; W. B. Boore; J. D. Smith; B. W. Dixon; M. Dunzik-Gougar; R. D. Adams; D. Gombert; E. Schneider

    2008-03-01

    This report, commissioned by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), provides a comprehensive set of cost data supporting a cost analysis for the relative economic comparison of options for use in the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) Program. The report describes the AFCI cost basis development process, reference information on AFCI cost modules, a procedure for estimating fuel cycle costs, economic evaluation guidelines, and a discussion on the integration of cost data into economic computer models. This report contains reference cost data for 25 cost modules—23 fuel cycle cost modules and 2 reactor modules. The cost modules were developed in the areas of natural uranium mining and milling, conversion, enrichment, depleted uranium disposition, fuel fabrication, interim spent fuel storage, reprocessing, waste conditioning, spent nuclear fuel (SNF) packaging, long-term monitored retrievable storage, near surface disposal of low-level waste (LLW), geologic repository and other disposal concepts, and transportation processes for nuclear fuel, LLW, SNF, transuranic, and high-level waste.

  10. Advanced Fuel Cycle Cost Basis

    SciTech Connect

    D. E. Shropshire; K. A. Williams; W. B. Boore; J. D. Smith; B. W. Dixon; M. Dunzik-Gougar; R. D. Adams; D. Gombert

    2007-04-01

    This report, commissioned by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), provides a comprehensive set of cost data supporting a cost analysis for the relative economic comparison of options for use in the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) Program. The report describes the AFCI cost basis development process, reference information on AFCI cost modules, a procedure for estimating fuel cycle costs, economic evaluation guidelines, and a discussion on the integration of cost data into economic computer models. This report contains reference cost data for 26 cost modules—24 fuel cycle cost modules and 2 reactor modules. The cost modules were developed in the areas of natural uranium mining and milling, conversion, enrichment, depleted uranium disposition, fuel fabrication, interim spent fuel storage, reprocessing, waste conditioning, spent nuclear fuel (SNF) packaging, long-term monitored retrievable storage, near surface disposal of low-level waste (LLW), geologic repository and other disposal concepts, and transportation processes for nuclear fuel, LLW, SNF, and high-level waste.

  11. Advanced Fuel Cycle Cost Basis

    SciTech Connect

    D. E. Shropshire; K. A. Williams; W. B. Boore; J. D. Smith; B. W. Dixon; M. Dunzik-Gougar; R. D. Adams; D. Gombert; E. Schneider

    2009-12-01

    This report, commissioned by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), provides a comprehensive set of cost data supporting a cost analysis for the relative economic comparison of options for use in the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) Program. The report describes the AFCI cost basis development process, reference information on AFCI cost modules, a procedure for estimating fuel cycle costs, economic evaluation guidelines, and a discussion on the integration of cost data into economic computer models. This report contains reference cost data for 25 cost modules—23 fuel cycle cost modules and 2 reactor modules. The cost modules were developed in the areas of natural uranium mining and milling, conversion, enrichment, depleted uranium disposition, fuel fabrication, interim spent fuel storage, reprocessing, waste conditioning, spent nuclear fuel (SNF) packaging, long-term monitored retrievable storage, near surface disposal of low-level waste (LLW), geologic repository and other disposal concepts, and transportation processes for nuclear fuel, LLW, SNF, transuranic, and high-level waste.

  12. Visual examinations of K east fuel elements

    SciTech Connect

    Pitner, A.L., Fluor Daniel Hanford

    1997-02-03

    Selected fuel elements stored in both ``good fuel`` and ``bad fuel`` canisters in K East Basin were extracted and visually examined full length for damage. Lower end damage in the ``bad fuel`` canisters was found to be more severe than expected based on top end appearances. Lower end damage for the ``good fuel`` canisters, however, was less than expected based on top end observations. Since about half of the fuel in K East Basin is contained in ``good fuel`` canisters based on top end assessments, the fraction of fuel projected to be intact with respect to IPS processing considerations remains at 50% based on these examination results.

  13. Nuclear propulsion technology advanced fuels technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stark, Walter A., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    Viewgraphs on advanced fuels technology are presented. Topics covered include: nuclear thermal propulsion reactor and fuel requirements; propulsion efficiency and temperature; uranium fuel compounds; melting point experiments; fabrication techniques; and sintered microspheres.

  14. Advanced Thermally Stable Jet Fuels

    SciTech Connect

    A. Boehman; C. Song; H. H. Schobert; M. M. Coleman; P. G. Hatcher; S. Eser

    1998-01-01

    The Penn State program in advanced thermally stable jet fuels has five components: 1) development of mechanisms of degradation and solids formation; 2) quantitative measurement of growth of sub-micrometer and micrometer-sized particles during thermal stressing; 3) characterization of carbonaceous deposits by various instrumental and microscopic methods; 4) elucidation of the role of additives in retarding the formation of carbonaceous solids; and 5) assessment of the potential of producing high yields of cycloalkanes and hydroaromatics from coal.

  15. DISSOLUTION OF ZIRCONIUM-CONTAINING FUEL ELEMENTS

    DOEpatents

    Horn, F.L.

    1961-12-12

    Uranium is recovered from spent uranium fuel elements containing or clad with zirconium. These fuel elements are placed in an anhydrous solution of hydrogen fluoride and nitrogen dioxide. Within this system uranium forms a soluble complex and zirconium forms an insoluble complex. The uranium can then be separated, treated, and removed from solution as uranium hexafluoride. (AEC)

  16. NEUTRONIC REACTOR AND FUEL ELEMENT THEREFOR

    DOEpatents

    Szilard, L.; Young, G.J.

    1958-03-01

    This patent relates to a reactor design of the type which employs solid fuel elements disposed in channels within the moderator through which channels and around the fuel elements is conveyed a coolant fiuid. The coolant channels are comprised of aluminum tubes extending through a solid moderator such as graphite and the fuel elements are comprised of an elongated solid body of natural uranium jacketed in an aluminum jacket with the ends thereof closed by aluminum caps of substantially greater thickness than the jacket was and in good thermal contact with the fuel material to facilitate the conduction of heat from the central portion of said ends to the coolant surrounding the fuel element to prevent overheating of said central portion.

  17. Advanced Fuels Campaign FY 2015 Accomplishments Report

    SciTech Connect

    Braase, Lori Ann; Carmack, William Jonathan

    2015-10-29

    The mission of the Advanced Fuels Campaign (AFC) is to perform research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) activities for advanced fuel forms (including cladding) to enhance the performance and safety of the nation’s current and future reactors; enhance proliferation resistance of nuclear fuel; effectively utilize nuclear energy resources; and address the longer-term waste management challenges. This report is a compilation of technical accomplishment summaries for FY-15. Emphasis is on advanced accident-tolerant LWR fuel systems, advanced transmutation fuels technologies, and capability development.

  18. Advanced spacecraft fuel cell systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thaller, L. H.

    1972-01-01

    The development and characteristics of advanced spacecraft fuel cell systems are discussed. The system is designed to operate on low pressure, propulsion grade hydrogen and oxygen. The specific goals are 10,000 hours of operation with refurbishment, 20 pounds per kilowatt at a sustained power of 7 KW, and 21 KW peaking capability for durations of two hours. The system rejects waste heat to the spacecraft cooling system at power levels up to 7 KW. At higher powers, the system automatically transfers to open cycle operation with overboard steam venting.

  19. MRT fuel element inspection at Dounreay

    SciTech Connect

    Gibson, J.

    1997-08-01

    To ensure that their production and inspection processes are performed in an acceptable manner, ie. auditable and traceable, the MTR Fuel Element Fabrication Plant at Dounreay operates to a documented quality system. This quality system, together with the fuel element manufacturing and inspection operations, has been independently certified to ISO9002-1987, EN29002-1987 and BS5750:Pt2:1987 by Lloyd`s Register Quality Assurance Limited (LRQA). This certification also provides dual accreditation to the relevant German, Dutch and Australian certification bodies. This paper briefly describes the quality system, together with the various inspection stages involved in the manufacture of MTR fuel elements at Dounreay.

  20. 34. DETAILS AND SECTIONS OF SHIELDING TANK FUEL ELEMENT SUPPORT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    34. DETAILS AND SECTIONS OF SHIELDING TANK FUEL ELEMENT SUPPORT FRAME. F.C. TORKELSON DRAWING NUMBER 842-ARVFS-701-S-4. INEL INDEX CODE NUMBER: 075 0701 60 851 151978. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Advanced Reentry Vehicle Fusing System, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  1. 36. DETAILS AND SECTIONS OF SHIELDING TANK, FUEL ELEMENT SUPPORT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    36. DETAILS AND SECTIONS OF SHIELDING TANK, FUEL ELEMENT SUPPORT FRAME AND SUPPORT PLATFORM, AND SAFETY MECHANISM ASSEMBLY (SPRING-LOADED HINGE). F.C. TORKELSON DRAWING NUMBER 842-ARVFS-701-S-1. INEL INDEX CODE NUMBER: 075 0701 60 851 151975. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Advanced Reentry Vehicle Fusing System, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  2. Methods for making a porous nuclear fuel element

    DOEpatents

    Youchison, Dennis L; Williams, Brian E; Benander, Robert E

    2014-12-30

    Porous nuclear fuel elements for use in advanced high temperature gas-cooled nuclear reactors (HTGR's), and to processes for fabricating them. Advanced uranium bi-carbide, uranium tri-carbide and uranium carbonitride nuclear fuels can be used. These fuels have high melting temperatures, high thermal conductivity, and high resistance to erosion by hot hydrogen gas. Tri-carbide fuels, such as (U,Zr,Nb)C, can be fabricated using chemical vapor infiltration (CVI) to simultaneously deposit each of the three separate carbides, e.g., UC, ZrC, and NbC in a single CVI step. By using CVI, the nuclear fuel may be deposited inside of a highly porous skeletal structure made of, for example, reticulated vitreous carbon foam.

  3. Identification of failed fuel element

    DOEpatents

    Fryer, Richard M.; Matlock, Robert G.

    1976-06-22

    A passive fission product gas trap is provided in the upper portion of each fuel subassembly in a nuclear reactor. The gas trap consists of an inverted funnel of less diameter than the subassembly having a valve at the apex thereof. An actuating rod extends upwardly from the valve through the subassembly to a point where it can be contacted by the fuel handling mechanism for the reactor. Interrogation of the subassembly for the presence of fission products is accomplished by lowering the fuel handling machine onto the subassembly to press down on the actuating rod and open the valve.

  4. Apparatus for inspecting fuel elements

    DOEpatents

    Kaiser, B.J.; Oakley, D.J.; Groves, O.J.

    1984-12-21

    This disclosure describes an alpha monitor usable in an automated nuclear fuel pin loading and processing unit. Fuel pins or other elongated pins are fed laterally into the alpha monitor in a singular fashion and are translated by a first roller assembly into a weld flare machining and decontamination substation not forming a part of the invention. Pins return and are lifted upwardly and transferred across to a combined pin lifting and electrode operating means which lifts the pins upwardly into a clamshell electrode assembly which is spread open by a combined pin lifting and electrode operating means. Once inserted the clamshell type electrode arrangement closes around the fuel pins so that inspection can occur. Fuel pins are inspected by charging electrodes to a negative potential and measuring the change in charge occurring when positively charged alpha particles strike the negatively charged electrodes. After inspection, the fuel pins are lowered by the pin lifting and electrode operating means into a second roller assembly which longitudinally conveys approved pins from the airtight enclosure in which the alpha monitor is mounted. If the fuel pins are rejected then they are moved laterally by a second transfer means and onto another system for further processing.

  5. Apparatus for inspecting fuel elements

    DOEpatents

    Oakley, David J.; Groves, Oliver J.; Kaiser, Bruce J.

    1986-01-01

    Disclosed is an alpha monitor usable in an automated nuclear fuel pin loading and processing unit. Fuel pins or other elongated pins are fed laterally into the alpha monitor in a singular fashion and are translated by a first roller assembly into a weld flare machining and decontamination substation not forming a part of the invention. Pins return and are lifted upwardly and transferred across to a combined pin lifting and electrode operating means which lifts the pins upwardly into a clamshell electrode assembly which is spread open by a combined pin lifting and electrode operating means. Once inserted the clamshell type electrode arrangement closes around the fuel pins so that inspection can occur. Fuel pins are inspected by charging electrodes to a negative potential and measuring the change in charge occurring when positively charged alpha particles strike the negatively charged electrodes. After inspection, the fuel pins are lowered by the pin lifting and electrode operating means into a second roller assembly which longitudinally conveys approved pins from the airtight enclosure in which the alpha monitor is mounted. If the fuel pins are rejected then they are moved laterally by a second transfer means and onto another system for further processing.

  6. Volume reduction of spent fuel elements for direct disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Wasserfuhr, I.C.

    1995-12-31

    The method of direct disposal of spent fuel elements provides the placing of fuel and non-fuel elements into the POLLUX final disposal casks. It is, however, necessary to disassemble the fuel elements into fuel rods and structural parts. While the fuel rods are condensed, the remaining structure is treated further with a 500-t skeleton press to minimize the volume.

  7. Fuel elements of research reactor CM

    SciTech Connect

    Kozlov, A.V.; Morozov, A.V.; Vatulin, A.V.; Ershov, S.A.

    2013-07-01

    In 1961 the CM research reactor was commissioned at the Research Institute of Atomic Reactors (Dimitrovgrad, Russia), it was intended to carry on investigations and the production of transuranium nuclides. The reactor is of a tank type. Original fuel assembly contained plate fuels that were spaced with vanes and corrugated bands. Nickel was used as a cladding material, fuel meat was produced from UO{sub 2} + electrolytic nickel composition. Fuel plates have been replaced by self-spacing cross-shaped dispersion fuels clad in stainless steel. In 2005 the reactor was updated. The purpose of this updating was to increase the quantity of irradiation channels in the reactor core and to improve the neutron balance. The updating was implemented at the expense of 20 % reduction in the quantity of fuel elements in the core which released a space for extra channels and decreased the mass of structural materials in the core. The updated reactor is loaded with modified standard fuel elements with 20 % higher uranium masses. At the same time stainless steel in fuel assembly shrouds was substituted by zirconium alloy. Today in progress are investigations and work to promote the second stage of reactor updating that involve developments of cross-shaped fuel elements having low neutron absorption matrix materials. This article gives an historical account of the design and main technical changes that occurred for the CM reactor since its commissioning.

  8. Waste Management Planned for the Advanced Fuel Cycle Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Soelberg

    2007-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) program has been proposed to develop and employ advanced technologies to increase the proliferation resistance of spent nuclear fuels, recover and reuse nuclear fuel resources, and reduce the amount of wastes requiring permanent geological disposal. In the initial GNEP fuel cycle concept, spent nuclear fuel is to be reprocessed to separate re-useable transuranic elements and uranium from waste fission products, for fabricating new fuel for fast reactors. The separated wastes would be converted to robust waste forms for disposal. The Advanced Fuel Cycle Facility (AFCF) is proposed by DOE for developing and demonstrating spent nuclear fuel recycling technologies and systems. The AFCF will include capabilities for receiving and reprocessing spent fuel and fabricating new nuclear fuel from the reprocessed spent fuel. Reprocessing and fuel fabrication activities will generate a variety of radioactive and mixed waste streams. Some of these waste streams are unique and unprecedented. The GNEP vision challenges traditional U.S. radioactive waste policies and regulations. Product and waste streams have been identified during conceptual design. Waste treatment technologies have been proposed based on the characteristics of the waste streams and the expected requirements for the final waste forms. Results of AFCF operations will advance new technologies that will contribute to safe and economical commercial spent fuel reprocessing facilities needed to meet the GNEP vision. As conceptual design work and research and design continues, the waste management strategies for the AFCF are expected to also evolve.

  9. Chemical Kinetic Modeling of Advanced Transportation Fuels

    SciTech Connect

    PItz, W J; Westbrook, C K; Herbinet, O

    2009-01-20

    Development of detailed chemical kinetic models for advanced petroleum-based and nonpetroleum based fuels is a difficult challenge because of the hundreds to thousands of different components in these fuels and because some of these fuels contain components that have not been considered in the past. It is important to develop detailed chemical kinetic models for these fuels since the models can be put into engine simulation codes used for optimizing engine design for maximum efficiency and minimal pollutant emissions. For example, these chemistry-enabled engine codes can be used to optimize combustion chamber shape and fuel injection timing. They also allow insight into how the composition of advanced petroleum-based and non-petroleum based fuels affect engine performance characteristics. Additionally, chemical kinetic models can be used separately to interpret important in-cylinder experimental data and gain insight into advanced engine combustion processes such as HCCI and lean burn engines. The objectives are: (1) Develop detailed chemical kinetic reaction models for components of advanced petroleum-based and non-petroleum based fuels. These fuels models include components from vegetable-oil-derived biodiesel, oil-sand derived fuel, alcohol fuels and other advanced bio-based and alternative fuels. (2) Develop detailed chemical kinetic reaction models for mixtures of non-petroleum and petroleum-based components to represent real fuels and lead to efficient reduced combustion models needed for engine modeling codes. (3) Characterize the role of fuel composition on efficiency and pollutant emissions from practical automotive engines.

  10. NEUTRONIC REACTOR FUEL ELEMENT AND CORE SYSTEM

    DOEpatents

    Moore, W.T.

    1958-09-01

    This patent relates to neutronic reactors and in particular to an improved fuel element and a novel reactor core system for facilitating removal of contaminating fission products, as they are fermed, from association with the flssionable fuel, so as to mitigate the interferent effects of such fission products during reactor operation. The fuel elements are comprised of tubular members impervious to fluid and contatning on their interior surfaces a thin layer of fissionable material providing a central void. The core structure is comprised of a plurality of the tubular fuel elements arranged in parallel and a closed manifold connected to their ends. In the reactor the core structure is dispersed in a water moderator and coolant within a pressure vessel, and a means connected to said manifuld is provided for withdrawing and disposing of mobile fission product contamination from the interior of the feel tubes and manifold.

  11. Identification of leaking TRIGA fuel elements

    SciTech Connect

    Bennion, John S.; Crawford, Kevan C.; Gansauge, Todd C.; Sandquist, Gary M.

    1990-07-01

    The 100 kW TRIGA Mark I Nuclear Reactor at the University of Utah achieved initial criticality in October, 1975. Previously irradiated fuel consisting of stainless-steel- and aluminum-clad elements was acquired from the University of Arizona and the U.S. Army's Harry Diamond Laboratories in Adelphi, Maryland. Past core configurations have been comprised of both types of fuel with the aluminum-clad elements normally restricted to outer hexagonal rings of the core to provide a large safety margin between actual fuel temperature and limits set forth in the facility Technical Specifications. On October 20, 1987, trace cesium-137 contamination was discovered during routine analysis of the ion-exchange resin in the demineralizer circuit. The presence of Cs-137 indicated a possible clad defect resulting in the leakage of fission products. Reactor operations were allowed only to assist in identifying the source of the leakage. Pool water samples obtained following a two-hour operation at full power were spectroscopically analyzed and found to contain very small amounts of short-lived noble gases (e.g., Kr-85m, Kr-87, Kr-88, Xe-138) and their decay daughter products (e.g., Rb-88, Cs-138). Samples of the gaseous effluent from the facility collected in activated charcoal canisters showed no indication of fission product contamination. The small amount of activity released to the pool water suggested that a single defective element was responsible for the leakage. The instrumented fuel element and the aluminum-clad fuel were initially suspected as sources of the leakage. A simple scheme was devised to identify the defective element by exchanging four or five elements from the core with fuel in storage and then operating the reactor at 90 kW power for two hours. A pool water sample was then taken and analyzed to determine if the damaged element had been removed from the core. This process was repeated several times until all of the aluminum-clad fuel and several stainless

  12. IMPROVED TYPE OF FUEL ELEMENT

    DOEpatents

    Monson, H.O.

    1961-01-24

    A radiator-type fuel block assembly is described. It has a hexagonal body of neutron fissionable material having a plurality of longitudinal equal- spaced coolant channels therein aligned in rows parallel to each face of the hexagonal body. Each of these coolant channels is hexagonally shaped with the corners rounded and enlarged and the assembly has a maximum temperature isothermal line around each channel which is approximately straight and equidistant between adjacent channels.

  13. Uncertainty Analyses of Advanced Fuel Cycles

    SciTech Connect

    Laurence F. Miller; J. Preston; G. Sweder; T. Anderson; S. Janson; M. Humberstone; J. MConn; J. Clark

    2008-12-12

    The Department of Energy is developing technology, experimental protocols, computational methods, systems analysis software, and many other capabilities in order to advance the nuclear power infrastructure through the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFDI). Our project, is intended to facilitate will-informed decision making for the selection of fuel cycle options and facilities for development.

  14. Nuclear fuel elements having a composite cladding

    DOEpatents

    Gordon, Gerald M.; Cowan, II, Robert L.; Davies, John H.

    1983-09-20

    An improved nuclear fuel element is disclosed for use in the core of nuclear reactors. The improved nuclear fuel element has a composite cladding of an outer portion forming a substrate having on the inside surface a metal layer selected from the group consisting of copper, nickel, iron and alloys of the foregoing with a gap between the composite cladding and the core of nuclear fuel. The nuclear fuel element comprises a container of the elongated composite cladding, a central core of a body of nuclear fuel material disposed in and partially filling the container and forming an internal cavity in the container, an enclosure integrally secured and sealed at each end of said container and a nuclear fuel material retaining means positioned in the cavity. The metal layer of the composite cladding prevents perforations or failures in the cladding substrate from stress corrosion cracking or from fuel pellet-cladding interaction or both. The substrate of the composite cladding is selected from conventional cladding materials and preferably is a zirconium alloy.

  15. Advanced ceramic cladding for water reactor fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Feinroth, H.

    2000-07-01

    Under the US Department of Energy's Nuclear Energy Research Initiatives (NERI) program, continuous fiber ceramic composites (CFCCs) are being developed as cladding for water reactor fuel elements. The purpose is to substantially increase the passive safety of water reactors. A development effort was initiated in 1991 to fabricate CFCC-clad tubes using commercially available fibers and a sol-gel process developed by McDermott Technologies. Two small-diameter CFCC tubes were fabricated using pure alumina and alumina-zirconia fibers in an alumina matrix. Densities of {approximately}60% of theoretical were achieved. Higher densities are required to guarantee fission gas containment. This NERI work has just begun, and only preliminary results are presented herein. Should the work prove successful, further development is required to evaluate CFCC cladding and performance, including in-pile tests containing fuel and exploring a marriage of CFCC cladding materials with suitable advanced fuel and core designs. The possibility of much higher temperature core designs, possibly cooled with supercritical water, and achievement of plant efficiencies {ge}50% would be examined.

  16. Nuclear fuel elements made from nanophase materials

    SciTech Connect

    Heubeck, Norman B.

    1997-12-01

    A nuclear reactor core fuel element is composed of nanophase high temperature materials. An array of the fuel elements in rod form are joined in an open geometry fuel cell that preferably also uses such nanophase materials for the cell structures. The particular high temperature nanophase fuel element material must have the appropriate mechanical characteristics to avoid strain-related failure even at high temperatures, in the order of about 3,000 F. Preferably, the reactor type is a pressurized or boiling water reactor and the nanophase material is a high temperature ceramic or ceramic composite. Nanophase metals, or nanophase metals with nanophase ceramics in a composite mixture, also have desirable characteristics, although their temperature capability is not as great as with all ceramic nanophase material. Combinations of conventional or nanophase metals and conventional or nanophase ceramics can be employed as long as there is at least one nanophase material in the composite. The nuclear reactor so constructed has a number of high strength fuel particles, a nanophase structural material for supporting a fuel rod at high temperature, a configuration to allow passive cooling in the event of a primary cooling system failure, an ability to retain a coolable geometry even at high temperatures, an ability to resist generation of hydrogen gas, and a configuration having good nuclear, corrosion and mechanical characteristics.

  17. Nuclear fuel elements made from nanophase materials

    DOEpatents

    Heubeck, Norman B.

    1998-01-01

    A nuclear reactor core fuel element is composed of nanophase high temperature materials. An array of the fuel elements in rod form are joined in an open geometry fuel cell that preferably also uses such nanophase materials for the cell structures. The particular high temperature nanophase fuel element material must have the appropriate mechanical characteristics to avoid strain related failure even at high temperatures, in the order of about 3000.degree. F. Preferably, the reactor type is a pressurized or boiling water reactor and the nanophase material is a high temperature ceramic or ceramic composite. Nanophase metals, or nanophase metals with nanophase ceramics in a composite mixture, also have desirable characteristics, although their temperature capability is not as great as with all-ceramic nanophase material. Combinations of conventional or nanophase metals and conventional or nanophase ceramics can be employed as long as there is at least one nanophase material in the composite. The nuclear reactor so constructed has a number of high strength fuel particles, a nanophase structural material for supporting a fuel rod at high temperature, a configuration to allow passive cooling in the event of a primary cooling system failure, an ability to retain a coolable geometry even at high temperatures, an ability to resist generation of hydrogen gas, and a configuration having good nuclear, corrosion, and mechanical characteristics.

  18. Nuclear fuel elements made from nanophase materials

    DOEpatents

    Heubeck, N.B.

    1998-09-08

    A nuclear reactor core fuel element is composed of nanophase high temperature materials. An array of the fuel elements in rod form are joined in an open geometry fuel cell that preferably also uses such nanophase materials for the cell structures. The particular high temperature nanophase fuel element material must have the appropriate mechanical characteristics to avoid strain related failure even at high temperatures, in the order of about 3000 F. Preferably, the reactor type is a pressurized or boiling water reactor and the nanophase material is a high temperature ceramic or ceramic composite. Nanophase metals, or nanophase metals with nanophase ceramics in a composite mixture, also have desirable characteristics, although their temperature capability is not as great as with all-ceramic nanophase material. Combinations of conventional or nanophase metals and conventional or nanophase ceramics can be employed as long as there is at least one nanophase material in the composite. The nuclear reactor so constructed has a number of high strength fuel particles, a nanophase structural material for supporting a fuel rod at high temperature, a configuration to allow passive cooling in the event of a primary cooling system failure, an ability to retain a coolable geometry even at high temperatures, an ability to resist generation of hydrogen gas, and a configuration having good nuclear, corrosion, and mechanical characteristics. 5 figs.

  19. JACKETED FUEL ELEMENTS FOR GRAPHITE MODERATED REACTORS

    DOEpatents

    Szilard, L.; Wigner, E.P.; Creutz, E.C.

    1959-05-12

    Fuel elements for a heterogeneous, fluid cooled, graphite moderated reactor are described. The fuel elements are comprised of a body of natural uranium hermetically sealed in a jacket of corrosion resistant material. The jacket, which may be aluminum or some other material which is non-fissionable and of a type having a low neutron capture cross-section, acts as a barrier between the fissioning isotope and the coolant or moderator or both. The jacket minimizes the tendency of the moderator and coolant to become radioactive and/or contaminated by fission fragments from the fissioning isotope.

  20. Analysis of the ATR fuel element swaging process

    SciTech Connect

    Richins, W.D.; Miller, G.K.

    1995-12-01

    This report documents a detailed evaluation of the swaging process used to connect fuel plates to side plates in Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) fuel elements. The swaging is a mechanical process that begins with fitting a fuel plate into grooves in the side plates. Once a fuel plate is positioned, a lip on each of two side plate grooves is pressed into the fuel plate using swaging wheels to form the joints. Each connection must have a specified strength (measured in terms, of a pullout force capacity) to assure that these joints do not fail during reactor operation. The purpose of this study is to analyze the swaging process and associated procedural controls, and to provide recommendations to assure that the manufacturing process produces swaged connections that meet the minimum strength requirement. The current fuel element manufacturer, Babcock and Wilcox (B&W) of Lynchburg, Virginia, follows established procedures that include quality inspections and process controls in swaging these connections. The procedures have been approved by Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies and are designed to assure repeatability of the process and structural integrity of each joint. Prior to July 1994, ATR fuel elements were placed in the Hydraulic Test Facility (HTF) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (AGNAIL), Test Reactor Area (TRA) for application of Boehmite (an aluminum oxide) film and for checking structural integrity before placement of the elements into the ATR. The results presented in this report demonstrate that the pullout strength of the swaged connections is assured by the current manufacturing process (with several recommended enhancements) without the need for- testing each element in the HTF.

  1. FUEL ELEMENT AND METHOD OF PREPARATION

    DOEpatents

    Kingston, W.E.

    1961-04-25

    A nuclear fuel element in the form of a wire is reported. A bar of uranium is enclosed in a thin layer of aluminum and the composite is sheathed in beryllium, zirconium, or stainnless steel. The sheathed article is then drawn to wire form, heated to alloy the aluminum with both uranium and sheath, and finally cold worked.

  2. Criticality Safety Evaluation for the Advanced Test Reactor U-Mo Demonstration Elements

    SciTech Connect

    Leland M. Montierth

    2010-12-01

    The Reduced Enrichment Research Test Reactors (RERTR) fuel development program is developing a high uranium density fuel based on a (LEU) uranium-molybdenum alloy. Testing of prototypic RERTR fuel elements is necessary to demonstrate integrated fuel performance behavior and scale-up of fabrication techniques. Two RERTR-Full Size Demonstration fuel elements based on the ATR-Reduced YA elements (all but one plate fueled) are to be fabricated for testing in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR). The two fuel elements will be irradiated in alternating cycles such that only one element is loaded in the reactor at a time. Existing criticality analyses have analyzed Standard (HEU) ATR elements (all plates fueled) from which controls have been derived. This criticality safety evaluation (CSE) documents analysis that determines the reactivity of the Demonstration fuel elements relative to HEU ATR elements and shows that the Demonstration elements are bound by the Standard HEU ATR elements and existing HEU ATR element controls are applicable to the Demonstration elements.

  3. Advanced Fuel Cycle Economic Sensitivity Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    David Shropshire; Kent Williams; J.D. Smith; Brent Boore

    2006-12-01

    A fuel cycle economic analysis was performed on four fuel cycles to provide a baseline for initial cost comparison using the Gen IV Economic Modeling Work Group G4 ECON spreadsheet model, Decision Programming Language software, the 2006 Advanced Fuel Cycle Cost Basis report, industry cost data, international papers, the nuclear power related cost study from MIT, Harvard, and the University of Chicago. The analysis developed and compared the fuel cycle cost component of the total cost of energy for a wide range of fuel cycles including: once through, thermal with fast recycle, continuous fast recycle, and thermal recycle.

  4. Advanced Fuels Campaign FY 2011 Accomplishments Report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Listed

    2011-11-01

    One of the major research and development (R&D) areas under the Fuel Cycle Research and Development (FCRD) program is advanced fuels development. The Advanced Fuels Campaign (AFC) has the responsibility to develop advanced fuel technologies for the Department of Energy (DOE) using a science-based approach focusing on developing a microstructural understanding of nuclear fuels and materials. Accomplishments made during fiscal year (FY 20) 2011 are highlighted in this report, which focuses on completed work and results. The process details leading up to the results are not included; however, the technical contact is provided for each section. The order of the accomplishments in this report is consistent with the AFC work breakdown structure (WBS).

  5. Toxicity of irradiated advanced heavy water reactor fuels.

    PubMed

    Priest, N D; Richardson, R B; Edwards, G W R

    2013-02-01

    The good neutron economy and online refueling capability of the CANDU® heavy water moderated reactor (HWR) enable it to use many different fuels such as low enriched uranium (LEU), plutonium, or thorium, in addition to its traditional natural uranium (NU) fuel. The toxicity and radiological protection methods for these proposed fuels, unlike those for NU, are not well established. This study uses software to compare the fuel composition and toxicity of irradiated NU fuel against those of two irradiated advanced HWR fuel bundles as a function of post-irradiation time. The first bundle investigated is a CANFLEX® low void reactor fuel (LVRF), of which only the dysprosium-poisoned central element, and not the outer 42 LEU elements, is specifically analyzed. The second bundle investigated is a heterogeneous high-burnup (LEU,Th)O(2) fuelled bundle, whose two components (LEU in the outer 35 elements and thorium in the central eight elements) are analyzed separately. The LVRF central element was estimated to have a much lower toxicity than that of NU at all times after shutdown. Both the high burnup LEU and the thorium fuel had similar toxicity to NU at shutdown, but due to the creation of such inhalation hazards as (238)Pu, (240)Pu, (242)Am, (242)Cm, and (244)Cm (in high burnup LEU), and (232)U and (228)Th (in irradiated thorium), the toxicity of these fuels was almost double that of irradiated NU after 2,700 d of cooling. New urine bioassay methods for higher actinoids and the analysis of thorium in fecal samples are recommended to assess the internal dose from these two fuels. PMID:23274823

  6. Induction Heating Model of Cermet Fuel Element Environmental Test (CFEET)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gomez, Carlos F.; Bradley, D. E.; Cavender, D. P.; Mireles, O. R.; Hickman, R. R.; Trent, D.; Stewart, E.

    2013-01-01

    Deep space missions with large payloads require high specific impulse and relatively high thrust to achieve mission goals in reasonable time frames. Nuclear Thermal Rockets (NTR) are capable of producing a high specific impulse by employing heat produced by a fission reactor to heat and therefore accelerate hydrogen through a rocket nozzle providing thrust. Fuel element temperatures are very high (up to 3000 K) and hydrogen is highly reactive with most materials at high temperatures. Data covering the effects of high-temperature hydrogen exposure on fuel elements are limited. The primary concern is the mechanical failure of fuel elements due to large thermal gradients; therefore, high-melting-point ceramics-metallic matrix composites (cermets) are one of the fuels under consideration as part of the Nuclear Cryogenic Propulsion Stage (NCPS) Advance Exploration System (AES) technology project at the Marshall Space Flight Center. The purpose of testing and analytical modeling is to determine their ability to survive and maintain thermal performance in a prototypical NTR reactor environment of exposure to hydrogen at very high temperatures and obtain data to assess the properties of the non-nuclear support materials. The fission process and the resulting heating performance are well known and do not require that active fissile material to be integrated in this testing. A small-scale test bed; Compact Fuel Element Environmental Tester (CFEET), designed to heat fuel element samples via induction heating and expose samples to hydrogen is being developed at MSFC to assist in optimal material and manufacturing process selection without utilizing fissile material. This paper details the analytical approach to help design and optimize the test bed using COMSOL Multiphysics for predicting thermal gradients induced by electromagnetic heating (Induction heating) and Thermal Desktop for radiation calculations.

  7. Advanced Biorefineries for Production of Fuel Ethanol

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This review, "Advanced biorefineries for production of fuel ethanol," is a chapter in the Wiley book entitled Biomass to Biofuels: Strategies for Global Industries and is intended to cover all major ethanol production processes to date. The chapter discusses current fuel ethanol production processe...

  8. Physics challenges for advanced fuel cycle assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Giuseppe Palmiotti; Massimo Salvatores; Gerardo Aliberti

    2014-06-01

    Advanced fuel cycles and associated optimized reactor designs will require substantial improvements in key research area to meet new and more challenging requirements. The present paper reviews challenges and issues in the field of reactor and fuel cycle physics. Typical examples are discussed with, in some cases, original results.

  9. Liquid fuel injection elements for rocket engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cox, George B., Jr. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    Thrust chambers for liquid propellant rocket engines include three principal components. One of these components is an injector which contains a plurality of injection elements to meter the flow of propellants at a predetermined rate, and fuel to oxidizer mixture ratio, to introduce the mixture into the combustion chamber, and to cause them to be atomized within the combustion chamber so that even combustion takes place. Evolving from these injectors are tube injectors. These tube injectors have injection elements for injecting the oxidizer into the combustion chamber. The oxidizer and fuel must be metered at predetermined rates and mixture ratios in order to mix them within the combustion chamber so that combustion takes place smoothly and completely. Hence tube injectors are subject to improvement. An injection element for a liquid propellant rocket engine of the bipropellant type is provided which includes tangential fuel metering orifices, and a plurality of oxidizer tube injection elements whose injection tubes are also provided with tangential oxidizer entry slots and internal reed valves.

  10. Automatic inspection for remotely manufactured fuel elements

    SciTech Connect

    Reifman, J.; Vitela, J.E.; Gibbs, K.S.; Benedict, R.W.

    1995-06-01

    Two classification techniques, standard control charts and artificial neural networks, are studied as a means for automating the visual inspection of the welding of end plugs onto the top of remotely manufactured reprocessed nuclear fuel element jackets. Classificatory data are obtained through measurements performed on pre- and post-weld images captured with a remote camera and processed by an off-the-shelf vision system. The two classification methods are applied in the classification of 167 dummy stainless steel (HT9) fuel jackets yielding comparable results.

  11. Advanced Fuels Campaign Cladding & Coatings Meeting Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Listed

    2013-03-01

    The Fuel Cycle Research and Development (FCRD) Advanced Fuels Campaign (AFC) organized a Cladding and Coatings operational meeting February 12-13, 2013, at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Representatives from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), national laboratories, industry, and universities attended the two-day meeting. The purpose of the meeting was to discuss advanced cladding and cladding coating research and development (R&D); review experimental testing capabilities for assessing accident tolerant fuels; and review industry/university plans and experience in light water reactor (LWR) cladding and coating R&D.

  12. Advanced Fuels Campaign FY 2010 Accomplishments Report

    SciTech Connect

    Lori Braase

    2010-12-01

    The Fuel Cycle Research and Development (FCRD) Advanced Fuels Campaign (AFC) Accomplishment Report documents the high-level research and development results achieved in fiscal year 2010. The AFC program has been given responsibility to develop advanced fuel technologies for the Department of Energy (DOE) using a science-based approach focusing on developing a microstructural understanding of nuclear fuels and materials. The science-based approach combines theory, experiments, and multi-scale modeling and simulation aimed at a fundamental understanding of the fuel fabrication processes and fuel and clad performance under irradiation. The scope of the AFC includes evaluation and development of multiple fuel forms to support the three fuel cycle options described in the Sustainable Fuel Cycle Implementation Plan4: Once-Through Cycle, Modified-Open Cycle, and Continuous Recycle. The word “fuel” is used generically to include fuels, targets, and their associated cladding materials. This document includes a brief overview of the management and integration activities; but is primarily focused on the technical accomplishments for FY-10. Each technical section provides a high level overview of the activity, results, technical points of contact, and applicable references.

  13. Advanced-fuel-cell development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierce, R. D.; Arons, R. M.; Dusek, J. T.; Fraioli, A. V.; Kucera, G. H.; Sim, J. W.; Smith, J. L.

    1982-08-01

    Fuel cell research and development activities are described. The efforts are directed toward: (1) understanding of component behavior in molten carbonate fuel cells, and (2) developing alternative concepts for components. The principal focus was on the development of sintered gamma LiAlO2 electrolyte supports, stable NiO cathodes, and hydrogen diffusion barriers. Cell tests were performed to assess diffusion barriers and to study cathode voltage relaxation following current interruption.

  14. Thermionic Fuel Element Verification Program - Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohl, Richard J.; Dahlberg, Richard C.; Dutt, Dale S.; Wood, John T.

    The Thermionic Fuel Element (TFE) Verification program was established in 1986 to resolve the technology concerns raised in Phase 1 of the SP-100 program, namely, the performance and lifetime of thermionic fuel elements in a fast spectrum reactor. The program builds directly on an extensive database developed in the 1960s and early 1970s in an AEC/NASA-sponsored program, when TFEs were developed and tested at design conditions for over 10,000 h. The current effort has reestablished that technology and is extending the lifetime up to 7 to 10 yr. A TFE lifetime of more than 2 yr has been demonstrated in the TRIGA reactor. Component lifetimes of more than 10 yr have been demonstrated in accelerated tests in the FFTF (Richland) and EBR-II (Idaho) test reactors. Program completion is scheduled for FY-95.

  15. METHOD OF MAKING WIRE FUEL ELEMENTS

    DOEpatents

    Zambrow, J.L.

    1960-08-01

    A method is given for making a nuclear reactor fuel element in the form of a uranium-bearing wire clad with zirconium. A uranium bar is enclosed in a zirconium sheath which is coated with an oxide of magnesium, beryllium, or zirconium. The sheathed bar is then placed in a steel tube and reduced to the desired diameter by swaging at 800 to 900 deg C, after which the steel and oxide are removed.

  16. NUCLEAR REACTOR AND THERMIONIC FUEL ELEMENT THEREFOR

    DOEpatents

    Rasor, N.S.; Hirsch, R.L.

    1963-12-01

    The patent relates to the direct conversion of fission heat to electricity by use of thermionic plasma diodes having fissionable material cathodes, said diodes arranged to form a critical mass in a nuclear reactor. The patent describes a fuel element comprising a plurality of diodes each having a fissionable material cathode, an anode around said cathode, and an ionizable gas therebetween. Provision is made for flowing the gas and current serially through the diodes. (AEC)

  17. Elements of an advanced integrated operator control station

    SciTech Connect

    Clarke, M.M.; Kreifeldt, J.G.

    1984-01-01

    One of the critical determinants of peformance for any remotely operated maintenance system is the compatibility achieved between elements of the man/machine interface (e.g., master manipulator controller, controls, displays, etc.) and the human operator. In the Remote Control Engineering task of the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program, considerable attention has been devoted to optimizing the man/machine interface of the operator control station. This system must be considered an integral element of the overall maintenance work system which includes transporters, manipulators, remote viewing, and other parts. The control station must reflect the integration of the operator team, control/display panels, manipulator master controllers, and remote viewing monitors. Human factors principles and experimentation have been used in the development of an advanced integrated operator control station designed for the advance servomanipulator. Key features of this next-generation design are summarized in this presentation. 7 references, 4 figures.

  18. Elements of an advanced integrated operator control station

    SciTech Connect

    Clarke, M.M.; Kreifeldt, J.G.

    1984-01-01

    One of the critical determinants of performance for any remotely operated maintenance system is the compatibility achieved between elements of the man/machine interface (e.g., master manipulator controller, controls, displays) and the human operator. In the remote control engineering task of the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program, considerable attention has been devoted to optimizing the man/machine interface of the operator control station. This system must be considered an integral element of the overall maintenance work system which includes transporters, manipulators, remote viewing, and other parts. The control station must reflect the integration of the operator team, control/display panels, manipulator master controllers, and remote viewing monitors. Human factors principles and experimentation have been used in the development of an advanced integrated operator control station designed for the advance servomanipulator. Key features of this next-generation design are summarized in this presentation. 7 references, 4 figures.

  19. Advanced-fuel-cell development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierce, R. D.; Arons, R. M.; Dusek, J. T.; Fraioli, A. V.; Kucera, G. H.; Sim, J. W.; Smith, J. L.

    1982-06-01

    The fuel cell research and development activities at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) for the period October through December 1980. These efforts have been directed toward (1) developing alternative concepts for components of molten carbonate fuel cells, and (2) improving understanding of component behavior. The principal focus has been on development of gamma-LiAlO2 sinters as electrolyte structures. Green bodies were prepared by tape casting and then sintering beta-LiAlO2; this has produced gamma-LiAlO2 sinters of 69% porosity. In addition, a cathode prepared by sintering lithiated nickel oxide was tested in a 10-cm square cell.

  20. CONCENTRIC TUBE FUEL ELEMENT SPRING ALIGNMENT SPACER DEVICE

    DOEpatents

    Weems, S.J.

    1963-09-24

    A rib construction for a nuclear-fuel element is described, in which one of three peripherally spaced ribs adjacent to each end of the fuel element is mounted on a radially yielding spring that embraces the fuel element. This spring enables the fuel element to have a good fit with a coolant tube and yet to be easily inserted in and withdrawn from the tube. (AEC)

  1. Thermochemical modelling of advanced CANDU reactor fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corcoran, Emily Catherine

    2009-04-01

    With an aging fleet of nuclear generating facilities, the imperative to limit the use of non-renewal fossil fuels and the inevitable need for additional electricity to power Canada's economy, a renaissance in the use of nuclear technology in Canada is at hand. The experience and knowledge of over 40 years of CANDU research, development and operation in Ontario and elsewhere has been applied to a new generation of CANDU, the Advanced CANDU Reactor (ACR). Improved fuel design allows for an extended burnup, which is a significant improvement, enhancing the safety and the economies of the ACR. The use of a Burnable Neutron Absorber (BNA) material and Low Enriched Uranium (LEU) fuel has created a need to understand better these novel materials and fuel types. This thesis documents a work to advance the scientific and technological knowledge of the ACR fuel design with respect to thermodynamic phase stability and fuel oxidation modelling. For the BNA material, a new (BNA) model is created based on the fundamental first principles of Gibbs energy minimization applied to material phase stability. For LEU fuel, the methodology used for the BNA model is applied to the oxidation of irradiated fuel. The pertinent knowledge base for uranium, oxygen and the major fission products is reviewed, updated and integrated to create a model that is applicable to current and future CANDU fuel designs. As part of this thesis, X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Coulombic Titration (CT) experiments are compared to the BNA and LEU models, respectively. From the analysis of the CT results, a number of improvements are proposed to enhance the LEU model and provide confidence in its application to ACR fuel. A number of applications for the potential use of these models are proposed and discussed. Keywords: CANDU Fuel, Gibbs Energy Mimimization, Low Enriched Uranium (LEU) Fuel, Burnable Neutron Absorber (BNA) Material, Coulometric Titration, X-Ray Diffraction

  2. Microscale microbial fuel cells: Advances and challenges.

    PubMed

    Choi, Seokheun

    2015-07-15

    The next generation of sustainable energy could come from microorganisms; evidence that it can be seen with the given rise of Electromicrobiology, the study of microorganisms' electrical properties. Many recent advances in electromicrobiology stem from studying microbial fuel cells (MFCs), which are gaining acceptance as a future alternative "green" energy technology and energy-efficient wastewater treatment method. MFCs are powered by living microorganisms with clean and sustainable features; they efficiently catalyse the degradation of a broad range of organic substrates under natural conditions. There is also increasing interest in photosynthetic MFCs designed to harness Earth's most abundant and promising energy source (solar irradiation). Despite their vast potential and promise, however, MFCs and photosynthetic MFCs have not yet successfully translated into commercial applications because they demonstrate persistent performance limitations and bottlenecks associated with scaling up. Instead, microscale MFCs have received increasing attention as a unique platform for various applications such as powering small portable electronic elements in remote locations, performing fundamental studies of microorganisms, screening bacterial strains, and toxicity detection in water. Furthermore, the stacking of miniaturized MFCs has been demonstrated to offer larger power densities than a single macroscale MFC in terms of scaling up. In this overview, we discuss recent achievements in microscale MFCs as well as their potential applications. Further scientific and technological challenges are also reviewed. PMID:25703724

  3. Future Transient Testing of Advanced Fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Jon Carmack

    2009-09-01

    The transient in-reactor fuels testing workshop was held on May 4–5, 2009 at Idaho National Laboratory. The purpose of this meeting was to provide a forum where technical experts in transient testing of nuclear fuels could meet directly with technical instrumentation experts and nuclear fuel modeling and simulation experts to discuss needed advancements in transient testing to support a basic understanding of nuclear fuel behavior under off-normal conditions. The workshop was attended by representatives from Commissariat à l'Énergie Atomique CEA, Japanese Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Department of Energy (DOE), AREVA, General Electric – Global Nuclear Fuels (GE-GNF), Westinghouse, Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), universities, and several DOE national laboratories. Transient testing of fuels and materials generates information required for advanced fuels in future nuclear power plants. Future nuclear power plants will rely heavily on advanced computer modeling and simulation that describes fuel behavior under off-normal conditions. TREAT is an ideal facility for this testing because of its flexibility, proven operation and material condition. The opportunity exists to develop advanced instrumentation and data collection that can support modeling and simulation needs much better than was possible in the past. In order to take advantage of these opportunities, test programs must be carefully designed to yield basic information to support modeling before conducting integral performance tests. An early start of TREAT and operation at low power would provide significant dividends in training, development of instrumentation, and checkout of reactor systems. Early start of TREAT (2015) is needed to support the requirements of potential users of TREAT and include the testing of full length fuel irradiated in the FFTF reactor. The capabilities provided by TREAT are needed for the development of nuclear power and the following benefits will be realized by the

  4. Advanced diesel electronic fuel injection and turbocharging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beck, N. J.; Barkhimer, R. L.; Steinmeyer, D. C.; Kelly, J. E.

    1993-12-01

    The program investigated advanced diesel air charging and fuel injection systems to improve specific power, fuel economy, noise, exhaust emissions, and cold startability. The techniques explored included variable fuel injection rate shaping, variable injection timing, full-authority electronic engine control, turbo-compound cooling, regenerative air circulation as a cold start aid, and variable geometry turbocharging. A Servojet electronic fuel injection system was designed and manufactured for the Cummins VTA-903 engine. A special Servojet twin turbocharger exhaust system was also installed. A series of high speed combustion flame photos was taken using the single cylinder optical engine at Michigan Technological University. Various fuel injection rate shapes and nozzle configurations were evaluated. Single-cylinder bench tests were performed to evaluate regenerative inlet air heating techniques as an aid to cold starting. An exhaust-driven axial cooling air fan was manufactured and tested on the VTA-903 engine.

  5. Thermionic fuel element Verification Program - Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohl, Richard J.; Dahlberg, Richard C.; Dutt, Dale S.; Wood, John T.

    The TFE Verification Program is in the sixth year of a program to demonstrate the performance and lifetime of thermionic fuel elements for high power space applications. Data from accelerated tests in FETF and EBR-II show component lifetimes longer than 7 yr. Alumina insulators have shown good performance at high fast fluence. Graphite-cesium reservoirs based on isotropic graphite also meet requirements. Three TFEs are currently operating in the TRIGA reactor, the oldest having accumulated 15,000 hr of irradiation as of 1 October 1990.

  6. Thermionic fuel element verification program—overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohl, Richard J.; Dutt, Dale S.; Dahlberg, Richard C.; Wood, John T.

    1991-01-01

    TFE Verification Program is in the sixth year of a program to demonstrate the performance and lifetime of thermionic fuel elements for high power space applications. It is jointly funded by SIDO and DOE. Data from accelerated tests in FFTF and EBR-II show component lifetimes longer than 7 years. Alumina insulators have shown good performance at high fast fluence. Graphite-cesium reservoirs based on isotropic graphite also meet requirements. Three TFEs are current operating in the TRIGA reactor, the oldest having accumulated 15,000 hours of irradiation as of 1 October 1990.

  7. METHOD OF PREPARING A CERAMIC FUEL ELEMENT

    DOEpatents

    Ross, W.T.; Bloomster, C.H.; Bardsley, R.E.

    1963-09-01

    A method is described for preparing a fuel element from -325 mesh PuO/ sub 2/ and -20 mesh UO/sub 2/, and the steps of screening --325 mesh UO/sub 2/ from the -20 mesh UO/sub 2/, mixing PuO/sub 2/ with the --325 mesh UO/sub 2/, blending this mixture with sufficient --20 mesh UO/sub 2/ to obtain the desired composition, introducing the blend into a metal tube, repeating the procedure until the tube is full, and vibrating the tube to compact the powder are included. (AEC)

  8. Advanced Catalysts for Fuel Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Narayanan, Sekharipuram R.; Whitacre, Jay; Valdez, T. I.

    2006-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the development of catalyst for Fuel Cells. The objectives of the project are to reduce the cost of stack components and reduce the amount of precious metal used in fuel cell construction. A rapid combinatorial screening technique based on multi-electrode thin film array has been developed and validated for identifying catalysts for oxygen reduction; focus shifted from methanol oxidation in FY05 to oxygen reduction in FY06. Multi-electrode arrays of thin film catalysts of Pt-Ni and Pt-Ni-Zr have been deposited. Pt-Ni and have been characterized electrochemically and structurally. Pt-Ni-Zr and Pt-Ni films show higher current density and onset potential compared to Pt. Electrocatalytic activity and onset potential are found to be strong function of the lattice constant. Thin film Pt(59)Ni(39)Zr(2) can provide 10 times the current density of thin film Pt. Thin film Pt(59)Ni(39)Zr(2) also shows 65mV higher onset potential than Pt.

  9. Advanced coal-fueled gas turbine systems

    SciTech Connect

    Wenglarz, R.A.

    1994-08-01

    Several technology advances since the early coal-fueled turbine programs that address technical issues of coal as a turbine fuel have been developed in the early 1980s: Coal-water suspensions as fuel form, improved methods for removing ash and contaminants from coal, staged combustion for reducing NO{sub x} emissions from fuel-bound nitrogen, and greater understanding of deposition/erosion/corrosion and their control. Several Advanced Coal-Fueled Gas Turbine Systems programs were awarded to gas turbine manufacturers for for components development and proof of concept tests; one of these was Allison. Tests were conducted in a subscale coal combustion facility and a full-scale facility operating a coal combustor sized to the Allison Model 501-K industrial turbine. A rich-quench-lean (RQL), low nitrogen oxide combustor design incorporating hot gas cleanup was developed for coal fuels; this should also be applicable to biomass, etc. The combustor tests showed NO{sub x} and CO emissions {le} levels for turbines operating with natural gas. Water washing of vanes from the turbine removed the deposits. Systems and economic evaluations identified two possible applications for RQL turbines: Cogeneration plants based on Allison 501-K turbine (output 3.7 MW(e), 23,000 lbs/hr steam) and combined cycle power plants based on 50 MW or larger gas turbines. Coal-fueled cogeneration plant configurations were defined and evaluated for site specific factors. A coal-fueled turbine combined cycle plant design was identified which is simple, compact, and results in lower capital cost, with comparable efficiency and low emissions relative to other coal technologies (gasification, advanced PFBC).

  10. Simulations of Failure via Three-Dimensional Cracking in Fuel Cladding for Advanced Nuclear Fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Hongbing; Bukkapatnam, Satish; Harimkar, Sandip; Singh, Raman; Bardenhagen, Scott

    2014-01-09

    Enhancing performance of fuel cladding and duct alloys is a key means of increasing fuel burnup. This project will address the failure of fuel cladding via three-dimensional cracking models. Researchers will develop a simulation code for the failure of the fuel cladding and validate the code through experiments. The objective is to develop an algorithm to determine the failure of fuel cladding in the form of three-dimensional cracking due to prolonged exposure under varying conditions of pressure, temperature, chemical environment, and irradiation. This project encompasses the following tasks: 1. Simulate 3D crack initiation and growth under instantaneous and/or fatigue loads using a new variant of the material point method (MPM); 2. Simulate debonding of the materials in the crack path using cohesive elements, considering normal and shear traction separation laws; 3. Determine the crack propagation path, considering damage of the materials incorporated in the cohesive elements to allow the energy release rate to be minimized; 4. Simulate the three-dimensional fatigue crack growth as a function of loading histories; 5. Verify the simulation code by comparing results to theoretical and numerical studies available in the literature; 6. Conduct experiments to observe the crack path and surface profile in unused fuel cladding and validate against simulation results; and 7. Expand the adaptive mesh refinement infrastructure parallel processing environment to allow adaptive mesh refinement at the 3D crack fronts and adaptive mesh merging in the wake of cracks. Fuel cladding is made of materials such as stainless steels and ferritic steels with added alloying elements, which increase stability and durability under irradiation. As fuel cladding is subjected to water, chemicals, fission gas, pressure, high temperatures, and irradiation while in service, understanding performance is essential. In the fast fuel used in advanced burner reactors, simulations of the nuclear

  11. Preparation of high temperature gas-cooled reactor fuel element

    DOEpatents

    Bradley, Ronnie A.; Sease, John D.

    1976-01-01

    This invention relates to a method for the preparation of high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) fuel elements wherein uncarbonized fuel rods are inserted in appropriate channels of an HTGR fuel element block and the entire block is inserted in an autoclave for in situ carbonization under high pressure. The method is particularly applicable to remote handling techniques.

  12. METHOD OF PREPARING A FUEL ELEMENT FOR A NUCLEAR REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Roake, W.E.; Evans, E.A.; Brite, D.W.

    1960-06-21

    A method of preparing a fuel element for a nuclear reactor is given in which an internally and externally cooled fuel element consisting of two coaxial tubes having a plurality of integral radial ribs extending between the tubes and containing a powdered fuel material is isostatically pressed to form external coolant channels and compact the powder simultaneously.

  13. Advances in fuel cell vehicle design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauman, Jennifer

    Factors such as global warming, dwindling fossil fuel reserves, and energy security concerns combine to indicate that a replacement for the internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicle is needed. Fuel cell vehicles have the potential to address the problems surrounding the ICE vehicle without imposing any significant restrictions on vehicle performance, driving range, or refuelling time. Though there are currently some obstacles to overcome before attaining the widespread commercialization of fuel cell vehicles, such as improvements in fuel cell and battery durability, development of a hydrogen infrastructure, and reduction of high costs, the fundamental concept of the fuel cell vehicle is strong: it is efficient, emits zero harmful emissions, and the hydrogen fuel can be produced from various renewable sources. Therefore, research on fuel cell vehicle design is imperative in order to improve vehicle performance and durability, increase efficiency, and reduce costs. This thesis makes a number of key contributions to the advancement of fuel cell vehicle design within two main research areas: powertrain design and DC/DC converters. With regards to powertrain design, this research first analyzes various powertrain topologies and energy storage system types. Then, a novel fuel cell-battery-ultracapacitor topology is presented which shows reduced mass and cost, and increased efficiency, over other promising topologies found in the literature. A detailed vehicle simulator is created in MATLAB/Simulink in order to simulate and compare the novel topology with other fuel cell vehicle powertrain options. A parametric study is performed to optimize each powertrain and general conclusions for optimal topologies, as well as component types and sizes, for fuel cell vehicles are presented. Next, an analytical method to optimize the novel battery-ultracapacitor energy storage system based on maximizing efficiency, and minimizing cost and mass, is developed. This method can be applied

  14. Modeling of advanced fossil fuel power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zabihian, Farshid

    The first part of this thesis deals with greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from fossil fuel-fired power stations. The GHG emission estimation from fossil fuel power generation industry signifies that emissions from this industry can be significantly reduced by fuel switching and adaption of advanced power generation technologies. In the second part of the thesis, steady-state models of some of the advanced fossil fuel power generation technologies are presented. The impacts of various parameters on the solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) overpotentials and outputs are investigated. The detail analyses of operation of the hybrid SOFC-gas turbine (GT) cycle when fuelled with methane and syngas demonstrate that the efficiencies of the cycles with and without anode exhaust recirculation are close, but the specific power of the former is much higher. The parametric analysis of the performance of the hybrid SOFC-GT cycle indicates that increasing the system operating pressure and SOFC operating temperature and fuel utilization factor improves cycle efficiency, but the effects of the increasing SOFC current density and turbine inlet temperature are not favourable. The analysis of the operation of the system when fuelled with a wide range of fuel types demonstrates that the hybrid SOFC-GT cycle efficiency can be between 59% and 75%, depending on the inlet fuel type. Then, the system performance is investigated when methane as a reference fuel is replaced with various species that can be found in the fuel, i.e., H2, CO2, CO, and N 2. The results point out that influence of various species can be significant and different for each case. The experimental and numerical analyses of a biodiesel fuelled micro gas turbine indicate that fuel switching from petrodiesel to biodiesel can influence operational parameters of the system. The modeling results of gas turbine-based power plants signify that relatively simple models can predict plant performance with acceptable accuracy. The unique

  15. Fuel element concept for long life high power nuclear reactors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcdonald, G. E.; Rom, F. E.

    1969-01-01

    Nuclear reactor fuel elements have burnups that are an order of magnitude higher than can currently be achieved by conventional design practice. Elements have greater time integrated power producing capacity per unit volume. Element design concept capitalizes on known design principles and observed behavior of nuclear fuel.

  16. Computational Design of Advanced Nuclear Fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Savrasov, Sergey; Kotliar, Gabriel; Haule, Kristjan

    2014-06-03

    The objective of the project was to develop a method for theoretical understanding of nuclear fuel materials whose physical and thermophysical properties can be predicted from first principles using a novel dynamical mean field method for electronic structure calculations. We concentrated our study on uranium, plutonium, their oxides, nitrides, carbides, as well as some rare earth materials whose 4f eletrons provide a simplified framework for understanding complex behavior of the f electrons. We addressed the issues connected to the electronic structure, lattice instabilities, phonon and magnon dynamics as well as thermal conductivity. This allowed us to evaluate characteristics of advanced nuclear fuel systems using computer based simulations and avoid costly experiments.

  17. Development of advanced fuel cell system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grevstad, P. E.

    1972-01-01

    Weight, life and performance characteristics optimization of hydrogen-oxygen fuel cell power systems were considered. A promising gold alloy cathode catalyst was identified and tested in a cell for 5,000 hours. The compatibility characteristics of candidate polymer structural materials were measured after exposure to electrolyte and water vapor for 8,000 hours. Lightweight cell designs were prepared and fabrication techniques to produce them were developed. Testing demonstrated that predicted performance was achieved. Lightweight components for passive product water removal and evaporative cooling of cells were demonstrated. Systems studies identified fuel cell powerplant concepts for meeting the requirements of advanced spacecraft.

  18. Assessment of Startup Fuel Options for the GNEP Advanced Burner Reactor (ABR)

    SciTech Connect

    Jon Carmack; Kemal O. Pasamehmetoglu; David Alberstein

    2008-02-01

    The Global Nuclear Energy Program (GNEP) includes a program element for the development and construction of an advanced sodium cooled fast reactor to demonstrate the burning (transmutation) of significant quantities of minor actinides obtained from a separations process and fabricated into a transuranic bearing fuel assembly. To demonstrate and qualify transuranic (TRU) fuel in a fast reactor, an Advanced Burner Reactor (ABR) prototype is needed. The ABR would necessarily be started up using conventional metal alloy or oxide (U or U, Pu) fuel. Startup fuel is needed for the ABR for the first 2 to 4 core loads of fuel in the ABR. Following start up, a series of advanced TRU bearing fuel assemblies will be irradiated in qualification lead test assemblies in the ABR. There are multiple options for this startup fuel. This report provides a description of the possible startup fuel options as well as possible fabrication alternatives available to the program in the current domestic and international facilities and infrastructure.

  19. Nuclear fuel element with axially aligned fuel pellets and fuel microspheres therein

    DOEpatents

    Sease, J.D.; Harrington, F.E.

    1973-12-11

    Elongated single- and multi-region fuel elements are prepared by replacing within a cladding container a coarse fraction of fuel material which includes plutonium and uranium in the appropriate regions of the fuel element and then infiltrating with vibration a fine-sized fraction of uranium-containing microspheres throughout all interstices in the coarse material in a single loading. The fine, rigid material defines a thin annular layer between the coarse fraction and the cladding to reduce adverse mechanical and chemical interactions. (Official Gazette)

  20. High performance fuel element with end seal

    DOEpatents

    Lee, Gary E.; Zogg, Gordon J.

    1987-01-01

    A nuclear fuel element comprising an elongate block of refractory material having a generally regular polygonal cross section. The block includes parallel, spaced, first and second end surfaces. The first end surface has a peripheral sealing flange formed thereon while the second end surface has a peripheral sealing recess sized to receive the flange. A plurality of longitudinal first coolant passages are positioned inwardly of the flange and recess. Elongate fuel holes are separate from the coolant passages and disposed inwardly of the flange and the recess. The block is further provided with a plurality of peripheral second coolant passages in general alignment with the flange and the recess for flowing coolant. The block also includes two bypasses for each second passage. One bypass intersects the second passage adjacent to but spaced from the first end surface and intersects a first passage, while the other bypass intersects the second passage adjacent to but spaced from the second end surface and intersects a first passage so that coolant flowing through the second passages enters and exits the block through the associated first passages.

  1. Fuel Element Transfer Cask Modelling Using MCNP Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darmawan, Rosli; Topah, Budiman Naim

    2010-01-01

    After operating for more than 25 years, some of the Reaktor TRIGA Puspati (RTP) fuel elements would have been depleted. A few addition and fuel reconfiguration exercises have to be conducted in order to maintain RTP capacity. Presently, RTP spent fuels are stored at the storage area inside RTP tank. The need to transfer the fuel element outside of RTP tank may be prevalence in the near future. The preparation shall be started from now. A fuel element transfer cask has been designed according to the recommendation by the fuel manufacturer and experience of other countries. A modelling using MCNP code has been conducted to analyse the design. The result shows that the design of transfer cask fuel element is safe for handling outside the RTP tank according to recent regulatory requirement.

  2. Fuel Element Transfer Cask Modelling Using MCNP Technique

    SciTech Connect

    Darmawan, Rosli; Topah, Budiman Naim

    2010-01-05

    After operating for more than 25 years, some of the Reaktor TRIGA Puspati (RTP) fuel elements would have been depleted. A few addition and fuel reconfiguration exercises have to be conducted in order to maintain RTP capacity. Presently, RTP spent fuels are stored at the storage area inside RTP tank. The need to transfer the fuel element outside of RTP tank may be prevalence in the near future. The preparation shall be started from now. A fuel element transfer cask has been designed according to the recommendation by the fuel manufacturer and experience of other countries. A modelling using MCNP code has been conducted to analyse the design. The result shows that the design of transfer cask fuel element is safe for handling outside the RTP tank according to recent regulatory requirement.

  3. Means for supporting fuel elements in a nuclear reactor

    DOEpatents

    Andrews, Harry N.; Keller, Herbert W.

    1980-01-01

    A grid structure for a nuclear reactor fuel assembly comprising a plurality of connecting members forming at least one longitudinally extending opening peripheral and inner fuel element openings through each of which openings at least one nuclear fuel element extends, said connecting members forming wall means surrounding said each peripheral and inner fuel element opening, a pair of rigid projections longitudinally spaced from one another extending from a portion of said wall means into said each peripheral and inner opening for rigidly engaging said each fuel element, respectively, yet permit individual longitudinal slippage thereof, and resilient means formed integrally on and from said wall means and positioned in said each peripheral and inner opening in opposed relationship with said projections and located to engage said fuel element to bias the latter into engagement with said rigid projections, respectively

  4. Reactor physics analyses of the advanced neutron source three-element core

    SciTech Connect

    Gehin, J.C.

    1995-08-01

    A reactor physics analysis was performed for the Advanced Neutron Source reactor with a three-element core configuration. The analysis was performed with a two-dimensional r-z 20-energy-group finite-difference diffusion theory model of the 17-d fuel cycle. The model included equivalent r-z geometry representations of the central control rods, the irradiation and production targets, and reflector components. Calculated quantities include fuel cycle parameters, fuel element power distributions, unperturbed neutron fluxes in the reflector and target regions, reactivity perturbations, and neutron kinetics parameters.

  5. NEUTRON REACTOR FUEL ELEMENT UTILIZING ZIRCONIUM-BASE ALLOYS

    DOEpatents

    Saller, H.A.; Keeler, J.R.; Szumachowski, E.R.

    1957-11-12

    This patent relates to clad fuel elements for use in neutronic reactors and is drawn to such a fuel element which consists of a core of fissionable material, comprised of an alloy of zirconium and U/sup 235/ enriched uranium, encased in a jacket of a binary zirconium-tin alloy in which the tin content ranges between 1 and 15% by weight.

  6. Fuel cell elements with improved water handling capacity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kindler, Andrew (Inventor); Lee, Albany (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    New fuel cell components for use in liquid feed fuel cell systems are provided. The components include biplates and endplates, having a hydrophilic surface and allow high efficiency operation. Conductive elements and a wicking device also form a part of the fuel cell components of the invention.

  7. Radiotoxicity and Risk Reduction of TRU Elements from Spent Fuel by Transmutation in the Light Water Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Necas, Vladimir; Sebian, Vladimir; Kociskova, Karolina; Darilek, Petr

    2005-05-24

    A conventional PWR of type VVER-440 operating in a sustainable advanced fuel cycle mode with complete recycling of TRU elements in an Inert Matrix Combined Fuel Assembly (IMC-FA) in the same reactor was investigated. A preliminary assessment with the differences between various nuclear fuel cycles in terms of the risk analysis and its indicators has been conducted. The results indicate that the sustainable advanced fuel cycle option can, for the same amount of energy generation, significantly reduces both the amounts and radiotoxicity of the spent nuclear fuel in comparison with the conventional once-through UO2 or MOX fuel cycles.

  8. Fuel qualification plan for the Advanced Neutron Source Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Copeland, G.L.

    1995-07-01

    This report describes the development and qualification plan for the fuel for the Advanced Neutron Source. The reference fuel is U{sub 3}Si{sub 2}, dispersed in aluminum and clad in 6061 aluminum. This report was prepared in May 1994, at which time the reference design was for a two-element core containing highly enriched uranium (93% {sup 235}U) . The reactor was in the process of being redesigned to accommodate lowered uranium enrichment and became a three-element core containing a higher volume fraction of uranium enriched to 50% {sup 235}U. Consequently, this report was not issued at that time and would have been revised to reflect the possibly different requirements of the lower-enrichment, higher-volume fraction fuel. Because the reactor is now being canceled, this unrevised report is being issued for archival purposes. The report describes the fabrication and inspection development plan, the irradiation tests and performance modeling to qualify performance, the transient testing that is part of the safety program, and the interactions and interfaces of the fuel development with other tasks.

  9. Study of advanced fuel system concepts for commercial aircraft and engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Versaw, E. F.; Brewer, G. D.; Byers, W. D.; Fogg, H. W.; Hanks, D. E.; Chirivella, J.

    1983-01-01

    The impact on a commercial transport aircraft of using fuels which have relaxed property limits relative to current commercial jet fuel was assessed. The methodology of the study is outlined, fuel properties are discussed, and the effect of the relaxation of fuel properties analyzed. Advanced fuel system component designs that permit the satisfactory use of fuel with the candidate relaxed properties in the subject aircraft are described. The two fuel properties considered in detail are freezing point and thermal stability. Three candidate fuel system concepts were selected and evaluated in terms of performance, cost, weight, safety, and maintainability. A fuel system that incorporates insulation and electrical heating elements on fuel tank lower surfaces was found to be most cost effective for the long term.

  10. Nuclear reactor fuel element having improved heat transfer

    DOEpatents

    Garnier, J.E.; Begej, S.; Williford, R.E.; Christensen, J.A.

    1982-03-03

    A nuclear reactor fuel element having improved heat transfer between fuel material and cladding is described. The element consists of an outer cladding tube divided into an upper fuel section containing a central core of fissionable or mixed fissionable and fertile fuel material, slightly smaller in diameter than the inner surface of the cladding tube and a small lower accumulator section, the cladding tube being which is filled with a low molecular weight gas to transfer heat from fuel material to cladding during irradiation. A plurality of essentially vertical grooves in the fuel section extend downward and communicate with the accumulator section. The radial depth of the grooves is sufficient to provide a thermal gradient between the hot fuel surface and the relatively cooler cladding surface to allow thermal segregation to take place between the low molecular weight heat transfer gas and high molecular weight fission product gases produced by the fuel material during irradiation.

  11. IN-CELL visual examinations of K east fuel elements

    SciTech Connect

    Pitner, A.L.; Pyecha, T.D., Fluor Daniel Hanford

    1997-03-06

    Nine outer fuel elements were recovered from the K East Basin and transferred to a hot cell for examination. Extensive testing planned for these elements will support the process design for the Integrated Process Strategy (IPS), with emphasis on drying and conditioning behavior. Visual examinations of the fuel elements confirmed that they are appropriate to meet testing objectives to provide design guidance for IPS processing parameters.

  12. Development of advanced fuel cell system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gitlow, B.; Meyer, A. P.; Bell, W. F.; Martin, R. E.

    1978-01-01

    An experimental program was conducted continuing the development effort to improve the weight, life, and performance characteristics of hydrogen-oxygen alkaline fuel cells for advanced power systems. These advanced technology cells operate with passive water removal which contributes to a lower system weight and extended operating life. Endurance evaluation of two single cells and two, two-cell plaques was continued. Three new test articles were fabricated and tested. A single cell completed 7038 hours of endurance testing. This cell incorporated a Fybex matrix, hybrid-frame, PPF anode, and a 90 Au/10 Pt cathode. This configuration was developed to extend cell life. Two cell plaques with dedicated flow fields and manifolds for all fluids did not exhibit the cell-to-cell electrolyte transfer that limited the operating life of earlier multicell plaques.

  13. VENTED FUEL ELEMENT FOR GAS-COOLED NEUTRONIC REACTORS

    DOEpatents

    Furgerson, W.T.

    1963-12-17

    A hollow, porous-walled fuel element filled with fissionable fuel and provided with an outlet port through its wall is described. In operation in a gas-cooled reactor, the element is connected, through its outlet port, to the vacuum side of a pump that causes a portion of the coolant gas flowing over the exterior surface of the element to be drawn through the porous walls thereof and out through the outlet port. This continuous purging gas flow sweeps away gaseous fission products as they are released by the fissioning fuel. (AEC) A fuel element for a nuclear reactor incorporating a body of metal of melting point lower than the temperature of operation of the reactor and a nuclear fuel in finely divided form dispersed in the body of metal as a settled slurry is presented. (AEC)

  14. Advanced Coal-Fueled Gas Turbine Program

    SciTech Connect

    Horner, M.W.; Ekstedt, E.E.; Gal, E.; Jackson, M.R.; Kimura, S.G.; Lavigne, R.G.; Lucas, C.; Rairden, J.R.; Sabla, P.E.; Savelli, J.F.; Slaughter, D.M.; Spiro, C.L.; Staub, F.W.

    1989-02-01

    The objective of the original Request for Proposal was to establish the technological bases necessary for the subsequent commercial development and deployment of advanced coal-fueled gas turbine power systems by the private sector. The offeror was to identify the specific application or applications, toward which his development efforts would be directed; define and substantiate the technical, economic, and environmental criteria for the selected application; and conduct such component design, development, integration, and tests as deemed necessary to fulfill this objective. Specifically, the offeror was to choose a system through which ingenious methods of grouping subcomponents into integrated systems accomplishes the following: (1) Preserve the inherent power density and performance advantages of gas turbine systems. (2) System must be capable of meeting or exceeding existing and expected environmental regulations for the proposed application. (3) System must offer a considerable improvement over coal-fueled systems which are commercial, have been demonstrated, or are being demonstrated. (4) System proposed must be an integrated gas turbine concept, i.e., all fuel conditioning, all expansion gas conditioning, or post-expansion gas cleaning, must be integrated into the gas turbine system.

  15. Alternative Fuel and Advanced Vehicle Tools (AFAVT), AFDC (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2010-01-01

    The Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Web site offers a collection of calculators, interactive maps, and informational tools to assist fleets, fuel providers, and others looking to reduce petroleum consumption in the transportation sector.

  16. Porous nuclear fuel element for high-temperature gas-cooled nuclear reactors

    DOEpatents

    Youchison, Dennis L.; Williams, Brian E.; Benander, Robert E.

    2011-03-01

    Porous nuclear fuel elements for use in advanced high temperature gas-cooled nuclear reactors (HTGR's), and to processes for fabricating them. Advanced uranium bi-carbide, uranium tri-carbide and uranium carbonitride nuclear fuels can be used. These fuels have high melting temperatures, high thermal conductivity, and high resistance to erosion by hot hydrogen gas. Tri-carbide fuels, such as (U,Zr,Nb)C, can be fabricated using chemical vapor infiltration (CVI) to simultaneously deposit each of the three separate carbides, e.g., UC, ZrC, and NbC in a single CVI step. By using CVI, the nuclear fuel may be deposited inside of a highly porous skeletal structure made of, for example, reticulated vitreous carbon foam.

  17. Porous nuclear fuel element with internal skeleton for high-temperature gas-cooled nuclear reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Youchison, Dennis L.; Williams, Brian E.; Benander, Robert E.

    2013-09-03

    Porous nuclear fuel elements for use in advanced high temperature gas-cooled nuclear reactors (HTGR's), and to processes for fabricating them. Advanced uranium bi-carbide, uranium tri-carbide and uranium carbonitride nuclear fuels can be used. These fuels have high melting temperatures, high thermal conductivity, and high resistance to erosion by hot hydrogen gas. Tri-carbide fuels, such as (U,Zr,Nb)C, can be fabricated using chemical vapor infiltration (CVI) to simultaneously deposit each of the three separate carbides, e.g., UC, ZrC, and NbC in a single CVI step. By using CVI, the nuclear fuel may be deposited inside of a highly porous skeletal structure made of, for example, reticulated vitreous carbon foam.

  18. Methods for manufacturing porous nuclear fuel elements for high-temperature gas-cooled nuclear reactors

    DOEpatents

    Youchison, Dennis L.; Williams, Brian E.; Benander, Robert E.

    2010-02-23

    Methods for manufacturing porous nuclear fuel elements for use in advanced high temperature gas-cooled nuclear reactors (HTGR's). Advanced uranium bi-carbide, uranium tri-carbide and uranium carbonitride nuclear fuels can be used. These fuels have high melting temperatures, high thermal conductivity, and high resistance to erosion by hot hydrogen gas. Tri-carbide fuels, such as (U,Zr,Nb)C, can be fabricated using chemical vapor infiltration (CVI) to simultaneously deposit each of the three separate carbides, e.g., UC, ZrC, and NbC in a single CVI step. By using CVI, a thin coating of nuclear fuel may be deposited inside of a highly porous skeletal structure made, for example, of reticulated vitreous carbon foam.

  19. Nuclear fuel elements and method of making same

    DOEpatents

    Schweitzer, Donald G.

    1992-01-01

    A nuclear fuel element for a high temperature gas nuclear reactor that has an average operating temperature in excess of 2000.degree. C., and a method of making such a fuel element. The fuel element is characterized by having fissionable fuel material localized and stabilized within pores of a carbon or graphite member by melting the fissionable material to cause it to chemically react with the carbon walls of the pores. The fissionable fuel material is further stabilized and localized within the pores of the graphite member by providing one or more coatings of pyrolytic carbon or diamond surrounding the porous graphite member so that each layer defines a successive barrier against migration of the fissionable fuel from the pores, and so that the outermost layer of pyrolytic carbon or diamond forms a barrier between the fissionable material and the moderating gases used in an associated high temperature gas reactor. The method of the invention provides for making such new elements either as generally spherically elements, or as flexible filaments, or as other relatively small-sized fuel elements that are particularly suited for use in high temperature gas reactors.

  20. NUCLEAR REACTOR FUEL ELEMENT AND METHOD OF MANUFACTURE

    DOEpatents

    Brooks, H.

    1960-04-26

    A description is given for a fuel element comprising a body of uranium metal or an uranium compound dispersed in a matrix material made from magnesium, calcium, or barium and a stainless steel jacket enclosing the body.

  1. Advanced fuel system technology for utilizing broadened property aircraft fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reck, G. M.

    1980-01-01

    Factors which will determine the future supply and cost of aviation turbine fuels are discussed. The most significant fuel properties of volatility, fluidity, composition, and thermal stability are discussed along with the boiling ranges of gasoline, naphtha jet fuels, kerosene, and diesel oil. Tests were made to simulate the low temperature of an aircraft fuel tank to determine fuel tank temperatures for a 9100-km flight with and without fuel heating; the effect of N content in oil-shale derived fuels on the Jet Fuel Thermal Oxidation Tester breakpoint temperature was measured. Finally, compatibility of non-metallic gaskets, sealants, and coatings with increased aromatic content jet fuels was examined.

  2. Design and Testing of Prototypic Elements Containing Monolithic Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    N.E. Woolstenhulme; M.K. Meyer; D.M. Wachs

    2011-10-01

    The US fuel development team has performed numerous irradiation tests on small to medium sized specimens containing low enriched uranium fuel designs. The team is now focused on qualification and demonstration of the uranium-molybdenum Base Monolithic Design and has entered the next generation of testing with the design and irradiation of prototypic elements which contain this fuel. The designs of fuel elements containing monolithic fuel, such as AFIP-7 (which is currently under irradiation) and RERTR-FE (which is currently under fabrication), are appropriate progressions relative to the technology life cycle. The culmination of this testing program will occur with the design, fabrication, and irradiation of demonstration products to include the base fuel demonstration and design demonstration experiments. Future plans show that design, fabrication, and testing activities will apply the rigor needed for a demonstration campaign.

  3. FUEL ELEMENTS FOR THERMAL-FISSION NUCLEAR REACTORS

    DOEpatents

    Flint, O.

    1961-01-10

    Fuel elements for thermal-fission nuclear reactors are described. The fuel element is comprised of a core of alumina, a film of a metal of the class consisting of copper, silver, and nickel on the outer face of the core, and a coating of an oxide of a metal isotope of the class consisting of Un/sup 235/, U/ sup 233/, and Pu/sup 239/ on the metal f ilm.

  4. Advanced membrane electrode assemblies for fuel cells

    DOEpatents

    Kim, Yu Seung; Pivovar, Bryan S.

    2012-07-24

    A method of preparing advanced membrane electrode assemblies (MEA) for use in fuel cells. A base polymer is selected for a base membrane. An electrode composition is selected to optimize properties exhibited by the membrane electrode assembly based on the selection of the base polymer. A property-tuning coating layer composition is selected based on compatibility with the base polymer and the electrode composition. A solvent is selected based on the interaction of the solvent with the base polymer and the property-tuning coating layer composition. The MEA is assembled by preparing the base membrane and then applying the property-tuning coating layer to form a composite membrane. Finally, a catalyst is applied to the composite membrane.

  5. Advanced membrane electrode assemblies for fuel cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Yu Seung; Pivovar, Bryan S

    2014-02-25

    A method of preparing advanced membrane electrode assemblies (MEA) for use in fuel cells. A base polymer is selected for a base membrane. An electrode composition is selected to optimize properties exhibited by the membrane electrode assembly based on the selection of the base polymer. A property-tuning coating layer composition is selected based on compatibility with the base polymer and the electrode composition. A solvent is selected based on the interaction of the solvent with the base polymer and the property-tuning coating layer composition. The MEA is assembled by preparing the base membrane and then applying the property-tuning coating layer to form a composite membrane. Finally, a catalyst is applied to the composite membrane.

  6. Advanced coal-fueled gas turbine systems

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-09-01

    Westinghouse's Advanced Coal-Fueled Gas Turbine System Program (DE-AC2l-86MC23167) was originally split into two major phases - a Basic Program and an Option. The Basic Program also contained two phases. The development of a 6 atm, 7 lb/s, 12 MMBtu/hr slagging combustor with an extended period of testing of the subscale combustor, was the first part of the Basic Program. In the second phase of the Basic Program, the combustor was to be operated over a 3-month period with a stationary cascade to study the effect of deposition, erosion and corrosion on combustion turbine components. The testing of the concept, in subscale, has demonstrated its ability to handle high- and low-sulfur bituminous coals, and low-sulfur subbituminous coal. Feeding the fuel in the form of PC has proven to be superior to CWM type feed. The program objectives relative to combustion efficiency, combustor exit temperature, NO[sub x] emissions, carbon burnout, and slag rejection have been met. Objectives for alkali, particulate, and SO[sub x] levels leaving the combustor were not met by the conclusion of testing at Textron. It is planned to continue this testing, to achieve all desired emission levels, as part of the W/NSP program to commercialize the slagging combustor technology.

  7. Design and experimental investigation into fuel element melting during pulsed heating in the IGRIK

    SciTech Connect

    Levakov, B.G.; Andreev, V.V.; Vasilyev, A.P.

    1995-12-31

    Research has been performed on reactor fuel melting with pulsed input of energy in fuel elements up to 1.3 kj/g. The following were determined: energy input in fuel elements and energy input tempo; fission number distribution by the radius of the fuel element; the temperature of fuel and ampoule walls; and displacement of fuel boundaries.

  8. Advanced fuel system technology for utilizing broadened property aircraft fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reck, G. M.

    1980-01-01

    Possible changes in fuel properties are identified based on current trends and projections. The effect of those changes with respect to the aircraft fuel system are examined and some technological approaches to utilizing those fuels are described.

  9. The quantification of mixture stoichiometry when fuel molecules contain oxidizer elements or oxidizer molecules contain fuel elements.

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, Charles J.

    2005-05-01

    The accurate quantification and control of mixture stoichiometry is critical in many applications using new combustion strategies and fuels (e.g., homogeneous charge compression ignition, gasoline direct injection, and oxygenated fuels). The parameter typically used to quantify mixture stoichiometry (i.e., the proximity of a reactant mixture to its stoichiometric condition) is the equivalence ratio, /gf. The traditional definition of /gf is based on the relative amounts of fuel and oxidizer molecules in a mixture. This definition provides an accurate measure of mixture stoichiometry when the fuel molecule does not contain oxidizer elements and when the oxidizer molecule does not contain fuel elements. However, the traditional definition of /gf leads to problems when the fuel molecule contains an oxidizer element, as is the case when an oxygenated fuel is used, or once reactions have started and the fuel has begun to oxidize. The problems arise because an oxidizer element in a fuel molecule is counted as part of the fuel, even though it acts as an oxidizer. Similarly, if an oxidizer molecule contains fuel elements, the fuel elements in the oxidizer molecule are misleadingly lumped in with the oxidizer in the traditional definition of /gf. In either case, use of the traditional definition of /gf to quantify the mixture stoichiometry can lead to significant errors. This paper introduces the oxygen equivalence ratio, /gf/gV, a parameter that properly characterizes the instantaneous mixture stoichiometry for a broader class of reactant mixtures than does /gf. Because it is an instantaneous measure of mixture stoichiometry,/gf/gV can be used to track the time-evolution of stoichiometry as a reaction progresses. The relationship between /gf/gV and /gf is shown. Errors are involved when the traditional definition of /gf is used as a measure of mixture stoichiometry with fuels that contain oxidizer elements or oxidizers that contain fuel elements; /gf/gV is used to quantify

  10. Assessment of SFR fuel pin performance codes under advanced fuel for minor actinide transmutation

    SciTech Connect

    Bouineau, V.; Lainet, M.; Chauvin, N.; Pelletier, M.

    2013-07-01

    Americium is a strong contributor to the long term radiotoxicity of high activity nuclear waste. Transmutation by irradiation in nuclear reactors of long-lived nuclides like {sup 241}Am is, therefore, an option for the reduction of radiotoxicity and residual power packages as well as the repository area. In the SUPERFACT Experiment four different oxide fuels containing high and low concentrations of {sup 237}Np and {sup 241}Am, representing the homogeneous and heterogeneous in-pile recycling concepts, were irradiated in the PHENIX reactor. The behavior of advanced fuel materials with minor actinide needs to be fully characterized, understood and modeled in order to optimize the design of this kind of fuel elements and to evaluate its performances. This paper assesses the current predictability of fuel performance codes TRANSURANUS and GERMINAL V2 on the basis of post irradiation examinations of the SUPERFACT experiment for pins with low minor actinide content. Their predictions have been compared to measured data in terms of geometrical changes of fuel and cladding, fission gases behavior and actinide and fission product distributions. The results are in good agreement with the experimental results, although improvements are also pointed out for further studies, especially if larger content of minor actinide will be taken into account in the codes. (authors)

  11. Nuclear breeder reactor fuel element with silicon carbide getter

    DOEpatents

    Christiansen, David W.; Karnesky, Richard A.

    1987-01-01

    An improved cesium getter 28 is provided in a breeder reactor fuel element or pin in the form of an extended surface area, low density element formed in one embodiment as a helically wound foil 30 located with silicon carbide, and located at the upper end of the fertile material upper blanket 20.

  12. PROCESS OF DISSOLVING FUEL ELEMENTS OF NUCLEAR REACTORS

    DOEpatents

    Wall, E.M.V.; Bauer, D.T.; Hahn, H.T.

    1963-09-01

    A process is described for dissolving stainless-steelor zirconium-clad uranium dioxide fuel elements by immersing the elements in molten lead chloride, adding copper, cuprous chloride, or cupric chloride as a catalyst and passing chlorine through the salt mixture. (AEC)

  13. Elemental advances of ultraheavy cosmic rays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The elemental composition of the cosmic-ray source is different from that which has been generally taken as the composition of the solar system. No general enrichment of products of either r-process or s-process nucleosynthesis accounts for the differences over the entire range of ultraheavy (Z 30) elements; specific determination of nucleosynthetic contributions to the differences depends upon an understanding of the nature of any acceleration fractionation. Comparison between the cosmic-ray source abundances and the abundances of C1 and C2 chondritic meteorites suggests that differences between the cosmic-ray source and the standard (C1) solar system may not be due to acceleration fractionation of the cosmic rays, but rather to a fractionation of the C1 abundances with respect to the interstellar abundances.

  14. Space reactor fuel element testing in upgraded TREAT

    SciTech Connect

    Todosow, M.; Bezler, P.; Ludewig, H.; Kato, W.Y.

    1993-01-14

    The testing of candidate fuel elements at prototypic operating conditions with respect to temperature, power density, hydrogen coolant flow rate, etc., a crucial component in the development and qualification of nuclear rocket engines based on the Particle Bed Reactor (PBR), NERVA-derivative, and other concepts. Such testing may be performed at existing reactors, or at new facilities. A scoping study has been performed to assess the feasibility of testing PBR based fuel elements at the TREAT reactor. initial results suggest that full-scale PBR, elements could be tested at an average energy deposition of {approximately}60--80 MW-s/L in the current TREAT reactor. If the TREAT reactor was upgraded to include fuel elements with a higher temperature limit, average energy deposition of {approximately}100 MW/L may be achievable.

  15. Space reactor fuel element testing in upgraded TREAT

    SciTech Connect

    Todosow, M.; Bezler, P.; Ludewig, H.; Kato, W.Y. )

    1993-01-15

    The testing of candidate fuel elements at prototypic operating conditions with respect to temperature, power density, hydrogen coolant flow rate, etc., is a crucial component in the development and qualification of nuclear rocket engines based on the Particle Bed Reactor (PBR), NERVA-derivative, and other concepts. Such testing may be performed at existing reactors, or at new facilities. A scoping study has been performed to assess the feasibility of testing PBR based fuel elements at the TREAT reactor. Initial results suggests that full-scale PBR elements could be tested at an average energy deposition of [similar to]60--80 MW-s/L in the current TREAT reactor. If the TREAT reactor was upgraded to include fuel elements with a higher temperture limit, average energy deposition of [similar to]100 MW/L may be achievable.

  16. Space reactor fuel element testing in upgraded TREAT

    SciTech Connect

    Todosow, M.; Bezler, P.; Ludewig, H.; Kato, W.Y.

    1993-05-01

    The testing of candidate fuel elements at prototypic operating conditions with respect to temperature, power density, hydrogen coolant flow rate, etc., a crucial component in the development and qualification of nuclear rocket engines based on the Particle Bed Reactor (PBR), NERVA-derivative, and other concepts. Such testing may be performed at existing reactors, or at new facilities. A scoping study has been performed to assess the feasibility of testing PBR based fuel elements at the TREAT reactor. initial results suggest that full-scale PBR, elements could be tested at an average energy deposition of {approximately}60--80 MW-s/L in the current TREAT reactor. If the TREAT reactor was upgraded to include fuel elements with a higher temperature limit, average energy deposition of {approximately}100 MW/L may be achievable.

  17. Advanced Combustion and Fuels; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect

    Zigler, Brad

    2015-06-08

    Presented at the U.S. Department of Energy Vehicle Technologies Office 2015 Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, held June 8-12, 2015, in Arlington, Virginia. It addresses technical barriers of inadequate data and predictive tools for fuel and lubricant effects on advanced combustion engines, with the strategy being through collaboration, develop techniques, tools, and data to quantify critical fuel physico-chemical effects to enable development of advanced combustion engines that use alternative fuels.

  18. On-Going Comparison of Advanced Fuel Cycle Options

    SciTech Connect

    Piet, S.J.; Bennett, R.G.; Dixon, B.W.; Herring, J.S.; Shropshire, D.E.; Roth, M.; Smith, J.D.; Finck, P.; Hill, R.; Laidler, J.; Pasamehmetoglu, K.

    2004-10-03

    This paper summarizes the current comprehensive comparison of four major fuel cycle strategies: once-through, thermal recycle, thermal+fast recycle, fast recycle. It then proceeds to summarize comparison of the major technology options for the key elements of the fuel cycle that can implement each of the four strategies - separation processing, transmutation reactors, and fuels.

  19. Local Burn-Up Effects in the NBSR Fuel Element

    SciTech Connect

    Brown N. R.; Hanson A.; Diamond, D.

    2013-01-31

    This study addresses the over-prediction of local power when the burn-up distribution in each half-element of the NBSR is assumed to be uniform. A single-element model was utilized to quantify the impact of axial and plate-wise burn-up on the power distribution within the NBSR fuel elements for both high-enriched uranium (HEU) and low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel. To validate this approach, key parameters in the single-element model were compared to parameters from an equilibrium core model, including neutron energy spectrum, power distribution, and integral U-235 vector. The power distribution changes significantly when incorporating local burn-up effects and has lower power peaking relative to the uniform burn-up case. In the uniform burn-up case, the axial relative power peaking is over-predicted by as much as 59% in the HEU single-element and 46% in the LEU single-element with uniform burn-up. In the uniform burn-up case, the plate-wise power peaking is over-predicted by as much as 23% in the HEU single-element and 18% in the LEU single-element. The degree of over-prediction increases as a function of burn-up cycle, with the greatest over-prediction at the end of Cycle 8. The thermal flux peak is always in the mid-plane gap; this causes the local cumulative burn-up near the mid-plane gap to be significantly higher than the fuel element average. Uniform burn-up distribution throughout a half-element also causes a bias in fuel element reactivity worth, due primarily to the neutronic importance of the fissile inventory in the mid-plane gap region.

  20. Simulation on reactor TRIGA Puspati core kinetics fueled with thorium (Th) based fuel element

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammed, Abdul Aziz; Pauzi, Anas Muhamad; Rahman, Shaik Mohmmed Haikhal Abdul; Zin, Muhamad Rawi Muhammad; Jamro, Rafhayudi; Idris, Faridah Mohamad

    2016-01-01

    In confronting global energy requirement and the search for better technologies, there is a real case for widening the range of potential variations in the design of nuclear power plants. Smaller and simpler reactors are attractive, provided they can meet safety and security standards and non-proliferation issues. On fuel cycle aspect, thorium fuel cycles produce much less plutonium and other radioactive transuranic elements than uranium fuel cycles. Although not fissile itself, Th-232 will absorb slow neutrons to produce uranium-233 (233U), which is fissile. By introducing Thorium, the numbers of highly enriched uranium fuel element can be reduced while maintaining the core neutronic performance. This paper describes the core kinetic of a small research reactor core like TRIGA fueled with a Th filled fuel element matrix using a general purpose Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) code.

  1. Technology Readiness Levels for Advanced Nuclear Fuels and Materials Development

    SciTech Connect

    Jon Carmack

    2014-01-01

    The Technology Readiness Level (TRL) process is used to quantitatively assess the maturity of a given technology. The TRL process has been developed and successfully used by the Department of Defense (DOD) for development and deployment of new technology and systems for defense applications. In addition, NASA has also successfully used the TRL process to develop and deploy new systems for space applications. Advanced nuclear fuels and materials development is a critical technology needed for closing the nuclear fuel cycle. Because the deployment of a new nuclear fuel forms requires a lengthy and expensive research, development, and demonstration program, applying the TRL concept to the advanced fuel development program is very useful as a management and tracking tool. This report provides definition of the technology readiness level assessment process as defined for use in assessing nuclear fuel technology development for the Advanced Fuel Campaign (AFC).

  2. FUEL ELEMENT FOR A NUCLEAR REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Duffy, J.G. Jr.

    1961-05-30

    A lattice type fissionable fuel structure for a nuclear reactor is described. The fissionable material is formed into a plurality of rod-llke bodies with each encased in a fluid-tight jacket. A plurality of spaced longitudinal fins are mounted on the exterior and extend radially from each jacket, with a portion of the fins extending radially beyond the remainder of the fins. A collar of short length for each body is mounted on the extended fins for spacing the bodies, and adjacent bodies abut each other through these collars. Should distortion of the bodies take place, coilapse of the outer fins is limited by the shorter flns, thereby insuring some coolant flow at all times. (AEC)

  3. Fuel Element for a Nuclear Reactor

    DOEpatents

    Duffy, Jr., J. G.

    1961-05-30

    A lattice-type fissionable fuel structure for a nuclear reactor is offered. The fissionable material is formed into a plurality of rod-like bodies each encased in a fluid-tight jacket. A plurality of spaced longitudinal fins are mounted on the exterior of and extend radially from each jacket, and a portion of the fins extends radially beyond the remainder of the fins. A collar of short lengih for each body is mounted on the extended fins for spacing the bodies, and adjacent bodies abut each other through these collars. Should distortion of the bodies take place, collapse of the outer fins is limited by the shorter fins thereby insuring some coolant flow therethrough at all times.

  4. The manufacture of LEU fuel elements at Dounreay

    SciTech Connect

    Gibson, J.

    1997-08-01

    Two LEU test elements are being manufactured at Dounreay for test irradiation in the HFR at Petten, The Netherlands. This paper describes the installation of equipment and the development of the fabrication and inspection techniques necessary for the manufacture of LEU fuel plates. The author`s experience in overcoming the technical problems of stray fuel particles, dog-boning, uranium homogeneity and the measurement of uranium distribution is also described.

  5. Drying damaged K West fuel elements (Summary of whole element furnace runs 1 through 8)

    SciTech Connect

    LAWRENCE, L.A.

    1998-10-13

    N Reactor fuel elements stored in the Hanford K Basins were subjected to high temperatures and vacuum conditions to remove water. Results of the first series of whole element furnace tests i.e., Runs 1 through 8 were collected in this summary report. The report focuses on the six tests with breached fuel from the K West Basin which ranged from a simple fracture at the approximate mid-point to severe damage with cladding breaches at the top and bottom ends with axial breaches and fuel loss. Results of the tests are summarized and compared for moisture released during cold vacuum drying, moisture remaining after drying, effects of drying on the fuel element condition, and hydrogen and fission product release.

  6. Advanced Fuel Cell System Thermal Management for NASA Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burke, Kenneth A.

    2009-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center is developing advanced passive thermal management technology to reduce the mass and improve the reliability of space fuel cell systems for the NASA exploration program. An analysis of a state-of-the-art fuel cell cooling systems was done to benchmark the portion of a fuel cell system s mass that is dedicated to thermal management. Additional analysis was done to determine the key performance targets of the advanced passive thermal management technology that would substantially reduce fuel cell system mass.

  7. Metallic fuels: The EBR-II legacy and recent advances

    SciTech Connect

    Douglas L. Porter; Steven L. Hayes; J. Rory Kennedy

    2012-09-01

    Experimental Breeder Reactor – II (EBR-II) metallic fuel was qualified for high burnup to approximately 10 atomic per cent. Subsequently, the electrometallurgical treatment of this fuel was demonstrated. Advanced metallic fuels are now investigated for increased performance, including ultra-high burnup and actinide burning. Advances include additives to mitigate the fuel/cladding chemical interaction and uranium alloys that combine Mo, Ti and Zr to improve alloy performance. The impacts of the advances—on fabrication, waste streams, electrorefining, etc.—are found to be minimal and beneficial. Owing to extensive research literature and computational methods, only a modest effort is required to complete their development.

  8. The DOE Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) Fuel Development and Qualification Program

    SciTech Connect

    David Petti; Hans Gougar; Gary Bell

    2005-05-01

    The Department of Energy has established the Advanced Gas Reactor Fuel Development and Qualification Program to address the following overall goals: Provide a baseline fuel qualification data set in support of the licensing and operation of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP). Gas-reactor fuel performance demonstration and qualification comprise the longest duration research and development (R&D) task for the NGNP feasibility. The baseline fuel form is to be demonstrated and qualified for a peak fuel centerline temperature of 1250°C. Support near-term deployment of an NGNP by reducing market entry risks posed by technical uncertainties associated with fuel production and qualification. Utilize international collaboration mechanisms to extend the value of DOE resources. The Advanced Gas Reactor Fuel Development and Qualification Program consists of five elements: fuel manufacture, fuel and materials irradiations, postirradiation examination (PIE) and safety testing, fuel performance modeling, and fission product transport and source term evaluation. An underlying theme for the fuel development work is the need to develop a more complete fundamental understanding of the relationship between the fuel fabrication process, key fuel properties, the irradiation performance of the fuel, and the release and transport of fission products in the NGNP primary coolant system. Fuel performance modeling and analysis of the fission product behavior in the primary circuit are important aspects of this work. The performance models are considered essential for several reasons, including guidance for the plant designer in establishing the core design and operating limits, and demonstration to the licensing authority that the applicant has a thorough understanding of the in-service behavior of the fuel system. The fission product behavior task will also provide primary source term data needed for licensing. An overview of the program and recent progress will be presented.

  9. Low Cost Nuclear Thermal Rocket Cermet Fuel Element Environment Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bradley, David E.; Mireles, Omar R.; Hickman, Robert R.

    2011-01-01

    Deep space missions with large payloads require high specific impulse (Isp) and relatively high thrust in order to achieve mission goals in reasonable time frames. Conventional, storable propellants produce average Isp. Nuclear thermal rockets (NTR) capable of high Isp thrust have been proposed. NTR employs heat produced by fission reaction to heat and therefore accelerate hydrogen which is then forced through a rocket nozzle providing thrust. Fuel element temperatures are very high (up to 3000K) and hydrogen is highly reactive with most materials at high temperatures. Data covering the effects of high temperature hydrogen exposure on fuel elements is limited. The primary concern is the mechanical failure of fuel elements which employ high-melting-point metals, ceramics or a combination (cermet) as a structural matrix into which the nuclear fuel is distributed. It is not necessary to include fissile material in test samples intended to explore high temperature hydrogen exposure of the structural support matrices. A small-scale test bed designed to heat fuel element samples via non-contact RF heating and expose samples to hydrogen is being developed to assist in optimal material and manufacturing process selection without employing fissile material. This paper details the test bed design and results of testing conducted to date.

  10. Analysis of Advanced Fuel Assemblies and Core Designs for the Current and Next Generations of LWRs

    SciTech Connect

    Ragusa, Jean; Vierow, Karen

    2011-09-01

    The objective of the project is to design and analyze advanced fuel assemblies for use in current and future light water reactors and to assess their ability to reduce the inventory of transuranic elements, while preserving operational safety. The reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel can delay or avoid the need for a second geological repository in the US. Current light water reactor fuel assembly designs under investigation could reduce the plutonium inventory of reprocessed fuel. Nevertheless, these designs are not effective in stabilizing or reducing the inventory of minor actinides. In the course of this project, we developed and analyzed advanced fuel assembly designs with improved thermal transmutation capability regarding transuranic elements and especially minor actinides. These designs will be intended for use in thermal spectrum (e.g., current and future fleet of light water reactors in the US). We investigated various fuel types, namely high burn-up advanced mixed oxides and inert matrix fuels, in various geometrical designs that are compliant with the core internals of current and future light water reactors. Neutronic/thermal hydraulic effects were included. Transmutation efficiency and safety parameters were used to rank and down-select the various designs.

  11. Advances in 3D electromagnetic finite element modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, E.M.

    1997-08-01

    Numerous advances in electromagnetic finite element analysis (FEA) have been made in recent years. The maturity of frequency domain and eigenmode calculations, and the growth of time domain applications is briefly reviewed. A high accuracy 3D electromagnetic finite element field solver employing quadratic hexahedral elements and quadratic mixed-order one-form basis functions will also be described. The solver is based on an object-oriented C++ class library. Test cases demonstrate that frequency errors less than 10 ppm can be achieved using modest workstations, and that the solutions have no contamination from spurious modes. The role of differential geometry and geometrical physics in finite element analysis is also discussed.

  12. FABRICATION OF TUBE TYPE FUEL ELEMENT FOR NUCLEAR REACTORS

    DOEpatents

    Loeb, E.; Nicklas, J.H.

    1959-02-01

    A method of fabricating a nuclear reactor fuel element is given. It consists essentially of fixing two tubes in concentric relationship with respect to one another to provide an annulus therebetween, filling the annulus with a fissionablematerial-containing powder, compacting the powder material within the annulus and closing the ends thereof. The powder material is further compacted by swaging the inner surface of the inner tube to increase its diameter while maintaining the original size of the outer tube. This process results in reduced fabrication costs of powdered fissionable material type fuel elements and a substantial reduction in the peak core temperatures while materially enhancing the heat removal characteristics.

  13. Method and apparatus for diagnosing breached fuel elements

    DOEpatents

    Gross, K.C.; Lambert, J.D.B.; Nomura, S.

    1987-03-02

    The invention provides an apparatus and method for diagnosing breached fuel elements in a nuclear reactor. A detection system measures the activity of isotopes from the cover gas in the reactor. A data acquisition and processing system monitors the detection system and corrects for the effects of the cover-gas clean up system on the measured activity and further calculates the derivative curve of the corrected activity as a function of time. A plotting system graphs the derivative curve, which represents the instantaneous release rate of fission gas from a breached fuel element. 8 figs.

  14. Expert system for surveillance and diagnosis of breach fuel elements

    DOEpatents

    Gross, K.C.

    1988-01-21

    An apparatus and method are disclosed for surveillance and diagnosis of breached fuel elements in a nuclear reactor. A delayed neutron monitoring system provides output signals indicating the delayed neutron activity and age and the equivalent recoil area of a breached fuel element. Sensors are used to provide outputs indicating the status of each component of the delayed neutron monitoring system. Detectors also generate output signals indicating the reactor power level and the primary coolant flow rate of the reactor. The outputs from the detectors and sensors are interfaced with an artificial intelligence-based knowledge system which implements predetermined logic and generates output signals indicating the operability of the reactor. 2 figs.

  15. Expert system for surveillance and diagnosis of breach fuel elements

    DOEpatents

    Gross, Kenny C.

    1989-01-01

    An apparatus and method are disclosed for surveillance and diagnosis of breached fuel elements in a nuclear reactor. A delayed neutron monitoring system provides output signals indicating the delayed neutron activity and age and the equivalent recoil areas of a breached fuel element. Sensors are used to provide outputs indicating the status of each component of the delayed neutron monitoring system. Detectors also generate output signals indicating the reactor power level and the primary coolant flow rate of the reactor. The outputs from the detectors and sensors are interfaced with an artificial intelligence-based knowledge system which implements predetermined logic and generates output signals indicating the operability of the reactor.

  16. Method and apparatus for diagnosing breached fuel elements

    DOEpatents

    Gross, Kenny C.; Lambert, John D. B.; Nomura, Shigeo

    1988-01-01

    The invention provides an apparatus and method for diagnosing breached fuel elements in a nuclear reactor. A detection system measures the activity of isotopes from the cover-gas in the reactor. A data acquisition and processing system monitors the detection system and corrects for the effects of the cover-gas clean up system on the measured activity and further calculates the derivative cure of the corrected activity as a function of time. A plotting system graphs the derivative curve, which represents the instantaneous release rate of fission gas from a breached fuel element.

  17. Cryogenic Thermal Expansion of Y-12 Graphite Fuel Elements

    SciTech Connect

    Eash, D. T.

    2013-07-08

    Thermal expansion measurements betwccn 20°K and 300°K were made on segments of three uranium-loaded Y-12 uncoated graphite fuel elements. The thermal expansion of these fuel elements over this temperature range is represented by the equation: {Delta}L/L = -39.42 x 10{sup -5} + 1.10 x 10{sup -7} T + 6.47 x 10{sup -9} T{sup 2} - 8.30 x 10{sup -12} T{sup 3}.

  18. NUCLEAR REACTOR FUEL ELEMENTS AND METHOD OF PREPARATION

    DOEpatents

    Kingston, W.E.; Kopelman, B.; Hausner, H.H.

    1963-07-01

    A fuel element consisting of uranium nitride and uranium carbide in the form of discrete particles in a solid coherent matrix of a metal such as steel, beryllium, uranium, or zirconium and clad with a metal such as steel, aluminum, zirconium, or beryllium is described. The element is made by mixing powdered uranium nitride and uranium carbide with powdered matrix metal, then compacting and sintering the mixture. (AEC)

  19. Advanced Safeguards Approaches for New TRU Fuel Fabrication Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Durst, Philip C.; Ehinger, Michael H.; Boyer, Brian; Therios, Ike; Bean, Robert; Dougan, A.; Tolk, K.

    2007-12-15

    This second report in a series of three reviews possible safeguards approaches for the new transuranic (TRU) fuel fabrication processes to be deployed at AFCF – specifically, the ceramic TRU (MOX) fuel fabrication line and the metallic (pyroprocessing) line. The most common TRU fuel has been fuel composed of mixed plutonium and uranium dioxide, referred to as “MOX”. However, under the Advanced Fuel Cycle projects custom-made fuels with higher contents of neptunium, americium, and curium may also be produced to evaluate if these “minor actinides” can be effectively burned and transmuted through irradiation in the ABR. A third and final report in this series will evaluate and review the advanced safeguards approach options for the ABR. In reviewing and developing the advanced safeguards approach for the new TRU fuel fabrication processes envisioned for AFCF, the existing international (IAEA) safeguards approach at the Plutonium Fuel Production Facility (PFPF) and the conceptual approach planned for the new J-MOX facility in Japan have been considered as a starting point of reference. The pyro-metallurgical reprocessing and fuel fabrication process at EBR-II near Idaho Falls also provided insight for safeguarding the additional metallic pyroprocessing fuel fabrication line planned for AFCF.

  20. Advanced Fuels Campaign FY 2014 Accomplishments Report

    SciTech Connect

    Lori Braase; W. Edgar May

    2014-10-01

    The overall goal of ATF development is to identify alternative fuel system technologies to further enhance the safety, competitiveness, and economics of commercial nuclear power. The complex multiphysics behavior of LWR nuclear fuel in the integrated reactor system makes defining specific material or design improvements difficult; as such, establishing desirable performance attributes is critical in guiding the design and development of fuels and cladding with enhanced accident tolerance.

  1. Advance finite element modeling of rotor blade aeroelasticity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Straub, F. K.; Sangha, K. B.; Panda, B.

    1994-01-01

    An advanced beam finite element has been developed for modeling rotor blade dynamics and aeroelasticity. This element is part of the Element Library of the Second Generation Comprehensive Helicopter Analysis System (2GCHAS). The element allows modeling of arbitrary rotor systems, including bearingless rotors. It accounts for moderately large elastic deflections, anisotropic properties, large frame motion for maneuver simulation, and allows for variable order shape functions. The effects of gravity, mechanically applied and aerodynamic loads are included. All kinematic quantities required to compute airloads are provided. In this paper, the fundamental assumptions and derivation of the element matrices are presented. Numerical results are shown to verify the formulation and illustrate several features of the element.

  2. Advanced fuel cell concepts for future NASA missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stedman, J. K.

    1987-09-01

    Studies of primary fuel cells for advanced all electric shuttle type vehicles show an all fuel cell power system with peak power capability of 100's of kW to be potentially lighter and have lower life cycle costs than a hybrid system using advanced H2O2 APU's for peak power and fuel cells for low power on orbit. Fuel cell specific weights of 1 to 3 lb/kW, a factor of 10 improvement over the orbiter power plant, are projected for the early 1990's. For satellite applications, a study to identify high performance regenerative hydrogen oxygen fuel cell concepts for geosynchronous orbit was completed. Emphasis was placed on concepts with the potential for high energy density (Wh/lb) and passive means for water and heat management to maximize system reliability. Both alkaline electrolyte and polymer membrane fuel cells were considered.

  3. Advanced fuel cell concepts for future NASA missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stedman, J. K.

    1987-01-01

    Studies of primary fuel cells for advanced all electric shuttle type vehicles show an all fuel cell power system with peak power capability of 100's of kW to be potentially lighter and have lower life cycle costs than a hybrid system using advanced H2O2 APU's for peak power and fuel cells for low power on orbit. Fuel cell specific weights of 1 to 3 lb/kW, a factor of 10 improvement over the orbiter power plant, are projected for the early 1990's. For satellite applications, a study to identify high performance regenerative hydrogen oxygen fuel cell concepts for geosynchronous orbit was completed. Emphasis was placed on concepts with the potential for high energy density (Wh/lb) and passive means for water and heat management to maximize system reliability. Both alkaline electrolyte and polymer membrane fuel cells were considered.

  4. METHOD OF PREPARING A FUEL ELEMENT FOR A NUCLEAR REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Hauth, J.J.; Anicetti, R.J.

    1962-12-01

    A method is described for preparing a fuel element for a nuclear reactor. According to the patent uranium dioxide is compacted in a metal tabe by directlng intense sound waves at the tabe prior to tamp packing or vibration compaction of the powder. (AEC)

  5. METHOD OF FORMING A FUEL ELEMENT FOR A NUCLEAR REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Layer, E.H. Jr.; Peet, C.S.

    1962-01-23

    A method is given for preparing a fuel element for a nuclear reactor. The method includes the steps of sandblasting a body of uranium dioxide to roughen the surface thereof, depositing a thin layer of carbon thereon by thermal decomposition of methane, and cladding the uranium dioxide body with zirconium by gas pressure bonding. (AEC)

  6. Modeling and Simulation of a Nuclear Fuel Element Test Section

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moran, Robert P.; Emrich, William

    2011-01-01

    "The Nuclear Thermal Rocket Element Environmental Simulator" test section closely simulates the internal operating conditions of a thermal nuclear rocket. The purpose of testing is to determine the ideal fuel rod characteristics for optimum thermal heat transfer to their hydrogen cooling/working fluid while still maintaining fuel rod structural integrity. Working fluid exhaust temperatures of up to 5,000 degrees Fahrenheit can be encountered. The exhaust gas is rendered inert and massively reduced in temperature for analysis using a combination of water cooling channels and cool N2 gas injectors in the H2-N2 mixer portion of the test section. An extensive thermal fluid analysis was performed in support of the engineering design of the H2-N2 mixer in order to determine the maximum "mass flow rate"-"operating temperature" curve of the fuel elements hydrogen exhaust gas based on the test facilities available cooling N2 mass flow rate as the limiting factor.

  7. Study of advanced fuel system concepts for commercial aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coffinberry, G. A.

    1985-01-01

    An analytical study was performed in order to assess relative performance and economic factors involved with alternative advanced fuel systems for future commercial aircraft operating with broadened property fuels. The DC-10-30 wide-body tri-jet aircraft and the CF6-8OX engine were used as a baseline design for the study. Three advanced systems were considered and were specifically aimed at addressing freezing point, thermal stability and lubricity fuel properties. Actual DC-10-30 routes and flight profiles were simulated by computer modeling and resulted in prediction of aircraft and engine fuel system temperatures during a nominal flight and during statistical one-day-per-year cold and hot flights. Emergency conditions were also evaluated. Fuel consumption and weight and power extraction results were obtained. An economic analysis was performed for new aircraft and systems. Advanced system means for fuel tank heating included fuel recirculation loops using engine lube heat and generator heat. Environmental control system bleed air heat was used for tank heating in a water recirculation loop. The results showed that fundamentally all of the three advanced systems are feasible but vary in their degree of compatibility with broadened-property fuel.

  8. Some parametric flow analyses of a particle bed fuel element

    SciTech Connect

    Dobranich, D.

    1993-05-01

    Parametric calculations are performed, using the SAFSIM computer program, to investigate the fluid mechanics and heat transfer performance of a particle bed fuel element. Both steady-state and transient calculations are included, addressing such issues as flow stability, reduced thrust operation, transpiration drag, coolant conductivity enhancement, flow maldistributions, decay heat removal, flow perturbations, and pulse cooling. The calculations demonstrate the dependence of the predicted results on the modeling assumptions and thus provide guidance as to where further experimental and computational investigations are needed. The calculations also demonstrate that both flow instability and flow maldistribution in the fuel element are important phenomena. Furthermore, results are encouraging that geometric design changes to the element can significantly reduce problems related to these phenomena, allowing improved performance over a wide range of element power densities and flow rates. Such design changes will help to maximize the operational efficiency of space propulsion reactors employing particle bed fuel element technology. Finally, the results demonstrate that SAFSIM is a valuable engineering tool for performing quick and inexpensive parametric simulations addressing complex flow problems.

  9. Materials/manufacturing element of the Advanced Turbine System Program

    SciTech Connect

    Karnitz, M.A.; Devan, J.H.; Holcomb, R.S.; Ferber, M.K.; Harrison, R.W.

    1994-08-01

    One of the supporting elements of the Advanced Turbine Systems (ATS) Program is the materials/manufacturing technologies task. The objective of this element is to address critical materials issues for both industrial and utility gas turbines. DOE Oak Ridge Operations Office (ORO) will manage this element of the program, and a team from DOE-ORO and Oak Ridge National Laboratory is coordinating the planning for the materials/manufacturing effort. This paper describes that planning activity which is in the early stages.

  10. The OSU Hydro-Mechanical Fuel Test Facility: Standard Fuel Element Testing

    SciTech Connect

    Wade R. Marcum; Brian G. Woods; Ann Marie Phillips; Richard G. Ambrosek; James D. Wiest; Daniel M. Wachs

    2001-10-01

    Oregon State University (OSU) and the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) are currently collaborating on a test program which entails hydro-mechanical testing of a generic plate type fuel element, or standard fuel element (SFE), for the purpose of qualitatively demonstrating mechanical integrity of uranium-molybdenum monolithic plates as compared to that of uranium aluminum dispersion, and aluminum fuel plates due to hydraulic forces. This test program supports ongoing work conducted for/by the fuel development program and will take place at OSU in the Hydro-Mechanical Fuel Test Facility (HMFTF). Discussion of a preliminary test matrix, SFE design, measurement and instrumentation techniques, and facility description are detailed in this paper.

  11. Advances in direct oxidation methanol fuel cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Surampudi, S.; Narayanan, S. R.; Vamos, E.; Frank, H.; Halpert, G.; Laconti, Anthony B.; Kosek, J.; Prakash, G. K. Surya; Olah, G. A.

    1993-01-01

    Fuel cells that can operate directly on fuels such as methanol are attractive for low to medium power applications in view of their low weight and volume relative to other power sources. A liquid feed direct methanol fuel cell has been developed based on a proton exchange membrane electrolyte and Pt/Ru and Pt catalyzed fuel and air/O2 electrodes, respectively. The cell has been shown to deliver significant power outputs at temperatures of 60 to 90 C. The cell voltage is near 0.5 V at 300 mA/cm(exp 2) current density and an operating temperature of 90 C. A deterrent to performance appears to be methanol crossover through the membrane to the oxygen electrode. Further improvements in performance appear possible by minimizing the methanol crossover rate.

  12. Advanced supersonic technology fuel tank sealants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosser, R. W.; Parker, J. A.

    1976-01-01

    Status of the fuel tank simulation and YF-12A flight tests utilizing a fluorosilicone sealant is described. New elastomer sealant development is detailed, and comparisons of high and low temperature characteristics are made to baseline fluorosilicone sealants.

  13. Review of Rover fuel element protective coating development at Los Alamos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallace, Terry C.

    1991-01-01

    The Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL) entered the nuclear propulsion field in 1955 and began work on all aspects of a nuclear propulsion program with a target exhaust temperature of about 2750 K. A very extensive chemical vapor deposition coating technology for preventing catastrophic corrosion of reactor core components by the high temperature, high pressure hydrogen propellant gas was developed. Over the 17-year term of the program, more than 50,000 fuel elements were coated and evaluated. Advances in performance were achieved only through closely coupled interaction between the developing fuel element fabrication and protective coating technologies. The endurance of fuel elements in high temperature, high pressure hydrogen environment increased from several minutes at 2000 K exit gas temperature to 2 hours at 2440 K exit gas temperature in a reactor test and 10 hours at 2350 K exit gas temperature in a hot gas test. The purpose of this paper is to highlight the rationale for selection of coating materials used (NbC and ZrC), identify critical fuel element-coat interactions that had to be modified to increase system performance, and review the evolution of protective coating technology.

  14. Development of advanced fuel cell system, phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Handley, L. M.; Meyer, A. P.; Bell, W. F.

    1973-01-01

    A multiple task research and development program was performed to improve the weight, life, and performance characteristics of hydrogen-oxygen alkaline fuel cells for advanced power systems. Development and characterization of a very stable gold alloy catalyst was continued from Phase I of the program. A polymer material for fabrication of cell structural components was identified and its long term compatibility with the fuel cell environment was demonstrated in cell tests. Full scale partial cell stacks, with advanced design closed cycle evaporative coolers, were tested. The characteristics demonstrated in these tests verified the feasibility of developing the engineering model system concept into an advanced lightweight long life powerplant.

  15. Low Cost Nuclear Thermal Rocket Cermet Fuel Element Environment Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bradley, D. E.; Mireles, O. R.; Hickman, R. R.

    2011-01-01

    Deep space missions with large payloads require high specific impulse and relatively high thrust to achieve mission goals in reasonable time frames.1,2 Conventional storable propellants produce average specific impulse. Nuclear thermal rockets capable of producing high specific impulse are proposed. Nuclear thermal rockets employ heat produced by fission reaction to heat and therefore accelerate hydrogen, which is then forced through a rocket nozzle providing thrust. Fuel element temperatures are very high (up to 3000 K), and hydrogen is highly reactive with most materials at high temperatures. Data covering the effects of high-temperature hydrogen exposure on fuel elements are limited.3 The primary concern is the mechanical failure of fuel elements that employ high-melting-point metals, ceramics, or a combination (cermet) as a structural matrix into which the nuclear fuel is distributed. The purpose of the testing is to obtain data to assess the properties of the non-nuclear support materials, as-fabricated, and determine their ability to survive and maintain thermal performance in a prototypical NTR reactor environment of exposure to hydrogen at very high temperatures. The fission process of the planned fissile material and the resulting heating performance is well known and does not therefore require that active fissile material be integrated in this testing. A small-scale test bed designed to heat fuel element samples via non-contact radio frequency heating and expose samples to hydrogen is being developed to assist in optimal material and manufacturing process selection without employing fissile material. This paper details the test bed design and results of testing conducted to date.

  16. Method of locating a leaking fuel element in a fast breeder power reactor

    DOEpatents

    Honekamp, John R.; Fryer, Richard M.

    1978-01-01

    Leaking fuel elements in a fast reactor are identified by measuring the ratio of .sup.134 Xe to .sup.133 Xe in the reactor cover gas following detection of a fuel element leak, this ratio being indicative of the power and burnup of the failed fuel element. This procedure can be used to identify leaking fuel elements in a power breeder reactor while continuing operation of the reactor since the ratio measured is that of the gases stored in the plenum of the failed fuel element. Thus, use of a cleanup system for the cover gas makes it possible to identify sequentially a multiplicity of leaking fuel elements without shutting the reactor down.

  17. FISSILE MATERIAL AND FUEL ELEMENTS FOR NEUTRONIC REACTORS

    DOEpatents

    Shaner, B.E.

    1961-08-15

    The fissile material consists of about 64 to 70% (weight) zirconium dioxide, 15 to 19% uranium dioxide, and 8 to 17% calcium oxide. The fissile material is formed into sintered composites which are disposed in a compartmented fuel element, comprising essentially a flat filler plate having a plurality of compartments therein, enclosed in cladding plates of the same material as the filler plate. The resultant fuel has good resistance to corrosion in high temperature pressurized water, good dimensional stability to elevated temperatures, and good resistance to thermal shock. (AEC)

  18. Nuclear reactor fuel element with vanadium getter on cladding

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, Carl E.; Carroll, Kenneth G.

    1977-01-01

    A nuclear reactor fuel element is described which has an outer cladding, a central core of fissionable or mixed fissionable and fertile fuel material and a layer of vanadium as an oxygen getter on the inner surface of the cladding. The vanadium reacts with oxygen released by the fissionable material during irradiation of the core to prevent the oxygen from reacting with and corroding the cladding. Also described is a method for coating the inner surface of small diameter tubes of cladding with a layer of vanadium.

  19. Fuel Properties Database from the Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (AFDC)

    DOE Data Explorer

    This database contains information on advanced petroleum and non-petroleum based fuels, as well as key data on advanced compression ignition fuels. Included are data on physical, chemical, operational, environmental, safety, and health properties. These data result from tests conducted according to standard methods (mostly American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM). The source and test methods for each fuel data set are provided with the information. The database can be searched in various ways and can output numbers or explanatory text. Heavy vehicle chassis emission data are also available for some fuels.

  20. A fuel conservation study for transport aircraft utilizing advanced technology and hydrogen fuel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berry, W.; Calleson, R.; Espil, J.; Quartero, C.; Swanson, E.

    1972-01-01

    The conservation of fossil fuels in commercial aviation was investigated. Four categories of aircraft were selected for investigation: (1) conventional, medium range, low take-off gross weight; (2) conventional, long range, high take-off gross weights; (3) large take-off gross weight aircraft that might find future applications using both conventional and advanced technology; and (4) advanced technology aircraft of the future powered with liquid hydrogen fuel. It is concluded that the hydrogen fueled aircraft can perform at reduced size and gross weight the same payload/range mission as conventionally fueled aircraft.

  1. Surrogate Model Development for Fuels for Advanced Combustion Engines

    SciTech Connect

    Anand, Krishnasamy; Ra, youngchul; Reitz, Rolf; Bunting, Bruce G

    2011-01-01

    The fuels used in internal-combustion engines are complex mixtures of a multitude of different types of hydrocarbon species. Attempting numerical simulations of combustion of real fuels with all of the hydrocarbon species included is highly unrealistic. Thus, a surrogate model approach is generally adopted, which involves choosing a few representative hydrocarbon species whose overall behavior mimics the characteristics of the target fuel. The present study proposes surrogate models for the nine fuels for advanced combustion engines (FACE) that have been developed for studying low-emission, high-efficiency advanced diesel engine concepts. The surrogate compositions for the fuels are arrived at by simulating their distillation profiles to within a maximum absolute error of 4% using a discrete multi-component (DMC) fuel model that has been incorporated in the multi-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code, KIVA-ERC-CHEMKIN. The simulated surrogate compositions cover the range and measured concentrations of the various hydrocarbon classes present in the fuels. The fidelity of the surrogate fuel models is judged on the basis of matching their specific gravity, lower heating value, hydrogen/carbon (H/C) ratio, cetane number, and cetane index with the measured data for all nine FACE fuels.

  2. Advanced composite polymer electrolyte fuel cell membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, M.S.; Zawodzinski, T.A.; Gottesfeld, S.; Kolde, J.A.; Bahar, B.

    1995-09-01

    A new type of reinforced composite perfluorinated polymer electrolyte membrane, GORE-SELECT{trademark} (W.L. Gore & Assoc.), is characterized and tested for fuel cell applications. Very thin membranes (5-20 {mu}m thick) are available. The combination of reinforcement and thinness provides high membrane, conductances (80 S/cm{sup 2} for a 12 {mu}m thick membrane at 25{degrees}C) and improved water distribution in the operating fuel cell without sacrificing longevity or durability. In contrast to nonreinforced perfluorinated membranes, the x-y dimensions of the GORE-SELECT membranes are relatively unaffected by the hydration state. This feature may be important from the viewpoints of membrane/electrode interface stability and fuel cell manufacturability.

  3. Fuel cell and advanced turbine power cycle

    SciTech Connect

    White, D.J.

    1995-10-19

    Solar Turbines, Incorporated (Solar) has a vested interest in the integration of gas turbines and high temperature fuel cells and in particular, solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). Solar has identified a parallel path approach to the technology developments needed for future products. The primary approach is to move away from the simple cycle industrial machines of the past and develop as a first step more efficient recuperated engines. This move was prompted by the recognition that the simple cycle machines were rapidly approaching their efficiency limits. Improving the efficiency of simple cycle machines is and will become increasingly more costly. Each efficiency increment will be progressively more costly than the previous step.

  4. Selection of representative volume elements for pore-scale analysis of transport in fuel cell materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wargo, E. A.; Hanna, A. C.; Çeçen, A.; Kalidindi, S. R.; Kumbur, E. C.

    2012-01-01

    Pore-scale modeling has become a quite popular tool for evaluating the impact of material structure on fuel cell performance. However, the computational complexity of these models often limits simulations to analyze only a small volume of material, which is typically selected randomly from a much larger microstructure dataset. When considering the heterogeneous internal structure of fuel cell materials, it is highly unlikely that such a randomly selected volume (i.e., model domain) would adequately reflect the salient features of the material structure. The objective of this work is to utilize the recent advances in microstructure quantification to select small representative volume elements (RVEs) that accurately reflect the overall microstructure and transport properties of fuel cell materials. The micro-porous layer (MPL) in polymer electrolyte fuel cells is chosen for initial demonstration of the approach. Dual-beam focused ion beam scanning electron microscopy is utilized to obtain a 3-D structural dataset of the selected MPL sample. The RVEs are selected using the new approach of weighted sets of optimally selected statistical volume elements, and the key structure and transport metrics are evaluated using advanced microstructure algorithms developed in-house. Metric comparisons between the RVEs and the full dataset indicate that the RVEs selected by this approach offer a very good representation of the full dataset, albeit in a volume that is significantly smaller in spatial extent, therefore providing a computationally efficient and reliable model domain for pore-scale analyses.

  5. Method for measuring recovery of catalytic elements from fuel cells

    DOEpatents

    Shore, Lawrence; Matlin, Ramail

    2011-03-08

    A method is provided for measuring the concentration of a catalytic clement in a fuel cell powder. The method includes depositing on a porous substrate at least one layer of a powder mixture comprising the fuel cell powder and an internal standard material, ablating a sample of the powder mixture using a laser, and vaporizing the sample using an inductively coupled plasma. A normalized concentration of catalytic element in the sample is determined by quantifying the intensity of a first signal correlated to the amount of catalytic element in the sample, quantifying the intensity of a second signal correlated to the amount of internal standard material in the sample, and using a ratio of the first signal intensity to the second signal intensity to cancel out the effects of sample size.

  6. Advanced technology lightweight fuel cell program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, R. E.

    1981-01-01

    The potential of the alkaline electrolyte fuel cell as the power source in a multi hundred kilowatt orbital energy storage system was studied. The total system weight of an electrolysis cell energy storage system was determined. The tests demonstrated: (1) the performance stability of a platinum on carbon anode catalyst configuration after 5000 hours of testing has no loss in performance; (2) capability of the alkaline fuel cell to operate to a cyclical load profile; (3) suitability of a lightweight graphite electrolyte reservoir plate for use in the alkaline fuel cell; (4) long life potential of a hybrid polysulfone cell edge frame construction; and (5) long term stability of a fiber reinforced potassium titanate matrix structure. The power section tested operates with passive water removal eliminating the requirement for a dynamic hydrogen pump water separator thereby allowing a powerplant design with reduced weight, lower parasite power, and a potential for high reliability and extended endurance. It is concluded that two perovskites are unsuitable for use as a catalyst or as a catalyst support at the cathode of an alkaline fuel cell.

  7. METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR EXAMINING FUEL ELEMENTS FOR LEAKAGE

    DOEpatents

    Smith, R.R.; Echo, M.W.; Doe, C.B.

    1963-12-31

    A process and a device for the continuous monitoring of fuel elements while in use in a liquid-metal-cooled, argonblanketed nuclear reactor are presented. A fraction of the argon gas is withdrawn, contacted with a negative electrical charge for attraction of any alkali metal formed from argon by neutron reaction, and recycled into the reactor. The electrical charge is introduced into water, and the water is examined for radioactive alkali metals. (AEC)

  8. FUEL ELEMENTS FOR NUCLEAR REACTORS AND PROCESS OF MAKING

    DOEpatents

    Roake, W.E.

    1958-08-19

    A process is described for producing uranium metal granules for use in reactor fuel elements. The granules are made by suspending powdered uramiunn metal or uranium hydride in a viscous, non-reactive liquid, such as paraffin oil, aad pouring the resulting suspension in droplet, on to a bed of powdered absorbent. In this manner the liquid vehicle is taken up by the sorbent and spherical pellets of uranium metal are obtained. The

  9. Fabrication procedures for manufacturing High Flux Isotope Reactor fuel elements - 2

    SciTech Connect

    Knight, R.W.; Morin, R.A.

    1999-12-01

    The original fabrication procedures written in 1968 delineated the manufacturing procedures at that time. Since 1968, there have been a number of procedural changes. This rewrite of the fabrication procedures incorporates these changes. The entire fuel core of this reactor is made up of two fuel elements. Each element consists of one annular array of fuel plates. These annuli are identified as the inner and outer fuel elements, since one fits inside the other. The inner element consists of 171 identical fuel plates, and the outer element contains 369 identical fuel plates differing slightly from those in the inner element. Both sets of fuel plates contain U{sub 3}O{sub 8} powder as the fuel, dispersed in an aluminum powder matrix and clad with aluminum. Procedures for manufacturing and inspection of the fuel elements are described and illustrated.

  10. Selection of Isotopes and Elements for Fuel Cycle Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Steven J. Piet

    2009-04-01

    Fuel cycle system analysis simulations examine how the selection among fuel cycle options for reactors, fuel, separation, and waste management impact uranium ore utilization, waste masses and volumes, radiotoxicity, heat to geologic repositories, isotope-dependent proliferation resistance measures, and so forth. Previously, such simulations have tended to track only a few actinide and fission product isotopes, those that have been identified as important to a few criteria from the standpoint of recycled material or waste, taken as a whole. After accounting for such isotopes, the residual mass is often characterized as “fission product other” or “actinide other”. However, detailed assessment of separation and waste management options now require identification of key isotopes and residual mass for Group 1A/2A elements (Rb, Cs, Sr, Ba), inert gases (Kr, Xe), halogens (Br, I), lanthanides, transition metals, transuranic (TRU), uranium, actinide decay products. The paper explains the rationale for a list of 81 isotopes and chemical elements to better support separation and waste management assessment in dynamic system analysis models such as Verifiable Fuel Cycle Simulation (VISION)

  11. Ultraclean Fuels Production and Utilization for the Twenty-First Century: Advances toward Sustainable Transportation Fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, Elise B.; Liu, Zhong-Wen; Liu, Zhao-Tie

    2013-11-21

    Ultraclean fuels production has become increasingly important as a method to help decrease emissions and allow the introduction of alternative feed stocks for transportation fuels. Established methods, such as Fischer-Tropsch, have seen a resurgence of interest as natural gas prices drop and existing petroleum resources require more intensive clean-up and purification to meet stringent environmental standards. This review covers some of the advances in deep desulfurization, synthesis gas conversion into fuels and feed stocks that were presented at the 245th American Chemical Society Spring Annual Meeting in New Orleans, LA in the Division of Energy and Fuels symposium on "Ultraclean Fuels Production and Utilization".

  12. Advanced Fuels Can Reduce the Cost of Getting Into Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palaszewski, Bryan A.

    1998-01-01

    Rocket propellant and propulsion technology improvements can reduce the development time and operational costs of new space vehicle programs, and advanced propellant technologies can make space vehicles safer and easier to operate, and can improve their performance. Five major areas have been identified for fruitful research: monopropellants, alternative hydrocarbons, gelled hydrogen, metallized gelled propellants, and high-energy-density propellants. During the development of the NASA Advanced Space Transportation Plan, these technologies were identified as those most likely to be effective for new NASA vehicles. Several NASA research programs had fostered work in fuels under the topic Fuels and Space Propellants for Reusable Launch Vehicles in 1996 to 1997. One component of this topic was to promote the development and commercialization of monopropellant rocket fuels, hypersonic fuels, and high-energy-density propellants. This research resulted in the teaming of small business with large industries, universities, and Government laboratories. This work is ongoing with seven contractors. The commercial products from these contracts will bolster advanced propellant research. Work also is continuing under other programs, which were recently realigned under the "Three Pillars" of NASA: Global Civil Aviation, Revolutionary Technology Leaps, and Access to Space. One of the five areas is described below, and its applications and effect on future missions is discussed. This work is being conducted at the NASA Lewis Research Center with the assistance of the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center. The regenerative cooling of spacecraft engines and other components can improve overall vehicle performance. Endothermic fuels can absorb energy from an engine nozzle and chamber and help to vaporize high-density fuel before it enters the combustion chamber. For supersonic and hypersonic aircraft, endothermic fuels can absorb the high heat fluxes created on the wing leading edges and

  13. Recent advances in high-performance direct methanol fuel cells

    SciTech Connect

    Narayanan, S.R.; Chun, W.; Valdez, T.I.

    1996-12-31

    Direct methanol fuel cells for portable power applications have been advanced significantly under DARPA- and ARO-sponsored programs over the last five years. A liquid-feed direct methanol fuel cell developed under these programs, employs a proton exchange membrane as electrolyte and operates on aqueous solutions of methanol with air or oxygen as the oxidant. Power densities as high as 320 mW/cm{sup 2} have been demonstrated. Demonstration of five-cell stack based on the liquid-feed concept have been successfully performed by Giner Inc. and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Over 2000 hours of life-testing have been completed on these stacks. These fuel cells have been also been demonstrated by USC to operate on alternate fuels such as trimethoxymethane, dimethoxymethane and trioxane. Reduction in the parasitic loss of fuel across the fuel cell, a phenomenon termed as {open_quotes}fuel crossover{close_quotes} has been achieved using polymer membranes developed at USC. As a result efficiencies as high as 40% is considered attainable with this type of fuel cell. The state-of-development has reached a point where it is now been actively considered for stationary, portable and transportation applications. The research and development issues have been the subject of several previous articles and the present article is an attempt to summarize the key advances in this technology.

  14. Assessment for advanced fuel cycle options in CANDU

    SciTech Connect

    Morreale, A.C.; Luxat, J.C.; Friedlander, Y.

    2013-07-01

    The possible options for advanced fuel cycles in CANDU reactors including actinide burning options and thorium cycles were explored and are feasible options to increase the efficiency of uranium utilization and help close the fuel cycle. The actinide burning TRUMOX approach uses a mixed oxide fuel of reprocessed transuranic actinides from PWR spent fuel blended with natural uranium in the CANDU-900 reactor. This system reduced actinide content by 35% and decreased natural uranium consumption by 24% over a PWR once through cycle. The thorium cycles evaluated used two CANDU-900 units, a generator and a burner unit along with a driver fuel feedstock. The driver fuels included plutonium reprocessed from PWR, from CANDU and low enriched uranium (LEU). All three cycles were effective options and reduced natural uranium consumption over a PWR once through cycle. The LEU driven system saw the largest reduction with a 94% savings while the plutonium driven cycles achieved 75% savings for PWR and 87% for CANDU. The high neutron economy, online fuelling and flexible compact fuel make the CANDU system an ideal reactor platform for many advanced fuel cycles.

  15. Natural Gas for Advanced Dual-Fuel Combustion Strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, Nicholas Ryan

    Natural gas fuels represent the next evolution of low-carbon energy feedstocks powering human activity worldwide. The internal combustion engine, the energy conversion device widely used by society for more than one century, is capable of utilizing advanced combustion strategies in pursuit of ultra-high efficiency and ultra-low emissions. Yet many emerging advanced combustion strategies depend upon traditional petroleum-based fuels for their operation. In this research the use of natural gas, namely methane, is applied to both conventional and advanced dual-fuel combustion strategies. In the first part of this work both computational and experimental studies are undertaken to examine the viability of utilizing methane as the premixed low reactivity fuel in reactivity controlled compression ignition, a leading advanced dual-fuel combustion strategy. As a result, methane is shown to be capable of significantly extending the load limits for dual-fuel reactivity controlled compression ignition in both light- and heavy-duty engines. In the second part of this work heavy-duty single-cylinder engine experiments are performed to research the performance of both conventional dual-fuel (diesel pilot ignition) and advanced dual-fuel (reactivity controlled compression ignition) combustion strategies using methane as the premixed low reactivity fuel. Both strategies are strongly influenced by equivalence ratio; diesel pilot ignition offers best performance at higher equivalence ratios and higher premixed methane ratios, whereas reactivity controlled compression ignition offers superior performance at lower equivalence ratios and lower premixed methane ratios. In the third part of this work experiments are performed in order to determine the dominant mode of heat release for both dual-fuel combustion strategies. By studying the dual-fuel homogeneous charge compression ignition and single-fuel spark ignition, strategies representative of autoignition and flame propagation

  16. Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning for premium fuel applications

    SciTech Connect

    Smit, F.J.; Jha, M.C.

    1993-01-18

    This project is a step in the Department of Energy's program to show that ultra-clean fuel can be produced from selected coals and that the fuel will be a cost-effective replacement for oil and natural gas now fueling boilers in this country. The replacement of premium fossil fuels with coal can only be realized if retrofit costs are kept to a minimum and retrofit boiler emissions meet national goals for clean air. These concerns establish the specifications for maximum ash and sulfur levels and combustion properties of the ultra-clean coal. The primary objective is to develop the design base for prototype commercial advanced fine coal cleaning facilities capable of producing ultra-clean coals suitable for conversion to coal-water slurry fuel. The fine coal cleaning technologies are advanced column flotation and selective agglomeration. A secondary objective is to develop the design base for near-term commercial integration of advanced fine coal cleaning technologies in new or existing coal preparation plants for economically and efficiently processing minus 28-mesh coal fines. A third objective is to determine the distribution of toxic trace elements between clean coal and refuse when applying the advance column flotation and selective agglomeration technologies. The project team consists of Amax Research Development Center (Amax R D), Amax Coal industries, Bechtel Corporation, Center for Applied Energy Research (CAER) at the University of Kentucky, and Arcanum Corporation.

  17. Current Comparison of Advanced Nuclear Fuel Cycles

    SciTech Connect

    Steven Piet; Trond Bjornard; Brent Dixon; Robert Hill; Gretchen Matthern; David Shropshire

    2007-04-01

    This paper compares potential nuclear fuel cycle strategies – once-through, recycling in thermal reactors, sustained recycle with a mix of thermal and fast reactors, and sustained recycle with fast reactors. Initiation of recycle starts the draw-down of weapons-usable material and starts accruing improvements for geologic repositories and energy sustainability. It reduces the motivation to search for potential second geologic repository sites. Recycle in thermal-spectru

  18. Development of Advanced Fuel Cell System (Phase 4)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, A. P.; Bell, W. F.

    1976-01-01

    A multiple-task research and development program was performed to improve the weight, life, and performance characteristics of hydrogen-oxygen alkaline fuel cells for advanced power systems. During Phase 4, the lowest stabilized degradation rate observed in all the testing completed during four phases of the program, 1 microvolt/hour, was demonstrated. This test continues after 5,000 hours of operation. The cell incorporates a PPf anode, a 90Au/10Pt cathode, a hybrid frame, and a Fybex matrix. These elements were developed under this program to extend cell life. The result demonstrated that the 80Au/20Pt cathode is as stable as a 90Au/10Pt cathode of twice the precious metal loading, was confirmed in full-scale cells. A hybrid frame two-cell plaque with dedicated flow fields and manifolds for all fluids was demonstrated to prevent the cell-to cell electrolyte transfer that limited the endurance of multicell plaques. At the conclusion of Phase 4, more than 90,900 hours of testing had been completed and twelve different cell designs had been evaluated. A technology base has been established which is ready for evaluation at the powerplant level.

  19. Alternative Fuel and Advanced Technology Commercial Lawn Equipment

    SciTech Connect

    2014-10-10

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities program produced this guide to help inform the commercial mowing industry about product options and potential benefits. This guide provides information about equipment powered by propane, ethanol, compressed natural gas, biodiesel, and electricity, as well as advanced engine technology. In addition to providing an overview for organizations considering alternative fuel lawn equipment, this guide may also be helpful for organizations that want to consider using additional alternative fueled equipment.

  20. ENHANCING ADVANCED CANDU PROLIFERATION RESISTANCE FUEL WITH MINOR ACTINIDES

    SciTech Connect

    Gray S. Chang

    2010-05-01

    The advanced nuclear system will significantly advance the science and technology of nuclear energy systems and to enhance the spent fuel proliferation resistance. Minor actinides (MA) are viewed more as a resource to be recycled, and transmuted to less hazardous and possibly more useful forms, rather than simply disposed of as a waste stream in an expensive repository facility. MAs can play a much larger part in the design of advanced systems and fuel cycles, not only as additional sources of useful energy, but also as direct contributors to the reactivity control of the systems into which they are incorporated. In this work, an Advanced CANDU Reactor (ACR) fuel unit lattice cell model with 43 UO2 fuel rods will be used to investigate the effectiveness of a Minor Actinide Reduction Approach (MARA) for enhancing proliferation resistance and improving the fuel cycle performance. The main MARA objective is to increase the 238Pu / Pu isotope ratio by using the transuranic nuclides (237Np and 241Am) in the high burnup fuel and thereby increase the proliferation resistance even for a very low fuel burnup. As a result, MARA is a very effective approach to enhance the proliferation resistance for the on power refueling ACR system nuclear fuel. The MA transmutation characteristics at different MA loadings were compared and their impact on neutronics criticality assessed. The concept of MARA, significantly increases the 238Pu/Pu ratio for proliferation resistance, as well as serves as a burnable absorber to hold-down the initial excess reactivity. It is believed that MARA can play an important role in atoms for peace and the intermediate term of nuclear energy reconnaissance.

  1. Alternative Fuel and Advanced Technology Commercial Lawn Equipment (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2014-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities program produced this guide to help inform the commercial mowing industry about product options and potential benefits. This guide provides information about equipment powered by propane, ethanol, compressed natural gas, biodiesel, and electricity, as well as advanced engine technology. In addition to providing an overview for organizations considering alternative fuel lawn equipment, this guide may also be helpful for organizations that want to consider using additional alternative fueled equipment.

  2. Creep analysis of fuel plates for the Advanced Neutron Source

    SciTech Connect

    Swinson, W.F.; Yahr, G.T.

    1994-11-01

    The reactor for the planned Advanced Neutron Source will use closely spaced arrays of fuel plates. The plates are thin and will have a core containing enriched uranium silicide fuel clad in aluminum. The heat load caused by the nuclear reactions within the fuel plates will be removed by flowing high-velocity heavy water through narrow channels between the plates. However, the plates will still be at elevated temperatures while in service, and the potential for excessive plate deformation because of creep must be considered. An analysis to include creep for deformation and stresses because of temperature over a given time span has been performed and is reported herein.

  3. IRRADIATION TESTING OF THE RERTR FUEL MINIPLATES WITH BURNABLE ABSORBERS IN THE ADVANCED TEST REACTOR

    SciTech Connect

    I. Glagolenko; D. Wachs; N. Woolstenhulme; G. Chang; B. Rabin; C. Clark; T. Wiencek

    2010-10-01

    Based on the results of the reactor physics assessment, conversion of the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) can be potentially accomplished in two ways, by either using U-10Mo monolithic or U-7Mo dispersion type plates in the ATR fuel element. Both designs, however, would require incorporation of the burnable absorber in several plates of the fuel element to compensate for the excess reactivity and to flatten the radial power profile. Several different types of burnable absorbers were considered initially, but only borated compounds, such as B4C, ZrB2 and Al-B alloys, were selected for testing primarily due to the length of the ATR fuel cycle and fuel manufacturing constraints. To assess and compare irradiation performance of the U-Mo fuels with different burnable absorbers we have designed and manufactured 28 RERTR miniplates (20 fueled and 8 non-fueled) containing fore-mentioned borated compounds. These miniplates will be tested in the ATR as part of the RERTR-13 experiment, which is described in this paper. Detailed plate design, compositions and irradiations conditions are discussed.

  4. Advanced space power PEM fuel cell systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanderborgh, N. E.; Hedstrom, J.; Huff, J. R.

    1989-01-01

    A model showing mass and heat transfer in proton exchange membrane (PEM) single cells is presented. For space applications, stack operation requiring combined water and thermal management is needed. Advanced hardware designs able to combine these two techniques are available. Test results are shown for membrane materials which can operate with sufficiently fast diffusive water transport to sustain current densities of 300 ma per square centimeter. Higher power density levels are predicted to require active water removal.

  5. Advanced nuclear fuel cycles - Main challenges and strategic choices

    SciTech Connect

    Le Biez, V.; Machiels, A.; Sowder, A.

    2013-07-01

    A graphical conceptual model of the uranium fuel cycles has been developed to capture the present, anticipated, and potential (future) nuclear fuel cycle elements. The once-through cycle and plutonium recycle in fast reactors represent two basic approaches that bound classical options for nuclear fuel cycles. Chief among these other options are mono-recycling of plutonium in thermal reactors and recycling of minor actinides in fast reactors. Mono-recycling of plutonium in thermal reactors offers modest savings in natural uranium, provides an alternative approach for present-day interim management of used fuel, and offers a potential bridging technology to development and deployment of future fuel cycles. In addition to breeder reactors' obvious fuel sustainability advantages, recycling of minor actinides in fast reactors offers an attractive concept for long-term management of the wastes, but its ultimate value is uncertain in view of the added complexity in doing so,. Ultimately, there are no simple choices for nuclear fuel cycle options, as the selection of a fuel cycle option must reflect strategic criteria and priorities that vary with national policy and market perspectives. For example, fuel cycle decision-making driven primarily by national strategic interests will likely favor energy security or proliferation resistance issues, whereas decisions driven primarily by commercial or market influences will focus on economic competitiveness.

  6. Optical Fuel Injector Patternation Measurements in Advanced Liquid-Fueled, High Pressure, Gas Turbine Combustors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Locke, R. J.; Hicks, Y. R.; Anderson, R. C.; Zaller, M. M.

    1998-01-01

    Planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) imaging and planar Mie scattering are used to examine the fuel distribution pattern (patternation) for advanced fuel injector concepts in kerosene burning, high pressure gas turbine combustors. Three fuel injector concepts for aerospace applications were investigated under a broad range of operating conditions. Fuel PLIF patternation results are contrasted with those obtained by planar Mie scattering. For one injector, further comparison is also made with data obtained through phase Doppler measurements. Differences in spray patterns for diverse conditions and fuel injector configurations are readily discernible. An examination of the data has shown that a direct determination of the fuel spray angle at realistic conditions is also possible. The results obtained in this study demonstrate the applicability and usefulness of these nonintrusive optical techniques for investigating fuel spray patternation under actual combustor conditions.

  7. Advanced coal-fueled gas turbine systems reference system definition update

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-09-01

    The objective of the the Direct Coal-Fueled 80 MW Combustion Turbine Program is to establish the technology required for private sector use of an advanced coal-fueled combustion turbine power system. Under this program the technology for a direct coal-fueled 80 MW combustion turbine is to be developed. This unit would be an element in a 207 MW direct coal-fueled combustion turbine combined cycle which includes two combustion turbines, two heat recovery steam generators and a steam turbine. Key to meeting the program objectives is the development of a successful high pressure slagging combustor that burns coal, while removing sulfur, particulates, and corrosive alkali matter from the combustion products. Westinghouse and Textron (formerly AVCO Research Laboratory/Textron) have designed and fabricated a subscale slagging combustor. This slagging combustor, under test since September 1988, has been yielding important experimental data, while having undergone several design iterations.

  8. Coupled thermionic and thermalhydraulic analyses of thermionic fuel elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pawlowski, Ronald A.; Klein, Andrew C.; McVey, John B.

    The authors discuss a heat transfer analysis of a 'single cell' TFE (thermionic fuel element), that is, within the TFE a single emitter and collector cover the entire length of the UO2 fuel (approximately 25 cm). The electrical conversion performance of the TFE is investigated for a range of operating conditions. The dependence of maximum fuel temperature on the TFE operating parameters, such as total thermal power, current output, and coolant inlet temperature, is also discussed. A computer code (TFEHX) to model the thermal and electrical performance of the TFE has been developed. The results from the TFEHX code consist of a wide range of TFE operational parameters, including the temperature distributions within the TFE, the overall electrical power output, the conversion efficiency, the voltage difference between the electrode leads, the electrical losses and the ohmic heating in the electrodes, and the coolant temperature profile. Results from this code indicate that a single-celled TFE is more efficient and is less likely to experience melting of its fuel if a uniform amount of heat is generated along its length.

  9. Spherically-Convergent, Advanced-Fuel Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, D. C.; Nebel, R. A.; Schauer, M. M.; Umstadter, K. R.

    1998-11-01

    Combining nonneutral electron confinement with spherical ion convergence leads to a cm sized reactor volume with high power density.(R. A. Nebel and D. C. Barnes, Fusion Technol.), to appear (1998); D. C. Barnes and R. A. Nebel, Phys. of Plasmas 5, 2498 (1998). This concept is being investigated experimentally,(D. C. Barnes, T. B. Mitchell, and M. M. Schauer, Phys. Plasmas) 4, 1745 (1997). and results will be reported. We argue that D-D operation of such a system offers all the advantages of aneutronic fusion cycles. In particular, no breeding or large tritium inventory is required, and material problems seem tractable based on previous LWR experience. In addition the extremely small unit size leads to a massively modular system which is easily maintained and repaired, suggesting a very high availability. It may also be possible to operate such a system with low or aneutronic fuels. Preliminary work in this direction will be presented.

  10. Fuels for Advanced Combustion Engines Research Diesel Fuels: Analysis of Physical and Chemical Properties

    SciTech Connect

    Gallant, Tom; Franz, Jim; Alnajjar, Mikhail; Storey, John Morse; Lewis Sr, Samuel Arthur; Sluder, Scott; Cannella, William C; Fairbridge, Craig; Hager, Darcy; Dettman, Heather; Luecke, Jon; Ratcliff, Matthew A.; Zigler, Brad

    2009-01-01

    The CRC Fuels for Advanced Combustion Engines working group has worked to identify a matrix of research diesel fuels for use in advanced combustion research applications. Nine fuels were specified and formulated to investigate the effects of cetane number aromatic content and 90% distillation fraction. Standard ASTM analyses were performed on the fuels as well as GC/MS and /u1H//u1/u3C NMR analyses and thermodynamic characterizations. Details of the actual results of the fuel formulations compared with the design values are presented, as well as results from standard analyses, such as heating value, viscosity and density. Cetane number characterizations were accomplished by using both the engine method and the Ignition Quality Tester (IQT/sT) apparatus.