Science.gov

Sample records for advanced in-vessel retention

  1. In-Vessel Retention Technology Development and Use for Advanced PWR Designs in the USA and Korea

    SciTech Connect

    T.G. Theofanous; S.J. Oh; J.H. Scobel

    2004-05-18

    In-Vessel Retention (IVR) of molten core debris by means of external reactor vessel flooding is a cornerstone of severe accident management for Westinghouse's AP600 (advanced passive light water reactor) design. The case for its effectiveness (made in previous work by the PI) has been thoroughly documented, reviewed as part of the licensing certification, and accepted by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. A successful IVR would terminate a severe accident, passively, with the core in a stable, coolable configuration (within the lower head), thus avoiding the largely uncertain accident evolution with the molten debris on the containment floor. This passive plant design has been upgraded by Westinghouse to the AP1000, a 1000 MWe plant very similar to the AP600. The severe accident management approach is very similar too, including In-Vessel Retention as the cornerstone feature, and initial evaluations indicated that this would be feasible at the higher power as well. A similar strategy is adopted in Korea for the APR1400 plant. The overall goal of this project is to provide experimental data and develop the necessary basic understanding so as to allow the robust extension of the AP600 In-Vessel Retention strategy for severe accident management to higher power reactors, and in particular, to the AP1000 advanced passive design.

  2. Insights from Investigations of In-Vessel Retention for High Powered Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Joy L. Rempe

    2005-10-01

    In a three-year U.S. - Korean International Nuclear Energy Research Initiative (INERI), state-of-the-art analytical tools and key U.S. and Korean experimental facilities were used to explore two options, enhanced ERVC performance and the use of internal core catchers, that have the potential to increase the margin for in-vessel retention (IVR) in high power reactors (up to 1500 MWe). This increased margin has the potential to improve plant economics (owing to reduced regulatory requirements) and increase public acceptance (owing to reduced plant risk). Although this program focused upon the Korean Advanced Power Reactor -- 1400 MWe (APR 1400) design, recommentations were developed so that they can easily be applied to a wide range of existing and advanced reactor designs. This paper summarizes new data gained for evaluating the margin associated with various options investigated in this program. Insights from analyses completed with this data are also highlighted.

  3. In-Vessel Retention of Molten Corium: Lessons Learned and Outstanding Issues

    SciTech Connect

    J.L. Rempe; K.Y. Suh; F. B. Cheung; S. B. Kim

    2008-03-01

    In-vessel retention (IVR) of core melt is a key severe accident management strategy adopted by some operating nuclear power plants and proposed for some advanced light water reactors (ALWRs). If there were inadequate cooling during a reactor accident, a significant amount of core material could become molten and relocate to the lower head of the reactor vessel, as happened in the Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2) accident. If it is possible to ensure that the vessel head remains intact so that relocated core materials are retained within the vessel, the enhanced safety associated with these plants can reduce concerns about containment failure and associated risk. For example, the enhanced safety of the Advanced 600 MWe Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) designed by Westinghouse (AP600), which relied upon External Reactor Vessel Cooling (ERVC) for IVR, resulted in the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (US NRC) approving the design without requiring certain conventional features common to existing Light Water Reactors (LWRs). However, it is not clear that the ERVC proposed for the AP600 could provide sufficient heat removal for higher-power reactors (up to 1500 MWe) without additional enhancements. This paper reviews efforts made and results reported regarding the enhancement of IVR in LWRs. Where appropriate, the paper identifies what additional data or analyses are needed to demonstrate that there is sufficient margin for successful IVR in high power thermal reactors.

  4. In-vessel tritium retention and removal in ITER

    SciTech Connect

    Federici, G.; Anderl, R.A.; Andrew, P.

    1998-06-01

    The International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) is envisioned to be the next major step in the world`s fusion program from the present generation of tokamaks and is designed to study fusion plasmas with a reactor relevant range of plasma parameters. During normal operation, it is expected that a fraction of the unburned tritium, that is used to routinely fuel the discharge, will be retained together with deuterium on the surfaces and in the bulk of the plasma facing materials (PFMs) surrounding the core and divertor plasma. The understanding of he basic retention mechanisms (physical and chemical) involved and their dependence upon plasma parameters and other relevant operation conditions is necessary for the accurate prediction of the amount of tritium retained at any given time in the ITER torus. Accurate estimates are essential to assess the radiological hazards associated with routine operation and with potential accident scenarios which may lead to mobilization of tritium that is not tenaciously held. Estimates are needed to establish the detritiation requirements for coolant water, to determine the plasma fueling and tritium supply requirements, and to establish the needed frequency and the procedures for tritium recovery and clean-up. The organization of this paper is as follows. Section 2 provides an overview of the design and operating conditions of the main components which define the plasma boundary of ITER. Section 3 reviews the erosion database and the results of recent relevant experiments conducted both in laboratory facilities and in tokamaks. These data provide the experimental basis and serve as an important benchmark for both model development (discussed in Section 4) and calculations (discussed in Section 5) that are required to predict tritium inventory build-up in ITER. Section 6 emphasizes the need to develop and test methods to remove the tritium from the codeposited C-based films and reviews the status and the prospects of the

  5. Potential for AP600 in-vessel retention through ex-vessel flooding

    SciTech Connect

    Rempe, J.L.; Knudson, D.L.; Allison, C.M.; Thinnes, G.L.; Atwood, C.L.

    1997-12-01

    External reactor vessel cooling (ERVC) is a new severe accident management strategy that involves flooding the reactor cavity to submerge the reactor vessel in an attempt to cool core debris that has relocated to the vessel lower head. Advanced and existing light water reactors (LWRs) are considering ERVC as an accident management strategy for in-vessel retention (IVR) of relocated debris. In the probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) for the AP600 design, Westinghouse credits ERVC for preventing vessel failure during postulated severe accidents with successful reactor coolant system (RCS) depressurization and reactor cavity flooding. To support the Westinghouse position on IVR, DOE contracted the University of California--Santa Barbara (UCSB) to produce the peer-reviewed report. To assist in the NRC`s evaluation of IVR of core melt by ex-vessel flooding of the AP6OO, the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) was tasked to perform: An in-depth critical review of the UCSB study and the model that UCSB used to assess ERVC effectiveness; An in-depth review of the UCSB study peer review comments and of UCSB`s resolution method to identify areas where technical concerns weren`t addressed; and An independent analysis effort to investigate the impact of residual concerns on the margins to failure and conclusions presented in the UCSB study. This report summarizes results from these tasks. As discussed in Sections 1.1 and 1.2, INEEL`s review of the UCSB study and peer reviewer comments suggested that additional analysis was needed to assess: (1) the integral impact of peer reviewer-suggested changes to input assumptions and uncertainties and (2) the challenge present by other credible debris configurations. Section 1.3 summarized the corresponding analysis approach developed by INEEL. The remainder of this report provides more detailed descriptions of analysis methodology, input assumptions, and results.

  6. In-vessel coolability and retention of a core melt. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Theofanous, T.G.; Liu, C.; Additon, S.; Angelini, S.; Kymaelaeinen, O.; Salmassi, T.

    1996-10-01

    The efficacy of external flooding of a reactor vessel as a severe accident management strategy is assessed for an AP600-like reactor design. The overall approach is based on the Risk Oriented Accident Analysis Methodology (ROAAM), and the assessment includes consideration of bounding scenarios and sensitivity studies, as well as arbitrary parametric evaluations that allow the delineation of the failure boundaries. Quantification of the input parameters is carried out for an AP600-like design, and the results of the assessment demonstrate that lower head failure is physically unreasonable. Use of this conclusion for any specific application is subject to verifying the required reliability of the depressurization and cavity-flooding systems, and to showing the appropriateness (in relation to the database presented here, or by further testing as necessary) of the thermal insulation design and of the external surface properties of the lower head, including any applicable coatings. The AP600 is particularly favorable to in-vessel retention. Some ideas to enhance the assessment basis as well as performance in this respect, for applications to larger and/or higher power density reactors are also provided.

  7. In-vessel coolability and retention of a core melt. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Theofanous, T.G.; Liu, C.; Additon, S.; Angelini, S.; Kymaelaeinen, O.; Salmassi, T.

    1996-10-01

    The efficacy of external flooding of a reactor vessel as a severe accident management strategy is assessed for an AP600-like reactor design. The overall approach is based on the Risk Oriented Accident Analysis Methodology (ROAAM), and the assessment includes consideration of bounding scenarios and sensitivity studies, as well as arbitrary parametric evaluations that allow the delineation of the failure boundaries. Quantification of the input parameters is carried out for an AP600-like design, and the results of the assessment demonstrate that lower head failure is physically unreasonable. Use of this conclusion for any specific application is subject to verifying the required reliability of the depressurization and cavity-flooding systems, and to showing the appropriateness (in relation to the database presented here, or by further testing as necessary) of the thermal insulation design and of the external surface properties of the lower head, including any applicable coatings. The AP600 is particularly favorable to in-vessel retention. Some ideas to enhance the assessment basis as well as performance in this respect, for applications to larger and/or higher power density reactors are also provided.

  8. Evaluation of in-vessel corium retention through external reactor vessel cooling for integral reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Park, R. J.; Lee, J. R.; Kim, S. B.; Jin, Y.; Kim, H. Y.

    2012-07-01

    In-vessel corium retention through external reactor vessel cooling (IVR-ERVC) for a small integral reactor has been evaluated to determine the thermal margin for the prevention of a reactor vessel failure. A thermal load analysis from the corium pool to the outer reactor vessel wall in the lower plenum of the reactor vessel has been performed to determine the heat flux distribution. The critical heat flux (CHF) on the outer reactor vessel wall has been determined to fix the maximum heat removal rate through the external coolant between the outer reactor vessel and the insulation of the reactor vessel. Finally, the thermal margin has been evaluated by comparison of the thermal load with the maximum heat removal rate of the CHF on the outer reactor vessel wall. The maximum heat flux from the corium pool to the outer reactor vessel is estimated at approximately 0.25 MW/m{sup 2} in the metallic layer because of the focusing effect. The CHF of the outer reactor vessel is approximately 1.1 MW/m{sup 2} because of a two phase natural circulation mass flow. Since the thermal margin for the IVR-ERVC is sufficient, the reactor vessel integrity is maintained during a severe accident of a small integral reactor. (authors)

  9. In-vessel melt retention as a severe accident management strategy for the Loviisa Nuclear Power Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Kymaelaeinen, O.; Tuomisto, H.; Theofanous, T.G.

    1997-02-01

    The concept of lower head coolability and in-vessel retention of corium has been approved as a basic element of the severe accident management strategy for IVO`s Loviisa Plant (VVER-440) in Finland. The selected approach takes advantage of the unique features of the plant such as low power density, reactor pressure vessel without penetrations at the bottom and ice-condenser containment which ensures flooded cavity in all risk significant sequences. The thermal analyses, which are supported by experimental program, demonstrate that in Loviisa the molten corium on the lower head of the reactor vessel is coolable externally with wide margins. This paper summarizes the approach and the plant modifications being implemented. During the approval process some technical concerns were raised, particularly with regard to thermal loadings caused by contact of cool cavity water and hot corium with the reactor vessel. Resolution of these concerns is also discussed.

  10. Wireless, in-vessel neutron monitor for initial core-loading of advanced breeder reactors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delorenzo, J. T.; Kennedy, E. J.; Blalock, T. V.; Rochelle, J. M.; Chiles, M. M.; Valentine, K. H.

    1981-01-01

    An experimental wireless, in-vessel neutron monitor was developed to measure the reactivity of an advanced breeder reactor as the core is loaded for the first time to preclude an accidental critically incident. The environment is liquid sodium at a temperature of approx. 220 C, with negligible gamma or neutron radiation. With ultrasonic transmission of neutron data, no fundamental limitation was observed after tests at 230 C for 2000 h. The neutron sensitivity was approx. 1 count/s-nv, and the potential data transmission rate was approx. 10,000 counts/s.

  11. In-vessel Retention Strategy for High Power Reactors - K-INERI Final Report (includes SBLB Test Results for Task 3 on External Reactor Vessel Cooling (ERVC) Boiling Data and CHF Enhancement Correlations)

    SciTech Connect

    F. B. Cheung; J. Yang; M. B. Dizon; J. Rempe

    2005-01-01

    In-vessel retention (IVR) of core melt is a key severe accident management strategy adopted by some operating nuclear power plants and proposed for some advanced light water reactors (ALWRs). If there were inadequate cooling during a reactor accident, a significant amount of core material could become molten and relocate to the lower head of the reactor vessel, as happened in the Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2) accident. If it is possible to ensure that the vessel head remains intact so that relocated core materials are retained within the vessel, the enhanced safety associated with these plants can reduce concerns about containment failure and associated risk. For example, the enhanced safety of the Westinghouse Advanced 600 MWe PWR (AP600), which relied upon External Reactor Vessel Cooling (ERVC) for IVR, resulted in the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (US NRC) approving the design without requiring certain conventional features common to existing LWRs. However, it is not clear that currently proposed external reactor vessel cooling (ERVC) without additional enhancements could provide sufficient heat removal for higher-power reactors (up to 1500 MWe). Hence, a collaborative, three-year, U.S. - Korean International Nuclear Energy Research Initiative (INERI) project was completed in which the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), Seoul National University (SNU), Pennsylvania State University (PSU), and the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) investigated the performance of ERVC and an in-vessel core catcher (IVCC) to determine if IVR is feasible for reactors up to 1500 MWe.

  12. Mentoring for retention and advancement in the multigenerational clinical laboratory.

    PubMed

    Laudicina, R J

    2001-01-01

    Retention of recent graduates and other laboratory practitioners in the workplace will play a key role in addressing current and projected shortages of clinical laboratory scientists (CLS) and technicians (CLT). In addition, with overrepresentation of the aging Baby Boomer generation in laboratory supervisory and management positions, it is crucial not only to retain younger practitioners, but to prepare them for assuming these important functions in the future. Mentoring, a practice commonly employed in other professions, is widely considered to be useful in employee retention and career advancement. Mentoring has probably been used in the clinical laboratory profession, but has not been well documented. In the clinical laboratory environment, potential mentors are in the Veteran and Baby Boomer generations, and new practitioners who could benefit from mentoring are in Generation X. Generational differences among these groups may present challenges to the use of mentoring. This article will attempt to provide a better understanding of generational differences and show how mentoring can be applied in the setting of the clinical laboratory in order to increase retention and promote career advancement of younger practitioners. A panel of five laboratory managers provided examples of mentoring strategies. Definitions, benefits, and examples of mentoring are addressed in the accompanying article, "Passing the Torch: Mentoring the Next Generation of Laboratory Professionals". PMID:15633495

  13. The Employment Retention and Advancement Project: Paths to Advancement for Single Parents. Executive Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Cynthia; Deitch, Victoria; Hill, Aaron

    2010-01-01

    Between 2000 and 2003, the Employment Retention and Advancement (ERA) project identified and implemented a diverse set of innovative models designed to promote employment stability and wage or earnings progression among low-income individuals, mostly current or former welfare recipients. The project's goal was to determine which strategies could…

  14. The Employment Retention and Advancement Project: Paths to Advancement for Single Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Cynthia; Deitch, Victoria; Hill, Aaron

    2010-01-01

    Between 2000 and 2003, the Employment Retention and Advancement (ERA) project identified and implemented a diverse set of innovative models designed to promote employment stability and wage or earnings progression among low-income individuals, mostly current or former welfare recipients. The project's goal was to determine which strategies could…

  15. The Employment Retention and Advancement Project: How Effective Are Different Approaches Aiming to Increase Employment Retention and Advancement? Final Impacts for Twelve Models. Executive Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendra, Richard; Dillman, Keri-Nicole; Hamilton, Gayle; Lundquist, Erika; Martinson, Karin; Wavelet, Melissa

    2010-01-01

    This report summarizes the final impact results for the national Employment Retention and Advancement (ERA) project. This project tested, using a random assignment design, the effectiveness of numerous programs intended to promote steady work and career advancement. All the programs targeted current and former welfare recipients and other low-wage…

  16. Advancing the Science of Recruitment and Retention of Ethnically Diverse Populations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Napoles, Anna M.; Chadiha, Letha A.

    2011-01-01

    We highlight several critical challenges that must be addressed to accelerate the advancement of the science on recruitment and retention of ethnically diverse older adults into health research. These include the relative lack of attention by researchers to methodological issues related to recruitment and retention of ethnically diverse…

  17. The Employment Retention and Advancement Project. Results from the Texas ERA Site

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinson, Karin; Hendra, Richard

    2006-01-01

    This report presents an assessment of the implementation and the two-year impacts of a program in Texas that aimed to promote job placement, employment retention, and advancement among applicants and recipients to the Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) program. The program in Texas is part of the Employment Retention and Advancement…

  18. Recent Advances on Hydrogenic Retention in ITER's Plasma-Facing Materials: BE, C, W.

    SciTech Connect

    Skinner, C H; Alimov, Kh; Bekris, N; Causey, R A; Clark, R.E.H.; Coad, J P; Davis, J W; Doerner, R P; Mayer, M; Pisarev, A; Roth, J

    2008-03-29

    Management of tritium inventory remains one of the grand challenges in the development of fusion energy and the choice of plasma-facing materials is a key factor for in-vessel tritium retention. The Atomic and Molecular Data Unit of the International Atomic Energy Agency organized a Coordinated Research Project (CRP) on the overall topic of tritium inventory in fusion reactors during the period 2001-2006. This dealt with hydrogenic retention in ITER's plasma-facing materials, Be, C, W, and in compounds (mixed materials) of these elements as well as tritium removal techniques. The results of the CRP are summarized in this article together with recommendations for ITER. Basic parameters of diffusivity, solubility and trapping in Be, C and W are reviewed. For Be, the development of open porosity can account for transient hydrogenic pumping but long term retention will be dominated by codeposition. Codeposition is also the dominant retention mechanism for carbon and remains a serious concern for both Be and C containing layers. Hydrogenic trapping in unirradiated tungsten is low but will increase with ion and neutron damage. Mixed materials will be formed in a tokamak and these can also retain significant amounts of hydrogen isotopes. Oxidative and photon-based techniques for detritiation of plasma-facing components are described.

  19. Validating Student Satisfaction Related to Persistence, Academic Performance, Retention and Career Advancement within ODL Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sembiring, Maximus Gorky

    2015-01-01

    Student satisfaction associated with persistence, academic performance, retention, and its relations to career advancement were examined. It was aimed at measuring service quality (Servqual) dimensions as a foundation of satisfaction and how, in what comportments, they were interrelated. The study was conducted under explanatory-design. Data was…

  20. Advanced preservation methods and nutrient retention in fruits and vegetables.

    PubMed

    Barrett, Diane M; Lloyd, Beate

    2012-01-15

    Despite the recommendations of international health organizations and scientific research carried out around the world, consumers do not take in sufficient quantities of healthy fruit and vegetable products. The use of new, 'advanced' preservation methods creates a unique opportunity for food manufacturers to retain nutrient content similar to that found in fresh fruits and vegetables. This review presents a summary of the published literature regarding the potential of high-pressure and microwave preservation, the most studied of the 'advanced' processes, to retain the natural vitamin A, B, C, phenolic, mineral and fiber content in fruits and vegetables at the time of harvest. Comparisons are made with more traditional preservation methods that utilize thermal processing. Case studies on specific commodities which have received the most attention are highlighted; these include apples, carrots, oranges, tomatoes and spinach. In addition to summarizing the literature, the review includes a discussion of postharvest losses in general and factors affecting nutrient losses in fruits and vegetables. Recommendations are made for future research required to evaluate these advanced process methods. PMID:22102258

  1. Neurology Academic Advisory Committee: a strategy for faculty retention and advancement.

    PubMed

    Schenkenberg, T; Foster, N L; Bromberg, M B; DeWitt, L D; Flanigan, K M

    2011-08-16

    Major effort and expense are devoted to faculty recruitment. Subsequent direction, support, and guidance of faculty members for retention and academic advancement are often inconsistent and ineffective. Individual mentorship is widely endorsed as an important element in advancement but often does not occur or is uneven in its pragmatic benefit. We formed a Departmental Academic Advisory Committee to provide individualized advice and guidance about career development and institutional promotion, retention, and tenure procedures. To assess the effectiveness of this process, a survey was sent to faculty members. A 100% response rate was achieved. The results of the survey demonstrated high levels of acceptance by faculty members and described benefits experienced by faculty, including better understanding of promotion and tenure policies and specific actions taken to achieve professional goals. An academic advisory committee can be a valuable adjunct to individual mentorship and to meetings with department chairs to enhance faculty satisfaction and advancement of neurology faculty members. PMID:21795659

  2. Optical Measurement Technologies for High Temperature, Radiation Exposure, and Corrosive Environments—Significant Activities and Findings: In-vessel Optical Measurements for Advanced SMRs

    SciTech Connect

    Anheier, Norman C.; Cannon, Bret D.; Qiao, Hong; Suter, Jonathan D.

    2012-09-01

    Development of advanced Small Modular Reactors (aSMRs) is key to providing the United States with a sustainable, economically viable, and carbon-neutral energy source. The aSMR designs have attractive economic factors that should compensate for the economies of scale that have driven development of large commercial nuclear power plants to date. For example, aSMRs can be manufactured at reduced capital costs in a factory and potentially shorter lead times and then be shipped to a site to provide power away from large grid systems. The integral, self-contained nature of aSMR designs is fundamentally different than conventional reactor designs. Future aSMR deployment will require new instrumentation and control (I&C) architectures to accommodate the integral design and withstand the extreme in-vessel environmental conditions. Operators will depend on sophisticated sensing and machine vision technologies that provide efficient human-machine interface for in-vessel telepresence, telerobotic control, and remote process operations. The future viability of aSMRs is dependent on understanding and overcoming the significant technical challenges involving in-vessel reactor sensing and monitoring under extreme temperatures, pressures, corrosive environments, and radiation fluxes

  3. The pathophysiological mechanism of fluid retention in advanced cancer patients treated with docetaxel, but not receiving corticosteroid comedication

    PubMed Central

    Béhar, A.; Pujade-Lauraine, E.; Maurel, A.; Brun, M. D.; Lagrue, G.; Feuilhade De Chauvin, F.; Oulid-Aissa, D.; Hille, D.

    1997-01-01

    Aims Fluid retention is a phenomenon associated with taxoids. The principal objective of this study was to investigate the pathophysiological mechanism of docetaxel-induced fluid retention in advanced cancer patients. Methods Docetaxel was administered as a 1 h intravenous infusion every 3 weeks, for at least 4–6 consecutive cycles, to patients with advanced breast (n=21) or ovarian (n=3) carcinoma, who had received previous chemotherapy, 21 for advanced disease. Phase II clinical trials have shown that 5 day corticosteroid comedication, starting 1 day before docetaxel infusion, significantly reduces the incidence and severity of fluid retention. This prophylactic corticosteroid regimen is currently recommended for patients receiving docetaxel but was not permitted in this study because of its possible interference with the underlying pathophysiology of the fluid retention. Results Fluid retention occurred in 21 of the 24 patients but was mainly mild to moderate, with only five patients experiencing severe fluid retention. Eighteen patients received symptomatic flavonoid treatment, commonly prescribed after the last cycle. Specific investigations for fluid retention confirmed a relationship between cumulative docetaxel dose and development of fluid retention. Capillary filtration test analysis showed a two-step process for fluid retention generation, with progressive congestion of the interstitial space by proteins and water starting between the second and the fourth cycle, followed by insufficient lymphatic drainage. Conclusions A vascular protector such as micronized diosmine hesperidine with recommended corticosteroid premedication and benzopyrones may be useful in preventing and treating docetaxel-induced fluid retention. PMID:9205828

  4. A Combination Appliance for Obstructive Sleep Apnea: The Effectiveness of Mandibular Advancement and Tongue Retention

    PubMed Central

    Dort, Leslie; Remmers, John

    2012-01-01

    Study Objectives: The purpose of this study was to determine if subjects with moderate-to-severe obstructive sleep apnea would experience increasing treatment effect when a tongue retention component was added to a mandibular repositioning appliance. Design: Cohort study. Setting: Sleep clinic. Patients: Forty-four sequentially recruited patients with moderate-to-severe obstructive sleep apnea. Interventions: Subjects were sleep tested at 4 treatment stages of oral appliance therapy. The 4 stages were: 6-mm mandibular protrusion, 8-mm protrusion, 6-mm protrusion with a tongue retention bulb, and 8-mm protrusion with a tongue retention bulb. Measurements and Results: Forty-one of 44 subjects completed the protocol. There was a decrease in mean respiratory disturbance index from 33.5 events/h at baseline to 18.1 events/h at stage 4 (p = 0.001). Mean Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) decreased from 12.3 at baseline to 9.0 at stage 4 (p = 0.0001. Conclusions: A combined approach utilizing both mandibular protrusion and tongue retention can provide effective treatment for moderate-to-severe obstructive sleep apnea. The addition of a tongue bulb may provide further treatment effect when mandibular protrusion is limited. Appliance designs that allow for convenient combination therapy need to be developed for this purpose. Citation: Dort L; Remmers J. A combination appliance for obstructive sleep apnea: the effectiveness of mandibular advancement and tongue retention. J Clin Sleep Med 2012;8(3):265-269. PMID:22701383

  5. In vitro retention of a new thermoplastic titratable mandibular advancement device

    PubMed Central

    Braem, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Oral appliance (OA) therapy with a mandibular advancement device (OAm) is a non-invasive, alternative approach to maintaining upper airway patency. The main requirement for an OAm to be effective is the adequate retention on the teeth while the patient is asleep. We evaluated the retentive forces of a new low-cost, customizable, titratable, thermoplastic OAm (BluePro ®; BlueSom, France). Dental impressions and casts were made for one patient with complete upper and lower dental arches including the third molars and class II bite proportions. A setup based on Frasaco ANA-4 models was also used. Two protrusive positions of the mandible were investigated: 3 mm and 8 mm, representing respectively 25% and 65% of the maximal protrusion. The forces required to remove the BluePro ® device from the carriers were recorded continuously over 730 cycles (=365 days, twice a day) to simulate 1 year of clinical use. At 8 mm protrusion the BluePro ® device showed retentive forces of ~27N. There was a slight but non-significant decrease in retentive forces in the tests on the epoxified carriers which was not found on the ANA-4 carriers. There were no significant differences between the carriers as a function of protrusion. The BluePro ® device tested in the present study possesses sufficient retention forces to resist initial jaw opening forces and full mouth opening forces estimated to be ~20N. It could therefore broaden the indications for use of thermoplastic OAms. It could provide a temporary OAm while a custom-made OAm is being manufactured or repaired. Patients could be provided with a low-cost try-out device capable of reliable titration, providing an indication of effectiveness and of patient acceptance of an OAm, although the effect of device shape and size on therapeutic outcome is not yet known. Finally it could provide an affordable OAm solution in resource-restricted healthcare settings. PMID:25901281

  6. Large-scale Advanced Prop-fan (LAP) hub/blade retention design report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soule, Matthew

    1986-01-01

    The Large-scale Advanced Prop-fan (LAP) hub assembly forms a semi-rigid link between the blades, which provide the thrust, and the engine shaft, which provides the torque. The hub and tailshaft is a one piece partially forged part which is carburized, heat treated and machined. A single row ball bearing restrains each of the eight blades in the hub, while the tailshaft secures the propeller to the engine shaft with two cone seats that are preloaded against each other by the Prop-fan retaining nut. The hub also forms the support for the pitch change actuator system, the control and the spinner. The retention transmits the loads from the blades to the hub while allowing the changes in blade pitch. The single row ball bearing retention provides ease of maintenance by allowing individual blade replacement without dissassembly of the hub. It has a through hardened inner race which seats against the aluminum blade shank and an outer race which is integral with the barrel. The outer race area is carburized to achieve the hardness necessary to support the ball loads. The balls are kept from contact with each other by a separator. The rotational speed of the propeller keeps the retention submerged in the oil which is contained in the hub by a seal. Stress and strain analysis, material hardness requirements, weight predictions, and stiffness characteristics are discussed.

  7. New Strategies To Promote Stable Employment and Career Progression: An Introduction to the Employment Retention and Advancement Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloom, Dan; Anderson, Jacquelyn; Wavelet, Melissa; Gardiner, Karen N.; Fishman, Michael E.

    The Employment Retention and Advancement (ERA) project was undertaken to identify effective strategies for helping low-income parents work more steadily and advance in the labor market. The 15 ERA demonstration projects that were operating in nine states (California, Florida, Illinois, Minnesota, New York, Oregon, South Carolina; Tennessee, and…

  8. MS PHD'S: Effective Strategies for the Retention and Advancement of URM Students in ESS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Escalera, J.; Burgess, A. K.; Pace, L.; Scott, O.; Strickland, J.; Johnson, A.; Williamson Whitney, V.; Ithier-Guzman, W.

    2012-12-01

    The Minorities Striving and Pursuing Higher Degrees of Success (MS PHD'S) Professional Development Program in Earth system science (ESS) is a model initiative for improving the retention of underrepresented minority (URM) students in STEM fields. Entering its ninth cohort, MS PHD'S remains committed to helping URM undergraduate and graduate students achieve outstanding careers in ESS. MS PHD'S facilitates URM student achievement through a three-phase program designed to increase student exposure to the ESS community. By engaging in a series of professional development and skill building exercises, peer-to-peer community building activities, participation in scientific society conferences and workshops, mentoring by URM and other scientists, and a virtual community, URM students gain the confidence and support necessary to achieve their academic goals and enter the ESS workforce. Since its inception, MS PHD'S continues to support 189 participants. Of these 189 participants, 35 have advanced from undergraduate and graduate academic pathways to completion of their PhD and another 60 are currently enrolled in doctoral programs. MS PHD'S maintains close ties with program alumni to further support retention, inclusivity, and broadening participation of URM students and graduates in STEM activities. Its model is built on reengaging alumni to become mentors and leaders for each new cohort as well as facilitating valuable opportunities for alumni to advance in their ESS related academic and professional career pathways.

  9. Retention of Advanced Cardiac Life Support Knowledge and Skills Following High-Fidelity Mannequin Simulation Training

    PubMed Central

    Sen, Sanchita; Finn, Laura A.; Cawley, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To assess pharmacy students’ ability to retain advanced cardiac life support (ACLS) knowledge and skills within 120 days of previous high-fidelity mannequin simulation training. Design. Students were randomly assigned to rapid response teams of 5-6. Skills in ACLS and mannequin survival were compared between teams some members of which had simulation training 120 days earlier and teams who had not had previous training. Assessment. A checklist was used to record and assess performance in the simulations. Teams with previous simulation training (n=10) demonstrated numerical superiority to teams without previous training (n=12) for 6 out of 8 (75%) ACLS skills observed, including time calculating accurate vasopressor infusion rate (83 sec vs 113 sec; p=0.01). Mannequin survival was 37% higher for teams who had previous simulation training, but this result was not significant (70% vs 33%; p=0.20). Conclusion. Teams with students who had previous simulation training demonstrated numerical superiority in ACLS knowledge and skill retention within 120 days of previous training compared to those who had no previous training. Future studies are needed to add to the current evidence of pharmacy students’ and practicing pharmacists’ ACLS knowledge and skill retention. PMID:25741028

  10. Advanced glycation endproduct changes to Bruch's membrane promotes lipoprotein retention by lipoprotein lipase.

    PubMed

    Cano, Marisol; Fijalkowski, Natalia; Kondo, Naoshi; Dike, Sonny; Handa, James

    2011-08-01

    Lipoprotein particles accumulate in Bruch's membrane before the development of basal deposits and drusen, two histopathologic lesions that define age-related macular degeneration (AMD). We therefore, sought to determine which molecules could participate in lipoprotein retention. Wild-type or lipoprotein lipase-deficient mice were injected with low-dose D-galactose or PBS subcutaneously for 8 weeks to induce advanced glycation endproduct (AGE) formation. Some mice were also injected with the AGE breaker phenacylphiazolium bromide and D-galactose. Rhodamine-labeled low-density lipoproteins were injected into mice, and the fluorescence was measured up to 72 hours later. AGEs, proteoglycans, and other lipid-retaining molecules were evaluated by IHC. Lipoprotein lipase distribution was assessed in AMD samples by IHC. D-galactose-treated mice retained lipoproteins in the retinal pigment epithelial and Bruch's membrane to a greater extent than either PBS- or phenacylphiazolium bromide/D-galactose-treated mice at 24 and 72 hours after injection (P ≤ 0.04). Immunolabeling for carboxymethyllysine, biglycan, and lipoprotein lipase was found in D-galactose-treated mice only. Mice deficient for lipoprotein lipase treated with D-galactose did not retain lipoproteins to any measureable extent. Human AMD samples had lipoprotein lipase labeling within drusen, basal deposits, and the choroid. Mice treated with D-galactose to induce AGE formation in Bruch's membrane retain intravenously injected lipoproteins. Our results suggest that lipoprotein retention in Bruch's membrane is mediated by lipoprotein lipase. PMID:21801873

  11. Argonne Liquid-Metal Advanced Burner Reactor : components and in-vessel system thermal-hydraulic research and testing experience - pathway forward.

    SciTech Connect

    Kasza, K.; Grandy, C.; Chang, Y.; Khalil, H.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2007-06-30

    This white paper provides an overview and status report of the thermal-hydraulic nuclear research and development, both experimental and computational, conducted predominantly at Argonne National Laboratory. Argonne from the early 1970s through the early 1990s was the Department of Energy's (DOE's) lead lab for thermal-hydraulic development of Liquid Metal Reactors (LMRs). During the 1970s and into the mid-1980s, Argonne conducted thermal-hydraulic studies and experiments on individual reactor components supporting the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II), Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF), and the Clinch River Breeder Reactor (CRBR). From the mid-1980s and into the early 1990s, Argonne conducted studies on phenomena related to forced- and natural-convection thermal buoyancy in complete in-vessel models of the General Electric (GE) Prototype Reactor Inherently Safe Module (PRISM) and Rockwell International (RI) Sodium Advanced Fast Reactor (SAFR). These two reactor initiatives involved Argonne working closely with U.S. industry and DOE. This paper describes the very important impact of thermal hydraulics dominated by thermal buoyancy forces on reactor global operation and on the behavior/performance of individual components during postulated off-normal accident events with low flow. Utilizing Argonne's LMR expertise and design knowledge is vital to the further development of safe, reliable, and high-performance LMRs. Argonne believes there remains an important need for continued research and development on thermal-hydraulic design in support of DOE's and the international community's renewed thrust for developing and demonstrating the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) reactor(s) and the associated Argonne Liquid Metal-Advanced Burner Reactor (LM-ABR). This white paper highlights that further understanding is needed regarding reactor design under coolant low-flow events. These safety-related events are associated with the transition from normal high

  12. The effects of advance organizer and prerequisite knowledge passages on the learning and retention of science concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Healy, Vivian C.

    Fifty-five ninth-grade science students participated in this study which compared the effects of two pretreatments, an advance organizer and a prerequisite knowledge passage, on learning and retention measured at low (knowledge and comprehension) and high (application and analysis) levels of the cognitive domain. The effectiveness of the pretreatments was measured by a framework test and a prerequisite knowledge test prior to the beginning of instruction. An analysis of covariance, with IQ as the covariate, was performed on the framework test and the prerequisite knowledge test. It was found that the advance organizer group performed significantly better than the prerequisite knowledge group (p < 0.001) on the first framework test, and the prerequisite knowledge group performed significantly better (p < 0.001) than the advance organizer group on the prerequisite knowledge test. These results provide evidence that both passages were read and understood by the students and that the passages had their intended effects as preinstructional treatments. An analysis of covariance, with IQ as the covariate, was performed on the low-level questions, high-level questions, and total score for the posttest and retention test. The group means for the two question levels and the total score were not found to be significantly different (p > 0.05) for either the posttest or retention test. The results of this study do not provide evidence that an advance organizer facilitates learning and retention more than a preinstructional treatment that concentrates on developing prerequisite knowledge.

  13. Thiazolidinediones and Edema: Recent Advances in the Pathogenesis of Thiazolidinediones-Induced Renal Sodium Retention.

    PubMed

    Horita, Shoko; Nakamura, Motonobu; Satoh, Nobuhiko; Suzuki, Masashi; Seki, George

    2015-01-01

    Thiazolidinediones (TZDs) are one of the major classes of antidiabetic drugs that are used widely. TZDs improve insulin resistance by activating peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) and ameliorate diabetic and other nephropathies, at least, in experimental animals. However, TZDs have side effects, such as edema, congestive heart failure, and bone fracture, and may increase bladder cancer risk. Edema and heart failure, which both probably originate from renal sodium retention, are of great importance because these side effects make it difficult to continue the use of TZDs. However, the pathogenesis of edema remains a matter of controversy. Initially, upregulation of the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) in the collecting ducts by TZDs was thought to be the primary cause of edema. However, the results of other studies do not support this view. Recent data suggest the involvement of transporters in the proximal tubule, such as sodium-bicarbonate cotransporter and sodium-proton exchanger. Other studies have suggested that sodium-potassium-chloride cotransporter 2 in the thick ascending limb of Henle and aquaporins are also possible targets for TZDs. This paper will discuss the recent advances in the pathogenesis of TZD-induced sodium reabsorption in the renal tubules and edema. PMID:26074951

  14. The Employment Retention and Advancement Project: Results from the Valuing Individual Success and Increasing Opportunities Now (VISION) Program in Salem, Oregon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molina, Frieda; Cheng, Wan-Lae; Hendra, Richard

    2008-01-01

    The Employment Retention and Advancement (ERA) project is the most comprehensive effort thus far to ascertain which approaches help welfare recipients and other low-income people stay steadily employed and advance in their jobs. Launched in 1999 and slated to end in 2009, the ERA project encompasses more than a dozen demonstration programs and…

  15. Larval retention and connectivity among populations of corals and reef fishes: history, advances and challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, G. P.; Almany, G. R.; Russ, G. R.; Sale, P. F.; Steneck, R. S.; van Oppen, M. J. H.; Willis, B. L.

    2009-06-01

    The extent of larval dispersal on coral reefs has important implications for the persistence of coral reef metapopulations, their resilience and recovery from an increasing array of threats, and the success of protective measures. This article highlights a recent dramatic increase in research effort and a growing diversity of approaches to the study of larval retention within (self-recruitment) and dispersal among (connectivity) isolated coral reef populations. Historically, researchers were motivated by alternative hypotheses concerning the processes limiting populations and structuring coral reef assemblages, whereas the recent impetus has come largely from the need to incorporate dispersal information into the design of no-take marine protected area (MPA) networks. Although the majority of studies continue to rely on population genetic approaches to make inferences about dispersal, a wide range of techniques are now being employed, from small-scale larval tagging and paternity analyses, to large-scale biophysical circulation models. Multiple approaches are increasingly being applied to cross-validate and provide more realistic estimates of larval dispersal. The vast majority of empirical studies have focused on corals and fishes, where evidence for both extremely local scale patterns of self-recruitment and ecologically significant connectivity among reefs at scales of tens of kilometers (and in some cases hundreds of kilometers) is accumulating. Levels of larval retention and the spatial extent of connectivity in both corals and fishes appear to be largely independent of larval duration or reef size, but may be strongly influenced by geographic setting. It is argued that high levels of both self-recruitment and larval import can contribute to the resilience of reef populations and MPA networks, but these benefits will erode in degrading reef environments.

  16. The Science Advancement through Group Engagement Program: Leveling the Playing Field and Increasing Retention in Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Donna M.; Curtin-Soydan, Amanda J.; Canelas, Dorian A.

    2014-01-01

    How can colleges and universities keep an open gateway to the science disciplines for the least experienced first-year science students while also maintaining high standards that challenge the students with the strongest possible high school backgrounds? The Science Advancement through Group Engagement (SAGE) project targets cohorts of less…

  17. Retention and Advancement in the Retail Industry: A Career Ladder Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prince, Heath J.

    Retailing is the largest industry in the United States, employing roughly 18 percent of the total labor force. However, high turnover resulting from low wages in entry-level positions and the perceptions of retail workers that job security is far from certain and that advancement potential is limited have resulted in low levels of employee…

  18. The Employment Retention and Advancement Project Early Results from Four Sites

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloom, Dan; Hendra, Richard; Martinson, Karin; Scrivener, Susan

    2005-01-01

    Millions of welfare recipients have entered the labor force in the past decade, but surveys show that many remain in unstable, low-paying jobs that offer few opportunities for advancement. This report presents early evidence on the effectiveness of four diverse programs designed to help current or former welfare recipients work more steadily and…

  19. The Effects of Advance Organizers upon the Reception Learning and Retention of General Science Content.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barron, Richard F.

    David P. Ausubel (1963, 1968) has developed a psychology of meaningful reception learning which is intimately related to instruction as it typically occurs in schools. A key component of this psychology involves the hypothesized effects of advance organizers has not been adequately evaluated. Previous investigations, while of theoretical interest,…

  20. What Are the Consequences of the Newly Implemented 24+Advanced Learning Loans on Retention of Adult Access to Higher Education Students?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, Jane Marie; Slack, Kim

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses the previous literature on student retention in the post-compulsory education sector and the "24+Advanced Learning Loan". Adult students participating in an Access to Higher Education course are at particularly high risk of non-completion. Literature indicates that whilst stakeholders may require factual statistics…

  1. A Study of Varying Modes of Topical Presentation in Elementary College Biology to Determine the Effect of Advance Organizers in Knowledge Acquisition and Retention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuhn, David John

    Determined was the effect of advanced organizers, as defined by Ausubel (1963), on the acquisition and retention of meaningful verbal material by elementary education majors at Purdue University. Two approaches were utilized. In one, the experimental group was exposed to an 800-word organizer on two occasions prior to the study of the learning…

  2. Recruitment and Early Retention of Women with Advanced Breast Cancer in a Complementary and Alternative Medicine Trial

    PubMed Central

    Sikorskii, Alla; Wyatt, Gwen K.; Siddiqi, Azfar-e-Alam; Tamkus, Deimante

    2011-01-01

    More than 80% of women with breast cancer are now reported to be using complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) therapies during conventional treatment. A randomized clinical trial (RCT) of reflexology with late stage breast cancer patients serves as the data source for this article. The purposes were to investigate: (i) reasons for refusal to participate in a RCT of reflexology; (ii) the differences between those who completed the baseline interview and those who dropped out before baseline; and (iii) the utility of the Palliative Prognostic Score (PPS) as a prognostic screening tool in minimizing early attrition (before baseline) from the trial. Eligible women (N = 400) approached at 12 cancer centers in the Midwest had advanced breast cancer, were on chemotherapy or hormonal therapy, and had a PPS of 11 or less. Comparisons of those who dropped out early (N = 33) to those who stayed in the trial (N = 240) were carried out using Wilcoxon rank, t-, chi-squared and Fisher's exact tests. The reasons of being “too sick” or “overwhelmed” were given by less than 12% of the women who refused to participate. There was a higher early dropout rate among black women compared to other (primarily white) women (P = .01). Cancer recurrence and metastasis, age, and the PPS were not predictive of early retention of women. Specialized techniques may be needed to ensure black women remain in the trial once consented. Women with advanced disease were likely to enter and remain in the trial despite deterioration in health. PMID:19620179

  3. Analysis of the in-vessel control rod guide tube and subpile room shielding design for the advanced neutron source reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Gallmeier, F.X.; Bucholz, J.A.; Engle, W.W. Jr.; Williams, L.R.

    1995-08-01

    An extensive sheilding analysis of the control rod guide tube (CRGT) and the subpile room was performed for the Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) reactor. A two-dimensional model for the CRGT and subpile room was developed. Coupled 39 neutron group and 44 gamma group calculations with the multigroup DORT discrete originates transport code were done using cross sections from the ANSL-V library including photoneutron production. Different shield designs were investigated with a shield thickness of 10 to 15 mm. None of the shields affected the neutron dose rate and gamma dose rate at the top of the subpile room, which were 1 {center_dot} 10{sup 5} mrem/h and 1 {center_dot} 10{sup 3} mrem/h, respectively. An L-shaped cylindrical boral shield positioned around the core pressure boundary tube at the bottom of the reflector vessel with the horizontal part extended over the whole bottom of the reflector vessel reduced the maximal displacements per atom (DPA) level and helium production level in the primary coolant supply adapter and its flange after 40 years of reactor operation from 1 and 500 appm to 5 {center_dot} 10{sup -2} and 2 {center_dot} 10{sup -2} appm compared with the unshielded arrangement. Shields of boral and hafnium with the horizontal part of the shield restricted to a radius of 485 mm gave a maximal DPA of 5 {center_dot} 10{sup -2} and a helium production of up to 20 appm. Heat loads of up to 70 W{center_dot}cm{sup -3} were calculated at the most exposed parts of the shield both for boral and hafnium shields. A depletion/activation analysis of the hafnium shield showed that at the most exposed part of the shield, the naturally occurring isotope {sup 177}Hf is 34% depleted at the end of two years of reactor operation. This high burnup is somewhat balanced by a subsequent buildup of {sup 178}Hf, {sup 179}Hf, and {sup 180}Hf. In all other parts of the shield, the burnup is much smaller.

  4. Recovery of resources for advanced life support space applications: effect of retention time on biodegradation of two crop residues in a fed-batch, continuous stirred tank reactor.

    PubMed

    Strayer, R F; Finger, B W; Alazraki, M P; Cook, K; Garland, J L

    2002-09-01

    Bioreactor retention time is a key process variable that will influence costs that are relevant to long distance space travel or long duration space habitation. However. little is known about the effects of this parameter on the microbiological treatment options that are being proposed for Advanced Life Support (ALS) systems. Two bioreactor studies were designed to examine this variable. In the first one, six retention times ranging from 1.3 to 21.3 days--were run in duplicate, 81 working-volume continuous stirred tank reactors (CSTR) that were fed ALS wheat residues. Ash-free dry weight loss, carbon mineralization, soluble TOC reduction, changes in fiber content (cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin), bacterial numbers, and mineral recoveries were monitored. At short retention times--1.33 days--biodegradation was poor (total: 16-20%, cellulose - 12%, hemicellulose - 28%) but soluble TOC was decreased by 75-80% and recovery of major crop inorganic nutrients was adequate, except for phosphorus. A high proportion of the total bacteria (ca. 83%) was actively respiring. At the longest retention time tested, 21.3 days, biodegradation was good (total: 55-60%, cellulose ca. 70%, hemicellulose - ca. 55%) and soluble TOC was decreased by 80%. Recovery of major nutrients, except phosphorus, remained adequate. A very low proportion of total bacteria was actively respiring (ca. 16%). The second bioreactor study used potato residue to determine if even shorter retention times could be used (range 0.25-2.0 days). Although overall biodegradation deteriorated, the degradation of soluble TOC continued to be ca. 75%. We conclude that if the goal of ALS bioprocessing is maximal degradation of crop residues, including cellulose, then retention times of 10 days or longer will be needed. If the goal is to provide inorganic nutrients with the smallest volume/weight bioreactor possible, then a retention time of 1 day (or less) is sufficient. PMID:12139328

  5. Recovery of resources for advanced life support space applications: effect of retention time on biodegradation of two crop residues in a fed-batch, continuous stirred tank reactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strayer, R. F.; Finger, B. W.; Alazraki, M. P.; Cook, K.; Garland, J. L.

    2002-01-01

    Bioreactor retention time is a key process variable that will influence costs that are relevant to long distance space travel or long duration space habitation. However. little is known about the effects of this parameter on the microbiological treatment options that are being proposed for Advanced Life Support (ALS) systems. Two bioreactor studies were designed to examine this variable. In the first one, six retention times ranging from 1.3 to 21.3 days--were run in duplicate, 81 working-volume continuous stirred tank reactors (CSTR) that were fed ALS wheat residues. Ash-free dry weight loss, carbon mineralization, soluble TOC reduction, changes in fiber content (cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin), bacterial numbers, and mineral recoveries were monitored. At short retention times--1.33 days--biodegradation was poor (total: 16-20%, cellulose - 12%, hemicellulose - 28%) but soluble TOC was decreased by 75-80% and recovery of major crop inorganic nutrients was adequate, except for phosphorus. A high proportion of the total bacteria (ca. 83%) was actively respiring. At the longest retention time tested, 21.3 days, biodegradation was good (total: 55-60%, cellulose ca. 70%, hemicellulose - ca. 55%) and soluble TOC was decreased by 80%. Recovery of major nutrients, except phosphorus, remained adequate. A very low proportion of total bacteria was actively respiring (ca. 16%). The second bioreactor study used potato residue to determine if even shorter retention times could be used (range 0.25-2.0 days). Although overall biodegradation deteriorated, the degradation of soluble TOC continued to be ca. 75%. We conclude that if the goal of ALS bioprocessing is maximal degradation of crop residues, including cellulose, then retention times of 10 days or longer will be needed. If the goal is to provide inorganic nutrients with the smallest volume/weight bioreactor possible, then a retention time of 1 day (or less) is sufficient.

  6. Typewriting: Retention and Relearning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagman, Joseph D.

    Retention and relearning of straight-copy typewriting skill among thirty-eight administrative specialists, 71L Military Occupational Speciality, were examined after the no-practice retention interval between Advanced Individual Training (AIT) graduation and unit duty. Over this interval, average typing speed decreased and errors increased. As a…

  7. In-vessel coolability and retention of a core melt

    SciTech Connect

    Theofanous, T.G.; Liu, C.; Additon, S.

    1997-02-01

    The efficacy of external flooding of a reactor vessel as a severe accident management strategy is assessed for an AP600-like reactor design. The overall approach is based on the Risk Oriented Accident Analysis Methodology (ROAAM), and the assessment includes consideration of bounding scenarios and sensitivity studies, as well as arbitrary parametric evaluations that allow the delineation of the failure boundaries. The technical treatment in this assessment includes: (a) new data on energy flow from either volumetrically heated pools or non-heated layers on top, boiling and critical heat flux in inverted, curved geometries, emissivity of molten (superheated) samples of steel, and chemical reactivity proof tests, (b) a simple but accurate mathematical formulation that allows prediction of thermal loads by means of convenient hand calculations, (c) a detailed model programmed on the computer to sample input parameters over the uncertainty ranges, and to produce probability distributions of thermal loads and margins for departure from nucleate boiling at each angular position on the lower head, and (d) detailed structural evaluations that demonstrate that departure from nucleate boiling is a necessary and sufficient criterion for failure. Quantification of the input parameters is carried out for an AP600-like design, and the results of the assessment demonstrate that lower head failure is {open_quotes}physically unreasonable.{close_quotes} Use of this conclusion for any specific application is subject to verifying the required reliability of the depressurization and cavity-flooding systems, and to showing the appropriateness (in relation to the database presented here, or by further testing as necessary) of the thermal insulation design and of the external surface properties of the lower head, including any applicable coatings.

  8. Correlation Between Active-Learning Coursework and Student Retention of Core Content During Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experiences

    PubMed Central

    Testman, Julie A.; Hoyland, Marcella N.; Kimble, Angel M.; Euler, Mary L.

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To implement an active-learning approach in a pharmacotherapy course sequence in the second year (P2) and third (P3) year of a doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) program and determine whether the pedagogical changes correlated with retention of core content in the fourth year (P4). Design. Class sessions were transitioned from slides-based lectures to discussion-based active-learning pedagogy. Assessment. A comprehensive examination was created and administered to assess student retention of therapeutic topics taught. Students demonstrated significantly improved overall scores on questions derived from the active-learning pedagogy used in Pharmacotherapy II and III compared to those derived from Pharmacotherapy I in which content was delivered by lecture. Conclusion. The use of active-learning strategies over lecture-based methods in pharmacotherapy courses resulted in higher retention of core content. Students’ performance in areas taught using the discussion-based methodology was superior to that which was taught using lecture-based slide presentations. PMID:24159212

  9. Measuring the Impact of Advanced Placement Failure on Students' Academic Achievement and Retention in College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kutchner, Wendy

    2012-01-01

    This quantitative study examined the impact that Advanced Placement (AP) coursework had on students attending college with specific emphasis on those who failed the exam. The study comprised four years of entering freshmen students between the academic years 2006-2009. The study was comprehensive in that it revealed all AP attempts regardless of…

  10. Large-scale testing of in-vessel debris cooling through external flooding of the reactor pressure vessel in the CYBL facility

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, T.Y.; Bentz, J.H.; Bergeron, K.D.; Slezak, S.E.; Simpson, R.B.

    1994-04-01

    The possibility of achieving in-vessel core retention by flooding the reactor cavity, or the ``flooded cavity``, is an accident management concept currently under consideration for advanced light water reactors (ALWR), as well as for existing light water reactors (LWR). The CYBL (CYlindrical BoiLing) facility is a facility specifically designed to perform large-scale confirmatory testing of the flooded cavity concept. CYBL has a tank-within-a-tank design; the inner 3.7 m diameter tank simulates the reactor vessel, and the outer tank simulates the reactor cavity. The energy deposition on the bottom head is simulated with an array of radiant heaters. The array can deliver a tailored heat flux distribution corresponding to that resulting from core melt convection. The present paper provides a detailed description of the capabilities of the facility, as well as results of recent experiments with heat flux in the range of interest to those required for in-vessel retention in typical ALWRs. The paper concludes with a discussion of other experiments for the flooded cavity applications.

  11. Urinary Retention

    MedlinePlus

    ... the bladder does not empty completely. A health care provider performs this test during an office visit. The patient often receives ... urodynamic tests to diagnose urinary retention. The health care provider will perform these tests during an office visit. For tests that use ...

  12. Tritium retention and removal on TFTR

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, D.; Blanchard, W.; Doyle, B.L.

    1997-11-01

    Tritium retention and removal are critical issues for the success of ITER or any DT fusion reactor. The Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor, TFTR, is the first fusion facility to afford the opportunity to study the tritium retention and removal over an extended period. In TFTR, tritium accumulates on all surfaces with line of sight to the plasma by codeposition of tritium with carbon. Measurements of both deuterium and tritium retention fractions have yielded retention between 0.2 and 0.6 of the injected fuel in the torus. Tritium has been successfully removed from TFTR by glow discharge cleaning and by air purges. The in-vessel inventory was reduced by a factor of 2, facilitating machine maintenance. In TFTR, the amount of dust recovered from the TFTR vacuum vessel has varied from several grams to a few kilograms.

  13. Tritium retention and removal on TFTR

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, D.; Blanchard, W.; Doyle, B.L.

    1997-10-01

    Tritium retention and removal are critical issues for the success of ITER or any DT fusion reactor. The Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor, TFTR, is the first fusion facility to afford the opportunity to study the tritium retention and removal over an extended period. In TFTR, tritium accumulates on all surfaces with line of sight to the plasma by codeposition of tritium with carbon. Measurements of both deuterium and tritium retention fractions have yielded retention between 0.2 and 0.6 of the injected fuel in the torus. Tritium has been successfully removed from TFTR by glow discharge cleaning and by air purges. The in-vessel inventory was reduced by a factor of 2, facilitating machine maintenance. In TFTR, the amount of dust recovered from the TFTR vacuum vessel has varied from several grams to a few kilograms.

  14. Managing retention.

    PubMed

    Carter, Tony

    2007-01-01

    To build this process it is necessary to consult customers for preferences, build familiarity and knowledge to build a relationship and conduct business in a customized fashion. The process takes every opportunity to build customer satisfaction with each customer contact. It is an important process to have, since customers today are more demanding, sophisticated, educated and comfortable speaking to the company as an equal (Belk, 2003). Customers have more customized expectations so they want to be reached as individuals (Raymond and Tanner, 1994). Also, a disproportionate search for new business is costly. The cost to cultivate new customers is more than maintaining existing customers (Cathcart, 1990). Other reasons that customer retention is necessary is because many unhappy customers will never buy again from a company that dissatisfied them and they will communicate their displeasure to other people. These dissatisfied customers may not even convey their displeasure but without saying anything just stop doing business with that company, which may keep them unaware for some time that there is any problem (Cathcart, 1990). PMID:18453139

  15. The ITER in-vessel system

    SciTech Connect

    Lousteau, D.C.

    1994-09-01

    The overall programmatic objective, as defined in the ITER Engineering Design Activities (EDA) Agreement, is to demonstrate the scientific and technological feasibility of fusion energy for peaceful purposes. The ITER EDA Phase, due to last until July 1998, will encompass the design of the device and its auxiliary systems and facilities, including the preparation of engineering drawings. The EDA also incorporates validating research and development (R&D) work, including the development and testing of key components. The purpose of this paper is to review the status of the design, as it has been developed so far, emphasizing the design and integration of those components contained within the vacuum vessel of the ITER device. The components included in the in-vessel systems are divertor and first wall; blanket and shield; plasma heating, fueling, and vacuum pumping equipment; and remote handling equipment.

  16. The Effect of Advance Organizers on the Learning and Retention of Learning Disabled Adolescents within the Context of a Cooperative Planning Model. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lenz, B. Keith; Alley, Gordon R.

    This investigation examined whether advance organizers would help learning disabled (LD) adolescents to more efficiently process information on selected academic tasks. There were three phases: First, 51 LD and 63 normally achieving (NA) subjects participated in the development of a test to measure important and unimportant information. Second,…

  17. Large-scale boiling experiments of the flooded cavity concept for in-vessel core retention

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, T.Y.; Slezak, S.E.; Bentz, J.H.; Pasedag, W.F.

    1994-03-01

    This paper presents results of ex-vessel boiling experiments performed in the CYBL (CYlindrical BoiLing) facility. CYBL is a reactor-scale facility for confirmatory research of the flooded cavity concept for accident management. CYBL has a tank-within-a-tank design; the inner tank simulates the reactor vessel and the outer tank simulates the reactor cavity. Experiments with uniform and edge-peaked heat flux distributions up to 20 W/cm{sup 2} across the vessel bottom were performed. Boiling outside the reactor vessel was found to be subcooled nucleate boiling. The subcooling is mainly due to the gravity head which results from flooding the sides of the reactor vessel. The boiling process exhibits a cyclic pattern with four distinct phases: direct liquid/solid contact, bubble nucleation and growth, coalescence, and vapor mass dispersion (ejection). The results suggest that under prototypic heat load and heat flux distributions, the flooded cavity in a passive pressurized water reactor like the AP-600 should be capable of cooling the reactor pressure vessel in the central region of the lower head that is addressed by these tests.

  18. The NSF-Supported ADVANCE Initiative at the University of Michigan Aimed at Successful Recruitment and Retention of Women Faculty in Science and Engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukasa, S. B.; Committee, S.

    2004-12-01

    The University of Michigan obtained funding from the NSF ADVANCE Program for 2001-2006 to devise and implement strategies to improve representation and climate for its tenure-track women faculty in the natural sciences departments and the College of Engineering. In addition to increased representation and an improved campus environment for women faculty in science and engineering, the initiative aims to positively affect - through exposure to role models - the expectations and attitudes of the many women and men who are graduate and undergraduate students in these fields who make a sizeable pool from which future faculty are going to be drawn. This initiative was launched with a campus-wide survey to pinpoint problem areas, followed by the appointment of a committee of senior faculty now known as "Science and Technology Recruiting to Improve Diversity and Excellence" or STRIDE to provide information and advice about practices that will maximize the likelihood that well-qualified female and minority candidates for faculty positions will be identified, and, if selected for offers, recruited, retained, and promoted at the University of Michigan. The principal activities of STRIDE have so far included (i) helping in the development of an easy-to-navigate website with information about the ADVANCE project (URL: http://www.umich.edu/~advproj/index.html); (ii) development of a data-based PowerPoint presentation about non-conscious bias and the low numbers of women faculty in science and engineering; (iii) producing a handbook that offers guidelines for improving recruitment of women and minorities; and (iv) giving presentations in a variety of formats and providing advice to department chairs and other recruitment leaders on search committee composition and search practices. More recently, STRIDE has expanded its scope to include facilitation of departmental climate studies and informal discussions with women faculty about the importance of networking and receiving career

  19. Processing and analysis techniques involving in-vessel material generation

    DOEpatents

    Schabron, John F.; Rovani, Jr., Joseph F.

    2011-01-25

    In at least one embodiment, the inventive technology relates to in-vessel generation of a material from a solution of interest as part of a processing and/or analysis operation. Preferred embodiments of the in-vessel material generation (e.g., in-vessel solid material generation) include precipitation; in certain embodiments, analysis and/or processing of the solution of interest may include dissolution of the material, perhaps as part of a successive dissolution protocol using solvents of increasing ability to dissolve. Applications include, but are by no means limited to estimation of a coking onset and solution (e.g., oil) fractionating.

  20. Processing and analysis techniques involving in-vessel material generation

    DOEpatents

    Schabron, John F.; Rovani, Jr., Joseph F.

    2012-09-25

    In at least one embodiment, the inventive technology relates to in-vessel generation of a material from a solution of interest as part of a processing and/or analysis operation. Preferred embodiments of the in-vessel material generation (e.g., in-vessel solid material generation) include precipitation; in certain embodiments, analysis and/or processing of the solution of interest may include dissolution of the material, perhaps as part of a successive dissolution protocol using solvents of increasing ability to dissolve. Applications include, but are by no means limited to estimation of a coking onset and solution (e.g., oil) fractionating.

  1. Incorporating carbon saturation concepts and nitrogen retention theory

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent advances in soil C saturation concepts have increased our understanding of soil C storage and mineralization without explicit links to N retention and saturation theories. Here, we exploit a soil texture gradient to test hypotheses that link C saturation with soil 15N retention and nitrifica...

  2. Measuring Graduate Student Retention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isaac, Paul D.

    1993-01-01

    The conceptual and technical problems that need to be considered when studying graduate student retention and degree progress are examined, and practical suggestions for the institutional researcher are offered. Terms are defined, retention measures are explained, and different types of analysis are outlined. Ideas are given for database…

  3. Sorting, Supporting, Connecting, and Transforming: Student Retention Strategies at Community Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beatty-Guenter, P.

    Drawing from an analysis of the literature on student attrition and retention at community colleges, this paper presents a typology of retention strategies as a structure by which further research can advance. Introductory material explains the typology, which categorizes retention strategies according to whether their purposes are to: (1) sort…

  4. Drug Retention Times

    SciTech Connect

    Center for Human Reliability Studies

    2007-05-01

    The purpose of this monograph is to provide information on drug retention times in the human body. The information provided is based on plausible illegal drug use activities that might be engaged in by a recreational drug user

  5. Drug Retention Times

    SciTech Connect

    Center for Human Reliability Studies

    2007-05-01

    The purpose of this monograph is to provide information on drug retention times in the human body. The information provided is based on plausible illegal drug use activities that might be engaged in by a recreational drug user.

  6. [Chronic monstrous urine retention].

    PubMed

    Thomsen, Frederik Gustav; Holm, Mette Lind

    2015-01-26

    A 75-year-old male was diagnosed with renal mass at a computed tomography during an examination for extended abdominal girth. A large mesenterical cyst was also detected. The patient had infrequent voiding, which he had trained over many years as a taxi driver. A basic physical examination led to suspect urinary retention. His creatinine level was normal and he had no hydronephrosis. A renography showed equal function, but prolonged bilateral outflow. The volume extracted by urethral catheter passed 15 l. Absence of hydronephrosis and normal S-creatinine level has not been described in chronic urinary retention of this extent. Hydronephrosis is seen, but in much smaller volume of retention. Infrequent voiding is easily diagnosed. Urinary retention should be suspected when finding median cystic processes. PMID:25612956

  7. Retention in Tough Times.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaye, Beverly; Jordan-Evans, Sharon

    2002-01-01

    Interviews with 25 global talent leaders discuss keeping good people and the challenges and emerging practices for retaining employees. Sidebars discuss retention tips and what keeps people on the job. (JOW)

  8. [Retention of adhesive bridges].

    PubMed

    Raes, F; De Boever, J

    1994-04-01

    Since the development of adhesive bridges in the early seventies, the retention and therefore the durability of these bridges has been tremendously improved. Conditioning of the non-precious metal by silanisation, careful acid etching of the enamel and the use of the appropriate composite resin are of prime importance. Furthermore, the meticulous preparation with enough interproximal embrace, occlusal rests, interocclusal clearance and cingulum stops is equally important. Including more teeth in the design does not necessarily lead to an improved retention. Besides the material and technical aspects, the whole clinical procedure needs much attention. The retention does not depend on one single factor, but on the precision of all the necessary clinical steps and on a well-defined selection of the material. In this way a five-year survival rate of close to 80% can be obtained. PMID:11830965

  9. SUMMARY REPORT: IN-VESSEL COMPOSTING OF MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER SLUDGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This 177-page Technology Transfer Summary Report highlights design and operating considerations for possible incorporation into future in-vessel and other sludge composting systems. It is not meant to single out one design as superior to another. The document also aims to heighte...

  10. Surface retention capacity calculation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    David, Vaclav; Dostal, Tomas

    2010-05-01

    Flood wave transformation in the floodplain is the phenomenon which is researched within interdisciplinary project NIVA - Water Retention in Floodplains and Possibilities of Retention Capacity Increase. The project focuses on broad range of floodplain ecosystem services and mitigation of flooding is one of them. Despite main influence on flood wave transformation is due to flow retardation, retention in surface depressions within floodplain has been analyzed to get better overview of whole transformation process. Detail digital relief model (DRM) has been used for given purposes to be able to analyze terrain depressions volumes. The model was developed with use of stereophotogrammetric evaluation of airborne images with high resolution of 10 cm. It was essential for purposes of presented analysis not to apply pit removal routines which are often used for generation of DRM for hydrological modelling purposes. First, the methodology of analysis was prepared and tested on artificial surface. This surface was created using random raster generation, filtration and resampling with final resolution of 1000 x 1000 units and height of maximum 10 units above datum. The methodology itself is based on analysis of areas inundated by water at different elevation levels. Volume is than calculated for each depression using extraction of terrain elevations under corresponding water level. The method was then applied on the area of Lužnice River floodplain section to assess retention capacity of real floodplain. The floodplain had to be cut into sections perpendicular to main river orientation for analyses as the method was tested for square shaped area without any significant inclination. Results obtained by mentioned analysis are presented in this paper. Acknowledgement Presented research was accomplished within national project NIVA - Water Retention in Floodplains and Possibilities of Retention Capacity Increase, nr. QH82078. The project is funded by Ministry of Agriculture of

  11. Employee retention: a customer service approach.

    PubMed

    Gerson, Richard F

    2002-01-01

    Employee retention is a huge problem. There are staff shortages in radiology because not enough people are entering the profession; too many people are leaving the profession for retirement, higher-paying jobs or jobs with less stress; and there are not enough opportunities for career advancement. Staff shortages are exacerbated by difficulty in retaining people who enter the profession. While much work has been focused on recruitment and getting more people "in the front door," I suggest that the bulk of future efforts be focused on employee retention and "closing the back door." Employee retention must be an ongoing process, not a program. Approaches to employee retention that focus on external things, i.e., things that the company can do to or for the employee, generally are not successful. The truth is that employee retention processes must focus on what the employee gets out of the job. The process must be a benefits-based approach that helps employees answer the question, "What's in it for me?" The retention processes must be ongoing and integrated into the daily culture of the company. The best way to keep your employees is to treat them like customers. Customer service works for external customers. We treat them nicely. We work to satisfy them. We help them achieve their goals. Why not do the same for our employees? If positive customer service policies and practices can satisfy and keep external customers, why not adapt these policies and practices for employees? And, there is a service/satisfaction link between employee retention and higher levels of customer satisfaction. Customers prefer dealing with the same employees over and over again. Employee turnover destroys a customer's confidence in the company. Just like a customer does not want to have to "train and educate" a new provider, they do not want to do the same for your "revolving door" employees. So, the key is to keep employees so they in turn will help you keep your customers. Because the

  12. Recruitment, Retention, Attrition Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horvath, Ronald J., Ed.

    Based on a series of faculty workshops conducted at Jefferson Community College (KY) in 1978 and 1980, this handbook outlines 95 practical suggestions for increasing student retention rates. After introductory material describing these workshops, the first 22 suggestions recommend ways to foster positive student/teacher interaction. Methods are…

  13. Principals Retention. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muir, Mike

    2005-01-01

    Many districts are struggling with the problem of administrator retention. Hoffman (2004) identifies some of the reasons for this: (1) Increased accountability expectations; (2) Diminished or static levels of resources to support reform efforts; (3) Greater administrator vulnerability to sanctions; (4) The complex demands of government and the…

  14. Tritium retention in TFTR

    SciTech Connect

    Dylla, H.F.; Wilson, K.L.

    1988-04-01

    This report discusses the materials physics related to D-T operation in TFTR. Research activities are described pertaining to basic studies of hydrogenic retention in graphite, hydrogen recycling phenomena, first-wall and limiter conditioning, surface analysis of TFTR first-wall components, and estimates of the tritium inventory.

  15. Retention and Persistence Data.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanford, Timothy R.

    Two studies are combined with an introductory section: one is "Persistence to Graduation for Freshmen Entering the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 1967-75," by Timothy Sanford, and the second is "Freshman, Transfer, Professional, Masters, and Doctoral Student Retention at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill," by Paul D.…

  16. Improving College Freshman Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Winnie Y.

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, access to higher education was greatly improved through public funding. This improvement is not matched by a similar increase in graduation rate. The purpose of this study is to examine what postsecondary institutions can do to improve college freshman retention. The conceptual framework was based on research on college student…

  17. Secrets of Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poliniak, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Recruiting students is one thing, but keeping them in a chorus, orchestra, or band is another. Although a music director has no control over some variables, there is much that can be done to help students to stay. Several experts share their advice on retention. One expert said a teacher's own attitude and classroom strategies may be two of the…

  18. [Retention of adhesive bridges].

    PubMed

    Raes, F; De Boever, J

    1990-01-01

    Since the development of adhesive bridges in the early seventies, the retention and therefore the durability of these bridges has been tremendously improved. To ensure an adequate retention over a number of years different factors have to be considered. Conditioning of the non-precious metal by silanisation, careful acid etching of the enamel and the use of the appropriate composite resin (Panavia Ex) are of prime importance. Furthermore, the meticulous preparation with enough interproximal embrace, occlusal rets, interocclusal clearance of 0.4 mm and cingulum stops is equally important. Care should be taken not to remove all the enamel in the cervical region in preparing a mini chamfer. Including more teeth in the design does not necessarily lead to an improved retention. Teeth with a different mobility should not be included in the same bridge. Besides the material and technical aspects, the whole clinical procedure needs much attention. Only an exact impression, a precise model and a reliable casting technique will provide a metal frame with an optimal marginal adaptation and a close fit. The retention does not depend on one single factor but on the precision of all the necessary clinical steps and on a well-defined selection of the material. In this way a five-year survival rate of close to 90% can be obtained. PMID:2077574

  19. Recruitment and retention: successful strategies in critical care.

    PubMed

    Doering, L

    1990-05-01

    Recruitment and retention of critical care nurses is a major concern for nurse managers. Factors that affect recruitment and retention are management style, perceptions of isolation, stress, and burnout. Decentralization, primary nursing, and clinical advancement programs are strategies that allow nurses to participate in decision making at the unit level and to be recognized for their individual contributions. The application of these strategies to a cardiac surgery intensive care unit is presented. PMID:2341259

  20. DESIGN OF THE ITER IN-VESSEL COILS

    SciTech Connect

    Neumeyer, C; Bryant, L; Chrzanowski, J; Feder, R; Gomez, M; Heitzenroeder, P; Kalish, M; Lipski, A; Mardenfeld, M; Simmons, R; Titus, P; Zatz, I; Daly, E; Martin, A; Nakahira, M; Pillsbury, R; Feng, J; Bohm, T; Sawan, M; Stone, H; Griffiths, I; Schaffer, M

    2010-11-27

    The ITER project is considering the inclusion of two sets of in-vessel coils, one to mitigate the effect of Edge Localized Modes (ELMs) and another to provide vertical stabilization (VS). The in-vessel location (behind the blanket shield modules, mounted to the vacuum vessel inner wall) presents special challenges in terms of nuclear radiation (~3000 MGy) and temperature (100oC vessel during operations, 200oC during bakeout). Mineral insulated conductors are well suited to this environment but are not commercially available in the large cross section required. An R&D program is underway to demonstrate the production of mineral insulated (MgO or Spinel) hollow copper conductor with stainless steel jacketing needed for these coils. A preliminary design based on this conductor technology has been developed and is presented herein.

  1. An Overview Of The ITER In-Vessel Coil Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Heitzenroeder, P J; Chrzanowski, J H; Dahlgren, F; Hawryluk, R J; Loesser, G D; Neumeyer, C; Mansfield, C; Smith, J P; Schaffer, M; Humphreys, D; Cordier, J J; Campbell, D; Johnson, G A; Martin, A; Rebut, P H; Tao, J O; Fogarty, P J; Nelson, B E; Reed, R P

    2009-09-24

    ELM mitigation is of particular importance in ITER in order to prevent rapid erosion or melting of the divertor surface, with the consequent risk of water leaks, increased plasma impurity content and disruptivity. Exploitable "natural" small or no ELM regimes might yet be found which extrapolate to ITER but this cannot be depended upon. Resonant Magnetic Perturbation has been added to pellet pacing as a tool for ITER to mitigate ELMs. Both are required, since neither method is fully developed and much work remains to be done. In addition, in-vessel coils enable vertical stabilization and RWM control. For these reasons, in-vessel coils (IVCs) are being designed for ITER to provide control of Edge Localized Modes (ELMs) in addition to providing control of moderately unstable resistive wall modes (RWMs) and the vertical stability (VS) of the plasma.

  2. Mobile Learning and Student Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fozdar, Bharat Inder; Kumar, Lalita S.

    2007-01-01

    Student retention in open and distance learning (ODL) is comparatively poor to traditional education and, in some contexts, embarrassingly low. Literature on the subject of student retention in ODL indicates that even when interventions are designed and undertaken to improve student retention, they tend to fall short. Moreover, this area has not…

  3. In-vessel treatment of urban primary sludge by aerobic composting.

    PubMed

    Rihani, Mohammed; Malamis, Dimitri; Bihaoui, Bouchra; Etahiri, Samira; Loizidou, Maria; Assobhei, Omar

    2010-08-01

    The aim of this work is the study of recycling urban primary sludge by in-vessel aerobic composting way. Two series of composting trials were carried out in an automated accelerated bioreactor in mixture with agricultural wastes: sugar beet leaves (C1); straw, sheep manure and sugar beet leaves (C2). Treatments were monitored with regard to physicochemical characteristics, heavy metal amounts and microbiological parameters of the final compost product. The general pattern of the temperature curve was typical for composts of organic waste. The different physicochemical characteristics of the final composts after a retention time in the bioreactor of 30 and 23 days, respectively for C1 and C2 were: pH: 7.3-7.2; C/N: 10.2-12; organic matter: 49.7-58.3%; NH(4)(+)/NO(3)(-): 0.24-0.2. Final compost showed low amounts of heavy metals, relatively high contents of nutrients and significant reduction of pathogens, suggesting the agricultural purposes of urban primary sludge. PMID:20335022

  4. Selenide retention by mackinawite.

    PubMed

    Finck, N; Dardenne, K; Bosbach, D; Geckeis, H

    2012-09-18

    The isotope (79)Se may be of great concern with regard to the safe disposal of nuclear wastes in deep geological repositories due to its long half-life and potential mobility in the geosphere. The Se mobility is controlled by the oxidation state: the oxidized species (Se(IV)) and (Se(VI)) are highly mobile, whereas the reduced species (Se(0) and Se(-II)) form low soluble solids. The mobility of this trace pollutant can be greatly reduced by interacting with the various barriers of the repository. Numerous studies report on the oxidized species retention by mineral phases, but only very scarce studies report on the selenide (Se(-II)) retention. In the present study, the selenide retention by coprecipitation with and by adsorption on mackinawite (FeS) was investigated. XRD and SEM analyses of the samples reveal no significant influence of Se on the mackinawite precipitate morphology and structure. Samples from coprecipitation and from adsorption are characterized at the molecular scale by a multi-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) investigation. In the coprecipitation experiment, all elements (S, Fe, and Se) are in a low ionic oxidation state and the EXAFS data strongly point to selenium located in a mackinawite-like sulfide environment. By contacting selenide ions with FeS in suspension, part of Se is located in an environment similar to that found in the coprecipitation experiment. The explanation is a dynamical dissolution-recrystallization mechanism of the highly reactive mackinawite. This is the first experimental study to report on selenide incorporation in iron monosulfide by a multi-edge XAS approach. PMID:22900520

  5. Floating nut retention system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Charles, J. F.; Theakston, H. A. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    A floating nut retention system includes a nut with a central aperture. An inner retainer plate has an opening which is fixedly aligned with the nut aperture. An outer retainer member is formed of a base plate having an opening and a surface adjacent to a surface of the inner retainer plate. The outer retainer member includes a securing mechanism for retaining the inner retainer plate adjacent to the outer retainer member. The securing mechanism enables the inner retainer plate to float with respect to the outer retainer number, while simultaneously forming a bearing surface for inner retainer plate.

  6. The effect of lamination angle on polymer retention

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, H.W.

    1992-09-01

    Polymer retention may be affected by the reservoir geological structure due to lamination of the mineral surfaces. These laminae are very prevalent in Class I reservoirs. To account for the effect of lamination angle on polymer retention, several corefloods with three fired, rectangular, Berea sandstone cores were conducted. The three cores were cut at three different angles, 0, 30, and 90 degrees, with respect to the direction of laminations. A multiple slug retention method was used to determine the retention of a biopolymer in each core. Tracer tests were conducted before and after the biopolymer flow to determine how the retained biopolymer affected the fluid advance. A computed tomography (CT) scanning method was used to monitor the advance of the tracer. All corefloods and tracer tests were conducted at low flow rates similar to that in reservoirs. Coreflood tests revealed that polymer retention, which was mainly caused by mechanical entrapment, was higher in cores that had laminations parallel to the direction of flow than in cores that had crossbed laminae. In cores that had crossbed laminae, polymer retention increased with an increase in the lamination angle. Retained polymer is harmful to the stability of fluid front in cores that have laminations parallel to the direction of flow, but is helpful in cores that have crossbed laminae.

  7. In-vessel remote maintenance of the Compact Ignition Tokamak

    SciTech Connect

    Tabor, M.A.; Hager, E.R.; Creedon, R.L.; Fisher, M.V.; Atkin, S.D.

    1987-01-01

    The Compact Ignition Tokamak (CIT) is the first deuterium-tritium (D-T) fusion device that will study the physics of an ignited plasma. The ability of the tokamak vacuum vessel to be maintained remotely while under vacuum has not been fully demonstrated on previous machines, and this ability will be critical to the efficient and safe operation of ignition devices. Although manned entry into the CIT vacuum vessel will be possible during the nonactivated stages of operation, remotely automated equipment will be used to assist in initial assembly of the vessel as well as to maintain all in-vessel components once the D-T burn is achieved. Remote maintenance and operation will be routinely required for replacement of thermal protection tiles, inspection of components, leak detection, and repair welding activities. Conceptual design to support these remote maintenance activities has been integrated with the conceptual design of the in-vessel components to provide a complete and practical remote maintenance system for CIT. The primary remote assembly and maintenance operations on CIT will be accomplished through two dedicated 37- x 100-cm ports on the main toroidal vessel. Each port contains a single articulated boom manipulator (ABM), which is capable of accessing half of the torus. The proposed ABM consists of a movable carriage assembly, telescoping two-part mast, and articulated link sections. 1 ref.

  8. Molten core retention assembly

    DOEpatents

    Lampe, Robert F.

    1976-06-22

    Molten fuel produced in a core overheating accident is caught by a molten core retention assembly consisting of a horizontal baffle plate having a plurality of openings therein, heat exchange tubes having flow holes near the top thereof mounted in the openings, and a cylindrical, imperforate baffle attached to the plate and surrounding the tubes. The baffle assembly is supported from the core support plate of the reactor by a plurality of hanger rods which are welded to radial beams passing under the baffle plate and intermittently welded thereto. Preferably the upper end of the cylindrical baffle terminates in an outwardly facing lip to which are welded a plurality of bearings having slots therein adapted to accept the hanger rods.

  9. Retention through redemption.

    PubMed

    Abrashoff, D M

    2001-02-01

    Corporate America and the U.S. Navy share one big problem: employee retention. Today's knowledge workers hop from start-up to start-up. And 40% of the navy's new recruits leave the service before their four-year tours of duty are up. D. Michael Abrashoff came face to face with the navy's retention problem when he took command of the USS Benfold. Before he became captain, sailors couldn't get away from the ship fast enough. Today the vessel is the pride of the Pacific fleet, and sailors from other ships are clamoring to join its crew. In this firsthand account, Abrashoff explains how he got the ship and its crew back on course by breaking bad habits--personal and professional ones--and jettisoning old attitudes. During his 21 months aboard the Benfold, Abrashoff came to realize that in today's technology-intensive U.S. Navy, the traditional command-and-control style wouldn't work. And it hadn't--the Benfold's 310 sailors had cheered derisively when Abrashoff's predecessor had left the ship. So he defied 225 years of navy tradition in his quest to engage the sailors in their work, increase their performance, and keep them around for their entire tours of duty. He retained his crew by redeeming them--showing them how to be not just better sailors but better people, too. That meant breaking them down when they were at their worst and then building them up to reach their best. It also meant personal redemption for Abrashoff; he resolved to really listen to what his sailors were saying. The result? Cost-saving ideas for the entire navy and surging confidence and commitment among crew members. PMID:11213688

  10. Toward a Record Retention Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaughan, Jason

    2007-01-01

    An academic library working group was charged in 2005 to create a records retention schedule and policy applicable to records containing personally identifiable information of library patrons. This group conducted a survey and extensive research, culminating in an adopted library records retention schedule and policy implemented in 2006.

  11. Retention in Grade: Lethal Lessons?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherwood, Charles

    Despite a growing trend toward retention in grade of low-achieving students and apparent public support for the practice, many educators and psychologists disagree with the perception that flunking is an appropriate response to poor academic performance. Research reported in the past two decades indicates that grade-level retention produces little…

  12. Retention of Motor Skills: Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schendel, J. D.; And Others

    A summary of an extensive literature survey deals with the variables known or suspected to affect the retention of learned motor behaviors over lengthy no-practice intervals. Emphasis was given to research conducted by or for the military. The variables that may affect the retention of motor skills were dichotomized into task variables and…

  13. Teacher Retention in Catholic Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Przygocki, Walter F.

    2004-01-01

    Teacher attrition is a concern in all educational sectors but is of special importance to Catholic schools because of the salary disparity between public and Catholic schools. This review examines the research on teacher retention in general with a view to understanding how this knowledge might inform teacher recruitment and retention strategies…

  14. SULFUR RETENTION IN COAL ASH

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of an analytical study to assess the potential for sulfur retention in various types of coal-fired boilers. Results of a field test of 10 industrial coal-fired boilers were used to evaluate the impact on sulfur retention of the operating variables (load a...

  15. Studies on in-vessel debris coolability in ALPHA program

    SciTech Connect

    Maruyama, Yu; Yamano, Norihiro; Moriyama, Kiyofumi

    1997-02-01

    In-vessel debris coolability experiments have been performed in ALPHA Program at JAERI. Aluminum oxide (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) produced by a thermite reaction was applied as a debris simulant. Two scoping experiments using approximately 30 kg or 50 kg of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} were conducted. In addition to post-test observations, temperature histories of the debris simulant and the lower head experimental vessel were evaluated. Rapid temperature reduction observed on the outer surface of the experimental vessel may imply that water penetration into a gap between the solidified debris and the experimental vessel occurred resulting in an effective cooling of once heated vessel wall. Preliminary measurement of a gap width was made with an ultrasonic device. Signals to show the existence of gaps, ranging from 0.7 mm to 1.4 mm, were detected at several locations.

  16. Introduction to Special Issue: Using Theory and Research To Improve College Student Retention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braxton, John M.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the focus of this special issue on college student retention and describes the issue's articles, which advance recommendations for institutional action that emanate from theory and research rooted in several different theoretical orientations: organizational, sociological, and psychological. (EV)

  17. Payload retention device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monford, Leo G., Jr. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A payload retention device for grappling and retaining a payload in docked position on a supporting structure in the cargo bay of a space vehicle is presented. The device comprises a two-fault tolerant electromagnetic grappling system comprising electromagnets for attracting and grappling a grapple strike plate affixed to the payload when in proximity thereto and an electromechanical latching assembly comprising a pair of independent latching subassemblies. Each subassembly comprises a set of latching pawls which are driven into latching and unlatching positions relative to a grappled payload by a pair of gearmotors, each equipped with a ratchet clutch drive mechanism which is two-fault tolerant with respect to latching such that only one gearmotor of the four needs to be operational to effect a latch of the payload but is single fault tolerant with respect to release of a latched payload. Sensors are included for automatically sensing the magnetic grappling of a payload and for automatically de-energizing the gearmotors of the latching subassemblies when a latch condition is achieved.

  18. Data Retention and Anonymity Services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berthold, Stefan; Böhme, Rainer; Köpsell, Stefan

    The recently introduced legislation on data retention to aid prosecuting cyber-related crime in Europe also affects the achievable security of systems for anonymous communication on the Internet. We argue that data retention requires a review of existing security evaluations against a new class of realistic adversary models. In particular, we present theoretical results and first empirical evidence for intersection attacks by law enforcement authorities. The reference architecture for our study is the anonymity service AN.ON, from which we also collect empirical data. Our adversary model reflects an interpretation of the current implementation of the EC Directive on Data Retention in Germany.

  19. Pulmonary retention of coal dusts

    SciTech Connect

    Morrow, P.E.; Gibb, F.R.; Beiter, H.; Amato, F.; Yuile, C.; Kilpper, R.W.

    1980-01-01

    The principal objectives of this study were: to determine, quantitatively, coal dust retention times in the dog lung; to test the appropriateness of a pulmonary retention model which incorporates first order rate coefficients obtained from in vitro and in vivo experiments on neutron-activated coal; to acquire a temporal description of the pulmonary disposition of the retained coal dust, and to compare the behavior of two different Pennsylvania coals in the foregoing regards. The principal findings include: retention half-times for both coals of approximately 2 years following single, hour-long exposures; a vivid association of the retained coal dust with the pulmonic lymphatics; and a general validation of the retention model.

  20. EA Shuttle Document Retention Effort

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wagner, Howard A.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the effort of code EA at Johnson Space Center (JSC) to identify and acquire databases and documents from the space shuttle program that are adjudged important for retention after the retirement of the space shuttle.

  1. In-vessel composting at the Hidden Valley Landfill

    SciTech Connect

    Cox, C.

    1998-01-01

    Yard waste composting is a simple and natural process. But left alone, natural decomposition takes years. With commercial composting, on the other hand, the process must be accelerated by workers and equipment. Moreover, it has to be accomplished in a relatively small space, it has to be accessible to trucks and other vehicles, it is subject to quality control standards, and it has to be free or relatively free of objectionable odor. Most importantly, for economic feasibility, it must find an end market. One facility that apparently has met those criteria is Land Recovery, Inc.`s (LRI, Tacoma, Wash.) Hidden Valley Landfill site in Puyallup, Wash., south of Tacoma. LRI is a fully integrated solid waste management company that operates a landfill, intermodal transfer site, and a recycling center. The Purdy facility has surpassed its designed average capacity of 80 tpd and designed peak capacity of 120 tpd, with peaks running as high as 200 tpd. LRI needed to expand, but there was very little room to do so at the Purdy site. LRI`s solution was to start an in-vessel composting operation adjacent to the Hidden Valley Landfill, using 50-cu.yd. modified roll-off containers as the composting enclosure and 20-cu.yd. containers to filter the odorous exhaust from the decomposing materials. The compost facility is a temporary measure until a new, fully enclosed facility is built in about another year.

  2. Turnover: strategies for staff retention.

    PubMed

    SnowAntle, S

    1990-01-01

    This discussion has focused on a number of areas where organizations may find opportunities for more effectively managing employee retention. Given the multitude of causes and consequences, there is no one quick fix. Effective management of employee retention requires assessment of the entire human resources process, that is, recruitment, selection, job design, compensation, supervision, work conditions, etc. Regular and systematic diagnosis of turnover and implementation of multiple strategies and evaluation are needed (Mobley, 1982). PMID:10106673

  3. Physics Design of the National High-power Advanced Torus Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Menard, J E; Fu, G -Y; Gorelenkov, N; Kaye, S M; Kramer, G; Maingi, R; Neumeyer, C L; Sabbagh, S A; Soukhanovskii, V A

    2007-07-18

    Moving beyond ITER toward a demonstration power reactor (Demo) will require the integration of stable high fusion gain in steady-state, advanced methods for dissipating very high divertor heat-fluxes, and adherence to strict limits on in-vessel tritium retention. While ITER will clearly address the issue of high fusion gain, and new and planned long-pulse experiments (EAST, JT60-SA, KSTAR, SST-1) will collectively address stable steady-state highperformance operation, none of these devices will adequately address the integrated heat-flux, tritium retention, and plasma performance requirements needed for extrapolation to Demo. Expressing power exhaust requirements in terms of Pheat/R, future ARIES reactors are projected to operate with 60-200MW/m, a Component Test Facility (CTF) or Fusion Development Facility (FDF) for nuclear component testing (NCT) with 40-50MW/m, and ITER 20-25MW/m. However, new and planned long-pulse experiments are currently projected to operate at values of Pheat/R no more than 16MW/m. Furthermore, none of the existing or planned experiments are capable of operating with very high temperature first-wall (Twall = 600-1000C) which may be critical for understanding and ultimately minimizing tritium retention with a reactor-relevant metallic first-wall. The considerable gap between present and near-term experiments and the performance needed for NCT and Demo motivates the development of the concept for a new experiment — the National High-power advanced-Torus eXperiment (NHTX) — whose mission is to study the integration of a fusion-relevant plasma-material interface with stable steady-state high-performance plasma operation.

  4. Retention Rate by Ethnicity. Information Capsule.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldwin, Anne

    This document discusses retention rate based on ethnicity for Miami-Dade Community College (M-DCC) for December 2002. The study found that the 2001 Fall-Spring retention rates increased among all ethnic groups. The total college retention rate rose by 2.7 percentage points to 75.2%. Among individual groups, the highest retention rate of 76.9% was…

  5. Long Term Retention of Deuterium and Tritium in Alcator C-Mod

    SciTech Connect

    FIORE,C.; LABOMBARD,B.; LIPSCHULTZ,B.; PITCHER,C.S.; SKINNER,C.H.; WAMPLER,WILLIAM R.

    1999-11-03

    We estimate the total in-vessel deuterium retention in Alcator C-Mod from a run campaign of about 1090 plasmas. The estimate is based on measurements of deuterium retained on 22 molybdenum tiles from the inner wall and divertor. The areal density of deuterium on the tiles was measured by nuclear reaction analysis. From these data, the in-vessel deuterium inventory is estimated to be about 0.1 gram, assuming the deuterium coverage is toroidally symmetric. Most of the retained deuterium is on the walls of the main plasma chamber, only about 2.5% of the deuterium is in the divertor. The D coverage is consistent with a layer saturated by implantation with ions and charge-exchange neutrals from the plasma. This contrasts with tokamaks with carbon plasma-facing components (PFC's) where long-term retention of tritium and deuterium is large and mainly in the divertor due to codeposition with carbon eroded by the plasma. The low deuterium retention in the C-Mod divertor is mainly due to the absence of carbon PFC's in C-Mod and the low erosion rate of Mo.

  6. In situ monitoring hydrogen isotope retention in ITER first wall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukhin, E. E.; Andrew, P.; Anthoine, A. D.; Bazhenov, A. N.; Barnsley, R.; Bukreev, I. M.; Bukhovets, V. L.; Chernakov, A. P.; Gorodetsky, A. E.; Kochergin, M. M.; Koval, A. N.; Kukushkin, A. B.; Kukushkin, A. S.; Kurskiev, G. S.; Levashova, M. G.; Litvinov, A. E.; Litunovsky, V. N.; Markin, A. V.; Mazul, I. V.; Masyukevich, S. V.; Miroshnikov, I. V.; Nemov, A. S.; Novokhatsky, A. N.; Razdobarin, A. G.; Sherstnev, E. V.; Samsonov, D. S.; Semenov, V. V.; Smirnov, A. S.; De Temmerman, G.; Tolstyakov, S. Yu.; Zalavutdinov, R. Kh.; Walsh, M. J.

    2016-03-01

    Tritium retention inside the vacuum vessel is a potentially serious constraint in the operation of large-scale fusion machines like ITER. An in situ diagnostics for first wall H/D/T retention by laser induced desorption spectroscopy (LIDS) is proposed for use between plasma discharges. The technique is based on local baking of the first wall by laser irradiation and subsequent analysis of the in-vessel gas by optical emission spectroscopy of plasma radiation. The local heating implementation, kinetics of H/D/T thermal extraction and the accuracy of optical emission spectroscopy measurements are analysed. To resolve the H/D/T lines spectroscopically, their thermal broadening should be minimized to prevent overlapping of the line shapes. A comparative performance analysis of several types of plasma sources with relatively cold ions is made including the following types of discharges: Penning, RF multipactor, laser torch and ECR. All these radiation sources require rather low power and could be used for remote in situ measurements of relative densities of the thermally extracted hydrogen isotopes.

  7. Retention of hydrogen in graphite

    SciTech Connect

    Langley, R.A.

    1986-10-01

    The retention of hydrogen in POCO AXF-5Q graphite has been measured at room temperature as a function of fluence and flux for H/sub 2//sup +/ ions at energies from 250 to 500 eV provided by a glow discharge. More than 2 x 10/sup 18/ H/cm/sup 2/ has been retained, and no indication of saturation has been observed to a fluence of 5 x 10/sup 19/ H/cm/sup 2/. In this experiment, retention was found to increase linearly with fluence for constant flux. A flux dependence was observed; that is, the retention rate was observed to decrease monotonically as the flux increased. A change-over experiment, deuterium to hydrogen, was conducted; the results show that significant change-over occurs (i.e., about 30% change-over for a fluence of 5 x 10/sup 17/ D/cm/sup 2/).

  8. Volatile species retention during metallic fuel casting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fielding, Randall S.; Porter, Douglas L.

    2013-10-01

    Metallic nuclear fuels are candidate transmutation fuel forms for advanced fuel cycles. Through the operation of the Experimental Breeder Reactor II metallic nuclear fuels have been shown to be robust and easily manufactured. However, concerns have been raised concerning loss of americium during the casting process because of its high vapor pressure. In order to address these concerns a gaseous diffusion model was developed and a series of experiments using both manganese and samarium as surrogates for americium were conducted. The modeling results showed that volatility losses can be controlled to essentially no losses with a modest overpressure. Experimental results also showed volatile species retention down to no detectable losses through overpressure, and although the loss values varied from the model results the same trend was seen. Based on these results it is very probable that americium losses through volatility can be controlled to no detectable losses through application of a modest overpressure during casting.

  9. Volatile Species Retention During Metallic Fuel Casting

    SciTech Connect

    Randall S. Fielding; Douglas L. Proter

    2013-10-01

    Metallic nuclear fuels are candidate transmutation fuel forms for advanced fuel cycles. Through the operation of the Experimental Breeder Reactor II metallic nuclear fuels have been shown to be robust and easily manufactured. However, concerns have been raised concerning loss of americium during the casting process because of its high vapor pressure. In order to address these concerns a gaseous diffusion model was developed and a series of experiments using both manganese and samarium as surrogates for americium were conducted. The modeling results showed that volatility losses can be controlled to essentially no losses with a modest overpressure. Experimental results also showed volatile species retention down to no detectable losses through overpressure, although the loss values varied from the model results the same trend was seen. Bases on these results it is very probably that americium losses through volatility can be controlled to no detectable losses through application of a modest overpressure during casting.

  10. A model of application system for man-machine-environment system engineering in vessels based on IDEF0

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shang, Zhen; Qiu, Changhua; Zhu, Shifan

    2011-09-01

    Applying man-machine-environment system engineering (MMESE) in vessels is a method to improve the effectiveness of the interaction between equipment, environment, and humans for the purpose of advancing operating efficiency, performance, safety, and habitability of a vessel and its subsystems. In the following research, the life cycle of vessels was divided into 9 phases, and 15 research subjects were also identified from among these phases. The 15 subjects were systemized, and then the man-machine-environment engineering system application model for vessels was developed using the ICAM definition method 0 (IDEF0), which is a systematical modeling method. This system model bridges the gap between the data and information flow of every two associated subjects with the major basic research methods and approaches included, which brings the formerly relatively independent subjects together as a whole. The application of this systematic model should facilitate the application of man-machine-environment system engineering in vessels, especially at the conceptual and embodiment design phases. The managers and designers can deal with detailed tasks quickly and efficiently while reducing repetitive work.

  11. Implicit Memory: Retention without Remembering.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roediger, Henry L., III

    1990-01-01

    Reviews recent research on retention that is demonstrated without conscious recollection, such as the ability to tie shoelaces or drive a car. Suggests that future research in this field may have implications for such educational issues as the transfer of training and the carryover of abstract classroom learning to problems in other contexts. (EVL)

  12. JCC Recruitment, Retention, Attrition Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horvath, Ronald J.

    In an effort to reduce the class attrition rate of 40% at Jefferson Community College (JCC), and to investigate the entire process of recruitment, retention, and attrition (RRA), a series of four faculty workshops were held. The plan was to look at the RRA process from the student's point of view in terms of four phases: (1) the pre-enrollment…

  13. Maslow's Hierarchy and Student Retention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brookman, David M.

    1989-01-01

    Abraham Maslow's hierarchy of needs offers perspective on student motivation and a rationale for college retention programing. Student affairs and faculty interventions addressing student safety needs and engaging students' sense of purpose reinforce persistence. A mentor program is a possible cooperative effort between student personnel and…

  14. Strategies for improving employee retention.

    PubMed

    Verlander, Edward G; Evans, Martin R

    2007-01-01

    This article proposes a solution to the perennial problem of talent retention in the clinical laboratory. It includes the presentation of 12 strategies that may be used to significantly improve institutional identity formation and establishment of the psychological contract that employees form with laboratory management. Identity formation and psychological contracting are deemed as essential in helping reduce employee turnover and increase retention. The 12 conversational strategies may be used as a set of best practices for all employees, but most importantly for new employees, and should be implemented at the critical moment when employees first join the laboratory. This time is referred to as "retention on-boarding"--the period of induction and laboratory orientation. Retention on-boarding involves a dialogue between employees and management that is focused on the psychological, practical, cultural, and political dimensions of the laboratory. It is placed in the context of the modern clinical laboratory, which is faced with employing and managing Generation X knowledge workers. Specific topics and broad content areas of those conversations are outlined. PMID:17394785

  15. Meeting Individual Needs Fosters Retention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Artman, Johanne I.; Gore, Robert C.

    A 1991 study of non-returning students at Del Mar College (DMC), in Corpus Christi, Texas, revealed that only 37.9% of these students were actual dropouts (i.e., had failed to accomplish their educational goals, and had no plans to take up further study). Retention studies conducted in Texas between 1985 and 1989 have shown that DMC has…

  16. Mechanisms of gas bubble retention

    SciTech Connect

    Gauglitz, P.A.; Mahoney, L.A.; Mendoza, D.P.; Miller, M.C.

    1994-09-01

    Retention and episodic release of flammable gases are critical safety concerns regarding double-shell tanks (DSTs) containing waste slurries. Previous investigations have concluded that gas bubbles are retained by the slurry that has settled at the bottom of the DST. However, the mechanisms responsible for the retention of these bubbles are not well understood. In addition, the presence of retained gas bubbles is expected to affect the physical properties of the sludge, but essentially no literature data are available to assess the effect of these bubbles. The rheological behavior of the waste, particularly of the settled sludge, is critical to characterizing the tendency of the waste to retain gas bubbles. The objectives of this study are to elucidate the mechanisms contributing to gas bubble retention and release from sludge such as is in Tank 241-SY-101, understand how the bubbles affect the physical properties of the sludge, develop correlations of these physical properties to include in computer models, and collect experimental data on the physical properties of simulated sludges with bubbles. This report presents a theory and experimental observations of bubble retention in simulated sludge and gives correlations and new data on the effect of gas bubbles on sludge yield strength.

  17. Exploring General Education Development Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grover, Sharon D.

    2013-01-01

    According to the instructors and administrators at a local adult education (AE) program in Houston, Texas, retaining and graduating general education development (GED) students has been a constant challenge. Locating GED attendance barriers could enable AE programs to develop techniques that increase student retention and graduation rates. The…

  18. Course Retention Analysis. Focus Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mount San Antonio Coll., Walnut, CA.

    A study was conducted at Mount San Antonio College (MSAC), California, to analyze patterns in credit course retention between fall 1986 and spring 1989. The study investigated the development of course prerequisites based on faculty perceptions of the skills necessary for success and minimal skill levels associated with success; student assessment…

  19. Self-Managed Skill Retention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marx, Robert D.

    1986-01-01

    Presents the Relapse Prevention model, which provides the structure in which managers can analyze potential lapses in their own skill retention. Discusses training goals, self-management, specific strategies, choosing a skill to retain, imagery and prediction, and holistic training. (CT)

  20. Employee voice and employee retention.

    PubMed

    Spencer, D G

    1986-09-01

    This study investigates the relationship between the extent to which employees have opportunities to voice dissatisfaction and voluntary turnover in 111 short-term, general care hospitals. Results show that, whether or not a union is present, high numbers of mechanisms for employee voice are associated with high retention rates. Implications for theory and research as well as management practice are discussed. PMID:10278801

  1. Classroom Management for Student Retention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santa Rita, Emilio

    This guidebook recommends methods for teachers to use to improve teacher-student interaction in the classroom, as a means of increasing student retention. Chapter I introduces eight major systems of classroom management which teachers may use as their values and the classroom situation dictate: "Behavior Modification,""Reality Therapy,""Discipline…

  2. Utilization of Advance Organizers in Environmental Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pizzini, Edward L.; Gross, Michael P.

    1978-01-01

    Attempts to analyze the effects of advance organizers on an environmental education unit, assess retention of the instructional material one year later, and determine if changes in perceptions of a woodland occurred. (GA)

  3. Structural materials for ITER in-vessel component design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalinin, G.; Gauster, W.; Matera, R.; Tavassoli, A.-A. F.; Rowcliffe, A.; Fabritsiev, S.; Kawamura, H.

    1996-10-01

    The materials proposed for ITER in-vessel components have to exhibit adequate performance for the operating lifetime of the reactor or for specified replacement intervals. Estimates show that maximum irradiation dose to be up to 5-7 dpa (for 1 MWa/m 2 in the basic performance phase (BPP)) within a temperature range from 20 to 300°C. Austenitic SS 316LN-ITER Grade was defined as a reference option for the vacuum vessel, blanket, primary wall, pipe lines and divertor body. Conventional technologies and mill products are proposed for blanket, back plate and manifold manufacturing. HIPing is proposed as a reference manufacturing method for the primary wall and blanket and as an option for the divertor body. The existing data show that mechanical properties of HIPed SS are no worse than those of forged 316LN SS. Irradiation will result in property changes. Minimum ductility has been observed after irradiation in an approximate temperature range between 250 and 350°C, for doses of 5-10 dpa. In spite of radiation-induced changes in tensile deformation behavior, the fracture remains ductile. Irradiation assisted corrosion cracking is a concern for high doses of irradiation and at high temperatures. Re-welding is one of the critical issues because of the need to replace failed components. It is also being considered for the replacement of shielding blanket modules by breeding modules after the BPP. Estimates of radiation damage at the locations for re-welding show that the dose will not exceed 0.05 dpa (with He generation of 1 appm) for the manifold and 0.01 dpa (with He generation 0.1 appm) for the back plate for the BPP of ITER operation. Existing experimental data show that these levels will not result in property changes for SS; however, neutron irradiation and He generation promote crack formation in the heat affected zone during welding. Cu based alloys, DS-Cu (Glidcop A125) and PHCu CuCrZr bronze) are proposed as a structural materials for high heat flux

  4. In-Vessel and Ex-Vessel Neutron Dosimetry Programs in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoo, Choon Sung; Kim, Byoung Chul; Fero, Arnold H.; Anderson, Stanwood L.

    2016-02-01

    In Korea, 20 PWRs are operating and 4 more PWRs are under construction. The in-vessel neutron dosimetry programs have been designed and implemented since each plant began operation. In addition to the in-vessel dosimetry program, ex-vessel neutron dosimetry systems have been installed for 16 PWRs. The objective of this paper is to describe the in-vessel and ex-vessel neutron dosimetry program of the PWRs in Korea and to compare in-vessel and ex-vessel dosimetry evaluation results. For this purpose plant and cycle specific forward neutron transport calculations and dosimetry measurement evaluations were carried out according to Regulatory Guide 1.190. Comparisons between the calculations and measurements were also performed for the reaction rates of each dosimetry sensor and the results show good agreement.

  5. Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects: Swelling (Fluid Retention)

    MedlinePlus

    ... ancer I nstitute Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects Swelling (Fluid retention) “My hands and feet were swollen and ... at one time. Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects: Swelling (Fluid retention) Weigh yourself. l Weigh yourself at the ...

  6. 12 CFR 1002.12 - Record retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Record retention. 1002.12 Section 1002.12 Banks....12 Record retention. (a) Retention of prohibited information. A creditor may retain in its files... statutes or regulations. (b) Preservation of records—(1) Applications. For 25 months (12 months...

  7. 12 CFR 202.12 - Record retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Record retention. 202.12 Section 202.12 Banks... OPPORTUNITY ACT (REGULATION B) § 202.12 Record retention. (a) Retention of prohibited information. A creditor...) Applications. For 25 months (12 months for business credit, except as provided in paragraph (b)(5) of...

  8. 12 CFR 202.12 - Record retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Record retention. 202.12 Section 202.12 Banks... OPPORTUNITY ACT (REGULATION B) § 202.12 Record retention. (a) Retention of prohibited information. A creditor...) Applications. For 25 months (12 months for business credit, except as provided in paragraph (b)(5) of...

  9. 12 CFR 202.12 - Record retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Record retention. 202.12 Section 202.12 Banks... OPPORTUNITY ACT (REGULATION B) § 202.12 Record retention. (a) Retention of prohibited information. A creditor...) Applications. For 25 months (12 months for business credit, except as provided in paragraph (b)(5) of...

  10. 12 CFR 202.12 - Record retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Record retention. 202.12 Section 202.12 Banks... OPPORTUNITY ACT (REGULATION B) § 202.12 Record retention. (a) Retention of prohibited information. A creditor...) Applications. For 25 months (12 months for business credit, except as provided in paragraph (b)(5) of...

  11. 12 CFR 1002.12 - Record retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Record retention. 1002.12 Section 1002.12 Banks....12 Record retention. (a) Retention of prohibited information. A creditor may retain in its files... statutes or regulations. (b) Preservation of records—(1) Applications. For 25 months (12 months...

  12. Persistence-Retention. Snapshot™ Report, Spring 2014

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Student Clearinghouse, 2014

    2014-01-01

    This snapshot report provides information on student persistence and retention rates for Spring 2014. Data is presented in tabular format on the following: (1) First-Year Persistence and Retention Rates by Starting Enrollment Intensity (all institutional sectors); (2) First-Year Persistence and Retention Rates by Age at College Entry (all…

  13. Persistence-Retention. Snapshot™ Report, Spring 2015

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Student Clearinghouse, 2015

    2015-01-01

    This Snapshot Report offers information on student persistence and retention rates for 2009-2013. It offers data on the following: (1) First-Year Persistence and Retention Rates for Students Who Start College at Four-Year Private Nonprofit Institutions; (2) First-Year Persistence and Retention Rates for Students Who Start College at Four-Year…

  14. Reframing Retention Strategy: A Focus on Progress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spittle, Brian

    2013-01-01

    Few words have dominated the vocabulary of college retention as has the word "persistence." Many institutions still struggle to engage faculty and administrators in building campuswide retention efforts, to find the organizational levers that translate the abstractions and complexities of retention theory into scalable and durable initiatives, and…

  15. Reframing Retention Strategy: A Focus on Profile

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalsbeek, David H.; Zucker, Brian

    2013-01-01

    Over 35 years of retention theory and literature have acknowledged the importance of institutional and student profiles in accounting for cross-sectional differences in retention and completion rates between types of colleges and universities. The first "P" within a 4 Ps framework of student retention--"profile"--recognizes that an institution's…

  16. 12 CFR 1002.12 - Record retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Record retention. 1002.12 Section 1002.12 Banks....12 Record retention. (a) Retention of prohibited information. A creditor may retain in its files... statutes or regulations. (b) Preservation of records—(1) Applications. For 25 months (12 months...

  17. Plasma wall interaction and tritium retention in TFTR

    SciTech Connect

    Skinner, C. H.; Amarescu, E.; Ascione, G.; Synakowski, E.

    1996-05-01

    The Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) has been operating safely and routinely with deuterium-tritium fuel for more than two years. In this time, TFTR has produced an impressive number of record breaking results including core fusion power, ~ 2 MW/m³, comparable to that expected for ITER. Advances in wall conditioning via lithium pellet injection have played an essential role in achieving these results. Deuterium-tritium operation has also provided a special opportunity to address the issues of tritium recycling and retention. Tritium retention over two years of operation was approximately 40%. Recently, the in-torus tritium inventory was reduced by half through a combination of glow discharge cleaning, moist-air soaks, and plasma discharge cleaning. The tritium inventory is not a constraint in continued operations. The authors present recent results from TFTR in the context of plasma wall interactions and deuterium-tritium issues.

  18. Pathways to URM Retention: IBP's Professional Development and Mentoring Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, A.; Williamson Whitney, V.; Ricciardi, L.; Detrick, L.; Siegfried, D.; Fauver, A.; Ithier-Guzman, W.; Thomas, S. H.; Valaitis, S.

    2013-05-01

    As a not for profit organization, the Institute for Broadening Participation (IBP) hosts a variety of initiatives designed to increase the retention of underrepresented minority (URM) students pursuing pathways in STEM. IBP also assists with formative program evaluation design and implementation to help strengthen URM recruitment and retention elements. Successful initiatives include virtual and face-to-face components that bring together URM students with established URM and other scientists in academia, government and industry. These connections provide URMs with mentoring, networking opportunities, and professional skill development contributing to an improved retention rate of URM students. IBP's initiatives include the NASA One Stop Shopping Initiative (NASA OSSI), Pathways to Ocean Science and Engineering, and the Minorities Striving and Pursuing Higher Degrees of Success (MS PHD'S) in Earth System Science (ESS) Professional Development Program. The NASA OSSI recruits and facilitates student engagement in NASA education and employment opportunities. Pathways to Ocean Science connects and supports URM students with Ocean Science REU programs and serves as a resource for REU program directors. Pathways to Engineering has synthesized mentoring resources into an online mentoring manual for URM students that has been extensively vetted by mentoring experts throughout the country. The mentoring manual, which is organized by roles, provides undergraduates, graduates, postdocs, faculty and project directors with valuable resources. MS PHD'S, one of IBP's longest running and most successful initiatives, focuses on increasing the retention rate of URM students receiving advanced degrees in ESS. The program addresses barriers to retention in ESS including isolation, lack of preparation and professional development, and lack of mentoring. Program activities center on peer-to-peer community building, professional development exercises, networking experiences, one

  19. Recruitment and retention of Canadian undergraduate psychiatric nursing faculty: challenges and recommendations.

    PubMed

    Morrissette, P J

    2011-09-01

    The education of psychiatric nurses in Canada has gradually evolved since its inception early in the 20th century. The most obvious advancement has been a move away from institutionally based training to undergraduate university preparation. Associated with this advancement is the ongoing challenge of recruiting and retaining qualified nurse educators. This essay addresses external factors (e.g. title disparity, association affiliation, societal perception of psychiatric nursing and professional identity) and internal factors (e.g. career transition and tenure and promotion) that influence faculty recruitment and retention. Existing challenges and recommendations designed to enhance recruitment and retention efforts are outlined. PMID:21848593

  20. Gastro retention using polymer cocoons.

    PubMed

    Arnold, Julien; Hunkeler, David

    2015-02-01

    A gastro-retentive capsule has been prepared which is retained in the stomach for a period of 24h, providing a vehicle for the controlled delivery to the upper intestines. These "gastro cocoons" can resist passage through the sphincter of the stomach, and can retain a high drug payload (30%). They are made from oppositely charged polyelectrolytes and can swell to twice their initial volume. They are strong and also can resist 550 N of compressive force. They are based on filled pharmaceutical capsules which are visible to X-rays. Using ambroxol hydrochloride as a model drug linear, zero-order, release curves were obtained. PMID:25078789

  1. The impact of microwave stray radiation to in-vessel diagnostic components

    SciTech Connect

    Hirsch, M.; Laqua, H. P.; Hathiramani, D.; Baldzuhn, J.; Biedermann, C.; Cardella, A.; Erckmann, V.; König, R.; Köppen, M.; Zhang, D.; Oosterbeek, J.; Brand, H. von der; Parquay, S.; Jimenez, R. [Centro de Investigationes Energeticas, Medioambientales y Technológicas, Association EURATOM Collaboration: W7-X Teasm

    2014-08-21

    Microwave stray radiation resulting from unabsorbed multiple reflected ECRH / ECCD beams may cause severe heating of microwave absorbing in-vessel components such as gaskets, bellows, windows, ceramics and cable insulations. In view of long-pulse operation of WENDELSTEIN-7X the MIcrowave STray RAdiation Launch facility, MISTRAL, allows to test in-vessel components in the environment of isotropic 140 GHz microwave radiation at power load of up to 50 kW/m{sup 2} over 30 min. The results show that both, sufficient microwave shielding measures and cooling of all components are mandatory. If shielding/cooling measures of in-vessel diagnostic components are not efficient enough, the level of stray radiation may be (locally) reduced by dedicated absorbing ceramic coatings on cooled structures.

  2. The effect of lamination angle on polymer retention. FY92 annual research plan

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, H.W.

    1992-09-01

    Polymer retention may be affected by the reservoir geological structure due to lamination of the mineral surfaces. These laminae are very prevalent in Class I reservoirs. To account for the effect of lamination angle on polymer retention, several corefloods with three fired, rectangular, Berea sandstone cores were conducted. The three cores were cut at three different angles, 0, 30, and 90 degrees, with respect to the direction of laminations. A multiple slug retention method was used to determine the retention of a biopolymer in each core. Tracer tests were conducted before and after the biopolymer flow to determine how the retained biopolymer affected the fluid advance. A computed tomography (CT) scanning method was used to monitor the advance of the tracer. All corefloods and tracer tests were conducted at low flow rates similar to that in reservoirs. Coreflood tests revealed that polymer retention, which was mainly caused by mechanical entrapment, was higher in cores that had laminations parallel to the direction of flow than in cores that had crossbed laminae. In cores that had crossbed laminae, polymer retention increased with an increase in the lamination angle. Retained polymer is harmful to the stability of fluid front in cores that have laminations parallel to the direction of flow, but is helpful in cores that have crossbed laminae.

  3. Multidimensional shielding analysis of the JASPER in-vessel fuel storage experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Bucholz, J.A.

    1993-03-01

    The In-Vessel Fuel Storage (IVFS) experiments analyzed in this report were conducted at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory`s Tower Shielding Reactor (TSR) as part of the Japanese-American Shielding Program for Experimental Research (JASPER). These IVFS experiments were designed to study source multiplication and three-dimensional effects related to in-vessel storage of spent fuel elements in liquid metal reactor (LMR) systems. The present report describes the 2-D and 3-D models, analyses, and calculated results corresponding to a limited subset of those IVFS experiments in which the US LMR program has a particular interest.

  4. Shielding analysis of the LMR in-vessel fuel storage experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Bucholz, J.A.

    1994-06-01

    The In-Vessel Fuel Storage (IVFS) experiments analyzed in this paper were conducted at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory`s Tower Shielding Reactor (TSR) as part of the Japanese-American Shielding Program for Experimental Research (JASPER). These IVFS experiments were designed to study source multiplication and three-dimensional effects related to in-vessel storage of spent fuel elements in liquid metal reactor (LMR) systems. The present paper describes the 2- and 3-D calculations and results corresponding to a limited subset of those IVFS experiments in which the US LMR program had a particular interest.

  5. Turnover in the Advancement Profession

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iarrobino, Jon D.

    2006-01-01

    Recruitment and retention is an area with which most organizations are concerned. Excessive turnover has exorbitant costs and wastes valuable time. Institutions of higher education are no exception. One of the most vital operations in nonprofit colleges and universities is its Office of Institutional Advancement. More and more, an institution of…

  6. Radionuclide Retention in Concrete Wasteforms

    SciTech Connect

    Wellman, Dawn M.; Jansik, Danielle P.; Golovich, Elizabeth C.; Cordova, Elsa A.

    2012-09-24

    Assessing long-term performance of Category 3 waste cement grouts for radionuclide encasement requires knowledge of the radionuclide-cement interactions and mechanisms of retention (i.e., sorption or precipitation); the mechanism of contaminant release; the significance of contaminant release pathways; how wasteform performance is affected by the full range of environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the process of wasteform aging under conditions that are representative of processes occurring in response to changing environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the effect of wasteform aging on chemical, physical, and radiological properties; and the associated impact on contaminant release. This knowledge will enable accurate prediction of radionuclide fate when the wasteforms come in contact with groundwater. Data collected throughout the course of this work will be used to quantify the efficacy of concrete wasteforms, similar to those used in the disposal of LLW and MLLW, for the immobilization of key radionuclides (i.e., uranium, technetium, and iodine). Data collected will also be used to quantify the physical and chemical properties of the concrete affecting radionuclide retention.

  7. Fission-product retention in HTGR fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Homan, F.J.; Kania, M.J.; Tiegs, T.N.

    1982-01-01

    Retention data for gaseous and metallic fission products are presented for both Triso-coated and Biso-coated HTGR fuel particles. Performance trends are established that relate fission product retention to operating parameters, such as temperature, burnup, and neutron exposure. It is concluded that Biso-coated particles are not adequately retentive of fission gas or metallic cesium, and Triso-coated particles which retain cesium still lose silver. Design implications related to these performance trends are identified and discussed.

  8. In-Vessel Composting of Simulated Long-Term Missions Space-Related Solid Wastes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriguez-Carias, Abner A.; Sager, John; Krumins, Valdis; Strayer, Richard; Hummerick, Mary; Roberts, Michael S.

    2002-01-01

    Reduction and stabilization of solid wastes generated during space missions is a major concern for the Advanced Life Support - Resource Recovery program at the NASA, Kennedy Space Center. Solid wastes provide substrates for pathogen proliferation, produce strong odor, and increase storage requirements during space missions. A five periods experiment was conducted to evaluate the Space Operation Bioconverter (SOB), an in vessel composting system, as a biological processing technology to reduce and stabilize simulated long-term missions space related solid-wastes (SRSW). For all periods, SRSW were sorted into components with fast (FBD) and slow (SBD) biodegradability. Uneaten food and plastic were used as a major FBD and SBD components, respectively. Compost temperature (C), CO2 production (%), mass reduction (%), and final pH were utilized as criteria to determine compost quality. In period 1, SOB was loaded with a 55% FBD: 45% SBD mixture and was allowed to compost for 7 days. An eleven day second composting period was conducted loading the SOB with 45% pre-composted SRSW and 55% FBD. Period 3 and 4 evaluated the use of styrofoam as a bulking agent and the substitution of regular by degradable plastic on the composting characteristics of SRSW, respectively. The use of ceramic as a bulking agent and the relationship between initial FBD mass and heat production was investigated in period 5. Composting SRSW resulted in an acidic fermentation with a minor increase in compost temperature, low CO2 production, and slightly mass reduction. Addition of styrofoam as a bulking agent and substitution of regular by biodegradable plastic improved the composting characteristics of SRSW, as evidenced by higher pH, CO2 production, compost temperature and mass reduction. Ceramic as a bulking agent and increase the initial FBD mass (4.4 kg) did not improve the composting process. In summary, the SOB is a potential biological technology for reduction and stabilization of mission space

  9. Assessing the use of HIV surveillance data to help gauge patient retention-in-care

    PubMed Central

    Lubelchek, Ronald J.; Finnegan, Katelynne J.; Hotton, Anna L.; Hazen, Ronald; Murphy, Patricia; Prachand, Nikhil G.; Benbow, Nanette

    2015-01-01

    Background Improved retention-in-care may enhance health outcomes for people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). While laboratory surveillance data may be used to gauge retention, no previous reports have compared surveillance lab vs. clinic visit-based measures of retention-in-care. We compared lab surveillance vs. clinic visit-based approaches for identifying retention status for PLWHA. Methods We examined 2011 patient visit data from the Ruth M. Rothstein CORE Center, Cook County's HIV clinic. We defined retained patients as those with visits every 6 months over 2 years and matched patients classified via visit data against HIV surveillance labs reported to the Chicago Department of Health. We determined the sensitivity, specificity and receiver operator characteristics of varying lab surveillance vs. clinic visit measures of retention. Results Of patients classified via clinic visit data, 91% of 1,714 in-care vs. 22% of 200 out-of-care patients met our most stringent surveillance based retention definition – having ≥ 2 viral load/CD4s performed 90 days apart reported by the same laboratory in 2011. Of surveillance lab-based definitions for retention, having ≥ 2 HIV viral load and/or CD4 values at least 3 months apart reported from the same facility possessed the best receiver operator parameters and the receiver operator characteristics curve comparing several surveillance lab vs. clinic-visit based retention measures had an area under the curve of 0.95. Discussion Our findings demonstrate that surveillance laboratory data can be used to assess retention-in-care for PLWHA. These data suggest that bi-directional data sharing between public health entities and care providers could advance re-engagement efforts. PMID:25867775

  10. On The Problem Of In-vessel Mirrors For Diagnostic Systems Of ITER

    SciTech Connect

    Voitsenya, V. S.; Litnovsky, A.

    2008-03-12

    The present status of the investigations with ITER-candidate mirror materials and directed on solution of the in-vessel mirror problem, are presented in the paper. The current tasks in the R and D of diagnostic mirrors and outstanding questions are discussed.

  11. Reducing nursing students' anxiety level and increasing retention of materials.

    PubMed

    Phillips, A P

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of this descriptive study is to examine the effects active learning, collaboration and modified group testing have on reducing students' anxiety and increasing learning and retention of material. Subjects consist of 34 associate degree nursing students enrolled in the Advanced Adult Health nursing class at North Georgia College. Most of the students are married, have children and work part time. A self-reporting questionnaire suggests a reduction of the students' anxiety during the quarter. The attitudinal questionnaire reveals an atmosphere of collaboration among peers. Data evaluating learning and retention of material were analyzed using the parametric (T-test) and nonparametric (Wiley Rank Sum test) methods. Examination of the Null Hypotheses I and II suggests there were increased learning and retention of material as evidenced by higher grades on the comprehensive final examination than on the quizzes given after presentation of content. Principles of andragogy as defined by Knowles (1980) and cooperation with peers as described by Johnson, Johnson, Holabec, and Roy (1984), Johnson, Johnson, and Maruyama (1983), and Johnson and Johnson (1975) form the theoretical foundation. PMID:2828575

  12. Radionuclide Retention in Concrete Wasteforms

    SciTech Connect

    Bovaird, Chase C.; Jansik, Danielle P.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Wood, Marcus I.

    2011-09-30

    Assessing long-term performance of Category 3 waste cement grouts for radionuclide encasement requires knowledge of the radionuclide-cement interactions and mechanisms of retention (i.e., sorption or precipitation); the mechanism of contaminant release; the significance of contaminant release pathways; how wasteform performance is affected by the full range of environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the process of wasteform aging under conditions that are representative of processes occurring in response to changing environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the effect of wasteform aging on chemical, physical, and radiological properties; and the associated impact on contaminant release. This knowledge will enable accurate prediction of radionuclide fate when the wasteforms come in contact with groundwater. The information present in the report provides data that (1) measures the effect of concrete wasteform properties likely to influence radionuclide migration; and (2) quantifies the rate of carbonation of concrete materials in a simulated vadose zone repository.

  13. Retention Revisited: R=E, Id+E & In, Iv.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seidman, Alan

    1996-01-01

    Recent research on college student attrition is examined for trends, and it is suggested that the common perspective on retention and attrition is too narrow; it should be viewed from three perspectives: within-course retention; program retention; and institutional retention rate. Recommended for retention (R) is early (E) identification (Id) plus…

  14. Developing Successful Retention Programs: An Interview with Michael Hovland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kluepfel, Gail A.; Hovland, Michael

    1994-01-01

    Michael Hovland, the senior consultant at Noel-Levitz Centers, responds to questions about summer bridge programs, first-year seminar programs, Rutgers' retention model, faculty reactions to retention programs, the impact of retention programs on institutional mission, administrative involvement in retention, student assessment, retention efforts…

  15. Multi machine scaling of fuel retention in 4 carbon dominated tokamaks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsitrone, E.; Pégourié, B.; Marandet, Y.; Artaud, J. F.; Brosset, C.; Bucalossi, J.; Corre, Y.; Dittmar, T.; Gauthier, E.; Languille, P.; Linez, F.; Loarer, T.; Martin, C.; Roubin, P.; Kallenbach, A.; Krieger, K.; Mayer, M.; Neu, R.; Rohde, V.; Roth, J.; Rubel, M.; Brezinsek, S.; Kirschner, A.; Kreter, A.; Litnovsky, A.; Philipps, V.; Wienhold, P.; Likonen, J.; Coad, P.; Lipschultz, B.; Doerner, R.

    2011-08-01

    In order to benchmark predictions for the in vessel tritium inventory in ITER, a survey of fuel retention measured in 4 carbon dominated tokamaks (TEXTOR, ASDEX Upgrade in the 2002-2003 carbon configuration, Tore Supra and JET) was performed, showing retention rates from ˜1 g D/h in TEXTOR (L mode, limiter machine) up to ˜6-12 g D/h in AUG (H mode, divertor machine). A simple scaling used for ITER predictions is applied for comparison with experimental values: (1) estimate of wall fluxes, (2) estimate of the gross carbon erosion, (3) estimate of the net erosion/redeposition assuming a redeposition fraction and (4) estimate of the retention rate using D/C ratio scalings. The validity of each step is discussed, showing that this approach yields the right order of magnitude, but tends to underestimate the experimental values unless a high wall flux, a low local redeposition fraction and/or a high D/C ratio are used.

  16. 10 CFR 37.103 - Record retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Record retention. 37.103 Section 37.103 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION PHYSICAL PROTECTION OF CATEGORY 1 AND CATEGORY 2 QUANTITIES OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL Records § 37.103 Record retention. Licensees shall maintain the records that are required by...

  17. 12 CFR 1013.8 - Record retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Record retention. 1013.8 Section 1013.8 Banks and Banking BUREAU OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL PROTECTION CONSUMER LEASING (REGULATION M) § 1013.8 Record retention. A lessor shall retain evidence of compliance with the requirements imposed by this part,...

  18. 12 CFR 213.8 - Record retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Record retention. 213.8 Section 213.8 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM CONSUMER LEASING (REGULATION M) § 213.8 Record retention. A lessor shall retain evidence of compliance with the...

  19. Minority Teacher Recruitment and Retention Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kearney-Gissendaner, Janet E.

    2010-01-01

    The tools and resources in this book help school leaders seamlessly incorporate minority teacher recruitment and retention programs into current human-resources activities. With details about exemplary minority teacher recruitment and retention programs, this book also showcases strategies for how to replicate such programs in your own school or…

  20. 12 CFR 609.945 - Records retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Records retention. 609.945 Section 609.945 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM ELECTRONIC COMMERCE Standards for Boards and Management § 609.945 Records retention. Records stored electronically must be accurate,...

  1. 12 CFR 609.945 - Records retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Records retention. 609.945 Section 609.945 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM ELECTRONIC COMMERCE Standards for Boards and Management § 609.945 Records retention. Records stored electronically must be accurate,...

  2. 12 CFR 609.945 - Records retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Records retention. 609.945 Section 609.945 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM ELECTRONIC COMMERCE Standards for Boards and Management § 609.945 Records retention. Records stored electronically must be accurate,...

  3. 12 CFR 226.25 - Record retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Record retention. 226.25 Section 226.25 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM TRUTH IN LENDING (REGULATION Z) Miscellaneous § 226.25 Record retention. (a) General rule. A creditor...

  4. 12 CFR 1026.25 - Record retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 9 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Record retention. 1026.25 Section 1026.25 Banks and Banking BUREAU OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL PROTECTION TRUTH IN LENDING (REGULATION Z) Miscellaneous § 1026.25 Record retention. (a) General rule. A creditor shall retain evidence of compliance with...

  5. 12 CFR 1026.25 - Record retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Record retention. 1026.25 Section 1026.25 Banks and Banking BUREAU OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL PROTECTION TRUTH IN LENDING (REGULATION Z) Miscellaneous § 1026.25 Record retention. (a) General rule. A creditor shall retain evidence of compliance with...

  6. 12 CFR 226.25 - Record retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Record retention. 226.25 Section 226.25 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) TRUTH IN LENDING (REGULATION Z) Miscellaneous § 226.25 Record retention. (a) General rule....

  7. 12 CFR 226.25 - Record retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Record retention. 226.25 Section 226.25 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM TRUTH IN LENDING (REGULATION Z) Miscellaneous § 226.25 Record retention. (a) General rule. A creditor...

  8. 12 CFR 1026.25 - Record retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Record retention. 1026.25 Section 1026.25 Banks and Banking BUREAU OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL PROTECTION TRUTH IN LENDING (REGULATION Z) Miscellaneous § 1026.25 Record retention. (a) General rule. A creditor shall retain evidence of compliance with...

  9. Comparative Aggregate Patterns of Grade Retention Rates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Don R.

    A search for patterns in grade retention rates across grades 1-12 to construct simulation research models is described in this paper. Aggregate data from Shepard and Smith (1989) on grade retention rates from 12 American states for the year 1979-80 and from 11 states for 1985-86 were examined for across-grade patterns, supplemented by Dade County…

  10. Measuring Up: Benchmarking Graduate Retention. IES Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyers, C.; Perryman, S.; Barber, L.

    Retention of college graduates by employers across the United Kingdom was examined. Data were collected through a survey of 362 organizations and interviews with 36 employers and their graduate employees. Most employers were unworried by their levels of graduate retention; two-thirds expected to keep new recruits for the foreseeable future. Rates…

  11. An Orientation Course and Community College Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Derby, Dustin; Smith, Thomas

    2004-01-01

    Orientation and retention programs are common in institutions of higher education. The potential association between orientation programs and student retention, particularly within the community college sector, has long been neglected. This study presents an institutional view of a potential associative relationship between an orientation course…

  12. Increasing Retention without Increasing Study Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rohrer, Doug; Pashler, Hal

    2007-01-01

    Because people forget much of what they learn, students could benefit from learning strategies that provide long-lasting knowledge. Yet surprisingly little is known about how long-term retention is most efficiently achieved. Here we examine how retention is affected by two variables: the duration of a study session and the temporal distribution…

  13. Effective Teacher Retention Bonuses: Evidence From Tennessee

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Springer, Matthew G.; Swain, Walker A.; Rodriguez, Luis A.

    2016-01-01

    We report findings from a quasi-experimental evaluation of the recently implemented US$5,000 retention bonus program for effective teachers in Tennessee's Priority Schools. We estimate the impact of the program on teacher retention using a fuzzy regression discontinuity design by exploiting a discontinuity in the probability of treatment…

  14. Enrollment and Retention: A Private College Consortium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Kenneth C.

    A consortium program of eight private colleges in Southern California that focuses on student retention efforts is described. Each college has a retention task force consisting of faculty, administrators, student affairs staff, and students. A steering committee with one representative from each college, generally the dean of students, coordinates…

  15. 49 CFR 236.1037 - Records retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Records retention. 236.1037 Section 236.1037 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Systems § 236.1037 Records retention. (a) Each railroad with a PTC system required to be installed...

  16. Managing human resources to improve employee retention.

    PubMed

    Arnold, Edwin

    2005-01-01

    Managers face increased challenges as the demand for health care services increases while the supply of employees with the requisite skills continues to lag. Employee retention will become more important in the effort to service health care needs. Appropriate human resource management strategies and policies implemented effectively can significantly assist managers in dealing with the employee retention challenges ahead. PMID:15923925

  17. The Psychology Underlying Successful Retention Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bean, John; Eaton, Shevawn Bogdan

    2002-01-01

    Describes the psychological processes that lead to academic and social integration based on a retention model proposed by the authors. Describes how successful retention programs such as learning communities, freshman interest groups, tutoring, and orientation rely on psychological processes. Four psychological theories form the basis for…

  18. 21 CFR 600.13 - Retention samples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Retention samples. 600.13 Section 600.13 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS: GENERAL Establishment Standards § 600.13 Retention samples. Manufacturers shall...

  19. 21 CFR 600.13 - Retention samples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Retention samples. 600.13 Section 600.13 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS: GENERAL Establishment Standards § 600.13 Retention samples. Manufacturers shall...

  20. 21 CFR 600.13 - Retention samples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Retention samples. 600.13 Section 600.13 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS: GENERAL Establishment Standards § 600.13 Retention samples. Manufacturers shall...

  1. A Model for Freshman Engineering Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veenstra, Cindy P.; Dey, Eric L.; Herrin, Gary D.

    2009-01-01

    With the current concern over the growing need for more engineers, there is an immediate need to improve freshman engineering retention. A working model for freshman engineering retention is needed. This paper proposes such a model based on Tinto's Interactionalist Theory. Emphasis in this model is placed on pre-college characteristics as…

  2. Profile in Action: Linking Admission and Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cortes, Carla M.

    2013-01-01

    A profile-oriented retention strategy embraces the admission process as a powerful lever in improving retention and completion rates and recognizes that the student profile can be shaped by changes in admission policies or priorities--even within the current market position of the institution. In addition, the student body can be oriented toward…

  3. 19 CFR 10.308 - Records retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Records retention. 10.308 Section 10.308 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Canada Free Trade Agreement § 10.308 Records retention. (a) Importer....

  4. 12 CFR 609.945 - Records retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Records retention. 609.945 Section 609.945 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM ELECTRONIC COMMERCE Standards for Boards and Management § 609.945 Records retention. Records stored electronically must be accurate,...

  5. The Grade Retention/Social Promotion Debate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindelow, John

    1985-01-01

    This publication focuses on the retention/promotion debate regarding failing and low-achieving students. An introductory essay describes the inherent limitation in the research done on this issue--the impossibility of obtaining an appropriate control group--and suggests that the retention/promotion quandary can best be resolved by accommodating…

  6. Novel Word Retention in Sequential Bilingual Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kan, Pui Fong

    2014-01-01

    Children's ability to learn and retain new words is fundamental to their vocabulary development. This study examined word retention in children learning a home language (L1) from birth and a second language (L2) in preschool settings. Participants were presented with sixteen novel words in L1 and in L2 and were tested for retention after…

  7. Emotional Intelligence and Nursing Student Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Victoria Jane

    2013-01-01

    The study examined the constructs of a Multi-Intelligence Model of Retention with four constructs: cognitive and emotional-social intelligence, student characteristics, and environmental factors. Data were obtained from sophomore students entering two diploma, nine associate, and five baccalaureate nursing programs. One year later, retention and…

  8. Using Enrollment Data to Predict Retention Rate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bingham, Melissa A.; Solverson, Natalie Walleser

    2016-01-01

    First- to second-year retention rates are one metric reported by colleges and universities to convey institutional success to a variety of external constituents. But how much of a retention rate is institutional inputs, and how much can be understood by examining student inputs? The authors utilize multi-year, multi-institutional data to examine…

  9. Retention Models for Minority College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Obiakor, Festus E.; Harris-Obiakor, Pauline

    This paper discusses retention techniques that can be used with minority students at predominantly white colleges, focusing on four phases that are critical to the retention and academic achievement of minority students: acceptance, acclimatization, responsibility, and productivity. In the acceptance phase, the college community should attempt to…

  10. 14 CFR 291.23 - Record retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... § 291.23 Record retention. (a) The provisions of 14 CFR part 249, Preservation of air carrier accounts... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Record retention. 291.23 Section 291.23 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS)...

  11. Faculty Personality: A Factor of Student Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Cassandra S.; Wu, Xiaodong; Irwin, Kathleen C.; Patrizi, L. A. Chad

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between student retention and faculty personality as it was hypothesized that faculty personality has an effect on student retention. The methodology adopted for this study was quantitative and in two parts 1) using linear regression models to examine the impact or causality of faculty…

  12. Let's Talk Learning Analytics: A Framework for Implementation in Relation to Student Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Deborah; Heath, David; Huijser, Henk

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a dialogical tool for the advancement of learning analytics implementation for student retention in Higher Education institutions. The framework was developed as an outcome of a project commissioned and funded by the Australian Government's "Office for Learning and Teaching". The project took a mixed-method approach…

  13. It's Not How Much; It's How: Characteristics of Practice Behavior and Retention of Performance Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duke, Robert A.; Simmons, Amy L.; Cash, Carla Davis

    2009-01-01

    We observed 17 graduate and advanced-undergraduate piano majors practicing a difficult, three-measure keyboard passage from a Shostakovich concerto. Participants' instructions were to practice until they were confident they could play the passage accurately at a prescribed tempo in a retention test session the following day. We analyzed the…

  14. The Relationship between High School Math Courses, High School GPA, and Retention of Honors Scholarships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Megert, Diann Ackerman

    2005-01-01

    This research examined the high school transcripts of honors scholarship recipients to identify a better criterion for awarding scholarships than high school grade point average (GPA) alone. Specifically, this study compared the honors scholarship retention rate when the scholarship was awarded based on completed advanced high school math classes…

  15. Novel word retention in sequential bilingual children.

    PubMed

    Kan, Pui Fong

    2014-03-01

    Children's ability to learn and retain new words is fundamental to their vocabulary development. This study examined word retention in children learning a home language (L1) from birth and a second language (L2) in preschool settings. Participants were presented with sixteen novel words in L1 and in L2 and were tested for retention after either a 2-month or a 4-month delay. Results showed that children retained more words in L1 than in L2 for both of the retention interval conditions. In addition, children's word retention was associated with their existing language knowledge and their fast-mapping performance within and across language. The patterns of association, however, were different between L1 and L2. These findings suggest that children's word retention might be related to the interactions of various components that are operating within a dynamic system. PMID:23672812

  16. Retention modelling in hydrophilic interaction chromatography.

    PubMed

    Euerby, Melvin R; Hulse, Jennifer; Petersson, Patrik; Vazhentsev, Andrey; Kassam, Karim

    2015-12-01

    The retention behaviour of acidic, basic and quaternary ammonium salts and polar neutral analytes has been evaluated on acidic, basic and neutral hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC) stationary phases as a function of HILIC operating parameters such as MeCN content, buffer concentration, pH and temperature. Numerous empirical HILIC retention models (existing and newly developed ones) have been assessed for their ability to describe retention as a function of the HILIC operating parameters investigated. Retention models have been incorporated into a commercially available retention modelling programme (i.e. ACD/LC simulator) and their accuracy of retention prediction assessed. The applicability of HILIC modelling using these equations has been demonstrated in the two-dimensional isocratic (i.e. buffer concentration versus MeCN content modelling) and one-dimensional gradient separations for a range of analytes of differing physico-chemical properties on the three stationary phases. The accuracy of retention and peak width prediction was observed to be comparable to that reported in reversed-phase chromatography (RPC) retention modelling. Intriguingly, our results have confirmed that the use of gradient modelling to predict HILIC isocratic conditions and vice versa is not reliable. A relative ranking of the importance of the retention and selectivity of HILIC operating parameters has been determined using statistical approaches. For retention, the order of importance was observed to be organic content > stationary phase > temperature ≈ mobile phase pH (i.e. pH 3-6 which mainly effects the ionization of the analyte) ≈ buffer concentration. For selectivity, the nature of the stationary phase > mobile phase pH > buffer concentration > temperature > organic content. PMID:26563113

  17. 40 CFR 160.195 - Retention of records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... LABORATORY PRACTICE STANDARDS Records and Reports § 160.195 Retention of records. (a) Record retention requirements set forth in this section do not supersede the record retention requirements of any...

  18. Survival Analysis of Faculty Retention and Promotion in the Social Sciences by Gender

    PubMed Central

    Varbanov, Roumen A.; Hoh, Yee Shwen; Knisley, Margaret L.; Holmes, Mary Alice

    2015-01-01

    Background Recruitment and retention of talent is central to the research performance of universities. Existing research shows that, while men are more likely than women to be promoted at the different stages of the academic career, no such difference is found when it comes to faculty retention rates. Current research on faculty retention, however, focuses on careers in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM). We extend this line of inquiry to the social sciences. Methods We follow 2,218 tenure-track assistant professors hired since 1990 in seven social science disciplines at nineteen U.S. universities from time of hire to time of departure. We also track their time to promotion to associate and full professor. Using survival analysis, we examine gender differences in time to departure and time to promotion. Our methods account for censoring and unobserved heterogeneity, as well as effect heterogeneity across disciplines and cohorts. Results We find no statistically significant differences between genders in faculty retention. However, we do find that men are more likely to be granted tenure than women. When it comes to promotion to full professor, the results are less conclusive, as the effect of gender is sensitive to model specification. Conclusions The results corroborate previous findings about gender patterns in faculty retention and promotion. They suggest that advances have been made when it comes to gender equality in retention and promotion, but important differences still persist. PMID:26580565

  19. Application of a quantitative structure retention relationship approach for the prediction of the two-dimensional gas chromatography retention times of polycyclic aromatic sulfur heterocycle compounds.

    PubMed

    Gieleciak, Rafal; Hager, Darcy; Heshka, Nicole E

    2016-03-11

    Information on the sulfur classes present in petroleum is a key factor in determining the value of refined products and processing behavior in the refinery. A large part of the sulfur present is included in polycyclic aromatic sulfur heterocycles (PASHs), which in turn are difficult to desulfurize. Furthermore, some PASHs are potentially more mutagenic and carcinogenic than polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, PAHs. All of this calls for improved methods for the identification and quantification of individual sulfur species. Recent advances in analytical techniques such as comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC×GC) have enabled the identification of many individual sulfur species. However, full identification of individual components, particularly in virgin oil fractions, is still out of reach as standards for numerous compounds are unavailable. In this work, a method for accurately predicting retention times in GC×GC using a QSRR (quantitative structure retention relationship) method was very helpful for the identification of individual sulfur compounds. Retention times for 89 saturated, aromatic, and polyaromatic sulfur-containing heterocyclic compounds were determined using two-dimensional gas chromatography. These retention data were correlated with molecular descriptors generated with CODESSA software. Two independent QSRR relationships were derived for the primary as well as the secondary retention characteristics. The predictive ability of the relationships was tested by using both independent sets of compounds and a cross-validation technique. When the corresponding chemical standards are unavailable, the equations developed for predicting retention times can be used to identify unknown chromatographic peaks by matching their retention times with those of sulfur compounds of known molecular structure. PMID:26879453

  20. Selection and retention of nurses.

    PubMed

    Muncey, T

    1998-02-01

    The selection and retention of suitable nurses has occupied the thoughts of many people who have a vested interest in maintaining standards and avoiding loss of resources. By drawing conclusions from inadequate findings inappropriate recommendations may be made. In a study that considers the psychological profiles of nurses, it would appear that it is self-esteem and a 'need to be needed' that is a crucial facet of nurses ability to cope with the job of nursing; a job that encourages the characteristics of individualism, in a working environment involving caring, that epitomises the values of connectedness. This paradox leads to nurses' inability to cope and subsequently leave the profession using one of the many acceptable labels that are widely documented. Acceptance of the underlying causes for this attrition would necessitate better support services for vulnerable nurses allowing them to recognize their own needs, and gain a personal understanding of how their vulnerability might echo that of people in their care. PMID:9515654

  1. In-Vessel Coil Material Failure Rate Estimates for ITER Design Use

    SciTech Connect

    L. C. Cadwallader

    2013-01-01

    The ITER international project design teams are working to produce an engineering design for construction of this large tokamak fusion experiment. One of the design issues is ensuring proper control of the fusion plasma. In-vessel magnet coils may be needed for plasma control, especially the control of edge localized modes (ELMs) and plasma vertical stabilization (VS). These coils will be lifetime components that reside inside the ITER vacuum vessel behind the blanket modules. As such, their reliability is an important design issue since access will be time consuming if any type of repair were necessary. The following chapters give the research results and estimates of failure rates for the coil conductor and jacket materials to be used for the in-vessel coils. Copper and CuCrZr conductors, and stainless steel and Inconel jackets are examined.

  2. Evaluation of the retention of endodontic implants.

    PubMed

    Maniatopoulos, C; Pilliar, R M; Smith, D C

    1988-04-01

    The study investigated the retentive strength of endodontic implants measured by forced removal (pull-out or push-out tests) as a function of implant design and cement type. Smooth-tapered, threaded, and an innovative porous-surfaced implant were evaluated. Specimens were cemented in single-rooted human teeth with five different cements: zinc phosphate, polycarboxylate, glass ionomer, silicophosphate, or AH-26. The results indicated superior retention for the threaded and porous-surfaced implants, and stronger retention with glass-ionomer and AH-26 cements. PMID:3162990

  3. A strategic approach to employee retention.

    PubMed

    Gering, John; Conner, John

    2002-11-01

    A sound retention strategy should incorporate a business plan, a value proposition, progress measures, and management influences. The business plan will indicate whether a healthcare organization will achieve a return on investment for its effort. A value proposition will showcase an organization's strengths and differentiate it from its competitors. Measuring progress toward meeting retention goals at regular intervals will help keep an organization on track. The best managers require accountability, rewarding employees for their successes and taking corrective action as necessary. Retention rate targets must be at a level that will achieve a competitive advantage in the served market. PMID:12656028

  4. The modeling of core melting and in-vessel corium relocation in the APRIL code

    SciTech Connect

    Kim. S.W.; Podowski, M.Z.; Lahey, R.T.

    1995-09-01

    This paper is concerned with the modeling of severe accident phenomena in boiling water reactors (BWR). New models of core melting and in-vessel corium debris relocation are presented, developed for implementation in the APRIL computer code. The results of model testing and validations are given, including comparisons against available experimental data and parametric/sensitivity studies. Also, the application of these models, as parts of the APRIL code, is presented to simulate accident progression in a typical BWR reactor.

  5. Identification and evaluation of PWR in-vessel severe accident management strategies

    SciTech Connect

    Dukelow, J S; Harrison, D G; Morgenstern, M

    1992-03-01

    This reports documents work performed the NRC/RES Accident Management Guidance Program to evaluate possible strategies for mitigating the consequences of PWR severe accidents. The selection and evaluation of strategies was limited to the in-vessel phase of the severe accident, i.e., after the initiation of core degradation and prior to RPV failure. A parallel project at BNL has been considering strategies applicable to the ex-vessel phase of PWR severe accidents.

  6. Thermal-Mechanical Analysis for in-Vessel Diagnostic Components in W7-X

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, M. Y.; Werner, A.; Hirsch, M.; Thomsen, H.; Weller, A.; König, R.

    2008-03-01

    For long pulse plasma operation of the W7-X stellarator, the most serious challenge for the design of in-vessel diagnostic systems is the thermo-mechanical problem. Thermal load from convective losses and from plasma radiation can be as high as 500 kW/m2 at some locations close to plasma. The typical thermal load from plasma radiation alone ranges from several 10 to 100 kW/m2 as derived from 3-D Monte-Carlo simulations. A finite element analysis (FEA-ANSYS) is conducted for a better understanding of thermo-mechanical effects on in-vessel diagnostic components and to guide the design of the diagnostic system for steady state operation. All in-vessel diagnostic components require active cooling. Besides for long-pulse plasma operation optical components must be optimized to minimize thermal deformations. In this paper, we present the thermo-mechanical analyses of the CO2-laser interferometer retro-reflectors, the diamagnetic loops and the soft X-ray multi camera tomography system (XMCTS).

  7. A retention strategy for newly graduated nurses: an integrative review of orientation programs.

    PubMed

    Park, Mihyun; Jones, Cheryl B

    2010-01-01

    To address nurse recruitment and retention issues, hospitals have increased the number of newly graduated nurses in their hiring pools and have simultaneously established orientation programs for those nurses. Structured orientation programs facilitate newly graduated nurse transition from novice to advanced beginner. The outcome of these programs is twofold: First, they promote the confidence and competency level of new nurses in providing patient care, and second, they increase nurse retention. This literature review presents the most useful interventions used in the programs that reported positive affects on new nurses. PMID:20683297

  8. 5 CFR 293.511 - Retention schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... RECORDS Employee Medical File System Records § 293.511 Retention schedule. (a) Temporary EMFS records must... Administration (NARA). (b) Occupational Medical Records considered to be long-term records must be maintained...

  9. Taking a Holistic Approach to Retention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fields, Cheryl D.

    2002-01-01

    Describes how, at the University of Kansas, many students of color are excelling at a rate that has outpaced their peers. Campus officials credit the HAWK Link program and its comprehensive approach to retention. (EV)

  10. 21 CFR 107.280 - Records retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... HUMAN CONSUMPTION INFANT FORMULA Infant Formula Recalls § 107.280 Records retention. Each manufacturer... monitor recalls of the formula. Such records shall be retained for at least 1 year after the expiration...

  11. 21 CFR 107.280 - Records retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... HUMAN CONSUMPTION INFANT FORMULA Infant Formula Recalls § 107.280 Records retention. Each manufacturer... monitor recalls of the formula. Such records shall be retained for at least 1 year after the expiration...

  12. 21 CFR 107.280 - Records retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... HUMAN CONSUMPTION INFANT FORMULA Infant Formula Recalls § 107.280 Records retention. Each manufacturer... monitor recalls of the formula. Such records shall be retained for at least 1 year after the expiration...

  13. 21 CFR 107.280 - Records retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... HUMAN CONSUMPTION INFANT FORMULA Infant Formula Recalls § 107.280 Records retention. Each manufacturer... monitor recalls of the formula. Such records shall be retained for at least 1 year after the expiration...

  14. Inconspicuous retention for removable partial dentures.

    PubMed

    King, G E; Barco, M T; Olson, R J

    1978-05-01

    Many dentists and patients believe that removable partial dentures have an unesthetic appearance when they replace anterior teeth because of the visible clasps. Two methods of obtaining inconspicuous retention have been described. PMID:349140

  15. Retention of pharmaceutical residues and microorganisms at the Altendorf retention soil filter.

    PubMed

    Christoffels, E; Mertens, F M; Kistemann, T; Schreiber, C

    2014-01-01

    A study has been conducted on a retention soil filter (RSF) to test its effectiveness in removing pharmaceutical residues and microorganisms from combined sewer overflows (CSOs). Efficient removal of solids, nutrients and heavy metals has already been proven. The possibility that organic micropollutants and microorganisms are also retained by the use of RSFs has been identified, but data are lacking. Results obtained in this study, in which testing for removal by a RSF of numerous micro-pollutant substances was performed, are most promising. The pharmaceuticals diclofenac and ibuprofen are presented in detail as examples of such micropollutants. Both showed a reduction in positive samples of more than 55% as well as a significant reduction in median and maximum concentrations. For microorganisms such as Escherichia coli, coliphages and Giardia lamblia (cysts), an average reduction in concentrations by three logarithmic steps (99.9%) was achieved. These results add to the evidence that using a RSF in the advanced treatment of wastewater from CSOs reduces the exposure of water-courses to pharmaceutical residues and microbial contamination. PMID:25401314

  16. Hydrogeomorphic controls on phosphorus retention in streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doyle, Martin W.; Stanley, Emily H.; Harbor, Jon M.

    2003-06-01

    We compared the relative influences of biochemical uptake processes and dynamic hydrology and geomorphology (hydrogeomorphology) on molybdate reactive phosphorus (MRP) retention within a stream. MRP concentrations were measured upstream and downstream of a 4.5-km reach undergoing dynamic channel adjustment in response to downstream dam removal. Geomorphic adjustments following removal produced measurable changes in velocity and depth, and decreases in MRP retention. Paired upstream and downstream measurements of MRP concentration were used to compute three retention metrics: uptake rate, mass transfer coefficient, and uptake length, which were used as model parameters. Modeling results showed that changes in channel morphology alone following dam removal could result in an approximate 40% increase in downstream MRP concentrations compared with conditions with the dam in place. However, empirical and modeling results indicate that hydrogeomorphology can control nutrient retention on the reach scale only when uptake processes are either sufficiently great or when uptake rates have limited variability. Review of published phosphorus retention values revealed greater variability in biochemical uptake rates than in hydrogeomorphology. Thus uptake rates should exert a stronger control on reach-scale MRP retention than changing channel morphology or hydrology. These results suggest that maintaining or restoring channel conditions that are conducive to biochemical uptake are of greater priority than restoration of hydrologic or geomorphic conditions alone.

  17. 5 CFR 536.302 - Optional pay retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Optional pay retention. 536.302 Section 536.302 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS GRADE AND PAY RETENTION Pay Retention § 536.302 Optional pay retention. (a) Subject to the requirements in §...

  18. 5 CFR 536.302 - Optional pay retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Optional pay retention. 536.302 Section 536.302 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS GRADE AND PAY RETENTION Pay Retention § 536.302 Optional pay retention. (a) Subject to the requirements in §...

  19. Effects of sodium polyacrylate on water retention and infiltration capacity of a sandy soil.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Wenhua; Li, Longguo; Liu, Chao

    2013-01-01

    Based on the laboratory study, the effects of sodium polyacrylate (SP) was investigated at 5 rates of 0, 0.08, 0.2, 0.5, and 1%, on water retention, saturated hydraulic conductivity(Ks), infiltration characteristic and water distribution profiles of a sandy soil. The results showed that water retention and available water capacity effectively increased with increasing SP rate. The Ks and the rate of wetting front advance and infiltration under certain pond infiltration was significantly reduced by increasing SP rate, which effectively reduced water in a sandy soil leaking to a deeper layer under the plough layer. The effect of SP on water distribution was obviously to the up layer and very little to the following deeper layers. Considering both the effects on water retention and infiltration capacity, it is suggested that SP be used to the sandy soil at concentrations ranging from 0.2 to 0.5%. PMID:24701379

  20. Strategies for Tailoring the Pore-Size Distribution of Virus Retention Filter Papers.

    PubMed

    Gustafsson, Simon; Mihranyan, Albert

    2016-06-01

    The goal of this work is to demonstrate how the pore-size distribution of the nanocellulose-based virus-retentive filter can be tailored. The filter paper was produced using cellulose nanofibers derived from Cladophora sp. green algae using the hot-press drying at varying drying temperatures. The produced filters were characterized using scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and N2 gas sorption analysis. Further, hydraulic permeability and retention efficiency toward surrogate 20 nm model particles (fluorescent carboxylate-modified polystyrene spheres) were assessed. It was shown that by controlling the rate of water evaporation during hot-press drying the pore-size distribution can be precisely tailored in the region between 10 and 25 nm. The mechanism of pore formation and critical parameters are discussed in detail. The results are highly valuable for development of advanced separation media, especially for virus-retentive size-exclusion filtration. PMID:27144657

  1. Commitment to Student Retention: A Plan for Success. Final Report of the Retention Task Force.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lettman, Dennis

    A retention taskforce was established at Sinclair Community College (SCC) in Ohio to develop a plan to increase student retention. The 24-member taskforce, representing key areas within the college, worked for 15 months to prepare the plan. The plan was designed to be comprehensive, touching upon all points where the students interact with the…

  2. Retention through Intervention: A Strategic Plan for Retention of High-Risk Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mese, Janice H.; Spano, Carleen M.

    In an effort to increase the retention rates of high-risk students in allied health programs, the Medical Campus of Miami-Dade Community College has developed a strategic plan for retention that employs a systems approach to the integration of academic support services, emotional and social supports, and personalized communication. The assumptions…

  3. Considering Student Retention as a Complex System: A Possible Way forward for Enhancing Student Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forsman, Jonas; van den Bogaard, Maartje; Linder, Cedric; Fraser, Duncan

    2015-01-01

    This study uses multilayer minimum spanning tree analysis to develop a model for student retention from a complex system perspective, using data obtained from first-year engineering students at a large well-regarded institution in the European Union. The results show that the elements of the system of student retention are related to one another…

  4. Retention projection enables accurate calculation of liquid chromatographic retention times across labs and methods.

    PubMed

    Abate-Pella, Daniel; Freund, Dana M; Ma, Yan; Simón-Manso, Yamil; Hollender, Juliane; Broeckling, Corey D; Huhman, David V; Krokhin, Oleg V; Stoll, Dwight R; Hegeman, Adrian D; Kind, Tobias; Fiehn, Oliver; Schymanski, Emma L; Prenni, Jessica E; Sumner, Lloyd W; Boswell, Paul G

    2015-09-18

    Identification of small molecules by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) can be greatly improved if the chromatographic retention information is used along with mass spectral information to narrow down the lists of candidates. Linear retention indexing remains the standard for sharing retention data across labs, but it is unreliable because it cannot properly account for differences in the experimental conditions used by various labs, even when the differences are relatively small and unintentional. On the other hand, an approach called "retention projection" properly accounts for many intentional differences in experimental conditions, and when combined with a "back-calculation" methodology described recently, it also accounts for unintentional differences. In this study, the accuracy of this methodology is compared with linear retention indexing across eight different labs. When each lab ran a test mixture under a range of multi-segment gradients and flow rates they selected independently, retention projections averaged 22-fold more accurate for uncharged compounds because they properly accounted for these intentional differences, which were more pronounced in steep gradients. When each lab ran the test mixture under nominally the same conditions, which is the ideal situation to reproduce linear retention indices, retention projections still averaged 2-fold more accurate because they properly accounted for many unintentional differences between the LC systems. To the best of our knowledge, this is the most successful study to date aiming to calculate (or even just to reproduce) LC gradient retention across labs, and it is the only study in which retention was reliably calculated under various multi-segment gradients and flow rates chosen independently by labs. PMID:26292625

  5. Proceedings of the 2004 international congress on advances in nuclear power plants - ICAPP'04

    SciTech Connect

    2004-07-01

    The 2004 International Congress on Advances in Nuclear Power Plants (ICAPP'04) provides a forum for the industry to exchange the latest ideas and research findings on nuclear plants from all perspectives. This conference builds on the success of last year's meeting held in Cordoba, Spain, and on the 2002 inaugural meeting held in Hollywood, Florida. Because of the hard work of many volunteers from around the world, ICAPP'04 has been successful in achieving its goal. More than 325 invited and contributed papers/presentations are part of this ICAPP. There are 5 invited plenary sessions and 70 technical sessions with contributed papers. The ICAPP'04 Proceedings contain almost 275 papers prepared by authors from 25 countries covering topics related to advances in nuclear power plant technology. The program by technical track deals with: 1 - Water-Cooled Reactor Programs and Issues (Status of All New Water-Cooled Reactor Programs; Advanced PWRs: Developmental Stage I; Advanced PWRs: Developmental Stage II; Advanced PWRs: Basic Design Stage; Advanced BWRs; Economics, Regulation, Licensing, and Construction; AP1000); 2 - High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactors (Pebble Bed Modular Reactors; Very High Temperature Reactors; HTR Fuels and Materials; Innovative HTRs and Fuel Cycles); 3 - Long Term Reactor Programs and Strategies (Supercritical Pressure Water Reactors; Lead-Alloy Fast Reactors; Sodium and Gas Fast Reactors; Status of Advanced Reactor Programs; Non-classical Reactor Concepts); 4 - Operation, Performance, and Reliability Management (Information Technology Effect on Plant Operation; Operation, Maintenance and Reliability; Improving Performance and Reducing O and M Costs; Plant Modernization and Retrofits); 5 - Plant Safety Assessment and Regulatory Issues (LOCA and non-LOCA Analysis Methodologies; LOCA and non-LOCA Plant Analyses; In-Vessel Retention; Containment Performance and Hydrogen Control; Advances in Severe Accident Analysis; Advances in Severe Accident

  6. Deuterium Retention in NSTX with Lithium Conditioning

    SciTech Connect

    C.H. Skinner, J.P. Allain, W. Blanchard, H.W. Kugel, R. Maingi, L. Roquemore, V. Soukhanovskii, C.N. Taylor

    2010-06-02

    High (≈ 90%) deuterium retention was observed in NSTX gas balance measurements both withand without lithiumization of the carbon plasma facing components. The gas retained in ohmic discharges was measured by comparing the vessel pressure rise after a discharge to that of a gasonly pulse with the pumping valves closed. For neutral beam heated discharges the gas input and gas pumped by the NB cryopanels were tracked. The discharges were followed by outgassing of deuterium that reduced the retention. The relationship between retention and surface chemistry was explored with a new plasma-material interface probe connected to an in-vacuo surface science station that exposed four material samples to the plasma. XPS and TDS analysis showed that the binding of D atoms is fundamentally changed by lithium - in particular atoms are weakly bonded in regions near lithium atoms bound to either oxygen or the carbon matrix.

  7. Safeguards Workforce Repatriation, Retention and Utilization

    SciTech Connect

    Gallucci, Nicholas; Poe, Sarah

    2015-10-01

    Brookhaven National Laboratory was tasked by NA-241 to assess the transition of former IAEA employees back to the United States, investigating the rate of retention and overall smoothness of the repatriation process among returning safeguards professionals. Upon conducting several phone interviews, study authors found that the repatriation process went smoothly for the vast majority and that workforce retention was high. However, several respondents expressed irritation over the minimal extent to which their safeguards expertise had been leveraged in their current positions. This sentiment was pervasive enough to prompt a follow-on study focusing on questions relating to the utilization rather than the retention of safeguards professionals. A second, web-based survey was conducted, soliciting responses from a larger sample pool. Results suggest that the safeguards workforce may be oversaturated, and that young professionals returning to the United States from Agency positions may soon encounter difficulties finding jobs in the field.

  8. Assessment and selection of materials for ITER in-vessel components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalinin, G.; Barabash, V.; Cardella, A.; Dietz, J.; Ioki, K.; Matera, R.; Santoro, R. T.; Tivey, R.; ITER Home Teams

    2000-12-01

    During the international thermonuclear experimental reactor (ITER) engineering design activities (EDA) significant progress has been made in the selection of materials for the in-vessel components of the reactor. This progress is a result of the worldwide collaboration of material scientists and industries which focused their effort on the optimisation of material and component manufacturing and on the investigation of the most critical material properties. Austenitic stainless steels 316L(N)-IG and 316L, nickel-based alloys Inconel 718 and Inconel 625, Ti-6Al-4V alloy and two copper alloys, CuCrZr-IG and CuAl25-IG, have been proposed as reference structural materials, and ferritic steel 430, and austenitic steel 304B7 with the addition of boron have been selected for some specific parts of the ITER in-vessel components. Beryllium, tungsten and carbon fibre composites are considered as plasma facing armour materials. The data base on the properties of all these materials is critically assessed and briefly reviewed in this paper together with the justification of the material selection (e.g., effect of neutron irradiation on the mechanical properties of materials, effect of manufacturing cycle, etc.).

  9. Laparoscopic Treatment of Ovarian Retention Pathology

    PubMed

    Dionisi; Dionisi; Dionisi

    1996-08-01

    We define ovarian retention pathology as the complications (cystic, degenerative, adhesions, endometriosis, pain, etc.) attributed to ovaries deliberately retained at the time of hysterectomy. We established a protocol for laparoscopy in these women. During 14 laparoscopic procedures for ovarian retention pathology, only one intraoperative complication occurred, a small bowel injury requiring minilaparotomy. One woman required repeat surgery for ovarian remnant syndrome. Published experience with laparotomy suggests that significant injuries to or resections of bowel, bladder, or ureters can occur, but the limited experience with laparoscopic surgery has not shown significant complications. PMID:9074105

  10. Meningitis-retention Syndrome; A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Gen; Hata, Kenichi; Aoki, Soichiro; Suzuki, Masayasu; Kimura, Takahiro; Egawa, Shin

    2016-05-01

    We report a case of meningitis-retention syndrome followed by urodynamic tests. A 48-year-old man was admitted to the hospital for an undiagnosed fever with headache and urinary retention. Aseptic meningitis was suspected according to cerebrospinal fluid analyses, and urodynamic test showed an underactive detrusor, leading to inadequate contraction of the bladder on voiding in spite of a normal sensation during bladder filling. Clean intermittent self-catheterization was required temporarily, but normal urinary voiding without the need for medication was restored in 2 weeks after discharge from the hospital, when urodynamic tests showed normal contractility of the bladder during voiding. PMID:27175342

  11. Meningitis-retention Syndrome; A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Ishii, Gen; Hata, Kenichi; Aoki, Soichiro; Suzuki, Masayasu; Kimura, Takahiro; Egawa, Shin

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of meningitis-retention syndrome followed by urodynamic tests. A 48-year-old man was admitted to the hospital for an undiagnosed fever with headache and urinary retention. Aseptic meningitis was suspected according to cerebrospinal fluid analyses, and urodynamic test showed an underactive detrusor, leading to inadequate contraction of the bladder on voiding in spite of a normal sensation during bladder filling. Clean intermittent self-catheterization was required temporarily, but normal urinary voiding without the need for medication was restored in 2 weeks after discharge from the hospital, when urodynamic tests showed normal contractility of the bladder during voiding. PMID:27175342

  12. Nitrogen Saturation in Highly Retentive Watersheds?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daley, M. L.; McDowell, W. H.

    2009-12-01

    Watershed managers are often concerned with minimizing the amount of N delivered to N-limited estuaries and coastal zones. A major concern is that watersheds might reach N saturation, in which N delivered to coastal zones increases due to declines in the efficiency of N retention despite constant or even reduced N inputs. We have quantified long-term changes in N inputs (atmospheric deposition, imported food and agricultural fertilizers), outputs (N concentration and export) and retention in the urbanizing Lamprey River watershed in coastal NH. Overall, the Lamprey watershed is 70% forested, receives about 13.5 kg N/ha/yr and has a high rate of annual N retention (85%). Atmospheric deposition (8.7 kg/ha/yr) is the largest N input to the watershed. Of the 2.2 kg N/ha/yr exported in the Lamprey River, dissolved organic N (DON) is the dominant form (50% of total) and it varies spatially throughout the watershed with wetland cover. Nitrate accounts for 30% of the N exported, shows a statistically significant increase from 1999 to 2009, and its spatial variability in both concentration and export is related to human population density. In sub-basins throughout the Lamprey, inorganic N retention is high (85-99%), but the efficiency of N retention declines sharply with increased human population density and associated anthropogenic N inputs. N assimilation in the vegetation, denitrification to the atmosphere and storage in the groundwater pool could all be important contributors to the current high rates of N retention. The temporal and spatial patterns that we have observed in nitrate concentration and export are driven by increases in N inputs and impervious surfaces over time, but the declining efficiency of N retention suggests that the watershed may also be reaching N saturation. The downstream receiving estuary, Great Bay, already suffers from low dissolved oxygen levels and eelgrass loss in part due to N loading from the Lamprey watershed. Targeting and reducing

  13. Modeling of Tritium Retention in TFTR

    SciTech Connect

    Blanchard, W.; Brooks, J.N.; Budny, R.V.; Hogan, J.T.; Hosea, J.; Skinner, C.H.; et al.

    1998-08-19

    The Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) tritium retention experience is reviewed and the data related to models of plasma surface interactions. Over 3.5 years of TFTR deuterium-tritium operations, approximately 51% of the tritium injected into TFTR was retained in the torus. Most of this was subsequently recovered by glow discharges and air ventilation. Co-deposition rates for representative conditions in tritium operation were modeled with the BBQ code. The calculations indicate that known erosion mechanisms and subsequent co-deposition are sufficient to account for the order of magnitude of retention.

  14. Seven year review of retention in HIV care and treatment in federal medical centre Ido-Ekiti

    PubMed Central

    Babatunde, Oluwoleadeyemi; Ojo, Olujide John; Atoyebi, Oladele Ademola; Ekpo, David Sylvanus; Ogundana, Adebusuyi Opeyemi; Olaniyan, Temitope Oluseun; Owoade, John Adeyemi

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Poor retention of patients in care is a major driver of poor performance and increased morbidity and mortality in HIV/AIDS programme despite the expansion and advancement Anti-retroviral Therapy (ART). The objective of this study is to assess retention rates and possible determining factors in People Living with HIV (PLHIV) on ART. Methods This is a descriptive, cross-sectional study conducted in Federal Medical Center, Ido-Ekiti, Nigeria. Medical records of clients who were enrolled in ART Care and support unit (HIV Clinic) of the health facility from 2005 to 2012 were reviewed and analyzed using SPSS version 16. A total of 621 client records were reviewed for basic demographic information, CD4 count, WHO stage, number of follow-up visit, client ART status and client retention status (defined as client attending at least one clinic visit in 2012. Results A total of 347(63%) patients were retained in care and 208(37%) were not retained over the seven year review period. Retention was statistically significant with age (P-value 0.031), ART status (P-value 0.000) baseline CD4 (P-value 0.004), year of diagnosis and ART initiation (P-value= 0.027). Poor retention was associated decreasing age, pre-ART client, HIV stage 1&IV client and baseline CD4 above 400cell/mm3. Conclusion Retention in care of PLHIV is a minimum necessary condition for maintaining or restoring health in the long run. The strategies to sustain and improve retention rate should be adopted to maximize ART benefits. A follow-up study on other factors affecting retention from diagnosis to long term retention ART programme is recommended. PMID:26889320

  15. TECHcitement: Advances in Technology Education, 2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patton, Madeline

    2008-01-01

    This publication presents the following articles: (1) Advanced Technological Education (ATE) Develops Student Recruitment and Retention Strategies; (2) Marketer Advises Tech Educators Appeal to Teens' Emotions, Desires to Do Something Important; (3) Digital Bridge Academy Gets At-Risk Students on Paths to Knowledge-Based Careers; (4) Project…

  16. Seed Implant Retention Score Predicts the Risk of Prolonged Urinary Retention After Prostate Brachytherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Hoon K.; Adams, Marc T.; Shi, Qiuhu; Basillote, Jay; LaMonica, Joanne; Miranda, Luis; Motta, Joseph

    2010-04-15

    Purpose: To risk-stratify patients for urinary retention after prostate brachytherapy according to a novel seed implant retention score (SIRS). Patients and Methods: A total of 835 patients underwent transperineal prostate seed implant from March 1993 to January 2007; 197 patients had {sup 125}I and 638 patients had {sup 103}Pd brachytherapy. Four hundred ninety-four patients had supplemental external-beam radiation. The final downsized prostate volume was used for the 424 patients who had neoadjuvant hormone therapy. Retention was defined as reinsertion of a Foley catheter after the implant. Results: Retention developed in 7.4% of patients, with an average duration of 6.7 weeks. On univariate analysis, implant without supplemental external-beam radiation (10% vs. 5.6%; p = 0.02), neoadjuvant hormone therapy (9.4% vs. 5.4%; p = 0.02), baseline alpha-blocker use (12.5% vs. 6.3%; p = 0.008), and increased prostate volume (13.4% vs. 6.9% vs. 2.9%, >45 cm{sup 3}, 25-45 cm{sup 3}, <25 cm{sup 3}; p = 0.0008) were significantly correlated with increased rates of retention. On multivariate analysis, implant without supplemental external-beam radiation, neoadjuvant hormone therapy, baseline alpha-blocker use, and increased prostate volume were correlated with retention. A novel SIRS was modeled as the combined score of these factors, ranging from 0 to 5. There was a significant correlation between the SIRS and retention (p < 0.0001). The rates of retention were 0, 4%, 5.6%, 9%, 20.9%, and 36.4% for SIRS of 0 to 5, respectively. Conclusions: The SIRS may identify patients who are at high risk for prolonged retention after prostate brachytherapy. A prospective validation study of the SIRS is planned.

  17. Building a peer mentor home health aide program: implications for home health aide retention.

    PubMed

    Kreiser, Athena Lu; Adamski, Tom; Gallagher, Bridget

    2010-09-01

    The Home Health Aide (HHA) industry is challenged with low wages, little possibility of career advancement, and high turnover rates. Jewish Home Lifecare, Home Assistance Personnel Inc. (HAPI) is a home care aide agency that has developed a Peer Mentor HHA program. Peer Mentor HHAs mentor newly hired/trained HHAs within our agency. This career path leads to higher paying work that allows for growth of our workforce for the identified growing care need and positively impacts HHA retention. PMID:20811183

  18. Attrition and Retention among Special Education Paraprofessionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Kimberly D.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to obtain information about issues of turnover and retention among former and current special education paraprofessionals in one school district. Survey data and findings indicated ways to retain staff and reduce turnover. Information from this study was shared within the district and will be considered in creating…

  19. 5 CFR 9701.356 - Pay retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Pay retention. 9701.356 Section 9701.356 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY-OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT) DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN...

  20. Reframing Retention Strategy: A Focus on Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schroeder, Charles C.

    2013-01-01

    When institutions engage in discussions regarding improving retention and graduation rates, invariably the conversation focuses on entering student characteristics, especially ACT and SAT scores and high school grades. Clearly, attracting and enrolling well-prepared and motivated high-ability students will certainly improve institutional measures…

  1. Relationship of Personality Traits to Student Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liang, John Paul

    2010-01-01

    Carl Jung's theory of psychological types has been the basis for the development of personality categorization, including tests such as Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI). This study analyzed the extent of the relationship between MBTI and Tinto (1993) retention factors that influence Oriental medicine students' choice of staying or dropping out…

  2. Job Performance and Retention among Welfare Recipients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holzer, Harry J.; Stoll, Michael A.; Wissoker, Douglas

    Data from interviews with 750 employers in Chicago, Cleveland, Milwaukee, and Los Angeles were used to analyze the job performance and retention rates of recently hired welfare recipients. The 20-minute interviews focused on employers' subjective ratings of recently hired welfare recipients' job performance and whether employers experienced the…

  3. Factors Contributing to Teacher Retention in Georgia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Locklear, Tina M.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this mixed method, survey-based inquiry was to determine how Georgia public high school faculty members perceive various pressures and experiences associated with a career in education. These perceptions were then analyzed as possible indicators of teacher attrition in order to improve retention rates. The independent demographic…

  4. 1978-79 Recruitment & Retention Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeCosmo, Richard

    The Moraine Valley Community College (MVCC) 1978-79 Recruitment Program seeks to increase the pool of students who wish to attend college rather than compete more aggressively for those students who have already decided to participate in higher education. A special adjunct Retention Program has been developed to enhance the entire recruitment…

  5. 40 CFR 307.33 - Records retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Records retention. 307.33 Section 307.33 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SUPERFUND, EMERGENCY PLANNING, AND COMMUNITY RIGHT-TO-KNOW PROGRAMS COMPREHENSIVE ENVIRONMENTAL RESPONSE, COMPENSATION,...

  6. Alternatives to Social Promotion and Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    Studies indicate that retention negatively impacts students' behavior, attitude, and attendance, but it is still practiced in schools around the country. Social promotion undermines students' futures when they fail to develop critical study and job-related skills; however, it too is still practiced in many schools throughout the United…

  7. Student Retention in an Historically Black Institution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDaniel, Cleve; Graham, Steven W.

    This study developed a statistical model to identify college students most prone to dropping out, testing the model to predict the retention status of black residential and white commuter students at an historically black institution with an open admissions policy. The model used 25 pre- and early-matriculation variables, including gender, age,…

  8. An Examination of Master's Student Retention & Completion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barry, Melissa; Mathies, Charles

    2011-01-01

    This study was conducted at a research-extensive public university in the southeastern United States. It examined the retention and completion of master's degree students across numerous disciplines. Results were derived from a series of descriptive statistics, T-tests, and a series of binary logistic regression models. The findings from binary…

  9. 10 CFR 490.810 - Record retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Record retention. 490.810 Section 490.810 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM Alternative Compliance § 490... documentation pertaining to its waiver application and alternative compliance, including petroleum...

  10. 49 CFR 236.1037 - Records retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Records retention. 236.1037 Section 236.1037 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RULES, STANDARDS, AND INSTRUCTIONS GOVERNING THE INSTALLATION, INSPECTION, MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND...

  11. 7 CFR 1409.7 - Records retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE GENERAL REGULATIONS AND POLICIES MEETINGS OF THE BOARD OF DIRECTORS OF COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION § 1409.7 Records retention. (a) The Secretary of the Board will maintain the following records for each Board meeting, or portion thereof which is closed to the public pursuant to a vote under §...

  12. 9 CFR 590.426 - Retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Retention. 590.426 Section 590.426 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Inspection,...

  13. 9 CFR 590.426 - Retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Retention. 590.426 Section 590.426 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Inspection,...

  14. 9 CFR 590.426 - Retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Retention. 590.426 Section 590.426 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Inspection,...

  15. 9 CFR 590.426 - Retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Retention. 590.426 Section 590.426 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Inspection,...

  16. 9 CFR 590.426 - Retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Retention. 590.426 Section 590.426 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Inspection,...

  17. Employee Retention: A Challenge of the Nineties.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeiss, Tony

    1990-01-01

    Considers ways in which community colleges can help employers implement programs to improve the work environment and retain trained workers. Presents a model for employee retention that has worked effectively in Pueblo, Colorado. Describes Pueblo Community College's cooperative program with the Wats Marketing Group to help reduce employee…

  18. Shaping Retention from Research to Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braxton, John M.; Brier, Ellen M.; Steele, Stephanie Lee

    2008-01-01

    This article presents seven guidelines to direct professional practice aimed toward the improvement of institutional student retention rates. For each of the seven guidelines, specific recommendations to provide direction to the enactment of the focal guideline are described. These seven guidelines spring from empirical studies of campus-based…

  19. Healthcare Learning Community and Student Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Sherryl W.

    2014-01-01

    Teaching, learning, and retention processes have evolved historically to include multifaceted techniques beyond the traditional lecture. This article presents related results of a study using a healthcare learning community in a southwest Georgia university. The value of novel techniques and tools in promoting student learning and retention…

  20. 9 CFR 354.73 - Retention labels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Retention labels. 354.73 Section 354.73 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION VOLUNTARY INSPECTION OF...

  1. 9 CFR 354.73 - Retention labels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Retention labels. 354.73 Section 354.73 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION VOLUNTARY INSPECTION OF...

  2. 9 CFR 354.73 - Retention labels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Retention labels. 354.73 Section 354.73 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION VOLUNTARY INSPECTION OF...

  3. 9 CFR 354.73 - Retention labels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Retention labels. 354.73 Section 354.73 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION VOLUNTARY INSPECTION OF...

  4. 9 CFR 354.73 - Retention labels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Retention labels. 354.73 Section 354.73 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION VOLUNTARY INSPECTION OF...

  5. 78 FR 57927 - Credit Risk Retention

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-20

    ... proposal, as described in more detail below. \\5\\ Credit Risk Retention; Proposed Rule, 76 FR 24090 (April... legislation.''). \\24\\ See 78 FR 6408 (January 30, 2013), as amended by 78 FR 35430 (June 12, 2013). These two... Federal Register. See 76 FR 27390 (May 11, 2011). The Board had initial responsibility for...

  6. 5 CFR 9701.356 - Pay retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY-OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT) DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Pay and Pay Administration Pay Administration § 9701.356 Pay retention. (a) Subject to...

  7. 5 CFR 9701.356 - Pay retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY-OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT) DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Pay and Pay Administration Pay Administration § 9701.356 Pay retention. (a) Subject to...

  8. 5 CFR 9701.356 - Pay retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY-OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT) DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Pay and Pay Administration Pay Administration § 9701.356 Pay retention. (a) Subject to...

  9. 40 CFR 35.6705 - Records retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... concerning Federal Government records (36 CFR parts 1220 through 1234) and EPA records management... the starting dates for records retention described in 40 CFR 31.42(c) (1) and (2). ... been started before the expiration of the ten-year period, the records must be retained...

  10. 40 CFR 35.6705 - Records retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... concerning Federal Government records (36 CFR parts 1220 through 1234) and EPA records management... the starting dates for records retention described in 40 CFR 31.42(c) (1) and (2). ... been started before the expiration of the ten-year period, the records must be retained...

  11. 7 CFR 275.4 - Record retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Record retention. 275.4 Section 275.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOOD STAMP AND FOOD DISTRIBUTION PROGRAM PERFORMANCE REPORTING SYSTEM Administration § 275.4...

  12. 19 CFR 10.308 - Records retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Records retention. 10.308 Section 10.308 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Canada Free Trade Agreement §...

  13. 19 CFR 10.308 - Records retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Records retention. 10.308 Section 10.308 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Canada Free Trade Agreement §...

  14. Sediment retention in rangeland riparian buffers.

    PubMed

    Hook, Paul B

    2003-01-01

    Controlling nonpoint-source sediment pollution is a common goal of riparian management, but there is little quantitative information about factors affecting performance of rangeland riparian buffers. This study evaluated the influence of vegetation characteristics, buffer width, slope, and stubble height on sediment retention in a Montana foothills meadow. Three vegetation types (sedge wetland, rush transition, bunchgrass upland) were compared using twenty-six 6- x 2-m plots spanning 2 to 20% slopes. Plots were clipped moderately (10-15 cm stubble) or severely (2-5 cm stubble). Sediment (silt + fine sand) was added to simulated overland runoff 6, 2, or 1 m above the bottom of each plot. Runoff was sampled at 15-s to > 5-min intervals until sediment concentrations approached background levels. Sediment retention was affected strongly by buffer width and moderately by vegetation type and slope, but was not affected by stubble height. Mean sediment retention ranged from 63 to > 99% for different combinations of buffer width and vegetation type, with 94 to 99% retention in 6-m-wide buffers regardless of vegetation type or slope. Results suggest that rangeland riparian buffers should be at least 6 m wide, with dense vegetation, to be effective and reliable. Narrower widths, steep slopes, and sparse vegetation increase risk of sediment delivery to streams. Vegetation characteristics such as biomass, cover, or density are more appropriate than stubble height for judging capacity to remove sediment from overland runoff, though stubble height may indirectly indicate livestock impacts that can affect buffer performance. PMID:12809315

  15. 24 CFR 266.515 - Record retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Record retention. 266.515 Section 266.515 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR HOUSING-FEDERAL HOUSING COMMISSIONER, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND...

  16. 76 FR 34010 - Credit Risk Retention

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-10

    ..., 2011, at 76 FR 24090, is extended. Comments on the Credit Risk NPR must be received on or before August... 76 FR 24090. The Credit Risk NPR would specify credit risk retention requirements for securitizers of... Office of the Comptroller of the Currency 12 CFR Part 43 RIN 1557-AD40 FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM 12 CFR...

  17. 10 CFR 490.810 - Record retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Record retention. 490.810 Section 490.810 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM Alternative Compliance § 490... documentation pertaining to its waiver application and alternative compliance, including petroleum...

  18. 10 CFR 490.810 - Record retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Record retention. 490.810 Section 490.810 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM Alternative Compliance § 490... documentation pertaining to its waiver application and alternative compliance, including petroleum...

  19. 10 CFR 490.810 - Record retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Record retention. 490.810 Section 490.810 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM Alternative Compliance § 490... documentation pertaining to its waiver application and alternative compliance, including petroleum...

  20. 10 CFR 490.810 - Record retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Record retention. 490.810 Section 490.810 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM Alternative Compliance § 490... documentation pertaining to its waiver application and alternative compliance, including petroleum...

  1. Effects of Emotional Intelligence on Teacher Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerald, Grant Ronald

    2010-01-01

    This mixed methods, explanatory design study focused on determining if the emotional intelligence of principals affects the retention of new teachers. In phase one, a non-random cluster sample of 138 public school principals in the state of Louisiana was surveyed using a quantitative instrument. A Factor Analysis, Analysis of Variance (ANOVA), and…

  2. Managing Retention under the New Skills Agenda.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hemsley-Brown, Jane

    2002-01-01

    Within the context of funding changes in further education, a British study of three training providers with successful retention programs found that two further education colleges were more successful than an industry provider. Key factors in reducing student withdrawal included support and guidance services for trainees, delivery of key skills,…

  3. Retention of Electronic Fundamentals: Differences Among Topics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Kirk A.

    Criterion-referenced tests were used to measure the learning and retention of a sample of material taught by means of programed instruction in the Avionics Fundamentals Course, Class A. It was found that the students knew about 30 percent of the material before reading the programs, that mastery rose to a very high level on the immediate posttest,…

  4. Does Grade Retention Make a Difference?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tingle, Lynne R.; Schoeneberger, Jason; Algozzine, Bob

    2012-01-01

    Despite a continuing record of interest over the years, few studies have documented the demographics of grade retention or the relationship between it and academic achievement across multiple grades and groups of students. In this research, we were interested in the characteristics and consequences of retaining students in elementary (K-5) and…

  5. 5 CFR 9701.356 - Pay retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pay retention. 9701.356 Section 9701.356 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY-OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT) DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN...

  6. 33 CFR 133.21 - Records retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Records retention. 133.21 Section 133.21 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND; STATE ACCESS §...

  7. 33 CFR 133.21 - Records retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Records retention. 133.21 Section 133.21 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND; STATE ACCESS §...

  8. 33 CFR 133.21 - Records retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Records retention. 133.21 Section 133.21 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND; STATE ACCESS §...

  9. 33 CFR 133.21 - Records retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Records retention. 133.21 Section 133.21 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND; STATE ACCESS §...

  10. 33 CFR 133.21 - Records retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Records retention. 133.21 Section 133.21 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND; STATE ACCESS §...

  11. Metals Retention in Constructed Wetland Sediments

    SciTech Connect

    KNOX, ANNA

    2004-10-27

    The A-01 wetland treatment system (WTS) was designed to remove metals from the effluent at the A-01 NPDES outfall at the Savannah River Site, Aiken, SC. Sequential extraction data was used to evaluate remobilization and retention of Cu, Pb, Zn, Mn, and Fe in the wetland sediment. Remobilization of metals was determined by the Potentially Mobile Fraction (PMF) and metal retention by the Recalcitrant Factor (RF). The PMF, which includes water soluble, exchangeable, and oxides fractions, is the contaminant fraction that has the potential to enter into the mobile aqueous phase under changeable environmental conditions. PMF values were low for Cu, Zn and Pb (about 20 percent) and high for Fe and Mn (about 60 to 70 percent). The RF, which includes crystalline oxides, sulfides or silicates and aluminosilicates, is the ratio of strongly bound fractions to the total concentration of elements in sediment. RF values were about 80 percent for Cu, Zn and Pb, indicating high retention in the sediment and 30 percent to above 40 percent for Fe and Mn indication low retention.

  12. Personnel Recruitment and Retention in Rural America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helge, Doris; Marrs, Lawrence W.

    Recruitment and retention of special education teachers and related services staff have been persistent problems of rural school districts nationwide. High teacher attrition rates have serious ramifications for personnel development and program stability. Effective recruitment strategies for rural areas have four main components: (1) emphasis on…

  13. Does Retention Help? Perspectives after Three Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuyler, Nancy Baenen

    The Austin Independent School District Office of Research and Evaluation (AISD-ORE) has recently completed a three year study of the effects of retention on elementary students. As in other studies comparing the academic achievement of elementary retainees and similar students not retained, findings indicated that promoted students generally show…

  14. Tallahassee Community College Retention Study. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Archie B.

    A retention study was conducted at Tallahassee Community College (TCC) to determine reasons student withdrew from TCC prior to meeting their educational objectives. The survey population consisted of all students, apart from graduates and those who had been academically suspended, who were enrolled in winter 1981 but had not returned by winter…

  15. Testing to Enhance Retention in Human Anatomy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Logan, Jessica M.; Thompson, Andrew J.; Marshak, David W.

    2011-01-01

    Recent work in cognitive psychology has shown that repeatedly testing one's knowledge is a powerful learning aid and provides substantial benefits for retention of the material. To apply this in a human anatomy course for medical students, 39 fill-in-the-blank quizzes of about 50 questions each, one for each region of the body, and four about the…

  16. 40 CFR 35.6705 - Records retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... the starting dates for records retention described in 40 CFR 31.42(c) (1) and (2). ... been started before the expiration of the ten-year period, the records must be retained until completion of the action and resolution of all issues which arise from it, or until the end of the...

  17. 40 CFR 35.6705 - Records retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... the starting dates for records retention described in 40 CFR 31.42(c) (1) and (2). ... been started before the expiration of the ten-year period, the records must be retained until completion of the action and resolution of all issues which arise from it, or until the end of the...

  18. Return on Investment: Libraries and Student Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mezick, Elizabeth M.

    2007-01-01

    Using data on libraries collected by the Association of Research Libraries (ARL) and the Association of College and Research Libraries (ACRL), as well as fall-to-fall retention rates obtained from the Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System (IPEDS) of the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES), this study employs statistical…

  19. High temperature ceramic composition for hydrogen retention

    DOEpatents

    Webb, R.W.

    1974-01-01

    A ceramic coating for H retention in fuel elements is described. The coating has relatively low thermal neutron cross section, is not readily reduced by H at 1500 deg F, is adherent to the fuel element base metal, and is stable at reactor operating temperatures. (JRD)

  20. 7 CFR 275.4 - Record retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Record retention. 275.4 Section 275.4 Agriculture... FOOD STAMP AND FOOD DISTRIBUTION PROGRAM PERFORMANCE REPORTING SYSTEM Administration § 275.4 Record... Schedule other materials supporting the review decision; sample lists; sampling frames; tabulation...

  1. 7 CFR 275.4 - Record retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Record retention. 275.4 Section 275.4 Agriculture... FOOD STAMP AND FOOD DISTRIBUTION PROGRAM PERFORMANCE REPORTING SYSTEM Administration § 275.4 Record... Schedule; other materials supporting the review decision; sample lists; sampling frames; tabulation...

  2. 7 CFR 275.4 - Record retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Record retention. 275.4 Section 275.4 Agriculture... FOOD STAMP AND FOOD DISTRIBUTION PROGRAM PERFORMANCE REPORTING SYSTEM Administration § 275.4 Record... Schedule; other materials supporting the review decision; sample lists; sampling frames; tabulation...

  3. 7 CFR 275.4 - Record retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... FOOD STAMP AND FOOD DISTRIBUTION PROGRAM PERFORMANCE REPORTING SYSTEM Administration § 275.4 Record retention. (a) The State agency shall maintain Performance Reporting System records to permit ready access to, and use of, these records. Performance Reporting System records include information used in...

  4. Retention of First Year Community College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Windham, Melissa H.

    2012-01-01

    Although close to half of all community college students leave before obtaining their stated goals, most retention studies are still being conducted at the four-year college and university level. There is still little research conducted at the community college level. In order to determine what student characteristics increase community college…

  5. Recruitment and Retention with a Spin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindgren, Rita; Hixson, Carla Braun

    2010-01-01

    Strategic planning and innovation at Bismarck State College (BSC) found common ground in the college's goal to recruit and retain employees in an environment of low unemployment and strong competition for skilled employees. BSC's strategic plan for 2007-09 included the objective "to increase retention of employees." One of the strategies connected…

  6. 19 CFR 10.308 - Records retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Records retention. 10.308 Section 10.308 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Canada Free Trade Agreement §...

  7. Structural Information Retention in Visual Art Processing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koroscik, Judith Smith

    The accuracy of non-art college students' longterm retention of structural information presented in Leonardo da Vinci's "Mona Lisa" was tested. Seventeen female undergraduates viewed reproductions of the painting and copies that closely resembled structural attributes of the original. Only 3 of the 17 subjects reported having viewed a reproduction…

  8. COMPARTMENTAL MODEL OF NITRATE RETENTION IN STREAMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A compartmental modeling approach is presented to route nitrate retention along a cascade of stream reach sections. A process transfer function is used for transient storage equations with first order reaction terms to represent nitrate uptake in the free stream, and denitrifica...

  9. ORTHODONTIC RETENTION. Studies of retention capacity, cost-effectiveness and long-term stability.

    PubMed

    Tynelius, Gudrun Edman

    2014-01-01

    Retention strategies, cost-effectiveness and long-term stability of treatment outcome are essential aspects of orthodontic treatment planning. The overall aim of this thesis was to compare and evaluate three different retention strategies, with special reference to short- and long-term clinical stability and cost-effectiveness. The approach was evidence-based, hence randomized controlled methodology was used in order to generate high levels of evidence. This thesis is based on four studies: Papers I and II are based on randomized controlled trials, evaluating the stability of treatment outcome after one and two years of retention, using three different retention strategies: a maxillary vacuum-formed retainer combined with a mandibular canine-to-canine retainer; a maxillary vacuum-formed retainer combined with stripping of the mandibular anterior teeth and a prefabricated positioner. Paper III presents a cost-minimization analysis of two years of retention treatment. Paper IV is based on a randomized controlled trial documenting the results five years post-retention. The following conclusions were drawn: Papers I and II. From a clinical perspective, asssessment after one year of retention disclosed that the three retention methods were successful in retaining the orthodontic treatment results. After two years of retention, all three retention methods were equally effective in controlling relapse at a clinically acceptable level. Most of the relapse occurred during the first year of retention; only minor or negligible changes were found during the second year. The subjects were grouped according to the level of compliance (excellent or good). After two years of retention there was a negative correlation between growth in body height and relapse of mandibular LII in the group of subjects with excellent compliance. The group with good compliance showed a positive correlation (Paper II, Figure 3). After two years of retention, growth in body height, initial crowding and

  10. Advance Organizer Strategy for Educable Mentally Retarded and Regular Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Moon K.

    The study examined the effects of an advance organizer on the learning and retention of facts and concepts obtained from a sound film by educable mentally retarded (N=30) and regular children (N=30) in a mainstreamed secondary public school class. Also examined was the interaction between the advance organizer and ability levels of the Ss. Results…

  11. Reliability of in-stream retention metrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savickis, Jevgenijs; Zaramella, Mattia; Marion, Andrea

    2016-04-01

    The temporary solute retention within transient storage zones (TSZs) has been shown to have a large effect on the transport of solute. This retention can significantly increase the overall in-stream residence time and as consequence increase the contact time of solute with aquatic interfaces (biota, sediment) and living species. An important question that arises is whether the currently available metrics adequately represent retention mechanism. This work attempts to investigate the reliability of two existing measures, the hydrological retention factor (Rh) and the fraction of median travel time due to transient storage zone (Fmed200). For this purpose, five conservative tracer tests were conducted in four European streams with distinct morphological, sediment composition, vegetation and hydraulic characteristics. The obtained breakthrough curves (BTCs) were used to derive storage zone parameters (storage zone area, storage zone exchange coefficient and mean residence time), which then were used for comparison and in the metric expressions. The storage zone parameters were computed using a single TSZ model OTIS-P and a multiple TSZ model STIR. The STIR model was applied to BTCs as an additional tool to separate TSZs into short timescale (ST) and long timescale (LT). The study results reveal correlation between Fmed200 and LT residence time T2 values, where the streams with the lowest Fmed200 (0.01-0.96) have the smallest long timescale storage zones T2 values, ranging from 912 s to 1402 s. The findings also demonstrate an influence of discharge rate on both retention metrics. The greatest Fmed200 (6.19) and Rh (0.938) values are calculated for the streams with low discharge rates (0.08-0.10 m3s‑1) and a relatively high ST storage zone residence times T1 (159 s to 351 s). Results show that the Fmed200 and Rh metrics are strongly affected by the short timescale transient storage zones, whereas the LT storage zones (hyporheic) effects are not taken into account.

  12. Oxidation of organics in retentates from reverse osmosis wastewater reuse facilities.

    PubMed

    Westerhoff, Paul; Moon, Hye; Minakata, Daisuke; Crittenden, John

    2009-09-01

    The use of membrane processes for wastewater treatment and reuse is rapidly expanding. Organic, inorganic, and biological constituents are effectively removed by reverse osmosis (RO) membrane processes, but concentrate in membrane retentates Disposal of membrane concentrates is a growing concern. Applying advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) to RO retentate is logical because extensive treatment and energy inputs were expended to concentrate the organics, and it is cheaper to treat smaller flowstreams. AOPs (e.g., UV irradiation in the presence of titanium dioxide; UV/TiO(2)) can remove a high percentage of organic matter from RO retentates. The combination of AOPs and a simple biological system (e.g., sand filter) can remove higher levels of organic matter at lower UV dosages because AOPs produce biologically degradable material (e.g., organic acids) that have low hydroxyl radical rate constants, meaning that their oxidation, rather than that of the primary organic matter in the RO retentate, dictates the required UV energy inputs. At the highest applied UV dose (10 kWh m(-)3), the dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in the RO retentate decreased from approximately 40 to 8 mg L(-)1, of which approximately 6 mg L(-)1 were readily biologically degradable. Therefore, after combined UV treatment and biodegradation, the final DOC concentration was 2 mg L(-)1, representing a 91% removal. These results suggest that UV/TiO(2) plus biodegradation of RO retentates is feasible and would significantly reduce the organic pollutant loading into the environment from wastewater reuse facilities. PMID:19450863

  13. In-vessel Zircaloy oxidation/hydrogen generation behavior during severe accidents

    SciTech Connect

    Cronenberg, A.W. )

    1990-09-01

    In-vessel Zircaloy oxidation and hydrogen generation data from various US Nuclear Regulatory Commission severe-fuel damage test programs are presented and compared, where the effects of Zircaloy melting, bundle reconfiguration, and bundle quenching by reflooding are assessed for common findings. The experiments evaluated include fuel bundles incorporating fresh and previously irradiated fuel rods, as well as control rods. Findings indicate that the extent of bundle oxidation is largely controlled by steam supply conditions and that high rates of hydrogen generation continued after melt formation and relocation. Likewise, no retardation of hydrogen generation was noted for experiments which incorporated control rods. Metallographic findings indicate extensive oxidation of once-molten Zircaloy bearing test debris. Such test results indicate no apparent limitations to Zircaloy oxidation for fuel bundles subjected to severe-accident coolant-boiloff conditions. 46 refs., 22 figs., 12 tabs.

  14. Measurements for the JASPER program In-Vessel Fuel Storage experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Muckenthaler, F.J.; Spencer, R.R.; Hunter, H.T.; Hull, J.L.; Shono, A.

    1992-01-01

    The In-Vessel-Fuel-Storage (IVFS) experiment was conducted at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory`s (ORNL) Tower Shielding Facility (TSF) during the first nine months of 1991 as part of the continuing series of eight experiments planned for the Japanese-American Shielding Program for Experimental Research (JASPER) that was started in 1986. This is the fourth in a series of eight experiments that were planned, all of which are intended to provide support in the development of current reactor shield designs proposed for liquid metal reactor (LMR) systems both in Japan and the United States. The program is a cooperative effort between the United States Department of Energy (US DOE) and the Japanese Power Reactor and Nuclear Development Corporation (PNC). This document provides a description of the instrumentation and experimental configuration, test data, and data analysis.

  15. Design Analysis and Manufacturing Studies for ITER In-Vessel Coils

    SciTech Connect

    Kalish, M.; Heitzenroeder, P.; Neumeyer, C.; Titus, P.; Zhai, Y.; Zatz, I.; Messineo, M.; Gomez, M.; Hause, C.; Daly, E.; Martin, A.; Wu, Y.; Jin, J.; Long, F.; Song, Y.; Wang, Z.; Yun, Zan; Hsiao, J.; Pillsbury, J. R.; Bohm, T.; Sawan, M.; Jiang, NFN

    2014-07-01

    ITER is incorporating two types of In Vessel Coils (IVCs): ELM Coils to mitigate Edge Localized Modes and VS Coils to provide Vertical Stabilization of the plasma. Strong coupling with the plasma is required so that the ELM and VS Coils can meet their performance requirements. Accordingly, the IVCs are in close proximity to the plasma, mounted just behind the Blanket Shield Modules. This location results in a radiation and temperature environment that is severe necessitating new solutions for material selection as well as challenging analysis and design solutions. Fitting the coil systems in between the blanket shield modules and the vacuum vessel leads to difficult integration with diagnostic cabling and cooling water manifolds.

  16. 34 CFR 686.38 - Maintenance and retention of records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (TEACH) GRANT PROGRAM Administration of Grant Payments § 686.38 Maintenance and retention of records. (a) An institution must follow the record retention and examination provisions in this part and in 34...

  17. The Tennessee Lottery Scholarship Program: Impact on Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puryear, Carol G.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined if the Tennessee Education Lottery Scholarship (TELS), which began in 2004, was related to student retention at the six Tennessee Board of Regents four-year institutions. This study investigated the impact of the TELS on student retention at TBR universities and general knowledge regarding retention. Post-facto data were…

  18. Grade Retention: What are the Costs and Benefits?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eide, Eric R.; Goldhaber, Dan D.

    2005-01-01

    Grade retention is a common practice used when students fail to meet required benchmarks. Therefore, it is important that we understand the relative benefits and costs associated with students repeating a grade. In this article we analyze the costs and benefits of grade retention. In our examination of retention, we obtain our calculations of the…

  19. Framing Retention for Institutional Improvement: A 4 Ps Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalsbeek, David H.

    2013-01-01

    A 4 Ps framework for student retention strategy is a construct for reframing the retention discussion in a way that enables institutional improvement by challenging some conventional wisdom and prevailing perspectives that have characterized retention strategy for years. It opens new possibilities for action and improvement by suggesting that…

  20. 12 CFR Appendix A to Part 749 - Record Retention Guidelines

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Record Retention Guidelines A Appendix A to... RECORDS PRESERVATION PROGRAM AND APPENDICES-RECORD RETENTION GUIDELINES; CATASTROPHIC ACT PREPAREDNESS GUIDELINES Pt. 749, App. A Appendix A to Part 749—Record Retention Guidelines Credit unions often look...

  1. 12 CFR Appendix A to Part 749 - Record Retention Guidelines

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Record Retention Guidelines A Appendix A to... RECORDS PRESERVATION PROGRAM AND APPENDICES-RECORD RETENTION GUIDELINES; CATASTROPHIC ACT PREPAREDNESS GUIDELINES Pt. 749, App. A Appendix A to Part 749—Record Retention Guidelines Credit unions often look...

  2. Measuring Student Retention at an Online Institution of Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boston, Wallace E., Jr.

    2010-01-01

    Student persistence or retention has been a documented issue in higher education in the United States since the late 1800s. While much has been written about the topic of retention at the more traditional types of institutions, little has been written about retention at the online institutions of higher learning that have developed since the early…

  3. 21 CFR 58.195 - Retention of records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Retention of records. 58.195 Section 58.195 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL GOOD LABORATORY PRACTICE FOR NONCLINICAL LABORATORY STUDIES Records and Reports § 58.195 Retention of records. (a) Record retention requirements set forth in...

  4. 48 CFR 4.704 - Calculation of retention periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Calculation of retention periods. 4.704 Section 4.704 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE MATTERS Contractor Records Retention 4.704 Calculation of retention periods. (a) The...

  5. 5 CFR 317.801 - Retention of SES provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Retention of SES provisions. 317.801... EMPLOYMENT IN THE SENIOR EXECUTIVE SERVICE Retention of SES Provisions § 317.801 Retention of SES provisions. (a) Coverage. This subpart applies to— (1) A career appointee in the SES appointed at any time by...

  6. Retention Initiatives Used by Professional Master's Athletic Training Program Directors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, Thomas G.; Dodge, Thomas M.; Mazerolle, Stephanie M.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Many professional master's athletic training program directors believe retention is a problem facing athletic training education. However, it remains unknown what steps, if any, are taken to improve retention. Objective: To inquire with program directors about their respective methods and interventions aimed at increasing retention rates.…

  7. The Effect of Advanced Placement and Concurrent Enrollment on Post Secondary Math Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kremers, Angela L.

    2010-01-01

    Unprepared postsecondary students and poor high school retention rates emphasize a significant issue with education in the U.S. Although there have been increases in the number of programs to address retention and matriculation to degree attainment, little research has been completed to examine outcomes of these programs. Advanced placement and…

  8. Strategies to improve retention in randomised trials

    PubMed Central

    Brueton, Valerie C; Tierney, Jayne; Stenning, Sally; Harding, Seeromanie; Meredith, Sarah; Nazareth, Irwin; Rait, Greta

    2013-01-01

    Background Loss to follow-up from randomised trials can introduce bias and reduce study power, affecting the generalisability, validity and reliability of results. Many strategies are used to reduce loss to follow-up and improve retention but few have been formally evaluated. Objectives To quantify the effect of strategies to improve retention on the proportion of participants retained in randomised trials and to investigate if the effect varied by trial strategy and trial setting. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, PreMEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, DARE, CINAHL, Campbell Collaboration's Social, Psychological, Educational and Criminological Trials Register, and ERIC. We handsearched conference proceedings and publication reference lists for eligible retention trials. We also surveyed all UK Clinical Trials Units to identify further studies. Selection criteria We included eligible retention trials of randomised or quasi-randomised evaluations of strategies to increase retention that were embedded in 'host' randomised trials from all disease areas and healthcare settings. We excluded studies aiming to increase treatment compliance. Data collection and analysis We contacted authors to supplement or confirm data that we had extracted. For retention trials, we recorded data on the method of randomisation, type of strategy evaluated, comparator, primary outcome, planned sample size, numbers randomised and numbers retained. We used risk ratios (RR) to evaluate the effectiveness of the addition of strategies to improve retention. We assessed heterogeneity between trials using the Chi2 and I2 statistics. For main trials that hosted retention trials, we extracted data on disease area, intervention, population, healthcare setting, sequence generation and allocation concealment. Main results We identified 38 eligible retention trials. Included trials evaluated six broad types of strategies to improve retention. These

  9. Tritium Retention and Removal in Tokamaks

    SciTech Connect

    Skinner, Charles H.

    2009-02-19

    Management of tritium inventory remains one of the grand challenges in the development of fusion energy. Tritium is an important source term in safety assessments, it is expensive and in short supply. Tritium can be continuously retained in a tokamak by codeposition with eroded carbon or beryllium and JET and TFTR with carbon plasma facing components showed a tritium retention level that would be unacceptable in ITER or future fusion reactors. Asdex-U and Alcator C-mod have shown reduced hydrogenic retention with tungsten clad and molybdenum plasma facing components. Once the tritium inventory approaches the administrative limit, tritium must be removed to permit continued D-T plasma operations. Several candidate techniques are being considered and need to be proven at a relevant speed and efficiency in contemporary tokamaks. Projections for ITER are discussed.

  10. Improving student retention in computer engineering technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierozinski, Russell Ivan

    The purpose of this research project was to improve student retention in the Computer Engineering Technology program at the Northern Alberta Institute of Technology by reducing the number of dropouts and increasing the graduation rate. This action research project utilized a mixed methods approach of a survey and face-to-face interviews. The participants were male and female, with a large majority ranging from 18 to 21 years of age. The research found that participants recognized their skills and capability, but their capacity to remain in the program was dependent on understanding and meeting the demanding pace and rigour of the program. The participants recognized that curriculum delivery along with instructor-student interaction had an impact on student retention. To be successful in the program, students required support in four domains: academic, learning management, career, and social.

  11. Recruitment and Retention of Mental Health Workers in Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Jack, Helen; Canavan, Maureen; Ofori-Atta, Angela; Taylor, Lauren; Bradley, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The lack of trained mental health workers is a primary contributor to the mental health treatment gap worldwide. Despite the great need to recruit and retain mental health workers in low-income countries, little is known about how these workers perceive their jobs and what drives them to work in mental health care. Using qualitative interviews, we aimed to explore factors motivating mental health workers in order to inform interventions to increase recruitment and retention. Methods We conducted 28 in-depth, open-ended interviews with staff in Ghana’s three public psychiatric hospitals. We used the snowballing method to recruit participants and the constant comparative method for qualitative data analysis, with multiple members of the research team participating in data coding to enhance the validity and reliability of the analysis. The use of qualitative methods allowed us to understand the range and depth of motivating and demotivating factors. Results Respondents described many factors that influenced their choice to enter and remain in mental health care. Motivating factors included 1) desire to help patients who are vulnerable and in need, 2) positive day-to-day interactions with patients, 3) intellectual or academic interest in psychiatry or behavior, and 4) good relationships with colleagues. Demotivating factors included 1) lack of resources at the hospital, 2) a rigid supervisory hierarchy, 3) lack of positive or negative feedback on work performance, and 4) few opportunities for career advancement within mental health. Conclusions Because many of the factors are related to relationships, these findings suggest that strengthening the interpersonal and team dynamics may be a critical and relatively low cost way to increase worker motivation. The data also allowed us to highlight key areas for resource allocation to improve both recruitment and retention, including risk pay, adequate tools for patient care, improved hospital work environment

  12. Nursing workforce retention: challenging a bullying culture.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Stella

    2002-01-01

    Discussions surrounding nursing shortages typically focus on recruitment, but retention is also a problem. Emerging research suggests that intimidation in the nursing workforce is a problem that planners need to deal with as part of an overall strategy aimed at maintaining a balance between supply and demand. This paper explores issues surrounding intimidation in the nursing workforce and looks at how one major teaching hospital in Australia attempted to address the problem. PMID:12224882

  13. 300 Area Building Retention Evaluation Mitigation Plan

    SciTech Connect

    D. J. McBride

    2007-07-03

    Evaluate the long-term retention of several facilities associated with the PNNL Capability Replacement Laboratory and other Hanfor mission needs. WCH prepared a mitigation plan for three scenarios with different release dates for specific buildings. The evaluations present a proposed plan for providing utility services to retained facilities in support of a long-term (+20 year) lifespan in addition to temporary services to buildings with specified delayed release dates.

  14. Recognition, prevention and management of sputum retention.

    PubMed

    Law, Carol

    Tracheobronchial secretions are an important part of the respiratory system's defence. The excess secretions that are cleared from the airways by coughing or huffing (Pryor and Webber, 1998) are known as sputum, the production of which is always abnormal. The colour, consistency, smell and volume of sputum provides information to support both the diagnosis and management of the patient's clinical condition. Sputum retention occurs when patients are unable to clear secretions from their respiratory tract by themselves or with assistance. PMID:12838649

  15. 76 FR 24089 - Credit Risk Retention

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-29

    ...The OCC, Board, FDIC, Commission, FHFA, and HUD (the Agencies) are proposing rules to implement the credit risk retention requirements of section 15G of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (15 U.S.C. 78o- 11), as added by section 941 of the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act. Section 15G generally requires the securitizer of asset-backed securities to retain not less......

  16. Maternal stress predicts postpartum weight retention.

    PubMed

    Whitaker, Kara; Young-Hyman, Deborah; Vernon, Marlo; Wilcox, Sara

    2014-11-01

    Postpartum weight retention (PPWR) is a significant contributor to the development of overweight and obesity in women of childbearing age. Stress may be a key mechanism making it more difficult for mothers to lose weight in the year following delivery. The aim of this study was to assess whether specific aspects of parenting stress and life stress influence postpartum weight retention in new mothers. Women in late pregnancy or up to 2 months postpartum (n = 123) were enrolled in the study and followed through the first year postpartum. Linear regression models evaluated the associations of parenting stress (isolation, attachment and depressive symptoms) as well as overall life stress at 2, 6, and 12 months postpartum with PPWR at 6 and 12 months. During the first year postpartum, higher depression and life stress were significantly associated with greater PPWR. As the effect of depression diminished, the effect of life stress became significant. Contrary to hypothesized relationships, fewer problems with attachment and less social isolation were significantly associated with greater PPWR. Higher gestational weight gain and African American race were also significantly associated with greater PPWR at both 6 and 12 months. Different types of stress predict weight retention in first time mothers during the first year postpartum. Understanding the relationships between parenting stress, concurrent life stress and PPWR can enhance the development of future interventions that specifically target self-identified stressors, leading to improved weight related outcomes. PMID:24760321

  17. Deuterium Retention in NSTX with Lithium Conditioning

    SciTech Connect

    Skinner, C. H.; Allain, J. P.; Blanchard, W.; Kugel, H. W.; Maingi, Rajesh; Roquemore, L.; Soukhanovskii, V. A.; Taylor, C. N.

    2011-01-01

    High (approximate to 90%) deuterium retention was observed in NSTX gas balance measurements both with- and without lithiumization of the carbon plasma-facing components. The gas retained in ohmic discharges was measured by comparing the vessel pressure rise after a discharge to that of a gas-only pulse with the pumping valves closed. For neutral beam heated discharges the gas input and gas pumped by the NB cryopanels were tracked. The discharges were followed by outgassing of deuterium that reduced the retention. The relationship between retention and surface chemistry was explored with a new plasma-material interface probe connected to an in vacuo surface science station that exposed four material samples to the plasma. XPS and TDS analysis demonstrated that binding of D atoms in graphite is fundamentally changed by lithium - in particular atoms are weakly bonded in regions near lithium atoms bound to either oxygen or the carbon matrix. This is in contrast to the strong ionic bonding that occurs between D and pure Li. (C) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Deuterium retention in NSTX with lithium conditioning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skinner, C. H.; Allain, J. P.; Blanchard, W.; Kugel, H. W.; Maingi, R.; Roquemore, L.; Soukhanovskii, V.; Taylor, C. N.

    2011-08-01

    High (≈90%) deuterium retention was observed in NSTX gas balance measurements both with- and without lithiumization of the carbon plasma-facing components. The gas retained in ohmic discharges was measured by comparing the vessel pressure rise after a discharge to that of a gas-only pulse with the pumping valves closed. For neutral beam heated discharges the gas input and gas pumped by the NB cryopanels were tracked. The discharges were followed by outgassing of deuterium that reduced the retention. The relationship between retention and surface chemistry was explored with a new plasma-material interface probe connected to an in vacuo surface science station that exposed four material samples to the plasma. XPS and TDS analysis demonstrated that binding of D atoms in graphite is fundamentally changed by lithium - in particular atoms are weakly bonded in regions near lithium atoms bound to either oxygen or the carbon matrix. This is in contrast to the strong ionic bonding that occurs between D and pure Li.

  19. Retention of perceptual generalization of fear extinction.

    PubMed

    Pappens, Meike; Schroijen, Mathias; Van den Bergh, Omer; Van Diest, Ilse

    2015-12-01

    Fear reduction obtained during a fear extinction procedure can generalize from the extinction stimulus to other perceptually similar stimuli. Perceptual generalization of fear extinction typically follows a perceptual gradient, with increasing levels of fear reduction the more a stimulus resembles the extinction stimulus. The current study aimed to investigate whether perceptual generalization of fear extinction can be observed also after a retention interval of 24h. Fear was acquired to three geometrical figures of different sizes (CS(+), CS1(+) and CS2(+)) by consistently pairing them with a short-lasting suffocation experience (US). Three other geometrical figures that were never followed by the US served as control stimuli (CS(-), CS1(-), CS2(-)). Next, only the CS(+) was extinguished by presenting it in the absence of the US. One day later, fear responses to all stimuli were assessed without any US-presentation. Outcome measures included startle blink EMG, skin conductance, US expectancy, respiratory rate and tidal volume. On day 2 spontaneous recovery of fear was observed in US expectancy and tidal volume, but not in the other outcomes. Evidence for the retention of fear extinction generalization was present in US expectancy and skin conductance, but a perceptual gradient in the retention of generalized fear extinction could not be observed. PMID:25623628

  20. Gastric retention properties of superporous hydrogel composites.

    PubMed

    Chen, J; Blevins, W E; Park, H; Park, K

    2000-02-14

    In many applications, usefulness of conventional hydrogels is limited by their slow swelling. To improve the swelling property of the conventional hydrogels, we have synthesized superporous hydrogels (SPHs) which swell fast to equilibrium size in minutes due to water uptake by capillary wetting through numerous interconnected open pores. The swelling ratio was also large in the range of hundreds. The mechanical strength of the highly swollen SPHs was increased by adding a composite material during the synthesis. The composite material used in the synthesis of SPH composites was Ac-Di-Sol((R)) (croscarmellose sodium). The gastric retention property of the prepared SPH composites was tested in dogs both in fasted and fed conditions. The SPH composites were placed in a hard gelatin capsule (size 000) for oral administration. All dogs tested were fasted for 36 h before experiments. Under the fasted condition, the SPH composite remained in the stomach for 2-3 h after before breaking into two pieces and being emptied. When food was given before the experiment just once following 36 h of fasting, the SPH composite remained in the stomach for more than 24 h, even though the fed condition was maintained only for the first few hours. Our study indicated that SPH composites possessed three properties necessary for gastric retention: fast swelling; superswelling; and high mechanical strength. While more improvements need to be made, the SPH composites provide the basis for the development of effective long-term gastric retention devices. PMID:10640644

  1. DRAM Weak Cell Characterization for Retention Time.

    PubMed

    Kang, Jonghyuk; Lee, Sungho; Choi, Byoungdeog

    2016-05-01

    This work proposes a sequence of tests for detecting refresh weak cells based on data retention time distribution in the main cell array of DRAMs and verify the feasibility of the proposed method through analysis of 30 nm design-rule DRAM cells with Recess Channel Array Transistor (RCAT) and Buried Channel Array Transistor (BCAT). Basic idea of the proposed mechanism is to test with different bias conditions and break down retention failures based on their root causes such as Gate Induced Drain Leakage, sub-threshold leakage and junction leakage. This categorization helps to determine the physical locations of each failure group, enabling precise Physical Failure Analysis (PFA). The characterization of data retention weak cells for 30 nm design rule DRAMs with BCAT and RCAT has been investigated. Most weak cells were classified as GIDL leaky cells in both cases. In the case of BCAT, the distance between the word line and the storage node, caused by the process distribution, is the main origin of weak cells. In the case of RCAT, the sharp corner of the active layer in the storage node is the main cause of weak cells. PMID:27483878

  2. Measuring the value of customer retention

    SciTech Connect

    Monts, K.; Bonevac, B.; Lauer, J.; Tessema, D.

    1997-05-01

    Competition will require changes in how market research is conducted and how customers are pursued. The question remains: How does one approach customer retention in a way that provides meaningful guidelines? The conventional wisdom is that {open_quotes}the business of business is selling.{close_quotes} There is some truth to this, but the key question today is: What bearing does this have on how to run a business in a competitive environment? A recent article in the Harvard Business Review noted that, {open_quotes}Increasingly, companies are less focused on selling products and more interested in keeping customers.{close_quotes} Indeed, some observers have posited a natural societal evolutionary trend toward a shift of emphasis toward customer retention vis-a-vis customer acquisition, as a consequence of the primary marketing communication technology shifting from {open_quotes}broadcast{close_quotes} (where messages are sent out to inchoate masses) to {open_quotes}interactive{close_quotes} (where relationships are cultivated with precisely defined market niches or individual customers). The business of growing a business, then, can be framed as a matter of getting customers and keeping them so as to grow the value of the customer base to its fullest potential. In these terms, setting a marketing budget becomes the task of balancing what is spent on customer acquisition with what is spent on retention.

  3. Maternal Stress Predicts Postpartum Weight Retention

    PubMed Central

    Whitaker, Kara; Vernon, Marlo; Wilcox, Sara

    2014-01-01

    Postpartum weight retention (PPWR) is a significant contributor to the development of overweight and obesity in women of childbearing age. Stress may be a key mechanism making it more difficult for mothers to lose weight in the year following delivery. The aim of this study was to assess whether specific aspects of parenting stress and life stress influence postpartum weight retention in new mothers. Women in late pregnancy or up to 2 months postpartum (n = 123) were enrolled in the study and followed through the first year postpartum. Linear regression models evaluated the associations of parenting stress (isolation, attachment and depressive symptoms) as well as overall life stress at 2, 6, and 12 months postpartum with PPWR at 6 and 12 months. During the first year postpartum, higher depression and life stress were significantly associated with greater PPWR. As the effect of depression diminished, the effect of life stress became significant. Contrary to hypothesized relationships, fewer problems with attachment and less social isolation were significantly associated with greater PPWR. Higher gestational weight gain and African American race were also significantly associated with greater PPWR at both 6 and 12 months. Different types of stress predict weight retention in first time mothers during the first year postpartum. Understanding the relationships between parenting stress, concurrent life stress and PPWR can enhance the development of future interventions that specifically target self-identified stressors, leading to improved weight related outcomes. PMID:24760321

  4. High Efficiency Diffusion Molecular Retention Tumor Targeting

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Yanyan; Yuan, Hushan; Cho, Hoonsung; Kuruppu, Darshini; Jokivarsi, Kimmo; Agarwal, Aayush; Shah, Khalid; Josephson, Lee

    2013-01-01

    Here we introduce diffusion molecular retention (DMR) tumor targeting, a technique that employs PEG-fluorochrome shielded probes that, after a peritumoral (PT) injection, undergo slow vascular uptake and extensive interstitial diffusion, with tumor retention only through integrin molecular recognition. To demonstrate DMR, RGD (integrin binding) and RAD (control) probes were synthesized bearing DOTA (for 111 In3+), a NIR fluorochrome, and 5 kDa PEG that endows probes with a protein-like volume of 25 kDa and decreases non-specific interactions. With a GFP-BT-20 breast carcinoma model, tumor targeting by the DMR or IV methods was assessed by surface fluorescence, biodistribution of [111In] RGD and [111In] RAD probes, and whole animal SPECT. After a PT injection, both probes rapidly diffused through the normal and tumor interstitium, with retention of the RGD probe due to integrin interactions. With PT injection and the [111In] RGD probe, SPECT indicated a highly tumor specific uptake at 24 h post injection, with 352%ID/g tumor obtained by DMR (vs 4.14%ID/g by IV). The high efficiency molecular targeting of DMR employed low probe doses (e.g. 25 ng as RGD peptide), which minimizes toxicity risks and facilitates clinical translation. DMR applications include the delivery of fluorochromes for intraoperative tumor margin delineation, the delivery of radioisotopes (e.g. toxic, short range alpha emitters) for radiotherapy, or the delivery of photosensitizers to tumors accessible to light. PMID:23505478

  5. Improved motor sequence retention by motionless listening.

    PubMed

    Lahav, Amir; Katz, Tal; Chess, Roxanne; Saltzman, Elliot

    2013-05-01

    This study examined the effect of listening to a newly learned musical piece on subsequent motor retention of the piece. Thirty-six non-musicians were trained to play an unfamiliar melody on a piano keyboard. Next, they were randomly assigned to participate in three follow-up listening sessions over 1 week. Subjects who, during their listening sessions, listened to the same initial piece showed significant improvements in motor memory and retention of the piece despite the absence of physical practice. These improvements included increased pitch accuracy, time accuracy, and dynamic intensity of key pressing. Similar improvements, though to a lesser degree, were observed in subjects who, during their listening sessions, were distracted by another task. Control subjects, who after learning the piece had listened to nonmusical sounds, showed impaired motoric retention of the piece at 1 week from the initial acquisition day. These results imply that motor sequences can be established in motor memory without direct access to motor-related information. In addition, the study revealed that the listening-induced improvements did not generalize to the learning of a new musical piece composed of the same notes as the initial piece learned, limiting the effects to musical motor sequences that are already part of the individual's motor repertoire. PMID:22434336

  6. From vigilance to violence: mate retention tactics in married couples.

    PubMed

    Buss, D M; Shackelford, T K

    1997-02-01

    Although much research has explored the adaptive problems of mate selection and mate attraction, little research has investigated the adaptive problem of mate retention. We tested several evolutionary psychological hypotheses about the determinants of mate retention in 214 married people. We assessed the usage of 19 mate retention tactics ranging from vigilance to violence. Key hypothesized findings include the following: Men's, but not women's, mate retention positively covaried with partner's youth and physical attractiveness. Women's, but not men's, mate retention positively covaried with partner's income and status striving. Men's mate retention positively covaried with perceived probability of partner's infidelity. Men, more than women, reported using resource display, submission and debasement, and intrasexual threats to retain their mates. Women, more than men, reported using appearance enhancement and verbal signals of possession. Discussion includes an evolutionary psychological analysis of mate retention in married couples. PMID:9107005

  7. Laser vision sensor for in-vessel inspection of fusion reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartolini, Luciano; Bordone, Andrea; Coletti, Alberto; Ferri De Collibus, Mario; Fornetti, Giorgio G.; Neri, Carlo; Poggi, Claudio; Riva, Marco; Semeraro, Luigi; Talarico, Carlo

    1999-09-01

    An optical amplitude modulated laser radar has been developed for periodic in-vessel inspection in large fusion machines and its overall optical aiming is developed taking into account the extremely high radiation levels and operating temperatures foreseen in the large European fusion machines (JET and ITER). In this paper an in vessel viewing system based on a transceiving optical radar using an RF modulated single mode 840 nm wavelength laser beam is illustrated. The sounding beam is transmitted through a coherent optical fiber and a focusing collimator to the inner part of the vessel by a stainless steel probe on the tip of which a suitable scanning silica prism steers the laser beam along a linear raster spanning a -90 degree to +90 degree in elevation and 360 degrees in azimuth for a complete mapping of the vessel itself. All the electronics, including laser source, avalanche photodiode and all the active components are located outside the bioshield, while passive components (receiving optics, transmitting collimator, fiber optics), located in the torus hall, are in fused silica so that the overall vision system is radiation resistant. The Active and passive components are contained in separated stainless steel boxes connected through two silica fiber optics. The laser radiation backscattered by the resolved surface element of the vessel is received by a collecting silica optics and remotely transmitted through a multimode fiber on the surface of an avalanche photodiode detector located in the active module at 120 m distance. The received signal is then acquired, the raster lines being synchronized with the aid of optical encoders linked to the scanning prism, to give a TV like image. The scanning accuracy expected in scanning process is less than 1 mm at 10 m of distance: this is a suitable resolution to yield a high quality image showing all the damages due to plasma disruptions. Preliminary results have been obtained scanning large sceneries including

  8. 46 CFR 171.111 - Penetrations and openings in watertight bulkheads in vessels of 100 gross tons or more.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Penetrations and openings in watertight bulkheads in vessels of 100 gross tons or more. 171.111 Section 171.111 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... Penetrations and Openings in Watertight Bulkheads § 171.111 Penetrations and openings in watertight...

  9. Quantitative structure retention relationship studies for predicting relative retention times of chlorinated phenols on gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    Li, Shi-Yin; Sun, Cheng; Wang, Yu; Xu, Shi-Fen; Yao, Shu-Chun; Wang, Lian-Sheng

    2002-07-01

    A new method of quantitative structure-retention relationship (QSRR) studies was reported for predicting gas chromatography (GC) relative retention times (RRTs) of chlorinated phenols (CPs) using a DB-5 column. Chemical descriptors were calculated from the molecular structure of CPs and related to their gas chromatographic RRTs by using multiple linear regression analysis. The proposed model had a multiple square correlation coefficient R2 = 0.970, standard error SE = 0.0472, and significant level P = 0.0000. The QSRR model also reveals that the gas chromatographic relative retention times of CPs are associated with physicochemical property interactions with the stationary phase, and influenced by the number of chlorine and oxygen in the CP mOlecules. PMID:12211996

  10. In-vessel fluid flow measurements using thermocouples cross-correlation.

    SciTech Connect

    NguyenLe, Q.

    1998-05-08

    Fluid flow rate in high temperature and pressure vessels can be difficult to measure due to the associated harsh environment, inaccessible locations and pressure boundary integrity concerns. However, by using quick response miniature thermocouples to measure the naturally occurring temperature variations within the flow, the fluid velocity can be inferred from the transit time analysis. This flow measurement technique has other advantages such as the flow profile is not significantly disturbed, no additional flow restrictions introduced and the system fiction factor is not increased. Furthermore, since the measured flow rate is generally unaffected by the global system dynamics, such as heat increases or losses, as well as changes in the flow regimes, the location of the thermocouple pairs is extremely flexible. Due to the mentioned advantages, the thermocouple cross-correlation flow measurement method has been developed for use at the Purdue University Multi-Dimensional Integral Test Assembly (PUMA). Currently, thermocouple cross-correlation technique is used to measure the Reactor Pressure Vessel downcomer fluid velocity and the suppression pool in-vessel natural circulation velocity.

  11. Generic BWR-4 degraded core in-vessel study. Status report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-11-01

    Original intent of this project was to produce a phenomenological study of the in-vessel degradation which occurs during the TQUX and TQUV sequences for a generic BWR-4 from the initiation of the FSAR Chapter 15 operational transient through core debris bed formation to the failure of the primary pressure boundary. Bounding calculations were to be performed for the two high pressure and low pressure non-LOCA scenarios to assess the uncertainties in the current state of knowledge regarding the source terms for containment integrity studies. Source terms as such were defined in terms of hydrogen generation, unreacted metal, and coolant inventroy, and in terms of the form, sequencing and mode of dispersal through the primary vessel boundary. Fission product release was not to be considered as part of this study. Premature termination of the project, however, led to the dicontinuation of work on an as is basis. Work on the in-core phase from the point of scram to core debris bed formation was largely completed. A preliminary scoping calculation on the debris bed phase had been initiated. This report documents the status of the study at termination.

  12. Development of optical components for in-vessel viewing systems used for fusion experimental reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obara, Kenjiro; Kakudate, Satoshi; Oka, Kiyoshi; Tada, Eisuke; Morita, Yosuke; Seki, Masahiro

    1994-12-01

    Optical components including imagefiber, periscope, glass, reflecting mirror and adhesive for lens are essential elements of in-vessel viewing system use for fusion experimental reactor and extensive of gamma irradiation tests have been conducted. These components were irradiated in the range of 1 MGy - 100 MGy under the average exposure dose rate of 1 X 106 R/h. As a result, the observation limit of the imagefiber specially fabricated for radiation hard is obtained to be 12 MGy at a illuminance of 8500 lx. Deterioration of transmissivity of three kinds of glass (alkaline barium glass, lead glass and synthetic quartz glass) is small compared with standard glass for commercial periscope. A periscope which was made of these glasses is visible even after 20 MGy at 8500 lx and in case of the standard periscope, the observation limit is 1 kGy at 8500 lx. Decrease in the reflectance on chromium nitride coated reflecting mirror is extremely small than aluminum coated and platinum coated mirrors at accumulated dose of 100 MGy. Two types of adhesive made of polyester resin and epoxy resin became discolored and exfoliated after 50 MGy.

  13. DESIGN, FABRICATION, INSTALLATION AND TESTING OF IN-VESSEL CONTROL COILS FOR DIII-D

    SciTech Connect

    ANDERSON, PM; BAXI, CB; KELLMAN, AG; REIS, EE; ROBINSON, JI

    2002-10-01

    OAK A271 DESIGN, FABRICATION, INSTALLATION AND TESTING OF IN-VESSEL CONTROL COILS FOR DIII-D. Since 1995, DIII-D has performed correction of magnetic field imperfections using a set of six external picture frame coils located on the vessel mid-plane. Recently, these coils have also demonstrated significant benefits when used for feedback of the resistive wall mode, an instability that limits the plasma performance at high beta. Modeling has shown that substantial performance improvements can be achieved by installing new coils inside the vessel and expanding the poloidal coverage above and below the mid-plane. Two prototype internal coils were installed in 2001 and have been tested successfully. installation of a set of twelve internal coils and magnetic sensors in the DIII-D tokamak is to be completed in December 2002. The design requirement for the new coil system was to maximize the magnetic field at the plasma edge, operate with a frequency range of dc to 1000 Hz, and fit behind the existing graphite wall tiles. The coil design adopted and installed is a water-cooled hollow copper conductor insulated with polyamide and housed inside a stainless steel tube that forms a vacuum boundary. The coil is rigidly mounted to the inside of the vacuum vessel. The primary challenge in the design of these coils was in joining of both the copper conductor and the stainless tube without overheating the polyamide insulator.

  14. Fungal succession in an in-vessel composting system characterized using 454 pyrosequencing.

    PubMed

    Langarica-Fuentes, Adrian; Zafar, Urooj; Heyworth, Alan; Brown, Thomas; Fox, Graeme; Robson, Geoffrey D

    2014-05-01

    Fungi are known to have an important role in the composting process as degraders of recalcitrant materials such as cellulose and lignin. Previous attempts to study the diversity and succession of fungi in compost systems have relied on the use of culture-dependent analyses and low-resolution DNA-fingerprinting techniques, lacking the necessary depth to analyse such a rich ecosystem. In this study, 454 pyrosequencing was used to characterize the fungal community composition at the different stages of an in-vessel composting process. A complex succession of fungi was revealed, with 251 fungal OTUs identified throughout the monitoring period. The Ascomycota were the dominant phylum (82.5% of all sequences recovered), followed by the Basidiomycota (10.4%) and the subphylum Mucoromycotina (4.9%). In the starting materials and early stages of the process, yeast species from the Saccharomycetales were abundant, while in latter stages and in the high temperature regions of the pile, fungi from the orders Eurotiales, Sordariales, Mucorales, Agaricales and Microascales were the most prominent. This study provides an improved understanding of the fungal diversity occurring during the composting of municipal solid waste, and this knowledge can lead to the development of more efficient composting practices and a better evaluation of the end-product quality. PMID:24490666

  15. In-vessel ITER tubing failure rates for selected materials and coolants

    SciTech Connect

    Marshall, T.D.; Cadwallader, L.C.

    1994-03-01

    Several materials have been suggested for fabrication of ITER in-vessel coolant tubing: beryllium, copper, Inconel, niobium, stainless steel, titanium, and vanadium. This report generates failure rates for the materials to identify the best performer from an operational safety and availability perspective. Coolant types considered in this report are helium gas, liquid lithium, liquid sodium, and water. Failure rates for the materials are generated by including the influence of ITER`s operating environment and anticipated tubing failure mechanisms with industrial operating experience failure rates. The analyses define tubing failure mechanisms for ITER as: intergranular attack, flow erosion, helium induced swelling, hydrogen damage, neutron irradiation embrittlement, cyclic fatigue, and thermal cycling. K-factors, multipliers, are developed to model each failure mechanism and are applied to industrial operating experience failure rates to generate tubing failure rates for ITER. The generated failure rates identify the best performer by its expected reliability. With an average leakage failure rate of 3.1e-10(m-hr){sup {minus}1}and an average rupture failure rate of 3.1e-11(m-hr){sup {minus}1}, titanium proved to be the best performer of the tubing materials. The failure rates generated in this report are intended to serve as comparison references for design safety and optimization studies. Actual material testing and analyses are required to validate the failure rates.

  16. TCV heating and in-vessel upgrades for addressing DEMO physics issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fasoli, A.; TCV Team

    2015-04-01

    TCV is presently undergoing major heating upgrades, installing a neutral beam for direct ion heating and increasing the electron cyclotron (EC) power injected in X-mode at the third harmonic (X3). The neutral beam is under construction at BINP-Plasma LLC (Russia), with energies of 18-35 keV and power up to 1 MW for 2 s. The injection of 1 MW 30 keV D-beam will allow access to regimes with Ti/Te > 1 and βN ˜ 2.8 in L- and H-mode, with densities compatible with X3 EC heating. A lower energy and power (20 keV, 0.5 MW) D NBI is suitable for lower densities with X2 EC heating and current drive. The vacuum vessel has been modified to allow for the beam tangential injection, necessary for beam access and to minimize shine through and orbit losses. The X3 upgrade consists of adding two dual-frequency gyrotrons (X2/X3, 126 GHz/84 GHz) with a total power of 2 MW. In addition, to explore solutions to the exhaust problem in tokamaks and test innovative solutions like the snowflake divertor in the presence of a closed divertor chamber, we are considering inserting new in-vessel modular structures, generating a divertor aperture with variable closure.

  17. Nanomedicine for drug targeting: strategies beyond the enhanced permeability and retention effect

    PubMed Central

    Nehoff, Hayley; Parayath, Neha N; Domanovitch, Laura; Taurin, Sebastien; Greish, Khaled

    2014-01-01

    The growing research interest in nanomedicine for the treatment of cancer and inflammatory-related pathologies is yielding encouraging results. Unfortunately, enthusiasm is tempered by the limited specificity of the enhanced permeability and retention effect. Factors such as lack of cellular specificity, low vascular density, and early release of active agents prior to reaching their target contribute to the limitations of the enhanced permeability and retention effect. However, improved nanomedicine designs are creating opportunities to overcome these problems. In this review, we present examples of the advances made in this field and endeavor to highlight the potential of these emerging technologies to improve targeting of nanomedicine to specific pathological cells and tissues. PMID:24904213

  18. Identification of recruitment and retention strategies for rehabilitation professionals in Ontario, Canada: results from expert panels

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Diem; Hall, Linda McGillis; Davis, Aileen; Landry, Michel D; Burnett, Dawn; Berg, Katherine; Jaglal, Susan

    2008-01-01

    Background Demand for rehabilitation services is expected to increase due to factors such as an aging population, workforce pressures, rise in chronic and complex multi-system disorders, advances in technology, and changes in interprofessional health service delivery models. However, health human resource (HHR) strategies for Canadian rehabilitation professionals are lagging behind other professional groups such as physicians and nurses. The objectives of this study were: 1) to identify recruitment and retention strategies of rehabilitation professionals including occupational therapists, physical therapists and speech language pathologists from the literature; and 2) to investigate both the importance and feasibility of the identified strategies using expert panels amongst HHR and education experts. Methods A review of the literature was conducted to identify recruitment and retention strategies for rehabilitation professionals. Two expert panels, one on Recruitment and Retention and the other on Education were convened to determine the importance and feasibility of the identified strategies. A modified-delphi process was used to gain consensus and to rate the identified strategies along these two dimensions. Results A total of 34 strategies were identified by the Recruitment and Retention and Education expert panels as being important and feasible for the development of a HHR plan for recruitment and retention of rehabilitation professionals. Seven were categorized under the Quality of Worklife and Work Environment theme, another seven in Financial Incentives and Marketing, two in Workload and Skill Mix, thirteen in Professional Development and five in Education and Training. Conclusion Based on the results from the expert panels, the three major areas of focus for HHR planning in the rehabilitation sector should include strategies addressing Quality of Worklife and Work Environment, Financial Incentives and Marketing and Professional Development. PMID:19068134

  19. LARES Mission: Separation and Retention Subsystem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bursi, Alessandro; Camilli, Pierluigi; Piredda, Claudio; Babini, Gianni; Mangraviti, Elio

    2014-01-01

    As part of the Lares (LAser RElativity Satellite) mission, an all-Italian scientific mission launched with the Vega maiden flight in February 2012, a mechanical separation and retention subsystem (SSEP) has been developed to retain the LARES satellite during launch and release it in the final orbit. The design flow was based on the identification of the driving requirements and critical areas to guide the trade-off, design, analysis and test activities. In particular, the SSEP had to face very high environmental loads and to minimize the contact areas with the satellite that had a spherical shape. The test activity overview is provided.

  20. Survey on workforce retention and attrition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2013-03-01

    The Society of Petroleum Engineers (SPE) is conducting a survey to gather information on why technical professionals change jobs or quit working. The survey, prompted by concern about the retention of skilled workers, aims to provide information to employers that can assist them in addressing practices that can lead to significant workforce attrition. To participate in the survey, which is open to everyone (including those who are not SPE members), go to http://research.spe.org/se.ashx?s=705E3F1335720258 through 15 May 2013. For more information, contact speresearch@spe.org.

  1. Workforce Challenges and Retention Success Stories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donohue, John T.

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph document discusses the current and future challenges in building and retaining the required workforce of scientist and engineers for NASA. Specifically, the talk reviews the current situation at the Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland. Several programs at NASA for high school and college students to assist in inspiring the next generation of scientist and engineers are reviewed. The issue of retention of the best of the young scientists and engineers is also reviewed, with a brief review of several young engineers and their success with and for NASA.

  2. Reframing Retention: New Evidence from within the Elementary School Classroom on Post-Retention Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gottfried, Michael A.

    2012-01-01

    This study contributes a novel perspective on grade retention by empirically examining how classroom composition relates to the standardized-testing performance of grade-retained students in their post-retained years. This evaluation employed a sample of entire cohorts of urban elementary school children in the Philadelphia School District over 6…

  3. Retention: Tactic for the Eighties [and] Retention Improvement: Selected Case Studies. Policy Briefs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackley, Janet P.; Henderson, Cathy

    The need to examine college student attrition as an approach to the expected demographic decline in the 1980s, and case studies that demonstrate retention improvement and successful techniques are considered. Information is presented on the progress of typical freshmen (graduates, transfers, and dropouts) and patterns of interrupting studies.…

  4. Football and Freshmen Retention: Examining the Impact of College Football on Institutional Retention Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Willis A.

    2010-01-01

    Student retention has been one of the more researched topics in the study of American higher education over the past 20 years (Braxton, Hirschy, & McClendon, 2004; Pascarella & Terenzini, 2005). Very little of this research, however, has attempted to examine the impact of college athletics on an institution's ability to retain students. This…

  5. Education for Sustainable Development and retention: unravelling a research agenda

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lotz-Sisitka, Heila

    2010-06-01

    This paper considers the question of what education for sustainable development (ESD) research might signify when linked to the concept of "retention", and how this relation (ESD and retention) might be researched. It considers two different perspectives on retention, as revealed through educational research trajectories, drawing on existing research and case studies. Firstly, it discusses an ESD research agenda that documents retention by focusing on the issue of keeping children in schools. This research agenda is typical of the existing discourses surrounding Education for All (EFA). It then discusses a related ESD research agenda that focuses more on the pedagogical and curricular aspects of retention, as this provides for a deeper understanding of how ESD can contribute to improving the quality of teaching and learning within a wider EFA retention agenda.

  6. Mechanistic failure mode investigation and resolution of parvovirus retentive filters.

    PubMed

    LaCasse, Daniel; Lute, Scott; Fiadeiro, Marcus; Basha, Jonida; Stork, Matthew; Brorson, Kurt; Godavarti, Ranga; Gallo, Chris

    2016-07-01

    Virus retentive filters are a key product safety measure for biopharmaceuticals. A simplistic perception is that they function solely based on a size-based particle removal mechanism of mechanical sieving and retention of particles based on their hydrodynamic size. Recent observations have revealed a more nuanced picture, indicating that changes in viral particle retention can result from process pressure and/or flow interruptions. In this study, a mechanistic investigation was performed to help identify a potential mechanism leading to the reported reduced particle retention in small virus filters. Permeate flow rate or permeate driving force were varied and analyzed for their impact on particle retention in three commercially available small virus retentive filters. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 32:959-970, 2016. PMID:27160325

  7. Fluence dependence of deuterium retention in oxidized SS-316

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oya, Yasuhisa; Suzuki, Sachiko; Matsuyama, Masao; Hayashi, Takumi; Yamanishi, Toshihiko; Asakura, Yamato; Okuno, Kenji

    2011-10-01

    The ion fluence dependence of deuterium retention in SS-316 during oxidation at a temperature of 673 K was studied to evaluate the dynamics of deuterium retention in the oxide layer of SS-316. The correlation between the chemical state of stainless steel and deuterium retention was evaluated using XPS and TDS. It was found that the major deuterium desorption temperatures were located at around 660 K and 935 K, which correspond to the desorption of deuterium trapped as hydroxide. The deuterium retention increased with increasing deuterium ion fluence, since the deuterium retention as hydroxide increased significantly. However, retention saturated at an ion fluence of ˜2.5 × 10 21 D + m -2. The XPS result showed that FeOOD was formed on the surface, although pure Fe also remained in the oxide layer. These facts indicate the nature of the oxide layer have a key role in deuterium trapping behavior.

  8. Design and testing of an experimental in-vessel composting system

    SciTech Connect

    Potter, C.L.; Glaser, J.A.; Dosani, M.A.

    1995-10-01

    Composting has received much attention as a potential technology for treating solid waste. Most of that attention has been focused on treatment of municipal solid waste, sewage sludge, yard trimmings, and agricultural wastes. More recently, composting has been investigated as a remediation technology for hazardous wastes. Laboratory and field-scale work has been conducted to determine the fate of pesticides, hydrocarbons, and explosives in the composting environment. Currently, commercial compost operations are operated as black-box systems where optimization is largely achieved through trial and error. Large-scale treatment of hazardous waste will require optimal controls to meet the specified end points. We have designed and tested closed bench-scale compost reactors to evaluate composting processes using contaminated soils. This research program is designed to develop a thorough engineering analysis and optimization of composting as a process to treat soil contaminated with hazardous waste. Bench-scale composters serve as diagnostic tools to predict treatment effectiveness of larger systems. Fully enclosed, insulated reactors permit reliable data collection on microbial population dynamics and fate of toxic chemicals during soil composting. The goal of this study is to evaluate the potential use of compost systems in remediation of soils contaminated with hazardous chemicals. We have developed bench-scale composters to model large-scale systems. We are currently studying the ability of compost microorganisms to biodegrade polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in in-vessel reactors located at the U.S. EPA Test & Evaluation (T&E) Facility in Cincinnati, OH. Soils contaminated with PAHs have been obtained from the Reilly Tar Pit Superfund site in St. Louis Park, MN for use in these studies.

  9. Advances in Capsule Endoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Ryan

    2015-01-01

    Wireless video capsule endoscopy (VCE) is a minimally invasive technology that has revolutionized the approach to small intestinal disease investigation and management. Designed primarily to provide diagnostic imaging of the small intestine, VCE is used predominantly for obscure gastrointestinal bleeding and suspected Crohn’s disease; however, numerous other indications have been established, including the assessment of celiac disease, investigation of small bowel tumors, and surveillance of hereditary polyposis syndromes. Since the introduction of small bowel VCE in 2000, more than 1600 articles have been published describing the evolution of this technology. The main adverse outcome is capsule retention, which can potentially be avoided by careful patient selection or by using a patency capsule. Despite the numerous advances in the past 15 years, limitations such as incomplete VCE studies, missed lesions, and time-consuming reporting remain. The inability to control capsule movement for the application of targeted therapy or the acquisition of tissue for histologic analysis remains among the greatest challenges in the further development of capsule technology. This article outlines the recent technological and clinical advances in VCE and the future directions of research in this field. PMID:27482183

  10. Advances in Capsule Endoscopy.

    PubMed

    Scott, Ryan; Enns, Robert

    2015-09-01

    Wireless video capsule endoscopy (VCE) is a minimally invasive technology that has revolutionized the approach to small intestinal disease investigation and management. Designed primarily to provide diagnostic imaging of the small intestine, VCE is used predominantly for obscure gastrointestinal bleeding and suspected Crohn's disease; however, numerous other indications have been established, including the assessment of celiac disease, investigation of small bowel tumors, and surveillance of hereditary polyposis syndromes. Since the introduction of small bowel VCE in 2000, more than 1600 articles have been published describing the evolution of this technology. The main adverse outcome is capsule retention, which can potentially be avoided by careful patient selection or by using a patency capsule. Despite the numerous advances in the past 15 years, limitations such as incomplete VCE studies, missed lesions, and time-consuming reporting remain. The inability to control capsule movement for the application of targeted therapy or the acquisition of tissue for histologic analysis remains among the greatest challenges in the further development of capsule technology. This article outlines the recent technological and clinical advances in VCE and the future directions of research in this field. PMID:27482183

  11. Radionuclide Retention in Concrete Wasteforms - FY13

    SciTech Connect

    Snyder, Michelle MV; Golovich, Elizabeth C.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Crum, Jarrod V.; Lapierre, Robert; Dage, Denomy C.; Parker, Kent E.; Cordova, Elsa A.

    2013-10-15

    Assessing long-term performance of Category 3 waste cement grouts for radionuclide encasement requires knowledge of the radionuclide-cement interactions and mechanisms of retention (i.e., sorption or precipitation); the mechanism of contaminant release; the significance of contaminant release pathways; how wasteform performance is affected by the full range of environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the process of wasteform aging under conditions that are representative of processes occurring in response to changing environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the effect of wasteform aging on chemical, physical, and radiological properties; and the associated impact on contaminant release. This knowledge will enable accurate prediction of radionuclide fate when the wasteforms come in contact with groundwater. Data collected throughout the course of this work will be used to quantify the efficacy of concrete wasteforms, similar to those used in the disposal of low-level waste and mixed low-level waste, for the immobilization of key radionuclides (i.e., uranium, technetium, and iodine). Data collected will also be used to quantify the physical and chemical properties of the concrete affecting radionuclide retention.

  12. Hydrogen retention in ion irradiated steels

    SciTech Connect

    Hunn, J.D.; Lewis, M.B.; Lee, E.H.

    1998-11-01

    In the future 1--5 MW Spallation Neutron Source, target radiation damage will be accompanied by high levels of hydrogen and helium transmutation products. The authors have recently carried out investigations using simultaneous Fe/He,H multiple-ion implantations into 316 LN stainless steel between 50 and 350 C to simulate the type of radiation damage expected in spallation neutron sources. Hydrogen and helium were injected at appropriate energy and rate, while displacement damage was introduced by nuclear stopping of 3.5 MeV Fe{sup +}, 1 {micro}m below the surface. Nanoindentation measurements showed a cumulative increase in hardness as a result of hydrogen and helium injection over and above the hardness increase due to the displacement damage alone. TEM investigation indicated the presence of small bubbles of the injected gases in the irradiated area. In the current experiment, the retention of hydrogen in irradiated steel was studied in order to better understand its contribution to the observed hardening. To achieve this, the deuterium isotope ({sup 2}H) was injected in place of natural hydrogen ({sup 1}H) during the implantation. Trapped deuterium was then profiled, at room temperature, using the high cross-section nuclear resonance reaction with {sup 3}He. Results showed a surprisingly high concentration of deuterium to be retained in the irradiated steel at low temperature, especially in the presence of helium. There is indication that hydrogen retention at spallation neutron source relevant target temperatures may reach as high as 10%.

  13. High retention membrane bioreactors: challenges and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Luo, Wenhai; Hai, Faisal I; Price, William E; Guo, Wenshan; Ngo, Hao H; Yamamoto, Kazuo; Nghiem, Long D

    2014-09-01

    Extensive research has focussed on the development of novel high retention membrane bioreactor (HR-MBR) systems for wastewater reclamation in recent years. HR-MBR integrates high rejection membrane separation with conventional biological treatment in a single step. High rejection membrane separation processes currently used in HR-MBR applications include nanofiltration, forward osmosis, and membrane distillation. In these HR-MBR systems, organic contaminants can be effectively retained, prolonging their retention time in the bioreactor and thus enhancing their biodegradation. Therefore, HR-MBR can offer a reliable and elegant solution to produce high quality effluent. However, there are several technological challenges associated with the development of HR-MBR, including salinity build-up, low permeate flux, and membrane degradation. This paper provides a critical review on these challenges and potential opportunities of HR-MBR for wastewater treatment and water reclamation, and aims to guide and inform future research on HR-MBR for fast commercialisation of this innovative technology. PMID:24996563

  14. Global phosphorus retention by river damming.

    PubMed

    Maavara, Taylor; Parsons, Christopher T; Ridenour, Christine; Stojanovic, Severin; Dürr, Hans H; Powley, Helen R; Van Cappellen, Philippe

    2015-12-22

    More than 70,000 large dams have been built worldwide. With growing water stress and demand for energy, this number will continue to increase in the foreseeable future. Damming greatly modifies the ecological functioning of river systems. In particular, dam reservoirs sequester nutrient elements and, hence, reduce downstream transfer of nutrients to floodplains, lakes, wetlands, and coastal marine environments. Here, we quantify the global impact of dams on the riverine fluxes and speciation of the limiting nutrient phosphorus (P), using a mechanistic modeling approach that accounts for the in-reservoir biogeochemical transformations of P. According to the model calculations, the mass of total P (TP) trapped in reservoirs nearly doubled between 1970 and 2000, reaching 42 Gmol y(-1), or 12% of the global river TP load in 2000. Because of the current surge in dam building, we project that by 2030, about 17% of the global river TP load will be sequestered in reservoir sediments. The largest projected increases in TP and reactive P (RP) retention by damming will take place in Asia and South America, especially in the Yangtze, Mekong, and Amazon drainage basins. Despite the large P retention capacity of reservoirs, the export of RP from watersheds will continue to grow unless additional measures are taken to curb anthropogenic P emissions. PMID:26644553

  15. Cooking utensil with improved heat retention

    DOEpatents

    Potter, Thomas F.; Benson, David K.; Burch, Steven D.

    1997-01-01

    A cooking utensil with improved heat retention includes an inner pot received within an outer pot and separated in a closely spaced-apart relationship to form a volume or chamber therebetween. The chamber is evacuated and sealed with foil leaves at the upper edges of the inner and outer pot. The vacuum created between the inner and outer pot, along with the minimum of thermal contact between the inner and outer pot, and the reduced radiative heat transfer due to low emissivity coatings on the inner and outer pot, provide for a highly insulated cooking utensil. Any combination of a plurality of mechanisms for selectively disabling and re-enabling the insulating properties of the pot are provided within the chamber. These mechanisms may include: a hydrogen gas producing and reabsorbing device such as a metal hydride, a plurality of metal contacts which can be adjusted to bridge the gap between the inner and outer pot, and a plurality of bimetallic switches which can selectively bridge the gap between the inner and outer pot. In addition, phase change materials with superior heat retention characteristics may be provided within the cooking utensil. Further, automatic and programmable control of the cooking utensil can be provided through a microprocessor and associated hardware for controlling the vacuum disable/enable mechanisms to automatically cook and save food.

  16. Cooking utensil with improved heat retention

    DOEpatents

    Potter, T.F.; Benson, D.K.; Burch, S.D.

    1997-07-01

    A cooking utensil with improved heat retention includes an inner pot received within an outer pot and separated in a closely spaced-apart relationship to form a volume or chamber there between. The chamber is evacuated and sealed with foil leaves at the upper edges of the inner and outer pot. The vacuum created between the inner and outer pot, along with the minimum of thermal contact between the inner and outer pot, and the reduced radiative heat transfer due to low emissivity coatings on the inner and outer pot, provide for a highly insulated cooking utensil. Any combination of a plurality of mechanisms for selectively disabling and re-enabling the insulating properties of the pot are provided within the chamber. These mechanisms may include: a hydrogen gas producing and reabsorbing device such as a metal hydride, a plurality of metal contacts which can be adjusted to bridge the gap between the inner and outer pot, and a plurality of bimetallic switches which can selectively bridge the gap between the inner and outer pot. In addition, phase change materials with superior heat retention characteristics may be provided within the cooking utensil. Further, automatic and programmable control of the cooking utensil can be provided through a microprocessor and associated hardware for controlling the vacuum disable/enable mechanisms to automatically cook and save food. 26 figs.

  17. Retention of Halogens in Waste Glass

    SciTech Connect

    Hrma, Pavel R.

    2010-05-01

    In spite of their potential roles as melting rate accelerators and foam breakers, halogens are generally viewed as troublesome components for glass processing. Of five halogens, F, Cl, Br, I, and At, all but At may occur in nuclear waste. A nuclear waste feed may contain up to 10 g of F, 4 g of Cl, and ≤100 mg of Br and I per kg of glass. The main concern is halogen volatility, producing hazardous fumes and particulates, and the radioactive iodine 129 isotope of 1.7x10^7-year half life. Because F and Cl are soluble in oxide glasses and tend to precipitate on cooling, they can be retained in the waste glass in the form of dissolved constituents or as dispersed crystalline inclusions. This report compiles known halogen-retention data in both high-level waste (HLW) and low-activity waste (LAW) glasses. Because of its radioactivity, the main focus is on I. Available data on F and Cl were compiled for comparison. Though Br is present in nuclear wastes, it is usually ignored; no data on Br retention were found.

  18. Global phosphorus retention by river damming

    PubMed Central

    Maavara, Taylor; Parsons, Christopher T.; Ridenour, Christine; Stojanovic, Severin; Dürr, Hans H.; Powley, Helen R.; Van Cappellen, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    More than 70,000 large dams have been built worldwide. With growing water stress and demand for energy, this number will continue to increase in the foreseeable future. Damming greatly modifies the ecological functioning of river systems. In particular, dam reservoirs sequester nutrient elements and, hence, reduce downstream transfer of nutrients to floodplains, lakes, wetlands, and coastal marine environments. Here, we quantify the global impact of dams on the riverine fluxes and speciation of the limiting nutrient phosphorus (P), using a mechanistic modeling approach that accounts for the in-reservoir biogeochemical transformations of P. According to the model calculations, the mass of total P (TP) trapped in reservoirs nearly doubled between 1970 and 2000, reaching 42 Gmol y−1, or 12% of the global river TP load in 2000. Because of the current surge in dam building, we project that by 2030, about 17% of the global river TP load will be sequestered in reservoir sediments. The largest projected increases in TP and reactive P (RP) retention by damming will take place in Asia and South America, especially in the Yangtze, Mekong, and Amazon drainage basins. Despite the large P retention capacity of reservoirs, the export of RP from watersheds will continue to grow unless additional measures are taken to curb anthropogenic P emissions. PMID:26644553

  19. Radionuclide Retention in Concrete Waste Forms

    SciTech Connect

    Mattigod, Shas V.; Bovaird, Chase C.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Wood, Marcus I.

    2010-09-30

    Assessing long-term performance of Category 3 waste cement grouts for radionuclide encasement requires knowledge of the radionuclide-cement interactions and mechanisms of retention (i.e., sorption or precipitation); the mechanism of contaminant release; the significance of contaminant release pathways; how waste form performance is affected by the full range of environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the process of waste form aging under conditions that are representative of processes occurring in response to changing environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the effect of waste form aging on chemical, physical, and radiological properties; and the associated impact on contaminant release. This knowledge will enable accurate prediction of radionuclide fate when the waste forms come in contact with groundwater. The information presented in the report provides data that 1) quantify radionuclide retention within concrete waste form materials similar to those used to encapsulate waste in the Low-Level Waste Burial Grounds (LLBG); 2) measure the effect of concrete waste form properties likely to influence radionuclide migration; and 3) quantify the stability of uranium-bearing solid phases of limited solubility in concrete.

  20. Job embeddedness as a nurse retention strategy for rural hospitals.

    PubMed

    Stroth, Chandra

    2010-01-01

    RN turnover is expensive and disruptive for rural hospitals, constraining finances, impacting patient care, and stressing remaining nurses. Recent investigations have described a promising new construct related to employee retention: job embeddedness. Leaders in nonhealthcare organizations have adopted a job-embeddedness model to guide retention strategies and experienced a subsequent reduction in turnover. The author explores job embeddedness as an effective retention plan strategy for rural hospitals. PMID:20010375

  1. Learning communities: the link to recruitment and retention.

    PubMed

    Bassi, Sherry; Polifroni, E Carol

    2005-01-01

    The professional learning community is a strategy to help staff development educators address recruitment and retention and organizational culture. The purpose of this article is to analyze the concept of learning communities and discuss their potential to increase the recruitment and retention of new graduate nurses and returning practitioners to the nursing profession. Incorporating learning communities into the healthcare organization will decrease the number of nurses leaving nursing, foster retention, and thus, enhance recruitment. PMID:15940026

  2. Manager impact on retention of hospital staff: Part 2.

    PubMed

    Taunton, R L; Krampitz, S D; Woods, C Q

    1989-04-01

    This is the second article in a two-part series based on a study of the impact of middle managers on retention of 71 hospital professionals. Research design, methods, and descriptive results were presented in Part 1 (March 1989). In Part 2, the impact of managers' motivation to manage, power, influence, and leadership style on retention is detailed. Recommendations for improving retention include interventions to increase employee job satisfaction and intent to stay, and to improve managers' performance and leadership. PMID:2703893

  3. Uterine Fibroid (Leiomyoma) with Acute Urinary Retention: A Case Series

    PubMed Central

    Jena, Saubhagya Kumar; Naik, Monalisha; Ray, Lipsa; Behera, Satyanarayan

    2016-01-01

    Uterine leiomyomas are an extremely rare cause of acute urinary retention in women. The delay in diagnosing uterine leiomyomas presenting with acute urinary retention further complicates the management. The rarity of the condition makes it difficult to plan either prospective or retrospective trials. Hence, most of the evidence comes from case reports or series. We report a case series of acute urinary retention in women with uterine leiomyomas and discuss the pathophysiology, diagnosis and management options. PMID:27190903

  4. Conceptual classification model for Sustainable Flood Retention Basins.

    PubMed

    Scholz, Miklas; Sadowski, Adam J

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to recommend a rapid conceptual classification model for Sustainable Flood Retention Basins (SFRB) used to control runoff in a temperate climate. An SFRB is an aesthetically pleasing retention basin predominantly used for flood protection adhering to sustainable drainage and best management practices. The classification model was developed on the basis of a database of 141 SFRB using the River Rhine catchment in Baden (part of Baden-Württemberg, Germany) as a case study. It is based on an agglomerative cluster analysis and is intended to be used by engineers and scientists to adequately classify the following different types of SFRB: Hydraulic Flood Retention Basin, Traditional Flood Retention Basin, Sustainable Flood Retention Wetland, Aesthetic Flood Retention Wetland, Integrated Flood Retention Wetland and Natural Flood Retention Wetland. The selection of classification variables was supported by a principal component analysis. The identification of SFRB in the data set was based on a Ward cluster analysis of 34 weighted classification variables. Scoring tables were defined to enable the assignment of the six SFRB definitions to retention basins in the data set. The efficiency of these tables was based on a scoring system which gave the conceptual model for the example case study sites an overall efficiency of approximately 60% (as opposed to 17% by chance). This conceptual classification model should be utilized to improve communication by providing definitions for SFRB types. The classification definitions are likely to be applicable for other regions with both temperate oceanic and temperate continental climates. PMID:18280029

  5. Mechanical retention versus bonding of amalgam and gallium alloy restorations.

    PubMed

    Eakle, W S; Staninec, M; Yip, R L; Chavez, M A

    1994-10-01

    The retention of amalgam and gallium alloy restorations in proximal box forms was measured in vitro, and three different adhesives to conventional undercuts were compared. For control, restorations were placed without undercuts or adhesives. No significant difference was found between amalgam and gallium alloys with each of the five methods of retention used. Alloys placed without retention or adhesives were significantly less retentive than all other groups. When Tytin alloy was used, no difference was found in retention among the restorations retained with Panavia or All-Bond adhesive or an occlusal dovetail and retention grooves, but Amalgambond adhesive was less retentive than all three of these methods. When gallium alloy was used, both Panavia and All-Bond adhesive were more retentive than undercuts, but the effect of Amalgambond adhesive was more retentive than undercuts, but the effect of Amalgambond adhesive was comparable to that of undercuts. The results of this study indicate that adhesives could be used in place of traditional undercuts to retain amalgam and gallium alloys, thus saving a considerable amount of tooth structure. PMID:7990038

  6. Retention Indices for Frequently Reported Compounds of Plant Essential Oils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babushok, V. I.; Linstrom, P. J.; Zenkevich, I. G.

    2011-12-01

    Gas chromatographic retention indices were evaluated for 505 frequently reported plant essential oil components using a large retention index database. Retention data are presented for three types of commonly used stationary phases: dimethyl silicone (nonpolar), dimethyl silicone with 5% phenyl groups (slightly polar), and polyethylene glycol (polar) stationary phases. The evaluations are based on the treatment of multiple measurements with the number of data records ranging from about 5 to 800 per compound. Data analysis was limited to temperature programmed conditions. The data reported include the average and median values of retention index with standard deviations and confidence intervals.

  7. What the Regulations Say about Record Retention and Imaged Documents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conard, Linda, Comp.

    2001-01-01

    Presents the federal government's general provisions on student financial aid record retention and the Federal Perkins Loan program's procedures for maintaining promissory notes and repayment schedules. (EV)

  8. Advancement via Individual Determination (AVID) at a Postsecondary Institution: Support for First-Generation College-Goers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watt, Karen M.; Butcher, Jennifer; Ramirez, E. Fidel

    2013-01-01

    This study examines how a selected Hispanic-Serving Institution is implementing Advancement Via Individual Determination as a strategy for improving retention and time to graduation for 1st-generation Hispanic college students. A quasi-experimental design approach was used in which the retention rates and 1st-semester grade point averages of a…

  9. Advance directives

    PubMed Central

    O’Sullivan, Rory; Mailo, Kevin; Angeles, Ricardo; Agarwal, Gina

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective To establish the prevalence of patients with advance directives in a family practice, and to describe patients’ perspectives on a family doctor’s role in initiating discussions about advance directives. Design A self-administered patient questionnaire. Setting A busy urban family medicine teaching clinic in Hamilton, Ont. Participants A convenience sample of adult patients attending the clinic over the course of a typical business week. Main outcome measures The prevalence of advance directives in the patient population was determined, and the patients’ expectations regarding the role of their family doctors were elucidated. Results The survey population consisted of 800 participants (a response rate of 72.5%) well distributed across age groups; 19.7% had written advance directives and 43.8% had previously discussed the topic of advance directives, but only 4.3% of these discussions had occurred with family doctors. In 5.7% of cases, a family physician had raised the issue; 72.3% of respondents believed patients should initiate the discussion. Patients who considered advance directives extremely important were significantly more likely to want their family doctors to start the conversation (odds ratio 3.98; P < .05). Conclusion Advance directives were not routinely addressed in the family practice. Most patients preferred to initiate the discussion of advance directives. However, patients who considered the subject extremely important wanted their family doctors to initiate the discussion. PMID:25873704

  10. Advanced Construction of Compact Containment BWR

    SciTech Connect

    Takahashi, M.; Maruyama, T.; Mori, H.; Hoshino, K.; Hijioka, Y.; Heki, H.; Nakamaru, M.; Hoshi, T.

    2006-07-01

    The reactor concept considered in this paper has a mid/small power output, a compact containment and a simplified BWR configuration with comprehensive safety features. Compact Containment BWR (CCR) is being developed with matured BWR technologies together with innovative systems/components, will provide attractiveness for the energy market in the world due to its flexibility in energy demands as well as in site conditions, its high potential in reducing investment risk and its safety feature facilitating public acceptance. The flexibility is achieved by CCR's mid/small power output of 400 MWe class and capability of long operating cycle (refueling intervals). The high investment potential is expected from CCR's simplification/innovation in design such as natural circulation core cooling with the bottom located short core, top mounted upper entry control rod drives (CRDs) with ring-type dryers and simplified safety system with high pressure resistible primary containment vessel (PCV) concept. The natural circulation core eliminates recirculation pumps as well as needs for maintenance of such pumps. The top mounted upper entry CRDs enable the bottom located short core in RPV. The safety feature mainly consists of large water inventory above the core without large penetration below the top of the core, passive cooling system by isolation condenser (IC), high pressure resistible PCV and in-vessel retention (IVR) capability. The large inventory increases the system response time in case of design base accidents including loss of coolant accidents. The IC suppresses PCV pressure by steam condensation without any AC power. Cooling the molten core inside the RPV if the core should be damaged by loss of core coolability could attain the IVR. CCR's specific self-standing steel high pressure resistible PCV is designed to contain minimum piping and valves inside with reactor pressure vessel (RPV), only 13 m in diameter and 24 m in height. This compact PCV makes it possible to

  11. Scoring Dawg Core Breakoff and Retention Mechanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Badescu, Mircea; Sherrit, Stewart; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Bao, Xiaoqi; Backes, Paul G.

    2011-01-01

    This novel core break-off and retention mechanism consists of a scoring dawg controlled by a set of two tubes (a drill tube and an inner tube). The drill tube and the inner tube have longitudinal concentric holes. The solution can be implemented in an eccentric tube configuration as well where the tubes have eccentric longitudinal holes. The inner tube presents at the bottom two control surfaces for controlling the orientation of the scoring dawg. The drill tube presents a sunk-in profile on the inside of the wall for housing the scoring dawg. The inner tube rotation relative to the drill tube actively controls the orientation of the scoring dawg and hence its penetration and retrieval from the core. The scoring dawg presents a shaft, two axially spaced arms, and a tooth. The two arms slide on the control surfaces of the inner tube. The tooth, when rotated, can penetrate or be extracted from the core. During drilling, the two tubes move together maintaining the scoring dawg completely outside the core. After the desired drilling depth has been reached the inner tube is rotated relative to the drill tube such that the tooth of the scoring dawg moves toward the central axis. By rotating the drill tube, the scoring dawg can score the core and so reduce its cross sectional area. The scoring dawg can also act as a stress concentrator for breaking the core in torsion or tension. After breaking the core, the scoring dawg can act as a core retention mechanism. For scoring, it requires the core to be attached to the rock. If the core is broken, the dawg can be used as a retention mechanism. The scoring dawg requires a hard-tip insert like tungsten carbide for scoring hard rocks. The relative rotation of the two tubes can be controlled manually or by an additional actuator. In the implemented design solution the bit rotation for scoring was in the same direction as the drilling. The device was tested for limestone cores and basalt cores. The torque required for breaking the

  12. Does skill retention benefit from retentivity and symbolic rehearsal? - two studies with a simulated process control task.

    PubMed

    Kluge, Annette; Frank, Barbara; Maafi, Sanaz; Kuzmanovska, Aleksandra

    2016-05-01

    Two experiments were designed to compare two symbolic rehearsal refresher interventions (imaginary practice, a hidden introspective process) and investigate the role of retentivity in skill retention. Retentivity is investigated as the ability to memorise and reproduce information and associations that were learned a short time ago. Both experiments comprised initial training (week 1), a symbolic rehearsal for the experimental group (week 2) and a retention assessment (week 3). In the first study, the experimental group received a symbolic rehearsal, while the control group received no rehearsal. In the second study, the experimental group received the same symbolic rehearsal used in study 1, enhanced with rehearsal tasks addressing human-computer interaction. The results showed that both symbolic rehearsal interventions were equally likely to mitigate skill decay. The retentivity showed medium to high correlations with skill retention in both studies, and the results suggest that subjects high in retentivity benefit more from a symbolic rehearsal refresher intervention. Practitioner Summary: Skill decay becomes a problem in situations in which jobs require the correct mastery of non-routine situations. Two experimental studies with simulated process control tasks showed that symbolic rehearsal and retentivity can significantly mitigate skill decay and that subjects higher in retentivity benefit more from refresher interventions. PMID:26442562

  13. Novel word retention in bilingual and monolingual speakers

    PubMed Central

    Kan, Pui Fong; Sadagopan, Neeraja

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this research was to examine word retention in bilinguals and monolinguals. Long-term word retention is an essential part of vocabulary learning. Previous studies have documented that bilinguals outperform monolinguals in terms of retrieving newly-exposed words. Yet, little is known about whether or to what extent bilinguals are different from monolinguals in word retention. Participants were 30 English-speaking monolingual adults and 30 bilingual adults who speak Spanish as a home language and learned English as a second language during childhood. In a previous study (Kan et al., 2014), the participants were exposed to the target novel words in English, Spanish, and Cantonese. In this current study, word retention was measured a week after the fast mapping task. No exposures were given during the one-week interval. Results showed that bilinguals and monolinguals retain a similar number of words. However, participants produced more words in English than in either Spanish or Cantonese. Correlation analyses revealed that language knowledge plays a role in the relationships between fast mapping and word retention. Specifically, within- and across-language relationships between bilinguals' fast mapping and word retention were found in Spanish and English, by contrast, within-language relationships between monolinguals' fast mapping and word retention were found in English and across-language relationships between their fast mapping and word retention performance in English and Cantonese. Similarly, bilinguals differed from monolinguals in the relationships among the word retention scores in three languages. Significant correlations were found among bilinguals' retention scores. However, no such correlations were found among monolinguals' retention scores. The overall findings suggest that bilinguals' language experience and language knowledge most likely contribute to how they learn and retain new words. PMID:25324789

  14. Estimating soil water retention using soil component additivity model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeiliger, A.; Ermolaeva, O.; Semenov, V.

    2009-04-01

    Soil water retention is a major soil hydraulic property that governs soil functioning in ecosystems and greatly affects soil management. Data on soil water retention are used in research and applications in hydrology, agronomy, meteorology, ecology, environmental protection, and many other soil-related fields. Soil organic matter content and composition affect both soil structure and adsorption properties; therefore water retention may be affected by changes in soil organic matter that occur because of both climate change and modifications of management practices. Thus, effects of organic matter on soil water retention should be understood and quantified. Measurement of soil water retention is relatively time-consuming, and become impractical when soil hydrologic estimates are needed for large areas. One approach to soil water retention estimation from readily available data is based on the hypothesis that soil water retention may be estimated as an additive function obtained by summing up water retention of pore subspaces associated with soil textural and/or structural components and organic matter. The additivity model and was tested with 550 soil samples from the international database UNSODA and 2667 soil samples from the European database HYPRES containing all textural soil classes after USDA soil texture classification. The root mean square errors (RMSEs) of the volumetric water content estimates for UNSODA vary from 0.021 m3m-3 for coarse sandy loam to 0.075 m3m-3 for sandy clay. Obtained RMSEs are at the lower end of the RMSE range for regression-based water retention estimates found in literature. Including retention estimates of organic matter significantly improved RMSEs. The attained accuracy warrants testing the 'additivity' model with additional soil data and improving this model to accommodate various types of soil structure. Keywords: soil water retention, soil components, additive model, soil texture, organic matter.

  15. Fiberoptic in-vessel viewing system for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heikkinen, Veli; Aikio, Mauri; Keranen, Kimmo; Wang, Minqiang

    2002-07-01

    A viewing system was designed and a prototype realized for the in-vessel inspection of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor. The viewing is based on the line scanning principle, and the system consists of ten identical units installed on top of the reactor at 36deg intervals. Each device contains a laser, beam steering mirrors, and viewing probe with insertion mechanics. The probe has an outside diameter of 150 mm and a length of 14 m. The illumination design applies frequency-doubled Nd: yttrium-aluminum-garnet lasers whose beams are guided through hermetically sealed windows into the vacuum vessel. The diffuser optics creates a vertically oriented light stripe onto the vessel surface that is viewed by the imaging optics, consisting of 16 modules altogether covering horizontal and vertical field-of-views of 2deg and 162deg. The optical images are transferred to charge coupled device cameras via coherent fiber arrays. The multifocus design uses stacked fiber rows whose ends are assembled into different axial positions. The viewing probes rotate at a constant angular speed of 1deg/s and pictures are taken at 0.01deg intervals. The complete picture of the vessel interior is generated in 6 min producing 5.8 x109 image pixels. The image processing and analysis of possible defects in the vessel surfaces are performed off-line after the viewing procedure. A full-scale prototype of the viewing probe was constructed to demonstrate the feasibility of the design. Its illumination optics utilizes a diffractive optics element that transforms the collimated input beam into a rectangular output lobe with uniform intensity. The prototype has horizontal and vertical imaging optics field-of-views of 2deg and 12deg. The test results showed that the prototype can take pictures of good quality applying a continuously rotating probe having an angular speed of 0.08deg/s. Under optimum conditions, the minimum resolvable feature size at a 3 m distance is smaller than 1 mm

  16. The retention of first-generation college students in STEM: An extension of Tinto's longitudinal model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uche, Ada Rosemary

    In the current technologically advanced global economy, the role of human capital and education cannot be over-emphasized. Since almost all great inventions in the world have a scientific or technological foundation, having a skilled workforce is imperative for any nation's economic growth. Currently, large segments of the United States' population are underrepresented in the attainment of science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) degrees, and in the STEM professions. Scholars, educators, policy-makers, and employers are concerned about the decline in student enrollment and graduation from STEM disciplines. This trend is especially problematic for first-generation college students. This study uses both quantitative and qualitative methods to assess the factors that predict the retention of first-generation college students in the STEM majors. It employs Tinto's longitudinal model (1993) as a conceptual framework to predict STEM retention for first-generation college students. The analysis uses the Beginning Post-secondary Students study (BPS 04/09) data and Roots of STEM qualitative data to investigate the role of first-generation status in STEM major retention. Results indicate that upper levels of achievement in high school math have a significant effect on first-generation status in STEM outcomes.

  17. [Acute cardiovascular disease and job retention].

    PubMed

    Fantoni-Quinton, Sophie; Tellart, Anne-Sophie; Cambier-Langrand, Evodie; Fassier, Jean Baptiste; Mounier-Vehier, Claire

    2016-05-01

    Since it allows a better quality of life, return to work must be considered ever since the early stages of the health care pathway following a cardiovascular disease. Seeing the occupational physician beforehand, so as to anticipate the return to work, is crucial. Dialogue between cardiologists, general practitioners and occupational physician, still observing medical confidentiality, must allow a better quality of return to work. Being recognized as a handicapped worker is a key element in the prevention of socio-professional exclusion. Even when dealing with long sick leave, permanent functional injuries or job loss, guiding the patients towards the appropriate person can improve return to work and job retention in the long term. PMID:27021479

  18. Recruitment and Retention of LGBTIQ Astronomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dixon, William Van Dyke

    2012-01-01

    While lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, intersex, or questioning (LGBTIQ) astronomers face many of the same workplace challenges as women and racial/ethnic minorities, from implicit bias to overt discrimination, other challenges are unique to this group. An obvious example is the absence at many institutions of health insurance and other benefits for the same-sex domestic partners of their employees. More subtle is the psychological toll paid by LGBTIQ astronomers who remain "in the closet," self-censoring every statement about their personal lives. Paradoxically, the culture of the physical sciences, in which sexuality, gender identity, and gender expression are considered irrelevant, can discourage their discussion, further isolating LGBTIQ researchers. Addressing these challenges is not just a matter of fairness; it is an essential tool in the recruitment and retention of the brightest researchers and in assuring their productivity. We will discuss these issues and what individuals and departments can to make their institutions more welcoming to their LGBTIQ colleagues.

  19. 228Th retention and dosimetry in beagles.

    PubMed

    Lloyd, R D; Jones, C W; Mays, C W; Atherton, D R; Bruenger, F W; Taylor, G N

    1984-06-01

    Total-body and skeletal retention of 228Th were determined in a group of 104 young adult male and female beagles for about the first 7 years after the injection of 0.00159 to 2.76 muCi/kg. Ratios of 224Ra / 228Th , 212Pb / 228Th , and 212Bi / 228Th in the skeleton and in soft tissues of 20 beagles were measured as a function of time after injection. A humerus, femur, and ulna from 20 dogs dying 7 to 554 days after injection were sectioned, and the 228Th concentration was obtained for each piece. Percentage biological retention in the skeleton of 228Th at t days after injection could be described as 68.1 e-0. 000180t . Ratios of daughter-to-parent activity in soft tissue showed no definite trend with dose level or time and averaged Ra/Th = 0.56, Pb/Th = 0.83, and Bi/Th = 0.91, whereas the ratios for the skeleton varied with both dose level and time. Ratios of activity in the skeleton from lowest to highest dose level after 2 years following injection ranged between Ra/Th = 0.88 to 0.95, Pb/Th = 0.78 to 0.92, and Bi/Th = 0.77 to 0.90. Retained 228Th was deposited most heavily in parts of the skeleton with much trabecular bone, much bone surface area, and high bone remodeling rates. No changes in this deposition pattern could be discerned during the 554 days over which the measurements of sectioned long bones were made. PMID:6427842

  20. Small scale retentive structures and Dinophysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Hongqin; Lazure, Pascal; Gentien, Patrick

    2007-01-01

    Despite its rarity, Dinophysis acuminata is in terms of economic impact, the first toxic algal species along the coasts of Western Europe. It is observed at low levels (< 20 cell l - 1 ) all the year round but toxic events occur mainly in late spring and summer. D. acuminata ecophysiology is largely unknown due to the inability to culture it. Therefore, standard biomass models based on inorganic nutrition are largely inadequate. Presently, any progress in describing the conditions of population growth of this species will be a step forward to prediction of harmful events at the coast. This species has been observed at increased, albeit low cell densities in retentive eddies located in pycnocline layers. A concentration build-up of one species results from the balance between growth and loss processes, one of the latter being dispersal. The scales of interest for a D. acuminata population are of the order of 10 nautical miles on the horizontal and duration of 10 days, for a reported achievable growth rate of 0.6 day - 1 . A three dimensional (3D) hydrodynamical model of the Bay of Biscay has been elaborated to reproduce hydrological structures over the last decade. We attempt here to relate the existence of retentive structures revealed from simulations under realistic forcing conditions and the toxic coastal events recorded in the 10-year time series of the French plankton monitoring network database. The eddies in the coastal area appear to be directly related with the Dinophysis coastal events and they may be a potential effective tool to predict those.

  1. The Employment Retention and Advancement Project: How Effective Are Different Approaches Aiming to Increase Employment Retention and Advancement? Final Impacts for Twelve Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendra, Richard; Dillman, Keri-Nicole; Hamilton, Gayle; Lundquist, Erika; Martinson, Karin; Wavelet, Melissa

    2010-01-01

    Research completed since the 1980s has yielded substantial knowledge about how to help welfare recipients and other low-income individuals prepare for and find jobs. Many participants in these successful job preparation and placement programs, however, ended up in unstable, low-paying jobs, and little was known about how to effectively help them…

  2. NASA records retention schedules: Procedures governing the retention, retirement, and destruction of agency records

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This handbook sets forth the minimum retention periods of official records of NASA. Its provisions are applicable to NASA Headquarters and all field installations. This revised edition has been correlated to the 'NASA Uniform Files Index (UFI) (NHB 1442.1B), the General Records Schedules' produced by the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA), and has been enlarged in scope to cover Privacy Act Systems of Records and record series previously omitted. Guidance is provided in the areas of record retirement, transfer, and retrieval from Federal Record Centers (FRC) and disposal actions. Included are provisions for making changes to these schedules by addition of new items or revision of current items. The NASA Records Retention Schedules (NRRS) were approved for NASA use by NARA, the General Services Administration, and the General Accounting Office.

  3. 27 CFR 20.265 - Retention of invoices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Retention of invoices. 20....265 Retention of invoices. (a) Any person required to keep records under this part shall retain copies of invoices which will enable appropriate TTB officers to readily obtain the details regarding:...

  4. Retention in Special Education Teachers in Georgia: A Phenomenological Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Arndra N.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study using a phenomenological approach was to identify and examine factors influencing the retention rate of special education teachers in rural and urban schools in middle Georgia. Provided in this study are factors that are related to retention in special education teachers. Semistructured interviews were used to…

  5. Retention-Attrition in the Nineties. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brawer, Florence B.

    Concern about retention and attrition rates in higher education have increased over the years and efforts to identify and treat potential dropouts have grown considerably. Studies investigating the retention and attrition of community college students have found specific characteristics related to outcomes, including full- or part-time attendance,…

  6. Know when to Hold 'Em: Data Retention Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Jason

    2007-01-01

    While the need for a data retention policy is rapidly becoming clear to schools, little guidance is available for crafting one. Most schools depend on backup and recovery plans that generally focus on individual servers or devices. However, retention policies also need to focus on the type of data contained on those servers and how it will be…

  7. Effects of Targeted Sales Messages on Subscription Sales and Retention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gamst, Glenn; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Investigates the effects of targeted sales messages on newspaper subscription sales and retention by combining two large research projects--a demographic market segmentation scheme, and a readership-lifestyle survey. Proposes that the content of sales messages influences new subscriptions but does not affect retention. (MM)

  8. 27 CFR 20.265 - Retention of invoices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Retention of invoices. 20.265 Section 20.265 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL DISTRIBUTION AND USE OF DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Records and Reports § 20.265 Retention of invoices. (a)...

  9. 47 CFR 2.955 - Retention of records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Retention of records. 2.955 Section 2.955 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL FREQUENCY ALLOCATIONS AND RADIO TREATY MATTERS; GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS Equipment Authorization Procedures Verification § 2.955 Retention of records. (a) For each equipment subject...

  10. 44 CFR 321.5 - Retention of industrial facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Retention of industrial..., DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY, MARITIME ADMINISTRATION) § 321.5 Retention of industrial facilities. (a) Industrial..., shall be retained in the Industrial reserves (National Industrial Reserve, Departmental...

  11. 44 CFR 321.5 - Retention of industrial facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Retention of industrial..., DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY, MARITIME ADMINISTRATION) § 321.5 Retention of industrial facilities. (a) Industrial..., shall be retained in the Industrial reserves (National Industrial Reserve, Departmental...

  12. 44 CFR 321.5 - Retention of industrial facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Retention of industrial..., DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY, MARITIME ADMINISTRATION) § 321.5 Retention of industrial facilities. (a) Industrial..., shall be retained in the Industrial reserves (National Industrial Reserve, Departmental...

  13. 44 CFR 321.5 - Retention of industrial facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Retention of industrial..., DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY, MARITIME ADMINISTRATION) § 321.5 Retention of industrial facilities. (a) Industrial..., shall be retained in the Industrial reserves (National Industrial Reserve, Departmental...

  14. 44 CFR 321.5 - Retention of industrial facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Retention of industrial..., DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY, MARITIME ADMINISTRATION) § 321.5 Retention of industrial facilities. (a) Industrial..., shall be retained in the Industrial reserves (National Industrial Reserve, Departmental...

  15. 32 CFR 536.69 - Retention of file.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Retention of file. 536.69 Section 536.69 National... UNITED STATES Investigation and Processing of Claims § 536.69 Retention of file. After final action has been taken, the settlement authority will retain the file until at least one month after either...

  16. 4 CFR 5.2 - Grade and pay retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Grade and pay retention. 5.2 Section 5.2 Accounts GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE PERSONNEL SYSTEM COMPENSATION § 5.2 Grade and pay retention. (a) Change of... employee's position for all purposes (including pay and pay administration, retirement, life insurance...

  17. 4 CFR 5.2 - Grade and pay retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Grade and pay retention. 5.2 Section 5.2 Accounts GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE PERSONNEL SYSTEM COMPENSATION § 5.2 Grade and pay retention. (a) Change of... employee's position for all purposes (including pay and pay administration, retirement, life insurance...

  18. 5 CFR 532.419 - Grade and pay retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Grade and pay retention. 532.419 Section 532.419 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PREVAILING RATE SYSTEMS Pay Administration § 532.419 Grade and pay retention. (a) In accordance with section...

  19. 5 CFR 532.419 - Grade and pay retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Grade and pay retention. 532.419 Section 532.419 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PREVAILING RATE SYSTEMS Pay Administration § 532.419 Grade and pay retention. (a) In accordance with section...

  20. Student Retention and Graduation, University System of Georgia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    University System of Georgia, Atlanta. Office of Research and Planning.

    Describing outcomes related to student retention and graduation in the University System of Georgia, this six-part report discusses definitions and assumptions pertaining to retention and compares success rates for black, white, developmental studies, and regularly-admitted freshmen students in USG senior and two-year colleges. Section 1 provides…

  1. 13 CFR 120.861 - Job creation or retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Job creation or retention. 120.861... Company Loan Program (504) Project Economic Development Goals § 120.861 Job creation or retention. A Project must create or retain one Job Opportunity per an amount of 504 loan funding that will be...

  2. 13 CFR 120.861 - Job creation or retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Job creation or retention. 120.861... Company Loan Program (504) Project Economic Development Goals § 120.861 Job creation or retention. A Project must create or retain one Job Opportunity per an amount of 504 loan funding that will be...

  3. 13 CFR 120.861 - Job creation or retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Job creation or retention. 120.861... Company Loan Program (504) Project Economic Development Goals § 120.861 Job creation or retention. A Project must create or retain one Job Opportunity per an amount of 504 loan funding that will be...

  4. 13 CFR 120.861 - Job creation or retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Job creation or retention. 120.861... Company Loan Program (504) Project Economic Development Goals § 120.861 Job creation or retention. A Project must create or retain one Job Opportunity per an amount of 504 loan funding that will be...

  5. 13 CFR 120.861 - Job creation or retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Job creation or retention. 120.861... Company Loan Program (504) Project Economic Development Goals § 120.861 Job creation or retention. A Project must create or retain one Job Opportunity per an amount of 504 loan funding that will be...

  6. 47 CFR 2.955 - Retention of records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Retention of records. 2.955 Section 2.955 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL FREQUENCY ALLOCATIONS AND RADIO TREATY MATTERS; GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS Equipment Authorization Procedures Verification § 2.955 Retention of records. (a) For each equipment subject...

  7. 7 CFR 274.5 - Record retention and forms security.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Record retention and forms security. 274.5 Section 274.5 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOOD STAMP AND FOOD DISTRIBUTION PROGRAM ISSUANCE AND USE OF PROGRAM BENEFITS § 274.5 Record retention and forms security....

  8. 7 CFR 274.5 - Record retention and forms security.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Record retention and forms security. 274.5 Section 274.5 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOOD STAMP AND FOOD DISTRIBUTION PROGRAM ISSUANCE AND USE OF PROGRAM BENEFITS § 274.5 Record retention and forms security....

  9. 12 CFR 1005.13 - Administrative enforcement; record retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Administrative enforcement; record retention. 1005.13 Section 1005.13 Banks and Banking BUREAU OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL PROTECTION ELECTRONIC FUND TRANSFERS (REGULATION E) General § 1005.13 Administrative enforcement; record retention. (a) Enforcement...

  10. 12 CFR 710.7 - Retention of records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Retention of records. 710.7 Section 710.7 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS VOLUNTARY LIQUIDATION § 710.7 Retention of records. (a) The board of directors or liquidating agent shall appoint...

  11. 12 CFR 710.7 - Retention of records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Retention of records. 710.7 Section 710.7 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS VOLUNTARY LIQUIDATION § 710.7 Retention of records. (a) The board of directors or liquidating agent shall appoint...

  12. A Year-Round Recruitment and Retention Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monetti-Souply, Marta

    Catholic school educators are recognizing the necessity of marketing research for the effective planning of a long-range, proactive recruitment and retention program. A successful plan involves marketing, recruitment and retention, and public relations. Part I of this booklet outlines steps for the initiation of a marketing plan and provides…

  13. 47 CFR 2.955 - Retention of records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Retention of records. 2.955 Section 2.955 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL FREQUENCY ALLOCATIONS AND RADIO TREATY MATTERS; GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS Equipment Authorization Procedures Verification § 2.955 Retention of records. (a) For each equipment subject...

  14. 12 CFR 230.9 - Enforcement and record retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Enforcement and record retention. 230.9 Section 230.9 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM TRUTH IN SAVINGS (REGULATION DD) § 230.9 Enforcement and record retention. (a)...

  15. 12 CFR 230.9 - Enforcement and record retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Enforcement and record retention. 230.9 Section 230.9 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) TRUTH IN SAVINGS (REGULATION DD) § 230.9 Enforcement and record retention....

  16. 12 CFR 230.9 - Enforcement and record retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Enforcement and record retention. 230.9 Section 230.9 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) TRUTH IN SAVINGS (REGULATION DD) § 230.9 Enforcement and record retention....

  17. 12 CFR 1030.9 - Enforcement and record retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Enforcement and record retention. 1030.9 Section 1030.9 Banks and Banking BUREAU OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL PROTECTION TRUTH IN SAVINGS (REGULATION DD) § 1030.9 Enforcement and record retention. (a) Administrative enforcement. Section 270 of the act (12...

  18. 12 CFR 1030.9 - Enforcement and record retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 9 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Enforcement and record retention. 1030.9 Section 1030.9 Banks and Banking BUREAU OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL PROTECTION TRUTH IN SAVINGS (REGULATION DD) § 1030.9 Enforcement and record retention. (a) Administrative enforcement. Section 270 of the act (12...

  19. 12 CFR 230.9 - Enforcement and record retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Enforcement and record retention. 230.9 Section 230.9 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) TRUTH IN SAVINGS (REGULATION DD) § 230.9 Enforcement and record retention....

  20. 12 CFR 1030.9 - Enforcement and record retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Enforcement and record retention. 1030.9 Section 1030.9 Banks and Banking BUREAU OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL PROTECTION TRUTH IN SAVINGS (REGULATION DD) § 1030.9 Enforcement and record retention. (a) Administrative enforcement. Section 270 of the act (12...

  1. Increasing Retention of Main Ideas through Questioning Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Bernice Y. L.

    1979-01-01

    Results of the study involving 30 learning disabled and 30 normally achieving fifth graders indicated that questions increase the retention of main ideas in learning disabled children; however, questions had little effect on the retention of main ideas in normally achieving children. (SBH)

  2. 49 CFR 1244.6 - Retention of files.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Retention of files. 1244.6 Section 1244.6... PROPERTY-RAILROADS § 1244.6 Retention of files. (a) Subject railroads which submit waybill sample data by... transit waybills, for a minimum period of four years. (b) This file of retained waybills shall...

  3. 27 CFR 20.265 - Retention of invoices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Retention of invoices. 20.265 Section 20.265 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL DISTRIBUTION AND USE OF DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Records and Reports § 20.265 Retention of invoices. (a)...

  4. Perceptions of the Impact of School Administrators on Teacher Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knight, Zsa Zsa L.

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative study investigated the behaviors of administrators and their impact on teacher retention. Teachers' perceptions were obtained in order to gain further understanding of the impact that administrators have on teachers' job satisfaction as well as of administrators' motivation to increase teacher retention. According…

  5. 27 CFR 20.265 - Retention of invoices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Retention of invoices. 20.265 Section 20.265 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTRIBUTION AND USE OF DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Records and Reports § 20.265 Retention of invoices. (a)...

  6. When Retention Is Recommended, What Should Parents Do? ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, Anne S.

    Each year, many teachers face the problem of where to place children who do not fit into the rest of the class. Retention is an option that is frequently considered for these children. Children considered for retention often have poor academic skills, are small in stature or the youngest in the grade, have moved or been absent frequently, do…

  7. 49 CFR 219.901 - Retention of alcohol testing records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Retention of alcohol testing records. 219.901... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE Recordkeeping Requirements § 219.901 Retention of alcohol testing records. (a) General requirement. In addition to the records required to...

  8. 49 CFR 219.901 - Retention of alcohol testing records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Retention of alcohol testing records. 219.901... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE Recordkeeping Requirements § 219.901 Retention of alcohol testing records. (a) General requirement. In addition to the records required to...

  9. 49 CFR 219.901 - Retention of alcohol testing records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Retention of alcohol testing records. 219.901... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE Recordkeeping Requirements § 219.901 Retention of alcohol testing records. (a) General requirement. In addition to the records required to...

  10. Retention of Nontraditional Students: A Quantitative Research Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nichols, Shirley J.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative correlational research study was to investigate, describe, and measure factors influencing retention of nontraditional first and second year students at a university located in the Midwestern United States. Retention of adult students has become a major issue for many institutions of higher education and many…

  11. Keeping Students in Higher Education: Successful Practices & Strategies for Retention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moxley, David; Najor-Durack, Anwar; Dumbrigue, Cecille

    This book explores the issues related to dropouts from higher education and presents a guide to identifying problems and developing practical solutions to the problems of retaining students. The chapters of part 1, The Challenge of Retention, are: (1) Keeping Students in Higher Education: A Pathway for Retention; and (2) A Student-Centered…

  12. 43 CFR 2410.2 - Relative value, disposal or retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Relative value, disposal or retention. 2410.2 Section 2410.2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF... CLASSIFICATIONS General Criteria § 2410.2 Relative value, disposal or retention. When, under the criteria of...

  13. 43 CFR 2410.2 - Relative value, disposal or retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Relative value, disposal or retention. 2410.2 Section 2410.2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF... CLASSIFICATIONS General Criteria § 2410.2 Relative value, disposal or retention. When, under the criteria of...

  14. 14 CFR 374a.7 - Record retention requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Record retention requirements. 374a.7 Section 374a.7 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) SPECIAL REGULATIONS EXTENSION OF CREDIT BY AIRLINES TO FEDERAL POLITICAL CANDIDATES § 374a.7 Record retention requirements. (a) Every...

  15. 49 CFR 219.901 - Retention of alcohol testing records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Retention of alcohol testing records. 219.901... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE Recordkeeping Requirements § 219.901 Retention of alcohol testing records. (a) General requirement. In addition to the records required to...

  16. 49 CFR 219.901 - Retention of alcohol testing records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Retention of alcohol testing records. 219.901... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE Recordkeeping Requirements § 219.901 Retention of alcohol testing records. (a) General requirement. In addition to the records required to...

  17. 7 CFR 1770.5 - Periods of retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Periods of retention. 1770.5 Section 1770.5 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ACCOUNTING REQUIREMENTS FOR RUS TELECOMMUNICATIONS BORROWERS Preservation of Records § 1770.5 Periods of retention. (a)...

  18. 43 CFR 2410.2 - Relative value, disposal or retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Relative value, disposal or retention... CLASSIFICATIONS General Criteria § 2410.2 Relative value, disposal or retention. When, under the criteria of this... of disposal, or for more than one form of disposal, the relative scarcity of the values involved...

  19. 10 CFR 36.81 - Records and retention periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Records and retention periods. 36.81 Section 36.81 Energy... Records and retention periods. The licensee shall maintain the following records at the irradiator for the...) Records on the design checks required by § 36.39 and the construction control checks as required by §...

  20. Recruitment, Retention, and Mentoring Faculty of Color: The Chronicle Continues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Chasity Q.

    2008-01-01

    Faculty of color continue to face challenges with recruitment, retention, and mentoring in academe. This article addresses issues that faculty of color in academe often face. It explores recruitment efforts and barriers and addresses issues associated with retention and obstructions to promotion and tenure. The article culminates with an…

  1. Catholic School Principal Job Satisfaction: Keys to Retention and Recruitment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraser, Jennifer; Brock, Barbara L.

    2006-01-01

    This article presents a study on principal retention in New South Wales, Australia. Factors in job retention included economic security, role enjoyment, and the opportunity to contribute. Disincentives to the principalship included lack of support from the employing authority, inadequate pay, isolation, growing responsibilities, difficult parents,…

  2. Enrollment Management: Perspectives on Student Retention (Part I)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalsbeek, David H.; Hossler, Donald

    2010-01-01

    Among the earliest principles and premises of enrollment management as it evolved in concept and practice was that student retention is as critical as new student recruitment in achieving an institution's preferred enrollment profile. Over recent decades, student retention has been one of the most studied aspects of college enrollment dynamics,…

  3. Preventing Retention: First Grade Classroom Instruction and Student Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dombek, Jennifer Lucas; Connor, Carol McDonald

    2012-01-01

    Retention is a frequently used strategy to support children who are struggling academically. However, the strategy is costly, and research findings with regard to positive outcomes are mixed. This study examined whether efficacious reading instruction might reduce rates of retention in first grade. We also evaluated the reading instruction the…

  4. 24 CFR 990.305 - Retention of excess revenues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Retention of excess revenues. 990... Resident Management Corporations (RMCs) § 990.305 Retention of excess revenues. (a) Any income generated by... by the PHA under the management contract. (c) Any revenues retained by an RMC under this section...

  5. 42 CFR 35.31 - Retention by patients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Retention by patients. 35.31 Section 35.31 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICAL CARE AND EXAMINATIONS HOSPITAL AND STATION MANAGEMENT Disposition of Articles Produced by Patients § 35.31 Retention by...

  6. 42 CFR 35.31 - Retention by patients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Retention by patients. 35.31 Section 35.31 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICAL CARE AND EXAMINATIONS HOSPITAL AND STATION MANAGEMENT Disposition of Articles Produced by Patients § 35.31 Retention by...

  7. 42 CFR 35.31 - Retention by patients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Retention by patients. 35.31 Section 35.31 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICAL CARE AND EXAMINATIONS HOSPITAL AND STATION MANAGEMENT Disposition of Articles Produced by Patients § 35.31 Retention by...

  8. 42 CFR 35.31 - Retention by patients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Retention by patients. 35.31 Section 35.31 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICAL CARE AND EXAMINATIONS HOSPITAL AND STATION MANAGEMENT Disposition of Articles Produced by Patients § 35.31 Retention by...

  9. 21 CFR 312.62 - Investigator recordkeeping and record retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... supporting data including, for example, signed and dated consent forms and medical records including, for... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Investigator recordkeeping and record retention... and Investigators § 312.62 Investigator recordkeeping and record retention. (a) Disposition of...

  10. 21 CFR 312.62 - Investigator recordkeeping and record retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... supporting data including, for example, signed and dated consent forms and medical records including, for... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Investigator recordkeeping and record retention... and Investigators § 312.62 Investigator recordkeeping and record retention. (a) Disposition of...

  11. 21 CFR 312.62 - Investigator recordkeeping and record retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... supporting data including, for example, signed and dated consent forms and medical records including, for... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Investigator recordkeeping and record retention... and Investigators § 312.62 Investigator recordkeeping and record retention. (a) Disposition of...

  12. 21 CFR 312.62 - Investigator recordkeeping and record retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... supporting data including, for example, signed and dated consent forms and medical records including, for... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Investigator recordkeeping and record retention... and Investigators § 312.62 Investigator recordkeeping and record retention. (a) Disposition of...

  13. 42 CFR 35.31 - Retention by patients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Retention by patients. 35.31 Section 35.31 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICAL CARE AND EXAMINATIONS HOSPITAL AND STATION MANAGEMENT Disposition of Articles Produced by Patients § 35.31 Retention by...

  14. 39 CFR 262.6 - Retention and disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Retention and disposal. 262.6 Section 262.6 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE ORGANIZATION AND ADMINISTRATION RECORDS AND INFORMATION MANAGEMENT DEFINITIONS § 262.6 Retention and disposal. (a) Records control schedule. A directive describing...

  15. 21 CFR 312.62 - Investigator recordkeeping and record retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Investigator recordkeeping and record retention... and Investigators § 312.62 Investigator recordkeeping and record retention. (a) Disposition of drug. An investigator is required to maintain adequate records of the disposition of the drug,...

  16. 39 CFR 262.6 - Retention and disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Retention and disposal. 262.6 Section 262.6 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE ORGANIZATION AND ADMINISTRATION RECORDS AND INFORMATION MANAGEMENT DEFINITIONS § 262.6 Retention and disposal. (a) Records control schedule. A directive describing records series that are maintained by...

  17. 39 CFR 262.6 - Retention and disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Retention and disposal. 262.6 Section 262.6 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE ORGANIZATION AND ADMINISTRATION RECORDS AND INFORMATION MANAGEMENT DEFINITIONS § 262.6 Retention and disposal. (a) Records control schedule. A directive describing records series that are maintained by...

  18. Teacher Beliefs regarding Grade Retention in an Urban Elementary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilmore-Hook, Toni

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if exposure to a research-based presentation on grade retention, including the academic, socio-emotional and behavioral outcomes, would yield a change in teacher beliefs regarding retention as an intervention strategy. Teachers from a small urban school district were asked to complete a pre-survey, view a…

  19. Flunking Grades: Research and Policies on Retention. Education Policy Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shepard, Lorrie A., Ed.; Smith, Mary Lee, Ed.

    This book on the topic of flunking and grade retention comprises the following articles: (1) "Introduction and Overview" (Lorrie A. Shepard and Mary Lee Smith); (2) "Grade Level Retention Effects: A Meta-Analysis of Research Studies" (C. Thomas Holmes); (3) "Repeating and Dropping Out of School" (James B. Grissom and Lorrie A. Shepard); (4) "A…

  20. 12 CFR Appendix A to Part 749 - Record Retention Guidelines

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Record Retention Guidelines A Appendix A to Part 749 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS RECORDS PRESERVATION PROGRAM AND APPENDICES-RECORD RETENTION GUIDELINES; CATASTROPHIC ACT...

  1. Retention Initiative for Unscheduled Sophomores and Unscheduled Readmits.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karp, Rashelle; Logue, Rose

    2003-01-01

    In an attempt to increase student retention, phone calls were made by a university to non-returning sophomores and students who had applied for readmission after a hiatus. The purpose was to facilitate students' registration for classes, and thus, their return to campus. The strategy proved effective as a retention device and provided useful…

  2. 19 CFR 111.23 - Retention of records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Retention of records. 111.23 Section 111.23... TREASURY CUSTOMS BROKERS Duties and Responsibilities of Customs Brokers § 111.23 Retention of records. (a... client” as defined in § 111.29(b)(2)(ii), whichever period is later. When merchandise is withdrawn from...

  3. 49 CFR 194.111 - Response plan retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Response plan retention. 194.111 Section 194.111 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... Response Plans § 194.111 Response plan retention. (a) Each operator shall maintain relevant portions of...

  4. 47 CFR 5.121 - Retention of station records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Retention of station records. 5.121 Section 5.121 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL EXPERIMENTAL RADIO SERVICE (OTHER THAN BROADCAST) Technical Standards and Operating Requirements § 5.121 Retention of station records....

  5. 47 CFR 5.121 - Retention of station records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Retention of station records. 5.121 Section 5.121 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL EXPERIMENTAL RADIO SERVICE (OTHER THAN BROADCAST) Technical Standards and Operating Requirements § 5.121 Retention of station records....

  6. 47 CFR 5.121 - Retention of station records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Retention of station records. 5.121 Section 5.121 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL EXPERIMENTAL RADIO SERVICE (OTHER THAN BROADCAST) Technical Standards and Operating Requirements § 5.121 Retention of station records....

  7. 34 CFR 691.82 - Maintenance and retention of records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... retention and examination provisions in this part and in 34 CFR 668.24. (b) For any disputed expenditures in... 34 Education 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Maintenance and retention of records. 691.82 Section 691.82 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE...

  8. 46 CFR 109.415 - Retention of records after casualty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Retention of records after casualty. 109.415 Section 109.415 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS OPERATIONS Reports, Notifications, and Records Reports and Notifications § 109.415 Retention of records after casualty. (a) The owner,...

  9. 32 CFR 637.13 - Retention of property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Retention of property. 637.13 Section 637.13 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MILITARY POLICE INVESTIGATION Investigations § 637.13 Retention of...

  10. 32 CFR 637.13 - Retention of property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Retention of property. 637.13 Section 637.13 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MILITARY POLICE INVESTIGATION Investigations § 637.13 Retention of...

  11. 32 CFR 637.13 - Retention of property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Retention of property. 637.13 Section 637.13 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MILITARY POLICE INVESTIGATION Investigations § 637.13 Retention of...

  12. 32 CFR 637.13 - Retention of property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Retention of property. 637.13 Section 637.13 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MILITARY POLICE INVESTIGATION Investigations § 637.13 Retention of...

  13. 32 CFR 637.13 - Retention of property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Retention of property. 637.13 Section 637.13 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MILITARY POLICE INVESTIGATION Investigations § 637.13 Retention of...

  14. HPLC retention thermodynamics of grape and wine tannins.

    PubMed

    Barak, Jennifer A; Kennedy, James A

    2013-05-01

    The effect of grape and wine tannin structure on retention thermodynamics under reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography conditions on a polystyrene divinylbenzene column was investigated. On the basis of retention response to temperature, an alternative retention factor was developed to approximate the combined temperature response of the complex, unresolvable tannin mixture. This alternative retention factor was based upon relative tannin peak areas separated by an abrupt change in solvent gradient. Using this alternative retention factor, retention thermodynamics were calculated. Van't Hoff relationships of the natural log of the alternative retention factor against temperature followed Kirchoff's relationship. An inverse quadratic equation was fit to the data, and from this the thermodynamic parameters for tannin retention were calculated. All tannin fractions exhibited exothermic, spontaneous interaction, with enthalpy-entropy compensation observed. Normalizing for tannin size, distinct tannin compositional effects on thermodynamic parameters were observed. The results of this study indicate that HPLC can be valuable for measuring the thermodynamics of tannin interaction with a hydrophobic surface and provides a potentially valuable alternative to calorimetry. Furthermore, the information gathered may provide insight into understanding red wine astringency quality. PMID:23565723

  15. An Emergent Phenomenon of American Indian Postsecondary Transition and Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flynn, Stephen V.; Duncan, Kelly; Jorgensen, Maribeth F.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined 21 American Indian students' postsecondary transition and retention experiences through a phenomenological methodology. Postsecondary transition is the process of leaving home and adjusting to postsecondary education. Postsecondary retention is achieving success and remaining at a university for at least 6 months. Data sources…

  16. Staff Retention. Personnel Management Module. Operational Management Programme. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Peter

    This module on staff retention is intended to show the direct link between problems in staff recruitment and retention and level of job satisfaction in hospitality settings. The material is presented in a self-instructional format in four sections. At the beginning of each section is a statement of the objectives that will be achieved as a result…

  17. Mapping a Retention Index across the Student Continuum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Merwe, C. A.

    2011-01-01

    Student retention is the field of institutional research that has (deservedly) had the most attention. Besides the models proposed by Tinto (1975, 1993), there have been many theoretical and applied papers on many aspects of student retention. These include demographic characteristics, scholastic scores, financial and residential considerations,…

  18. Spacing Effects in Learning: A Temporal Ridgeline of Optimal Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cepeda, Nicholas J.; Vul, Edward; Rohrer, Doug; Wixted, John T.; Pashler, Harold

    2008-01-01

    To achieve enduring retention, people must usually study information on multiple occasions. How does the timing of study events affect retention? Prior research has examined this issue only in a spotty fashion, usually with very short time intervals. To characterize spacing effects over significant durations, over 1,350 individuals were taught a…

  19. 21 CFR 878.4930 - Suture retention device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Suture retention device. 878.4930 Section 878.4930 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4930 Suture retention...

  20. 21 CFR 878.4930 - Suture retention device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Suture retention device. 878.4930 Section 878.4930 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4930 Suture retention...