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1

Advanced Techniques for Constrained Internal Coordinate Molecular Dynamics  

PubMed Central

Internal coordinate molecular dynamics (ICMD) methods provide a more natural description of a protein by using bond, angle and torsional coordinates instead of a Cartesian coordinate representation. Freezing high frequency bonds and angles in the ICMD model gives rise to constrained ICMD (CICMD) models. There are several theoretical aspects that need to be developed in order to make the CICMD method robust and widely usable. In this paper we have designed a new framework for 1) initializing velocities for non-independent CICMD coordinates, 2) efficient computation of center of mass velocity during CICMD simulations, 3) using advanced integrators such as Runge-Kutta, Lobatto and adaptive CVODE for CICMD simulations, and 4) cancelling out the “flying ice cube effect” that sometimes arises in Nosé-Hoover dynamics. The Generalized Newton-Euler Inverse Mass Operator (GNEIMO) method is an implementation of a CICMD method that we have developed to study protein dynamics. GNEIMO allows for a hierarchy of coarse-grained simulation models based on the ability to rigidly constrain any group of atoms. In this paper, we perform tests on the Lobatto and Runge-Kutta integrators to determine optimal simulation parameters. We also implement an adaptive coarse graining tool using the GNEIMO Python interface. This tool enables the secondary structure-guided “freezing and thawing” of degrees of freedom in the molecule on the fly during MD simulations, and is shown to fold four proteins to their native topologies. With these advancements we envision the use of the GNEIMO method in protein structure prediction, structure refinement, and in studying domain motion.

Wagner, Jeffrey R.; Balaraman, Gouthaman S.; Niesen, Michiel J. M.; Larsen, Adrien B.; Jain, Abhinandan; Vaidehi, Nagarajan

2013-01-01

2

Advanced Molecular Biology Techniques Laboratory: A Research-Integrated Approach using Drosophila melanogaster  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This advanced molecular biology laboratory course, which uses a project approach to learning and incorporates an independent research component, was designed to enhance the preparation of students for careers in research, biotechnology and science education and to increase knowledge retention and integration of concepts among upper level biology majors. The students use enhancer trap techniques in Drosophila melanogaster to work on two related projects in a single semester. One project has been carefully worked out to proceed through a set of experiments that take the students from a behavior mutant (flightless), to a cloned and sequenced gene (gene for muscle myosin heavy chain protein), and finally to a study of the protein. This part of the laboratory experience exposes the students to a wide array of molecular biology methodologies and instrumentation commonly used in biotechnology and molecular biology laboratories and demonstrates the logical progression of a research project. The research project starts with mutants which are already available but for which the mutated gene has not yet been discovered. The students will use the techniques that they have learned to clone and sequence the gene and to begin to study the protein. The integration of a research component into this laboratory course will increase students' mastery of the principles of scientific inquiry and their ability to draw on their accumulated knowledge to solve research problems. This course will give students who plan career in research or biotechnology practical experience that mimics the realities of the laboratory setting. It will provide students who are planning careers in education with the background necessary to bring modern technology and inquiry-based learning into the classroom.

Hofstra University (Hofstra University)

2012-01-06

3

Exploration of advanced characterization techniques for molecular composites. Final report, February 1984-January 1985  

SciTech Connect

The techniques of solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance, fluorescence spectroscopy, electron-spin resonance, and x-ray diffraction were applied to characterize aspects of the solid-state structures of rigid-rod polymers and their blends with flexible polymers. NMR and fluorescence spectroscopies were used to investigate the degree to which the rigid rod - flexible polymers blends exist as phase-separated systems. It was found that these materials form primarily phase-segregated structures, a condition that limits the reinforcing potential of rigid rod polymers in molecular composites. Most specimens also reinforcing potential of rigid-rod polymers in molecular composites. Most specimens also exhibited NMR signals indicative of mobile, and presumably lower-molecular-weight, species. It is postulated that these mobile species are either water or residual acid from which the materials are processed. Information regarding the location of the mobile species in the structures exhibited by rigid-rod polymers and their blends with flexible polymers is deduced from NMR. Electron-spin resonance measurements confirmed that free radicals are generated during mechanically stressing rigid-rod polymer fibers. The as-processed fibers contained appreciable levels of free radicals, and annealing at elevated temperatures caused a decrease in the free-radical concentration by a factor of three. X-ray-diffraction experiments were conducted at elevated pressure in a diamond anvil cell. The observed diffraction pattern is suggestive of the formation of a more ordered structure at elevated pressures.

VanderHart, D.L.; Wang, F.W.; Eby, R.K.; Fanconi, B.M.; DeVries, K.L.

1986-02-01

4

[Impact of recent advances in molecular techniques on diagnosing lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs)].  

PubMed

At present there is still a great deficit in the routine aetiological diagnosis of lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs): in most studies more than 50% of cases have no aetiological diagnosis, resulting in prescribing unnecessary or inappropriate antibiotics. A wide variety of diagnostic procedures and techniques are applied to detect the aetiological pathogens of LRTIs. Traditional diagnostic culture methods lack sensitivity, are not feasible in many contexts, and focus only on a few of the large number of aetiological agents. Molecular methods are revolutionizing the diagnostic procedures for managing patients with LRTIs, resulting from a combination of improved sensitivity and specificity, a potential for automatisation and the production of very rapid results. PMID:23299062

Camporese, Alessandro

2012-12-01

5

Advances in Radar Techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Most of the clutter received by L, S, C, X, and Ku band radars obeys a Weibull ditribution. To suppress such Weibull-distributed sea and weather clutter, Weibull CFAR techniques are applied to data taken by an X-band radar using computer in real time. The results show the usefulness of Weibull CFAR.

Sekine, Matsuo

6

Advanced qualification techniques  

SciTech Connect

This paper demonstrates use of the Qualified Manufacturers List (QML) methodology to qualify commercial and military microelectronics for use in space applications. QML ``builds in`` the hardness of product through statistical process control (SPC) of technology parameters relevant to the radiation response, test structure to integrated circuit (IC) correlations, and techniques for extrapolating laboratory test results to low-dose-rate space scenarios. Each of these elements is demonstrated and shown to be a cost-effective alternative to expensive end-of-line IC testing. Several examples of test structured-IC correlations are provided and recent work on complications arising from transistor scaling and geometry is discussed. The use of a 10-keV x-ray wafer-level test system to support SPC and establish ``process capability`` is illustrated and a comparison of 10-keV x-ray and Co{sup 60} gamma irradiations is provided for a wide range of CMOS technologies. The x-ray tester is shown to be cost-effective and its use in lot acceptance/qualification is recommended. Finally, a comparison is provided between MIL-STD-883D, Test Method 1019.4, which governs the testing of packaged semiconductor microcircuits in the DoD, and ESA/SSC Basic Specification No. 22900, Europe`s Total Dose Steady-State Irradiation Test Method. Test Method 1019.4 focuses on conservative estimates of MOS hardness for space and tactical applications, while Basic Specification 22900 focuses on improved simulation of low-dose-rate space environments.

Winokur, P.S; Shaneyfelt, M.R.; Meisenheimer, T.L.; Fleetwood, D.M.

1993-12-01

7

Advanced qualification techniques  

SciTech Connect

This paper demonstrates use of the Qualified Manufacturers List (QML) methodology to qualify commercial and military microelectronics for use in space applications. QML ''builds in'' the hardness of product through statistical process control (SPC) of technology parameters relevant to the radiation response, test structure to integrated circuit (IC) correlations, and techniques for extrapolating laboratory test results to low-dose-rate space scenarios. Each of these elements is demonstrated and shown to be a cost-effective alternative to expensive end-of-line IC testing. Several examples of test structure-to-IC correlations are provided and recent work on complications arising from transistor scaling and geometry is discussed. The use of a 10-keV x-ray wafer-level test system to support SPC and establish ''process capability'' is illustrated and a comparison of 10-kev x-ray wafer-level test system to support SPC and establish ''process capability'' is illustrated and a comparison of 10-keV x-ray and Co[sup 60] gamma irradiations is provided for a wide range of CMOS technologies. The x-ray tester is shown to be cost-effective and its use in lot acceptance/qualification is recommended. Finally, a comparison is provided between MIL-STD-883, Test Method 1019.4, which governs the testing of packaged semiconductor microcircuits in the DoD, and ESA/SCC Basic Specification No. 22900, Europe's Total Dose Steady-State Irradiation Test Method. Test Method 1019.4 focuses on conservative estimates of MOS hardness for space and tactical applications, while Basic Specification 22900 focuses on improved simulation of low-dose-rate space environments.

Winokur, P.S.; Shaneyfelt, M.R.; Meisenheimer, T.L.; Fleetwood, D.M. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States))

1994-06-01

8

Techniques for Molecular Imaging Probe Design  

PubMed Central

Molecular imaging allows clinicians to visualize disease specific molecules, thereby providing relevant information in the diagnosis and treatment of patients. With advances in genomics and proteomics and underlying mechanisms of disease pathology, the number of targets identified has significantly outpaced the number of developed molecular imaging probes. There has been a concerted effort to bridge this gap with multidisciplinary efforts in chemistry, proteomics, physics, material science, and biology; all essential to progress in molecular imaging probe development. In this review, we will discuss target selection, screening techniques and probe optimization with the aim of developing clinically relevant molecularly targeted imaging agents.

Reynolds, Fred; Kelly, Kimberly A.

2011-01-01

9

Overview of recent advances in molecular cardiology  

PubMed Central

Molecular cardiology is a new and fast-growing area of cardiovascular medicine that aims to apply molecular biology techniques for the mechanistic investigation, diagnosis, prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease. As an emerging discipline, it has changed conceptual thinking of cardiovascular development, disease etiology and pathophysiology. Although molecular cardiology is still at a very early stage, it has opened a promising avenue for understanding and controlling cardiovascular disease. With the rapid development and application of molecular biology techniques, scientists and clinicians are closer to curing heart diseases that were thought to be incurable 20 years ago. There clearly is a need for a more thorough understanding of the molecular mechanisms of cardiovascular diseases to promote the advancement of stem cell therapy and gene therapy for heart diseases. The present paper briefly reviews the state-of-the-art techniques in the following areas of molecular cardiology: gene analysis in the diseased heart; transgenic techniques in cardiac research; gene transfer and gene therapy for cardiovascular disease; and stem cell therapy for cardiovascular disease.

Sun, Zhongjie

2006-01-01

10

Advanced ventilator modes and techniques.  

PubMed

In addition to improving gas exchange by mechanical ventilation, minimizing iatrogenic lung injury and making the patient comfortable are important goals. This article reviews advanced ventilator modes and techniques that might help to accomplish these goals. Small tidal volumes (VT) and low ventilation pressure minimize ventilator-induced lung injury. Airway pressure release ventilation and high-frequency oscillatory ventilation may provide lung-protective ventilation in certain patients with refractory hypoxemia. Adaptive support ventilation (ASV) automatically adjusts VT and rate on the basis of the patient's respiratory mechanics to provide "safe" settings. When ventilator output does not match patient respiratory center timing, patient-ventilator asynchrony occurs. Proportional assist ventilation and neutrally adjusted ventilatory assist are unique modes of ventilation that provide ventilatory support in direct proportion to patient effort and therefore may be able to better match patient need and improve comfort. Weaning protocols reduce duration of ventilation and intensive care unit stay. Certain ventilator modes purport to automate part of the ventilator discontinuance process. The ASV progressively reduces support as the patient's lung condition improves, while SmartCare/pressure support (Dräger, Lübeck, Germany) reduces support and then initiates a spontaneous breathing trial. Further research is required to determine the proper place these new modes have in the intensive care unit. PMID:22157490

Haas, Carl F; Bauser, Kimberly A

2012-01-01

11

Advances in multimodality molecular imaging  

PubMed Central

Multimodality molecular imaging using high resolution positron emission tomography (PET) combined with other modalities is now playing a pivotal role in basic and clinical research. The introduction of combined PET/CT systems in clinical setting has revolutionized the practice of diagnostic imaging. The complementarity between the intrinsically aligned anatomic (CT) and functional or metabolic (PET) information provided in a “one-stop shop” and the possibility to use CT images for attenuation correction of the PET data has been the driving force behind the success of this technology. On the other hand, combining PET with Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) in a single gantry is technically more challenging owing to the strong magnetic fields. Nevertheless, significant progress has been made resulting in the design of few preclinical PET systems and one human prototype dedicated for simultaneous PET/MR brain imaging. This paper discusses recent advances in PET instrumentation and the advantages and challenges of multimodality imaging systems. Future opportunities and the challenges facing the adoption of multimodality imaging instrumentation will also be addressed.

Zaidi, Habib; Prasad, Rameshwar

2009-01-01

12

Splitting advancement genioplasty: a new genioplasty technique.  

PubMed

A new genioplasty technique has been described and performed on 16 patients since 1995. The technique has been developed to avoid some undesired results of the current osseous genioplasty techniques and to achieve a more natural appearance in advancement genioplasty. According to the authors' technique, a rectangular part of the outer table of the mentum is split away from the mandible, and is advanced and fixated to the mandible. This technique can be used for advancement cases but not for reduction genioplasty. This technique was performed on 16 patients with only minor complications, including one case of wound dehiscence, one hematoma, and one case of osteomyelitis, which was managed with systemic antibiotic therapy. Aesthetic results were found to be satisfactory according to an evaluation by the authors. When the results were evaluated using pre- and postoperative photos, lip position and projection of the mentum were found to be natural in shape appearance. During the late postoperative period, the new bone formation between the advanced segment and the mandible was demonstrated radiographically. Advantages of the technique include having more contact surfaces for bony healing, a natural position of the lower lip, more natural projection of the mentum, tridimensional movement of the mentum, and improvement in the soft tissue of the neck. The disadvantages of the technique are the potential risk of infection due to dead space from the advancement, manipulation problems during surgery, and possible mental nerve injury. Splitting advancement genioplasty was found to be a useful technique for advancement genioplasty. Splitting advancement genioplasty is a more physiological osteotomy technique than most of osseous genioplasty techniques. PMID:10454320

Celik, M; Tuncer, S; Büyükçayir, I

1999-08-01

13

Advanced Spectroscopy Technique for Biomedicine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This chapter presents an overview of the applications of optical spectroscopy in biomedicine. We focus on the optical design aspects of advanced biomedical spectroscopy systems, Raman spectroscopy system in particular. Detailed components and system integration are provided. As examples, two real-time in vivo Raman spectroscopy systems, one for skin cancer detection and the other for endoscopic lung cancer detection, and an in vivo confocal Raman spectroscopy system for skin assessment are presented. The applications of Raman spectroscopy in cancer diagnosis of the skin, lung, colon, oral cavity, gastrointestinal tract, breast, and cervix are summarized.

Zhao, Jianhua; Zeng, Haishan

14

[The advanced techniques of dentoalveolar surgery].  

PubMed

During the recent decade, the advanced medical technology has brought the rapid development in the dentoalveolar surgery, and the medical concepts of humanity, painless, minimally invasive, safe and comfortable are gradually accepted by the patients and doctors. Many advanced techniques and equipments have been used in the dentoalveolar surgery. This paper would like to make a review on the clinical application and experience of the advanced medical technologies in the tooth extraction, such as the general anaesthetic technique, the nitrous oxide sedative technique, the computer-controlled local anesthesia delivery devices, the electrocardiogram montior, the location of embedded tooth by cone beam CT and minimally invasive surgical technique. Additionally, in this paper we also described the indication, contraindication, advantages and operating essentials of the orthodontic traction technique, ultrasonic bone surgery (piezosurgery) device and the surgery technology for alveolar bone shape and functional preservation in the extraction of tooth. Finally, we introduced the immediate implantation technique used in the dentoalveolar surgery. PMID:25033631

Zhao, Jihong; Huang, Congfa

2014-06-01

15

Molecular targeted therapy for advanced hepatocellular carcinoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Systemic anticancer therapy for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is limited by intrinsic drug resistance and accompanying liver\\u000a dysfunction. However, recent advances in molecular targeted therapy (MTT) have shed light on the treatment of advanced HCC.\\u000a A recent randomized, placebo-controlled trial demonstrated that sorafenib, a multi-target tyrosine kinase inhibitor, prolonged\\u000a overall survival and time-to-progression in patients with advanced HCC. This breakthrough highlights

Ying Chun Shen; Chiun Hsu; Ann Lii Cheng

2007-01-01

16

Advanced measurement techniques, part 1  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In modern laminar flow flight and wind tunnel research, it is important to understand the specific cause(s) of laminar to turbulent boundary layer transition. Such information is crucial to the exploration of the limits of practical application of laminar flow for drag reduction on aircraft. The process of transition involves both the possible modes of disturbance growth, and the environmental conditioning of the instabilities by freestream or surface conditions. The possible modes of disturbance growth include viscous, inviscid, and modes which may bypass these natural ones. Theory provides information on the possible modes of disturbance amplification, but experimentation must be relied upon to determine which of those modes actually dominates the transition process in a given environment. The results to date of research on advanced devices and methods used for the study of transition phenomena in the subsonic and transonic flight and wind tunnel environments are presented.

Holmes, Bruce J.; Carraway, Debra L.; Manuel, Gregory S.; Croom, Cynthia C.

1987-01-01

17

Advanced techniques in hip arthroscopy.  

PubMed

The indications for hip arthroscopy are expanding as the understanding of hip disease increases. Improved instrumentation and technical skills also have facilitated the ability to treat some hip disorders arthroscopically. Femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) is increasingly recognized as a disorder that can lead to progressive intra-articular chondral and labral injury. Although FAI is usually treated through an open approach, limited-open and all-arthroscopic approaches have been described. Various arthroscopic techniques allow treatment of labral and acetabular rim pathology as well as peripheral compartment femoral head-neck abnormalities. Early outcomes of limited-open and all-arthroscopic treatment of FAI are only beginning to be reported but appear to compare favorably with those of open dislocation procedures. Although labral tears traditionally have been treated with simple débridement, concerns have been raised about the consequences of removing the labrum. Modified portal placement and hip-specific suture anchors are now being used in an effort to repair some labral tears. Snapping hip disorders typically are treated nonsurgically. For persistent symptoms, arthroscopic release is successful, compared with open release, and allows additional evaluation of the hip joint during surgery. Diagnosis and management of traumatic and atraumatic hip instability continue to be challenging. Hip arthroscopy has been shown to be effective in the treatment of hip instability in some patients. The extra-articular peritrochanteric space is receiving increased attention. The arthroscopic anatomy has been well defined, but the treatment of greater trochanteric pain syndrome and arthroscopic repair of abductor tendon tears are only beginning to be reported. Improved techniques and longer-term outcomes studies will further define the optimal role of hip arthroscopy. PMID:19385552

Larson, Christopher M; Guanche, Carlos A; Kelly, Bryan T; Clohisy, John C; Ranawat, Anil S

2009-01-01

18

Advances in Molecular Imaging with Ultrasound  

PubMed Central

Ultrasound imaging has long demonstrated utility in the study and measurement of anatomic features and noninvasive observation of blood flow. Within the last decade, advances in molecular biology and contrast agents have allowed researchers to use ultrasound to detect changes in the expression of molecular markers on the vascular endothelium and other intravascular targets. This new technology, referred to as ultrasonic molecular imaging, is still in its infancy. However, in preclinical studies, ultrasonic molecular imaging has shown promise in assessing angiogenesis, inflammation, and thrombus. In this review, we discuss recent advances in microbubble-type contrast agent development, ultrasound technology, and signal processing strategies that have the potential to substantially improve the capabilities and utility of ultrasonic molecular imaging.

Gessner, Ryan; Dayton, Paul A.

2010-01-01

19

Nuclear material investigations by advanced analytical techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Advanced analytical techniques have been used to characterize nuclear materials at the Paul Scherrer Institute during the last decade. The analysed materials ranged from reactor pressure vessel (RPV) steels, Zircaloy claddings to fuel samples. The processes studied included copper cluster build up in RPV steels, corrosion, mechanical and irradiation damage behaviour of PWR and BWR cladding materials as well as fuel defect development. The used advanced techniques included muon spin resonance spectroscopy for zirconium alloy defect characterization while fuel element materials were analysed by techniques derived from neutron and X-ray scattering and absorption spectroscopy.

Degueldre, C.; Kuri, G.; Martin, M.; Froideval, A.; Cammelli, S.; Orlov, A.; Bertsch, J.; Pouchon, M. A.

2010-10-01

20

Recent advances in hybrid molecular imaging systems.  

PubMed

Nuclear medicine imaging methods that use radionuclides, such as positron emission tomography (PET) and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), offer highly sensitive and quantitative tools for the detection and localization of the biochemical and functional abnormalities associated with various diseases. The introduction of dual-modality PET/CT and SPECT/CT systems to the clinical environment in the late 1990s is regarded as a revolutionary advance in modern diagnostic imaging, bringing precise anatomical localization to conventional PET and SPECT imaging techniques and enhancing the quantitation capabilities of these modalities. The great success of PET/CT has also revived interest in the combination of PET and MR scanners, leading to commercially available clinical PET/MR systems. In this article, we review the recent improvements made in these hybrid molecular imaging systems, which have been dramatic in terms of both hardware and software over the past decade. We focus primarily on the hybrid imaging systems that are currently used in clinical practice and the technologies applied in those systems, with emphasis on the efforts to improve their diagnostic performances for musculoskeletal diseases. PMID:24715444

Lee, Jae Sung; Kim, Joong Hyun

2014-04-01

21

Advanced Techniques for MIMO Broadband Communications.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Multiple input multiple output (MIMO) systems can provide high diversity, high data rate or a mix of both, for wireless communications. This report combines both modes and suggests analyses and techniques that advance the state of the art of MIMO systems....

A. Haimovich

2005-01-01

22

Advanced Techniques Using Contrast Media in Neuroimaging  

PubMed Central

This article presents an overview of advanced MRI techniques using contrast media in neuroimaging, focusing on T2*-weighted dynamic susceptibility contrast MR imaging (DSC-MRI) and T1-weighted dynamic contrast-enhanced MR imaging (DCE-MRI). Image acquisition and data processing methods as well as their clinical application in brain tumors, stroke, dementia and multiple sclerosis are discussed.

Ferre, Jean-Christophe; Shiroishi, Mark S.; Law, Meng

2012-01-01

23

A liftoff technique for molecular nanopatterning.  

PubMed

For quantum-dot cellular automata molecular electronic devices, one of the fundamental tasks is to arrange the molecules on a surface in a controlled manner. In this report, we discuss a molecular lift off technique to form nanopatterns toward the development of molecular circuits. In our molecular lift off technique, we use electron beam lithography to form nano-trenches on a polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) film on a SiO2 wafer. This wafer is soaked in a Creutz-Taube ion [(NH3)5Ru(pyrazine)Ru(NH3)5](o-toluenesulfonate)5 (CT5) aqueous solution. After residual PMMA removal, atomic force microscopy is used to investigate the resulting surface. Thirty-five nanometer CT5 lines are demonstrated on a SiO2 surface. Compared with other molecular nanopatterning techniques, ours is both economical and capable of high-resolution. PMID:14598444

Hang, Qingling; Wang, Yuliang; Lieberman, Marya; Bernstein, Gary H

2003-08-01

24

Robust Iris Recognition Using Advanced Correlation Techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The iris is considered one of the most reliable and stable biometrics as it is believed to not change significantly during\\u000a a person’s lifetime. Standard techniques for iris recognition, popularized by Daugman, apply Gabor wavelet analysis for feature\\u000a extraction. In this paper, we consider an alternative method for iris recognition, the use of advanced distortion-tolerant\\u000a correlation filters for robust pattern

Jason Thornton; Marios Savvides; B. V. K. Vijaya Kumar

2005-01-01

25

Advanced Techniques for MRI of Atherosclerotic Plaque  

PubMed Central

This review examines the state of the art in vessel wall imaging by MRI with an emphasis on the biomechanical assessment of atherosclerotic plaque. Three areas of advanced techniques are discussed. First, alternative contrast mechanisms, including susceptibility, magnetization transfer, diffusion and perfusion, are presented in regards to how they facilitate accurate determination of plaque constituents underlying biomechanics. Second, imaging technologies, including hardware and sequences, are reviewed in regards to how they provide the resolution and SNR necessary for determining plaque structure. Finally, techniques for combining MRI data into an overall assessment of plaque biomechanical properties, including wall shear stress and internal plaque strain, are presented. The paper closes with a discussion of the extent to which these techniques have been applied to different arteries commonly targeted by vessel wall MRI.

Kerwin, William S.; Canton, Gador

2011-01-01

26

Advanced Tools and Techniques for Formal Techniques in Aerospace Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This is the final technical report for grant number NAG-1-02101. The title of this grant was "Advanced Tools and Techniques for Formal Techniques In Aerospace Systems". The principal investigator on this grant was Dr. John C. Knight of the Computer Science Department, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia 22904-4740. This report summarizes activities under the grant during the period 7/01/2002 to 9/30/2004. This report is organized as follows. In section 2, the technical background of the grant is summarized. Section 3 lists accomplishments and section 4 lists students funded under the grant. In section 5, we present a list of presentations given at various academic and research institutions about the research conducted. Finally, a list of publications generated under this grant is included in section 6.

Knight, John C.

2005-01-01

27

Advanced decision aiding techniques applicable to space  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

RADC has had an intensive program to show the feasibility of applying advanced technology to Air Force decision aiding situations. Some aspects of the program, such as Satellite Autonomy, are directly applicable to space systems. For example, RADC has shown the feasibility of decision aids that combine the advantages of laser disks and computer generated graphics; decision aids that interface object-oriented programs with expert systems; decision aids that solve path optimization problems; etc. Some of the key techniques that could be used in space applications are reviewed. Current applications are reviewed along with their advantages and disadvantages, and examples are given of possible space applications. The emphasis is to share RADC experience in decision aiding techniques.

Kruchten, Robert J.

1987-01-01

28

Advanced AE Techniques in Composite Materials Research  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Advanced, waveform based acoustic emission (AE) techniques have been successfully used to evaluate damage mechanisms in laboratory testing of composite coupons. An example is presented in which the initiation of transverse matrix cracking was monitored. In these tests, broad band, high fidelity acoustic sensors were used to detect signals which were then digitized and stored for analysis. Analysis techniques were based on plate mode wave propagation characteristics. This approach, more recently referred to as Modal AE, provides an enhanced capability to discriminate and eliminate noise signals from those generated by damage mechanisms. This technique also allows much more precise source location than conventional, threshold crossing arrival time determination techniques. To apply Modal AE concepts to the interpretation of AE on larger composite specimens or structures, the effects of modal wave propagation over larger distances and through structural complexities must be well characterized and understood. To demonstrate these effects, measurements of the far field, peak amplitude attenuation of the extensional and flexural plate mode components of broad band simulated AE signals in large composite panels are discussed. These measurements demonstrated that the flexural mode attenuation is dominated by dispersion effects. Thus, it is significantly affected by the thickness of the composite plate. Furthermore, the flexural mode attenuation can be significantly larger than that of the extensional mode even though its peak amplitude consists of much lower frequency components.

Prosser, William H.

1996-01-01

29

Advances in nanodiagnostic techniques for microbial agents.  

PubMed

Infectious diseases account for millions of sufferings and deaths in both developing as well as developed countries with a substantial economic loss. Massive increase in world population and international travel has facilitated their spread from one part of the world to other areas, making them one of the most significant global health risks. Furthermore, detection of bioterrorism agents in water, food and environmental samples as well traveler's baggage is a great challenge of the time for security purpose. Prevention strategies against infectious agents demand rapid and accurate detection and identification of the causative agents with highest sensitivity which should be equally available in different parts of the globe. Similarly, rapid and early diagnosis of infectious diseases has always been indispensable for their prompt cure and management, which has stimulated scientists to develop highly sophisticated techniques over centuries and the efforts continue unabated. Conventional diagnostic techniques are time consuming, tedious, expensive, less sensitive, and unsuitable for field situations. Nanodiagnostic assays have been promising for early, sensitive, point-of-care and cost-effective detection of microbial agents. There has been an explosive research in this area of science in last two decades yielding highly fascinating results. This review highlights some of the advancements made in the field of nanotechnology based assays for microbial detection since 2005 along with providing the basic understanding. PMID:24012709

Syed, Muhammad Ali

2014-01-15

30

Molecular targeted therapy for advanced gastric cancer  

PubMed Central

Although medical treatment has been shown to improve quality of life and prolong survival, no significant progress has been made in the treatment of advanced gastric cancer (AGC) within the last two decades. Thus, the optimum standard first-line chemotherapy regimen for AGC remains debatable, and most responses to chemotherapy are partial and of short duration; the median survival is approximately 7 to 11 months, and survival at 2 years is exceptionally > 10%. Recently, remarkable progress in tumor biology has led to the development of new agents that target critical aspects of oncogenic pathways. For AGC, many molecular targeting agents have been evaluated in international randomized studies, and trastuzumab, an anti-HER-2 monoclonal antibody, has shown antitumor activity against HER-2-positive AGC. However, this benefit is limited to only ~20% of patients with AGC (patients with HER-2-positive AGC). Therefore, there remains a critical need for both the development of more effective agents and the identification of molecular predictive and prognostic markers to select those patients who will benefit most from specific chemotherapeutic regimens and targeted therapies.

2013-01-01

31

Advanced integrated technique in breast cancer thermography.  

PubMed

Thermography is a passive and non-contact imaging technique used extensively in the medical arena, but in relation to breast care, it has not been accepted as being on a par with mammography. This paper proposes the analysis of thermograms with the use of artificial neural networks (ANN) and bio-statistical methods, including regression and receiver operating characteristics (ROC). It is desired that through these approaches, highly accurate diagnosis using thermography techniques can be achieved. The suggested method is a multi-pronged approach comprising of linear regression, radial basis function network (RBFN) and ROC analysis. It is a novel, integrative and powerful technique that can be used to analyse large amounts of complicated measured data such as temperature values extracted from abnormal and healthy breast thermograms. The use of regression allows the correlation between the variables and the actual health status of the subject, which is decided by other traditional means such as the gold standard of mammography for breast cancer detection. This is important as it helps to select the appropriate variables to be used as inputs for building the neural network. RBFN is next trained to produce the desired outcome that is either positive or negative. When this is done, the RBFN possess the ability to predict the outcome when there are new input variables. The advantages of using RBFN include fast training of superior classification and decision-making abilities as compared to other networks such as backpropagation. Lastly, ROC is applied to evaluate the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of the outcome for the RBFN test files. The proposed technique has an accuracy rate of 80.95%, with 100% sensitivity and 70.6% specificity in identifying breast cancer. The results are promising as compared to clinical examination by experienced radiologists, which has an accuracy rate of approximately 60-70%. To sum up, technological advances in the field of infrared thermography over the last 20 years warrant a re-evaluation of the use of high-resolution digital thermographic camera systems in the diagnosis and management of breast cancer. Thermography seeks to identify the presence of a tumour by the elevated temperature associated with increase blood flow and cellular activity. Of particular interest would be investigation in younger women and men, for whom mammography is either unsuitable or of limited effectiveness. The paper evaluated the high-definition digital infrared thermographic technology and knowledge base; and supports the development of future diagnostic and therapeutic services in breast cancer imaging. Through the use of integrative ANN and bio-statistical methods, advances are made in thermography application with regard to achieving a higher level of consistency. For breast cancer care, it has become possible to use thermography as a powerful adjunct and biomarker tool, together with mammography for diagnosis purposes. PMID:17852648

Ng, E Y K; Kee, E C

2008-01-01

32

Advances in structural and molecular neuroimaging in Alzheimer's disease.  

PubMed

Longer life expectancies lead to increases in the prevalence of age-associated illnesses. The number of Australians with dementia is predicted to rise, from 234,000 in 2009 to over 1 million by 2050, as a result of the increased prevalence of Alzheimer's disease (AD), the leading cause of dementia in the elderly. Early diagnosis of AD will become more important as disease-modifying therapies emerge within the next decade. Advances in molecular neuroimaging with amyloid-?-specific radioligands for positron emission tomography, aided by magnetic resonance imaging techniques, allow detection of AD years before symptoms of dementia develop. Longitudinal prospective studies, such as the Australian Imaging Biomarkers and Lifestyle (AIBL) study of ageing, will determine the sensitivity and specificity of these analysis techniques for diagnosing AD and predicting cognitive decline. PMID:21401483

Ellis, Kathryn A; Rowe, Christopher C; Szoeke, Cassandra E I; Villemagne, Victor L; Ames, David; Chételat, Gaël; Martins, Ralph N; Masters, Colin L; Fripp, Jurgen; Acosta, Oscar; Raniga, Parnesh; Bourgeat, Pierrick T; Salvado, Olivier

2011-02-21

33

Advances in molecular imaging of pancreatic beta cells.  

PubMed

The development of non-invasive imaging methods for early diagnosis of beta cell associated metabolic diseases, including type 1 and type 2 diabetes (T1D and T2D), has recently drawn interest from the molecular imaging community and clinical investigators. Due to the challenges imposed by the location of the pancreas, the sparsely dispersed beta cell population within the pancreas, and the poor understanding of the pathogenesis of the diseases, clinical diagnosis of beta cell abnormalities is still limited. Current diagnostic methods are invasive, often inaccurate, and usually performed post-onset of the disease. Advances in imaging techniques for probing beta cell mass and function are needed to address this critical health care problem. A variety of imaging techniques have been tested for the assessment of pancreatic beta cell islets. Here we discuss current advances in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), bioluminescence imaging (BLI), and nuclear imaging for the study of beta cell diseases. Spurred by early successes in nuclear imaging techniques for beta cells, especially positron emission tomography (PET), the need for beta cell specific ligands has expanded. Progress for obtaining such ligands is presented. We report our preliminary efforts of developing such a peptidic ligand for PET imaging of pancreatic beta cells. PMID:18508529

Lin, Mai; Lubag, Angelo; McGuire, Michael J; Seliounine, Serguei Y; Tsyganov, Edward N; Antich, Peter P; Sherry, A Dean; Brown, Kathlynn C; Sun, Xiankai

2008-01-01

34

ADVANCES IN MOLECULAR IMAGING OF PANCREATIC BETA CELLS  

PubMed Central

The development of non-invasive imaging methods for early diagnosis of the beta cell associated metabolic diseases, including type 1 and type 2 diabetes (T1D and T2D), has recently drawn considerable interest from the molecular imaging community as well as clinical investigators. Due to the challenges imposed by the location of the pancreas, the sparsely dispersed beta cell population within the pancreas, and the poor understanding of the pathogenesis of the diseases, clinical diagnosis of beta cell abnormalities is still limited. Current diagnostic methods are invasive, often inaccurate, and usually performed post-onset of the disease. Advances in imaging techniques for probing beta cell mass and function are needed to address this critical health care problem. A variety of currently available imaging techniques have been tested for the assessment of the pancreatic beta cell islets. Here we discuss the current advances in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), bioluminescence imaging (BLI), and nuclear imaging for the study of beta cell diseases. Spurred by early successes in nuclear imaging techniques for beta cells, especially positron emission tomography (PET), the need for beta cell specific ligands has expanded. Progress in the field for obtaining such ligands is presented. Additionally, we report our preliminary efforts of developing such a peptidic ligand for PET imaging of the pancreatic beta cells.

Lin, Mai; Lubag, Angelo; McGuire, Michael J.; Seliounine, Serguei Y.; Tsyganov, Edward N.; Antich, Peter P.; Sherry, A. Dean; Brown, Kathlynn C.; Sun, Xiankai

2009-01-01

35

Molecular genetic diagnostic techniques in choroideremia  

PubMed Central

Purpose To optimize and streamline molecular genetics techniques in diagnosing choroideremia (CHM). Methods PCR primers were designed for exons 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, and 15 of the CHM gene. Each PCR protocol was optimized so that all exons could be amplified with the same component ratio and PCR conditions. Sense and antisense primers were tested for their ability to be used as sequencing primers. Fibroblast cells were cultured, and an immunoblot analysis was performed to detect the presence or absence of Rab escort protein 1 (REP-1) in a suspected CHM patient sample when no mutation was detected with sequencing. Multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) of the CHM gene was performed and used to detect deletions and duplications in affected males and female carriers. RNA analysis using cDNA was used to detect the presence or absence of the CHM transcript and to search for splice defects. Results The newly designed PCR primers allow for more efficient PCR preparation and sequencing to detect point mutations in affected males and female carriers. Immunoblot successfully detects the absence of REP-1 in a CHM patient. MLPA identifies deletions and duplications spanning multiple exons in the CHM gene. RNA analysis aids in detecting splice variants. Conclusions The development of new molecular biology techniques and ongoing optimization of existing methods allows for an improved integrated approach to confirm CHM diagnosis and carrier status in consideration of patient family history and available patient sample materials. CHM can be confirmed with an immunoblot assay. To detect the molecular cause of CHM, an examination of the genomic DNA or the mRNA must be performed. Presymptomatic carriers with no identifiable fundus signs can be identified only through molecular analysis of genomic DNA or through quantitative assays.

Furgoch, Mira J.B.; Mewes-Ares, Jacqueline; Radziwon, Alina

2014-01-01

36

Bringing Advanced Computational Techniques to Energy Research  

SciTech Connect

Please find attached our final technical report for the BACTER Institute award. BACTER was created as a graduate and postdoctoral training program for the advancement of computational biology applied to questions of relevance to bioenergy research.

Mitchell, Julie C

2012-11-17

37

Engineering molecular mechanics: an efficient static high temperature molecular simulation technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inspired by the need for an efficient molecular simulation technique, we have developed engineering molecular mechanics (EMM) as an alternative molecular simulation technique to model high temperature (T>0 K) phenomena. EMM simulations are significantly more computationally efficient than conventional techniques such as molecular dynamics simulations. The advantage of EMM is achieved by converting the dynamic atomistic system at high temperature

Arun K. Subramaniyan; C. T. Sun

2008-01-01

38

Automatic Molecular Design using Evolutionary Techniques  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Molecular nanotechnology is the precise, three-dimensional control of materials and devices at the atomic scale. An important part of nanotechnology is the design of molecules for specific purposes. This paper describes early results using genetic software techniques to automatically design molecules under the control of a fitness function. The fitness function must be capable of determining which of two arbitrary molecules is better for a specific task. The software begins by generating a population of random molecules. The population is then evolved towards greater fitness by randomly combining parts of the better individuals to create new molecules. These new molecules then replace some of the worst molecules in the population. The unique aspect of our approach is that we apply genetic crossover to molecules represented by graphs, i.e., sets of atoms and the bonds that connect them. We present evidence suggesting that crossover alone, operating on graphs, can evolve any possible molecule given an appropriate fitness function and a population containing both rings and chains. Prior work evolved strings or trees that were subsequently processed to generate molecular graphs. In principle, genetic graph software should be able to evolve other graph representable systems such as circuits, transportation networks, metabolic pathways, computer networks, etc.

Globus, Al; Lawton, John; Wipke, Todd; Saini, Subhash (Technical Monitor)

1998-01-01

39

Data Mining Techniques for Mortality at Advanced Age  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper addresses issues and techniques for advanced age mortality study using data mining techniques, a new technology on the horizon with great actuarial potential. Data mining is an interactive information discovery process that includes data acquisition, data integration, data exploration, model building, and model validation. Both expert opinion and information discovery techniques are integrated together to guide each step

Lijia Guo; Morgan C. Wang

40

Multidirectional mobilities: Advanced measurement techniques and applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Today high noise-and-vibration comfort has become a quality sign of products in sectors such as the automotive industry, aircraft, components, households and manufacturing. Consequently, already in the design phase of products, tools are required to predict the final vibration and noise levels. These tools have to be applicable over a wide frequency range with sufficient accuracy. During recent decades a variety of tools have been developed such as transfer path analysis (TPA), input force estimation, substructuring, coupling by frequency response functions (FRF) and hybrid modelling. While these methods have a well-developed theoretical basis, their application combined with experimental data often suffers from a lack of information concerning rotational DOFs. In order to measure response in all 6 DOFs (including rotation), a sensor has been developed, whose special features are discussed in the thesis. This transducer simplifies the response measurements, although in practice the excitation of moments appears to be more difficult. Several excitation techniques have been developed to enable measurement of multidirectional mobilities. For rapid and simple measurement of the loaded mobility matrix, a MIMO (Multiple Input Multiple Output) technique is used. The technique has been tested and validated on several structures of different complexity. A second technique for measuring the loaded 6-by-6 mobility matrix has been developed. This technique employs a model of the excitation set-up, and with this model the mobility matrix is determined from sequential measurements. Measurements on ``real'' structures show that both techniques give results of similar quality, and both are recommended for practical use. As a further step, a technique for measuring the unloaded mobilities is presented. It employs the measured loaded mobility matrix in order to calculate compensation forces and moments, which are later applied in order to compensate for the loading of the measurement equipment. The developed measurement techniques have been used in a hybrid coupling of a plate-and-beam structure to study different aspects of the coupling technique. Results show that RDOFs are crucial and have to be included in this case. The importance of stiffness residuals when mobilities are estimated from modal superposition is demonstrated. Finally it is shown that proper curve fitting can correct errors from inconsistently measured data.

Ivarsson, Lars Holger

41

Recent Advances in Molecular Scale Electronics  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes four significant breakthroughs in the syntheses and test- ing of molecular scale electronic devices. The 16-mer of oligo(2-dodecylphenylene ethy- nylene) was prepared on Merrifield's resin using the iterative divergent\\/convergent approach which significantly streamlines the preparation of this molecular scale wire. The formation of self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) and multilayers on gold surfaces of rigid rod conjugated oligomers that

JAMES M. TOUR; WILLIAM A. REINERTH; LEROY JONES II; TIMOTHY P. BURGIN; CHONG-WU ZHOU; C. J. MULLER; M. R. DESHPANDE; MARK A. REEDc

1998-01-01

42

[Utility of molecular biology techniques in the diagnosis of sexually transmitted diseases and genital infections].  

PubMed

Historically, the diagnosis of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) has been difficult. The introduction of molecular biology techniques in microbiological diagnosis and their application to non-invasive samples has produced significant advances in the diagnosis of these diseases. Overall, detection of Neisseria gonorrhoeae by molecular biology techniques provides a presumptive diagnosis and requires confirmation by culture in areas with a low prevalence. For Chlamydia trachomatis infections, these techniques are considered to be the most sensitive and specific procedures for mass screening studies, as well as for the diagnosis of symptomatic patients. Diagnosis of Mycoplasma genitalium infection by culture is very slow and consequently molecular techniques are the only procedures that can provide relevant diagnostic information. For Treponema pallidum, molecular techniques can provide direct benefits in the diagnosis of infection. Molecular techniques are not established for the routine diagnosis of donovanosis, but can be recommended when performed by experts. Molecular methods are advisable in Haemophilus ducreyi, because of the difficulties of culture and its low sensitivity. In genital herpes, molecular techniques have begun to be recommended for routine diagnosis and could soon become the technique of choice. For other genital infections, bacterial vaginosis, vulvovaginal candidosis and trichomoniasis, diagnosis by molecular methods is poorly established. With genital warts, techniques available for screening and genotyping of endocervical samples could be used for certain populations, but are not validated for this purpose. PMID:19195446

Otero Guerra, Luis; Lepe Jiménez, José Antonio; Blanco Galán, María Antonia; Aznar Martín, Javier; Vázquez Valdés, Fernando

2008-07-01

43

Advances in Radar Signal Processing Techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Weibull-distributed clutter are reviewed. Most of the clutter received by L, S, X and Ku band radars obeys a Weibull distribution when reflectors are terrain, sea, sea-ice and rain clouds. Clutter suppression techniques for Weibull clutter are also reviewed. Especially, Weibull CFAR is emphasized.

Sekine, Matsuo; Sayama, Shuji

44

Advanced Interconnection and Packaging Techniques for Integrated Circuits.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of Phase I of this program was to design, develop, fabricate, and test advanced interconnection and packaging techniques for complex hybrid microassemblies. The vehicle for accomplishing this objective was a package which accommodates a 1 x 1 ...

R. W. Ilgenfritz J. S. Keohane D. W. Walter

1972-01-01

45

Advanced Visual Medicine: Techniques, Applications and Software  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the largest application domains of visualization is medicine. 3D visualization techniques are essential in both daily health-care practice and in clinical research. In particular, recent developments in image acquisition, diagnostic procedures and minimally-invasive surgery enable and require an ad- vanced planning and intra-operative support through computer science methods. With the increased spatial and temporal resolution, 3D visualizations become

S. Oeltze; F. Link; B. Preim; A. Vilanova Bartrolí; S. Zachow; D. Bartz

46

Advanced optical characterization techniques for borophosphosilicate films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

FTIR spectra of borophosphosilicate (BPSG) films which are obtained by metal backed configurations are compared to those obtained by the conventional normal incidence transmission geometry. Sensitivity advantages are demonstrated for both hydrogen incorporation and dopant analyses. P-polarized measurements are explored for preferential excitation of vibrational modes. Reflectance measurements of BPSG films on silicon by FTIR and by the emerging techniques of spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) both in the UV-visible and mid-IR spectral ranges are reviewed. The use of differential and derivative spectral data anlysis is illustrated for investigating structural and compositional changes which occur from film densification and in the course of film storage.

Carpio, Ronald A.; Taylor, Jon

1995-09-01

47

Advanced analysis techniques for uranium assay  

SciTech Connect

Uranium has a negligible passive neutron emission rate making its assay practicable only with an active interrogation method. The active interrogation uses external neutron sources to induce fission events in the uranium in order to determine the mass. This technique requires careful calibration with standards that are representative of the items to be assayed. The samples to be measured are not always well represented by the available standards which often leads to large biases. A technique of active multiplicity counting is being developed to reduce some of these assay difficulties. Active multiplicity counting uses the measured doubles and triples count rates to determine the neutron multiplication (f4) and the product of the source-sample coupling ( C ) and the 235U mass (m). Since the 35U mass always appears in the multiplicity equations as the product of Cm, the coupling needs to be determined before the mass can be known. A relationship has been developed that relates the coupling to the neutron multiplication. The relationship is based on both an analytical derivation and also on empirical observations. To determine a scaling constant present in this relationship, known standards must be used. Evaluation of experimental data revealed an improvement over the traditional calibration curve analysis method of fitting the doubles count rate to the 235Um ass. Active multiplicity assay appears to relax the requirement that the calibration standards and unknown items have the same chemical form and geometry.

Geist, W. H. (William H.); Ensslin, Norbert; Carrillo, L. A. (Louis A.); Beard, C. A. (Carl A.)

2001-01-01

48

Advances in molecular genetics of panic disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

The molecular genetic research on panic disorder (PD) has grown tremendously in the past decade. Although the data from twin and family studies suggest an involvement of genetic factors in the familial transmission of PD with the heritability estimate near 40%, the genetic substrate underlying panicogenesis is not yet understood. The linkage studies so far have suggested that chromosomal regions

E Maron; J M Hettema; J Shlik

2010-01-01

49

Molecular genetic advances in tuberous sclerosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the past decade, there has been considerable progress in understanding the molecular genetics of tuberous sclerosis, a disorder characterised by hamartomatous growths in numerous organs. We review this progress, from cloning and characterising TSC1 and TSC2, the genes responsible for the disorder, through to gaining insights into the functions of their protein products hamartin and tuberin, and the identification

Jeremy P. Cheadle; Mary Pat Reeve; Julian R. Sampson; David J. Kwiatkowski

2000-01-01

50

From molecular understanding to clinical advances.  

PubMed

Big data and computational biology brought to the forefront a number of potential actionable mutations and drug targets in clear cell renal cell carcinoma in 2013. As we continue to unravel the molecular underpinnings of tumorigenesis and progression, the clinical benefits will eventually be reaped. PMID:24366347

Lee, Chung-Han; Motzer, Robert J

2014-02-01

51

Molecular Technique to Understand Deep Microbial Diversity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Current sequencing-based and DNA microarray techniques to study microbial diversity are based on an initial PCR (polymerase chain reaction) amplification step. However, a number of factors are known to bias PCR amplification and jeopardize the true representation of bacterial diversity. PCR amplification of the minor template appears to be suppressed by the exponential amplification of the more abundant template. It is widely acknowledged among environmental molecular microbiologists that genetic biosignatures identified from an environment only represent the most dominant populations. The technological bottleneck has overlooked the presence of the less abundant minority population, and underestimated their role in the ecosystem maintenance. To generate PCR amplicons for subsequent diversity analysis, bacterial l6S rRNA genes are amplified by PCR using universal primers. Two distinct PCR regimes are employed in parallel: one using normal and the other using biotinlabeled universal primers. PCR products obtained with biotin-labeled primers are mixed with streptavidin-labeled magnetic beads and selectively captured in the presence of a magnetic field. Less-abundant DNA templates that fail to amplify in this first round of PCR amplification are subjected to a second round of PCR using normal universal primers. These PCR products are then subjected to downstream diversity analyses such as conventional cloning and sequencing. A second round of PCR amplified the minority population and completed the deep diversity picture of the environmental sample.

Vaishampayan, Parag A.; Venkateswaran, Kasthuri J.

2012-01-01

52

Recent advances in DNA sequencing techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Successful mapping of the draft human genome in 2001 and more recent mapping of the human microbiome genome in 2012 have relied heavily on the parallel processing of the second generation/Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) DNA machines at a cost of several millions dollars and long computer processing times. These have been mainly biochemical approaches. Here a system analysis approach is used to review these techniques by identifying the requirements, specifications, test methods, error estimates, repeatability, reliability and trends in the cost reduction. The first generation, NGS and the Third Generation Single Molecule Real Time (SMART) detection sequencing methods are reviewed. Based on the National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI) data, the achieved cost reduction of 1.5 times per yr. from Sep. 2001 to July 2007; 7 times per yr., from Oct. 2007 to Apr. 2010; and 2.5 times per yr. from July 2010 to Jan 2012 are discussed.

Singh, Rama Shankar

2013-06-01

53

Space charge profile measurement techniques: recent advances and future directions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some of the advances in space charge measurement techniques over the last 5 years are described. It is concluded that significant further improvements in spatial resolution are unlikely in the next 5 years, except in the case of the LIMM technique implemented using very short laser pulses, where spatial resolution approaching 100 nm might be achievable. It is suggested that

R. J. Fleming

2005-01-01

54

The advance of liner technique in solid rocket engine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The latest advances in liner techniques are summarized. Two methods for investigating liner composition and techniques to improve adhesive performance are introduced. It is shown that adhesion strength between propellent and case or insulator can be greatly increased using a linear containing dimer isocyanate or terminal blocking agent.

Feng, Ting; Tai, Yawsong

1992-08-01

55

Advances in atomic, molecular, and optical physics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The following subjects are reviewed: Comparison of positron and electron scattering by gases. Electron capture at relativistic energies. The low-energy, heavy-particle collisions - a close-coupling treatment. Vibronic phenomena in collisions of atomic and molecular species. Associative ionization: experiments, potentials, and dynamics. On the beta decay of 187Re: an interface of atomic and nuclear physics and of cosmochronology. Progress in low

D. Bates; B. Bederson

1990-01-01

56

Innovative Tools Advance Revolutionary Weld Technique  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The iconic, orange external tank of the space shuttle launch system not only contains the fuel used by the shuttle s main engines during liftoff but also comprises the shuttle s backbone, supporting the space shuttle orbiter and solid rocket boosters. Given the tank s structural importance and the extreme forces (7.8 million pounds of thrust load) and temperatures it encounters during launch, the welds used to construct the tank must be highly reliable. Variable polarity plasma arc welding, developed for manufacturing the external tank and later employed for building the International Space Station, was until 1994 the best process for joining the aluminum alloys used during construction. That year, Marshall Space Flight Center engineers began experimenting with a relatively new welding technique called friction stir welding (FSW), developed in 1991 by The Welding Institute, of Cambridge, England. FSW differs from traditional fusion welding in that it is a solid-state welding technique, using frictional heat and motion to join structural components without actually melting any of the material. The weld is created by a shouldered pin tool that is plunged into the seam of the materials to be joined. The tool traverses the line while rotating at high speeds, generating friction that heats and softens but does not melt the metal. (The heat produced approaches about 80 percent of the metal s melting temperature.) The pin tool s rotation crushes and stirs the plasticized metal, extruding it along the seam as the tool moves forward. The material cools and consolidates, resulting in a weld with superior mechanical properties as compared to those weld properties of fusion welds. The innovative FSW technology promises a number of attractive benefits. Because the welded materials are not melted, many of the undesirables associated with fusion welding porosity, cracking, shrinkage, and distortion of the weld are minimized or avoided. The process is more energy efficient, safe (no toxic smoke or shielding gas, liquid metal splatter, arcing, dangerous voltage, or radiation), and environmentally sound (no consumables, fumes, or noise) than fusion welding. Under computer control, an automated FSW machine can create welds with high reproducibility, improving efficiency and overall quality of manufactured materials. The process also allows for welding dissimilar metals as well as those metals considered to be "unweldable" such as the 7xxx series aluminum alloys. Its effectiveness and versatility makes FSW useful for aerospace, rail, automotive, marine, and military applications. A downside to FSW, however, is the keyhole opening left in the weld when the FSW pin tool exits the weld joint. This is a significant problem when using the FSW process to join circumferential structures such as pipes and storage containers. Furthermore, weld joints that taper in material thickness also present problems when using the conventional FSW pin tool, because the threaded pin rotating within the weld joint material is a fixed length. There must be capability for the rotating pin to both increase and decrease in length in real time while welding the tapered material. (Both circumferential and tapered thickness weldments are found in the space shuttle external tank.) Marshall engineers addressed both the keyhole and tapered material thickness problems by developing the auto-adjustable pin tool. This unique piece of equipment automatically withdraws the pin into the tool s shoulder for keyhole closeout. In addition, the auto-adjustable pin tool retracts, or shortens, the rotating pin while welding a weld joint that tapers from one thickness to a thinner thickness. This year, the impact of the Marshall innovation was recognized with an "Excellence in Technology Transfer Award" from the Federal Laboratory Consortium.

2009-01-01

57

Advanced tape cartridge handling techniques for automated MSSs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Advanced tape cartridge handling techniques are developed for an automated mass storage system (MSS) based on VHS videocassettes. This system provides a data transfer rate of 2.5 Mb\\/s and an average cartridge handling time of 10 s. The wearless cartridge mounting technique using a precision mechanical hand solves the problem of cartridge-case wear. The earthquake protection control technique, using a

S. Hosokawa; A. Nagayama; K. Nishimura

1991-01-01

58

Advanced regenerative-cooling techniques for future space transportation systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A review of regenerative-cooling techniques applicable to advanced planned engine designs for space booster and orbit transportation systems has developed the status of the key elements of this cooling mode. This work is presented in terms of gas side, coolant side, wall conduction heat transfer, and chamber life fatigue margin considerations. Described are preliminary heat transfer and trade analyses performed using developed techniques combining channel wall construction with advanced, high-strength, high-thermal-conductivity materials (NARloy-Z or Zr-Cu alloys) in high heat flux regions, combined with lightweight steel tubular nozzle wall construction. Advanced cooling techniques such as oxygen cooling and dual-mode hydrocarbon/hydrogen fuel operation and their limitations are indicated for the regenerative cooling approach.

Wagner, W. R.; Shoji, J. M.

1975-01-01

59

Bi-maxillary advancement surgery: Technique, indications and results.  

PubMed

Esthetic analysis of the face in some patients presenting a dental Class II can reveal the need for maxillo-mandibular advancement surgery. In these cases, mandibular advancement alone would provide a result which was satisfactory from the occlusal viewpoint but esthetically displeasing. Using bi-maxillary advancement, the impact of nasal volume is reduced and the nasolabial relationship is corrected. The sub-mandibular length is increased, thus creating a better-defined cervico-mental angle. This treatment technique involving a prior mandibular procedure has the advantage of restoring patients' dental occlusion while optimizing their facial esthetics. PMID:24813103

Olivi, Pierre; Garcia, Claude

2014-06-01

60

Automatic Molecular Design using Evolutionary Techniques.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Molecular nanotechnology is the precise, three-dimensional control of materials and devices at the atomic scale. An important part of nanotechnology is the design of molecules for specific purposes. This paper describes early results using genetic softwar...

A. Globus, J. Lawton, T. Wipke

1998-01-01

61

Advanced wiring technique and hardware application: Airplane and space vehicle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An advanced wiring system is described which achieves the safety/reliability required for present and future airplane and space vehicle applications. Also, present wiring installation techniques and hardware are analyzed to establish existing problem areas. An advanced wiring system employing matrix interconnecting unit, plug to plug trunk bundles (FCC or ribbon cable) is outlined, and an installation study presented. A planned program to develop, lab test and flight test key features of these techniques and hardware as a part of the SST technology follow-on activities is discussed.

Ernst, H. L.; Eichman, C. D.

1972-01-01

62

Advances in molecular imaging: targeted optical contrast agents for cancer diagnostics  

PubMed Central

Over the last three decades, our understanding of the molecular changes associated with cancer development and progression has advanced greatly. This has led to new cancer therapeutics targeted against specific molecular pathways; such therapies show great promise to reduce mortality, in part by enabling physicians to tailor therapy for patients based on a molecular profile of their tumor. Unfortunately, the tools for definitive cancer diagnosis – light microscopic examination of biopsied tissue stained with nonspecific dyes – remain focused on the analysis of tissue ex vivo. There is an important need for new clinical tools to support the molecular diagnosis of cancer. Optical molecular imaging is emerging as a technique to help meet this need. Targeted, optically active contrast agents can specifically label extra-and intracellular biomarkers of cancer. Optical images can be acquired in real time with high spatial resolution to image-specific molecular targets, while still providing morphologic context. This article reviews recent advances in optical molecular imaging, highlighting the advances in technology required to improve early cancer detection, guide selection of targeted therapy and rapidly evaluate therapeutic efficacy.

Hellebust, Anne; Richards-Kortum, Rebecca

2012-01-01

63

Coal and Coal Constituent Studies by Advanced EMR Techniques.  

SciTech Connect

Advanced electronic magnetic resonance (EMR) methods are used to examine properties of coals, chars, and molecular species related to constituents of coal. During this grant period, progress was made on a high frequency EMR system particularly appropriate for such studies and on low-frequency dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) to examine the interaction between fluids such as water and the surface of suspended char particles.

Belford, R.L.; Clarkson, R.B.; Odintsov, B.; Ceroke, P.J.

1997-09-30

64

COAL AND COAL CONSTITUENT STUDIES BY ADVANCED EMR TECHNIQUES  

SciTech Connect

Advanced electronic magnetic resonance (EMR) methods are used to examine properties of coals, chars, and molecular species related to constituents of coal. During this grant period, progress was made on setting up a separate high frequency EMR system particularly appropriate for such studies and exploring the use of low-frequency dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) to examine the interaction between fluids such as water and the surface of suspended char particles.

R. Linn Belford; Robert B. Clarkson

1997-03-28

65

Coal and char studies by advanced EMR techniques  

SciTech Connect

Advanced magnetic resonance (EMR) methods are used to examine properties of coals, chars, and molecular species related to constituents of coal. During this grant period, further progress was made on proton NMR and low-frequency dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) to examine the interaction between fluids such as water and the surface of suspended char particles. Effects of char particle size and type on water nuclear spin relaxation, T2, were measured and modeled.

Belford, R.L.; Clarkson, R.B.; Odintsov, B.M.

1999-03-31

66

Coal and char studies by advanced EMR techniques  

SciTech Connect

Advanced magnetic resonance (EMR) methods are used to examine properties of coals, chars, and molecular species related to constituents of coal. During this grant period, further progress was made on proton NMR and low-frequency dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) to examine the interaction between fluids such as water and the surface of suspended char particles. Effects of char particle size on water nuclear spin relaxation, T2, were measured.

Belford, R.L.; Clarkson, R.B.; Odintsov, B.M.

1998-09-30

67

Advanced MR imaging techniques and characterization of residual anatomy.  

PubMed

Advances in technology in recent decades have contributed to rapid developments in non-invasive methods for imaging human anatomy, and advanced imaging methods are now one of the primary tools for clinical diagnosis after neurological trauma or disease. Here we review the current and upcoming capabilities of one of the most rapidly developing methods, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The underlying theory is introduced so that the reasons for the strengths, weaknesses, and future expectations of this method, can be explained. Current techniques for imaging anatomical changes, inflammation, and changes in white matter, axonal integrity, blood flow and function, are reviewed. Applications for specific purposes of assessing traumatic injury in the brain or spinal cord, and for multiple-sclerosis are also presented, and are used as examples of how the advanced techniques are being used in practice. PMID:22326716

Stroman, P W; Bosma, R L; Kornelsen, J; Lawrence-Dewar, J; Wheeler-Kingshott, C; Cadotte, D; Fehlings, M G

2012-06-01

68

Transducer characterization techniques to enhance advanced ultrasonic nondestructive testing technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unquestionably, the mose important component of an ultrasonic inspection system is the transducer. Without the proper transducer, chances of a successful ultrasonic inspection are slim. The role of the transducer has become even more important with the advent of computerized ultrasonic techniques. Applying advanced ultrasonic inspection technology, such as signal processing and pattern recognition, necessitates the determination of various, critical

Thomas

1980-01-01

69

Advanced Groupband Data Modem Using Orthogonally Multiplexed QAM Technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

An advanced groupband data modem based on the orthogonally multiplexed QAM technique is proposed. Its performance is evaluated through experiments. In the proposed modem, data are transmitted by a number of orthogonally multiplexed parallel subchannels. Because of this orthogonally multiplexing parallelism, the proposed modem becomes more immune to Gaussian noises, impulsive noises, and channel distortions, compared to the conventional Class

B. Hirosaki; S. Hasegawa; A. Sabato

1986-01-01

70

Advanced techniques in safeguarding a conditioning facility for spent fuel  

SciTech Connect

Although reprocessing continues to be the main factor in the waste management of nuclear reactors, the alternative of direct final disposal is currently being developed to the level of industrial applications, based on an agreement between the heads of the federal government and the federal states of Germany. Thus, the Konrad and Gorleben sites are being studied as potential final repositories as is the pilot conditioning facility (PKA) under construction. Discussions on the application of safeguards measures have led to the drafting of an approach that will cover the entire back end of the fuel cycle. The conditioning of fuel prior to direct final disposal represents one element in the overall approach. A modern facility equipped with advanced technology, PKA is a pilot plant with regard to conditioning techniques as well as to safeguards. Therefore, the PKA safeguards approach is expected to facilitate future industrial applications of the conditioning procedure. This cannot be satisfactorily implemented without advanced safeguards techniques. The level of development of the safeguards techniques varies. While advanced camera and seal systems are basically available, the other techniques and methods still require research and development. Feasibility studies and equipment development are geared to providing applicable safeguards techniques in time for commissioning of the PKA.

Rudolf, K.; Weh, R. (Gesellschaft fuer Nuklear-Service mbH, Hannover (Germany))

1992-01-01

71

Responses of Cell Renewal Systems to Long-term Low-Level Radiation Exposure: A Feasibility Study Applying Advanced Molecular Biology Techniques on Available Histological and Cytological Material of Exposed Animals and Men  

SciTech Connect

First results of this feasibility study showed that evaluation of the stored material of the chronically irradiated dogs with modern molecular biological techniques proved to be successful and extremely promising. Therefore an in deep analysis of at least part of the huge amount of remaining material is of outmost interest. The methods applied in this feasibility study were pathological evaluation with different staining methods, protein analysis by means of immunohistochemistry, strand break analysis with the TdT-assay, DNA- and RNA-analysis as well as genomic examination by gene array. Overall more than 50% of the investigated material could be used. In particular the results of an increased stimulation of the immune system within the dogs of the 3mSv group as both compared to the control and higher dose groups gives implications for the in depth study of the cellular events occurring in context with low dose radiation. Based on the findings of this study a further evaluation and statistically analysis of more material can help to identify promising biomarkers for low dose radiation. A systematic evaluation of a correlation of dose rates and strand breaks within the dog tissue might moreover help to explain mechanisms of tolerance to IR. One central problem is that most sequences for dog specific primers are not known yet. The discovery of the dog genome is still under progress. In this study the isolation of RNA within the dog tissue was successful. But up to now there are no gene arrays or gene chips commercially available, tested and adapted for canine tissue. The uncritical use of untested genomic test systems for canine tissue seems to be ineffective at the moment, time consuming and ineffective. Next steps in the investigation of genomic changes after IR within the stored dog tissue should be limited to quantitative RT-PCR of tested primer sequences for the dog. A collaboration with institutions working in the field of the discovery of the dog genome could have synergistic effects.

Fliedner Theodor M.; Feinendegen Ludwig E.; Meineke Viktor; Fritz Thomas E.

2005-02-28

72

New advances in molecular recognition based on biomolecular scaffolds.  

PubMed

In this review, we summarize recent advances in the development of molecular recognition components based on the biomolecular scaffolds of proteins and nucleic acids for specific recognition of miscellaneous targets. In addition to the widely adopted recombinant antibody fragments, designed ankyrin repeat proteins and modular peptide repeats of transcription-activator-like effectors for base-specific recognition of DNA sequence are also briefly introduced. For the nucleic acid based molecular recognition systems, aptamers, including slow off-rate modified aptamers, DNAzymes, and synthetic DNA-like oligomers for versatile biorecognition are described. Finally, we discuss the remaining challenges and future research directions in the field. PMID:23657449

Zhao, Meiping; Wu, Tongbo; Xiao, Xianjin; Liu, Yang; Su, Xin

2013-07-01

73

Efficient Molecular Imaging Techniques Using Optically Active Molecules  

Microsoft Academic Search

Efficient imaging techniques aimed at the increasing of the image contrast of a structure, surrounded by a scattering medium, using optically active and high index of refraction molecules as molecular contrast agents, are presented. Specifically, an enhanced degree of linear polarization (DOLP) target detection and imaging is obtained by doping the surrounding medium with molecular contrast agents consisting of aqueous

George C. Giakos; S. Atreya Paturi; Keerthisrivatsav Valluru; P. Bathini; V. Adya; Srinivas Sukumar; K. Ambadipudi; B. Mandadi; M. Becker; S. Athawale; P. Farajipour; S. Marotta; D. Sheffer; G. Livanos; M. Zervakis

2010-01-01

74

Applications of molecular biology techniques to transfusion medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Other articles in this issue of Seminars in Hematology have reviewed the results of basic research in relation to the understanding of the genes, the molecular basis of blood group variants, and structural and functional aspects of the proteins carrying blood group antigens. Although molecular techniques are currently being used in a limited fashion in clinical laboratories, their application has

Marion E Reid; Maria Rios; Karina Yazdanbakhsh

2000-01-01

75

Teaching Molecular Biological Techniques in a Research Content  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Molecular biological methods, such as the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and gel electrophoresis, are now commonly taught to students in introductory biology courses at the college and even high school levels. This often includes hands-on experience with one or more molecular techniques as part of a general biology laboratory. To assure that most…

Stiller, John W.; Coggins, T. Chad

2006-01-01

76

Recent Advances in Molecular, Multimodal and Theranostic Ultrasound Imaging  

PubMed Central

Ultrasound (US) imaging is an exquisite tool for the non-invasive and real-time diagnosis of many different diseases. In this context, US contrast agents can improve lesion delineation, characterization and therapy response evaluation. US contrast agents are usually micrometer-sized gas bubbles, stabilized with soft or hard shells. By conjugating antibodies to the microbubble (MB) surface, and by incorporating diagnostic agents, drugs or nucleic acids into or onto the MB shell, molecular, multimodal and theranostic MB can be generated. We here summarize recent advances in molecular, multimodal and theranostic US imaging, and introduce concepts how such advanced MB can be generated, applied and imaged. Examples are given for their use to image and treat oncological, cardiovascular and neurological diseases. Furthermore, we discuss for which therapeutic entities incorporation into (or conjugation to) MB is meaningful, and how US-mediated MB destruction can increase their extravasation, penetration, internalization and efficacy.

Kiessling, Fabian; Fokong, Stanley; Bzyl, Jessica; Lederle, Wiltrud; Palmowski, Moritz; Lammers, Twan

2014-01-01

77

Recent advances in molecular, multimodal and theranostic ultrasound imaging.  

PubMed

Ultrasound (US) imaging is an exquisite tool for the non-invasive and real-time diagnosis of many different diseases. In this context, US contrast agents can improve lesion delineation, characterization and therapy response evaluation. US contrast agents are usually micrometer-sized gas bubbles, stabilized with soft or hard shells. By conjugating antibodies to the microbubble (MB) surface, and by incorporating diagnostic agents, drugs or nucleic acids into or onto the MB shell, molecular, multimodal and theranostic MBs can be generated. We here summarize recent advances in molecular, multimodal and theranostic US imaging, and introduce concepts how such advanced MB can be generated, applied and imaged. Examples are given for their use to image and treat oncological, cardiovascular and neurological diseases. Furthermore, we discuss for which therapeutic entities incorporation into (or conjugation to) MB is meaningful, and how US-mediated MB destruction can increase their extravasation, penetration, internalization and efficacy. PMID:24316070

Kiessling, Fabian; Fokong, Stanley; Bzyl, Jessica; Lederle, Wiltrud; Palmowski, Moritz; Lammers, Twan

2014-06-01

78

Recent advances in sample preparation techniques for effective bioanalytical methods.  

PubMed

This paper reviews the recent developments in bioanalysis sample preparation techniques and gives an update on basic principles, theory, applications and possibilities for automation, and a comparative discussion on the advantages and limitation of each technique. Conventional liquid-liquid extraction (LLE), protein precipitation (PP) and solid-phase extraction (SPE) techniques are now been considered as methods of the past. The last decade has witnessed a rapid development of novel sample preparation techniques in bioanalysis. Developments in SPE techniques such as selective sorbents and in the overall approach to SPE, such as hybrid SPE and molecularly imprinted polymer SPE, have been addressed. Considerable literature has been published in the area of solid-phase micro-extraction and its different versions, e.g. stir bar sorptive extraction, and their application in the development of selective and sensitive bioanalytical methods. Techniques such as dispersive solid-phase extraction, disposable pipette extraction and micro-extraction by packed sorbent offer a variety of extraction phases and provide unique advantages to bioanalytical methods. On-line SPE utilizing column-switching techniques is rapidly gaining acceptance in bioanalytical applications. PP sample preparation techniques such as PP filter plates/tubes offer many advantages like removal of phospholipids and proteins in plasma/serum. Newer approaches to conventional LLE techniques (salting-out LLE) are also covered in this review article. PMID:21154887

Kole, Prashant Laxman; Venkatesh, Gantala; Kotecha, Jignesh; Sheshala, Ravi

2011-01-01

79

Recent advances of laser-spectroscopy-based techniques for applications in breath analysis.  

PubMed

Laser absorption spectroscopy (LAS) in the mid-infrared region offers a promising new effective technique for the quantitative analysis of trace gases in human breath. LAS enables sensitive, selective detection, quantification and monitoring in real time, of gases present in breath. This review summarizes some of the recent advances in LAS based on semiconductor lasers and optical detection techniques for clinically relevant exhaled gas analysis in breath, specifically such molecular biomarkers as nitric oxide, ammonia, carbon monoxide, ethane, carbonyl sulfide, formaldehyde and acetone. PMID:21383427

McCurdy, Matthew R; Bakhirkin, Yury; Wysocki, Gerard; Lewicki, Rafal; Tittel, Frank K

2007-09-01

80

Technology development of fabrication techniques for advanced solar dynamic concentrators  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objective of the advanced concentrator program is to develop the technology that will lead to lightweight, highly reflective, accurate, scaleable, and long lived space solar dynamic concentrators. The advanced concentrator program encompasses new and innovative concepts, fabrication techniques, materials selection, and simulated space environmental testing. Fabrication techniques include methods of fabricating the substrates and coating substrate surfaces to produce high quality optical surfaces, acceptable for further coating with vapor deposited optical films. The selected materials to obtain a high quality optical surface include microsheet glass and Eccocoat EP-3 epoxy, with DC-93-500 selected as a candidate silicone adhesive and levelizing layer. The following procedures are defined: cutting, cleaning, forming, and bonding microsheet glass. Procedures are also defined for surface cleaning, and EP-3 epoxy application. The results and analyses from atomic oxygen and thermal cycling tests are used to determine the effects of orbital conditions in a space environment.

Richter, Scott W.

1991-01-01

81

Three-dimensional hybrid grid generation using advancing front techniques  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new 3-dimensional hybrid grid generation technique has been developed, based on ideas of advancing fronts for both structured and unstructured grids. In this approach, structured grids are first generate independently around individual components of the geometry. Fronts are initialized on these structure grids, and advanced outward so that new cells are extracted directly from the structured grids. Employing typical advancing front techniques, cells are rejected if they intersect the existing front or fail other criteria When no more viable structured cells exist further cells are advanced in an unstructured manner to close off the overall domain, resulting in a grid of 'hybrid' form. There are two primary advantages to the hybrid formulation. First, generating blocks with limited regard to topology eliminates the bottleneck encountered when a multiple block system is used to fully encapsulate a domain. Individual blocks may be generated free of external constraints, which will significantly reduce the generation time. Secondly, grid points near the body (presumably with high aspect ratio) will still maintain a structured (non-triangular or tetrahedral) character, thereby maximizing grid quality and solution accuracy near the surface.

Steinbrenner, John P.; Noack, Ralph W.

1995-01-01

82

Data Compression Techniques for Advanced Space Transportation Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Advanced space transportation systems, including vehicle state of health systems, will produce large amounts of data which must be stored on board the vehicle and or transmitted to the ground and stored. The cost of storage or transmission of the data could be reduced if the number of bits required to represent the data is reduced by the use of data compression techniques. Most of the work done in this study was rather generic and could apply to many data compression systems, but the first application area to be considered was launch vehicle state of health telemetry systems. Both lossless and lossy compression techniques were considered in this study.

Bradley, William G.

1998-01-01

83

Advanced computer graphic techniques for laser range finder (LRF) simulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper show an advanced computer graphic techniques for laser range finder (LRF) simulation. The LRF is the common sensor for unmanned ground vehicle, autonomous mobile robot and security applications. The cost of the measurement system is extremely high, therefore the simulation tool is designed. The simulation gives an opportunity to execute algorithm such as the obstacle avoidance[1], slam for robot localization[2], detection of vegetation and water obstacles in surroundings of the robot chassis[3], LRF measurement in crowd of people[1]. The Axis Aligned Bounding Box (AABB) and alternative technique based on CUDA (NVIDIA Compute Unified Device Architecture) is presented.

Bedkowski, Janusz; Jankowski, Stanislaw

2008-11-01

84

Recent advances in capillary electrophoretic migration techniques for pharmaceutical analysis.  

PubMed

Since the introduction about 30 years ago, CE techniques have gained a significant impact in pharmaceutical analysis. The present review covers recent advances and applications of CE for the analysis of pharmaceuticals. Both small molecules and biomolecules such as proteins are considered. The applications range from the determination of drug-related substances to the analysis of counterions and the determination of physicochemical parameters. Furthermore, general considerations of CE methods in pharmaceutical analysis are described. PMID:24395663

Deeb, Sami El; Wätzig, Hermann; El-Hady, Deia Abd; Albishri, Hassan M; de Griend, Cari Sänger-van; Scriba, Gerhard K E

2014-01-01

85

Recent Advances in the Molecular Characterization of Circulating Tumor Cells  

PubMed Central

Although circulating tumor cells (CTCs) were first observed over a century ago, lack of sensitive methodology precluded detailed study of these cells until recently. However, technological advances have now facilitated the identification, enumeration, and characterization of CTCs using a variety of methods. The majority of evidence supporting the use of CTCs in clinical decision-making has been related to enumeration using the CellSearch® system and correlation with prognosis. Growing evidence also suggests that CTC monitoring can provide an early indication of patient treatment response based on comparison of CTC levels before and after therapy. However, perhaps the greatest potential that CTCs hold for oncology lies at the level of molecular characterization. Clinical treatment decisions may be more effective if they are based on molecular characteristics of metastatic cells rather than on those of the primary tumor alone. Molecular characterization of CTCs (which can be repeatedly isolated in a minimally invasive fashion) provides the opportunity for a “real-time liquid biopsy” that allows assessment of genetic drift, investigation of molecular disease evolution, and identification of actionable genomic characteristics. This review focuses on recent advances in this area, including approaches involving immunophenotyping, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), multiplex RT-PCR, microarray, and genomic sequencing.

Lowes, Lori E.; Allan, Alison L.

2014-01-01

86

Recent advances in the molecular characterization of circulating tumor cells.  

PubMed

Although circulating tumor cells (CTCs) were first observed over a century ago, lack of sensitive methodology precluded detailed study of these cells until recently. However, technological advances have now facilitated the identification, enumeration, and characterization of CTCs using a variety of methods. The majority of evidence supporting the use of CTCs in clinical decision-making has been related to enumeration using the CellSearch® system and correlation with prognosis. Growing evidence also suggests that CTC monitoring can provide an early indication of patient treatment response based on comparison of CTC levels before and after therapy. However, perhaps the greatest potential that CTCs hold for oncology lies at the level of molecular characterization. Clinical treatment decisions may be more effective if they are based on molecular characteristics of metastatic cells rather than on those of the primary tumor alone. Molecular characterization of CTCs (which can be repeatedly isolated in a minimally invasive fashion) provides the opportunity for a "real-time liquid biopsy" that allows assessment of genetic drift, investigation of molecular disease evolution, and identification of actionable genomic characteristics. This review focuses on recent advances in this area, including approaches involving immunophenotyping, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), multiplex RT-PCR, microarray, and genomic sequencing. PMID:24633084

Lowes, Lori E; Allan, Alison L

2014-01-01

87

Characterising chromosome rearrangements: recent technical advances in molecular cytogenetics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genomic rearrangements can result in losses, amplifications, translocations and inversions of DNA fragments thereby modifying genome architecture, and potentially having clinical consequences. Many genomic disorders caused by structural variation have initially been uncovered by early cytogenetic methods. The last decade has seen significant progression in molecular cytogenetic techniques, allowing rapid and precise detection of structural rearrangements on a whole-genome scale.

S Le Scouarnec; S M Gribble

2012-01-01

88

Double-edge molecular technique for Doppler lidar wind measurement  

Microsoft Academic Search

The double-edge lidar technique for measuring the wind based upon using molecular backscatter is described. The technique uses two high spectral resolution edge filters which are located in the wings of the Rayleigh-Brillouin profile. This doubles the signal change per unit Doppler shift, the sensitivity, and gives nearly a factor of two improvement in measurement accuracy relative to the single

Cristina Flesia; C. L. Korb

1998-01-01

89

Molecular techniques in the diagnosis of central nervous system infections  

Microsoft Academic Search

Development of polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based molecular techniques has initiated a revolution in the field of diagnostic\\u000a microbiology. These techniques have not only provided rapid, noninvasive detection of microorganisms that cause central nervous\\u000a system (CNS) infections, but have also demonstrated that several neurologic disorders are linked to infectious agents. While\\u000a PCR-based techniques are predicted to be widely used in diagnosing

Hong-Zhou Lu; Karen C. Bloch; Yi-Wei Tang

2002-01-01

90

Advances in top-down and bottom-up surface nanofabrication: techniques, applications & future prospects.  

PubMed

This review highlights the most significant advances of the nanofabrication techniques reported over the past decade with a particular focus on the approaches tailored towards the fabrication of functional nano-devices. The review is divided into two sections: top-down and bottom-up nanofabrication. Under the classification of top-down, special attention is given to technical reports that demonstrate multi-directional patterning capabilities less than or equal to 100 nm. These include recent advances in lithographic techniques, such as optical, electron beam, soft, nanoimprint, scanning probe, and block copolymer lithography. Bottom-up nanofabrication techniques--such as, atomic layer deposition, sol-gel nanofabrication, molecular self-assembly, vapor-phase deposition and DNA-scaffolding for nanoelectronics--are also discussed. Specifically, we describe advances in the fabrication of functional nanocomposites and graphene using chemical and physical vapor deposition. Our aim is to provide a comprehensive platform for prominent nanofabrication tools and techniques in order to facilitate the development of new or hybrid nanofabrication techniques leading to novel and efficient functional nanostructured devices. PMID:22154364

Biswas, Abhijit; Bayer, Ilker S; Biris, Alexandru S; Wang, Tao; Dervishi, Enkeleda; Faupel, Franz

2012-01-15

91

78 FR 68058 - Next Generation Risk Assessment: Incorporation of Recent Advances in Molecular, Computational...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...identify priority research needs. The ``Next...Advances in Molecular, Computational, and Systems Biology...incorporating molecular, computational, and systems biology...this project suggested research needs and near- and...incorporating molecular, computational, and systems...

2013-11-13

92

Inside Out: A Novel Labral Repair and Advancement Technique  

PubMed Central

Labral tears are a significant cause of hip pain and are currently the most common indication for hip arthroscopy. Compared with labral debridement, labral repair has significantly better outcomes in terms of both daily activities and athletic pursuits in the setting of femoral acetabular impingement. The techniques described in the literature all use anchor placement on the capsular aspect of the acetabular rim, which can be difficult especially anteriorly, where the rim is very thin, and has the potential for significant complications. Anchor breakage, anchor slippage into the surrounding (capsular side) soft tissue, and penetration of the cartilage surface are among the most common complications. We describe an intra-articular anchor placement technique for labral repair from inside out. This technique, because of the location of the anchor and direction of suture pull, can assist in labral advancement in cases in which the native labrum fails to create a seal because of its location away from the femoral head.

Mei-Dan, Omer; Pascual-Garrido, Cecilia; Kark, Jonathan A.; McConkey, Mark O.

2014-01-01

93

Advanced techniques for penetration enhancement in transdermal drug delivery system.  

PubMed

Transdermal route has been recognized as a promising drug delivery system for systemic delivery of drugs and provides the advantage of avoidance of first-pass effect, ease of use, better patient compliance, maintaining constant blood level for longer period of time and decrease side effects. The major pitfalls of this route lie with difficulty in permeation of drugs through the skin. Several literatures have been published for enhancing the permeation of drugs by chemical approaches. However the present review highlighted about the advanced physical techniques used for enhancing delivery of drugs such as structure-based, electrically based, velocity based and several other miscellaneous physical techniques for enhancing the permeation of drugs. In addition to these, the present review also gives an exhaustive account on clinical data about these techniques and regulatory considerations for new drugs as well as generic product approval in transdermal drug delivery. PMID:21453254

Swain, Suryakanta; Beg, Sarwar; Singh, Astha; Patro, Ch Niranjan; Rao, M E Bhanoji

2011-07-01

94

Eliminating pharmaceutical impurities: Recent advances in detection techniques.  

PubMed

The elimination of organic impurities to produce highly pure drug substances is an important goal of process chemistry. For the detection of general impurities, hyphenated techniques (eg, liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry [LC-MS]) play a critical role in rapid structural identification (qualitative detection) and in understanding the mechanisms of formation of the impurities, enabling informed decisions to control and eliminate the impurities resulting from the chemical process where possible. Concern regarding genotoxic impurities (GTIs), which must typically be controlled at low parts-per-million limits, continues to increase, and significant advances have been achieved in recent years for the selective and sensitive quantitation (quantitative detection) of such impurities. Conventional detection techniques, such as ultraviolet (UV) detection, are often inadequate for the detection of potentially minute quantities of GTIs; therefore, various advanced MS-based detection strategies, either stand-alone or in conjunction with chemical approaches, are playing an increasing role in this field. The primary aim of this review is to highlight recent advances in qualitative and quantitative detection of impurities at trace levels, with a particular focus on GTIs. PMID:21061235

Liu, David Q; Sun, Mingjiang; Wu, Lianming

2010-01-01

95

An Effective Technique for Endoscopic Resection of Advanced Stage Angiofibroma  

PubMed Central

Introduction: In recent years, the surgical management of angiofibroma has been greatly influenced by the use of endoscopic techniques. However, large tumors that extend into difficult anatomic sites present major challenges for management by either endoscopy or an open-surgery approach which needs new technique for the complete en block resection. Materials and Methods: In a prospective observational study we developed an endoscopic transnasal technique for the resection of angiofibroma via pushing and pulling the mass with 1/100000 soaked adrenalin tampons. Thirty two patients were treated using this endoscopic technique over 7 years. The mean follow-up period was 36 months. The main outcomes measured were tumor staging, average blood loss, complications, length of hospitalization, and residual and/or recurrence rate of the tumor. Results: According to the Radkowski staging, 23,5, and 4 patients were at stage IIC, IIIA, and IIIB, respectively. Twenty five patients were operated on exclusively via transnasal endoscopy while 7 patients were managed using endoscopy-assisted open-surgery techniques. Mean blood loss in patients was 1261± 893 cc. The recurrence rate was 21.88% (7 cases) at two years following surgery. Mean hospitalization time was 3.56 ± 0.6 days. Conclusion: Using this effective technique, endoscopic removal of more highly advanced angiofibroma is possible. Better visualization, less intraoperative blood loss, lower rates of complication and recurrence, and shorter hospitalization time are some of the advantages.

Mohammadi Ardehali, Mojtaba; Samimi, Seyyed Hadi; Bakhshaee, Mehdi

2014-01-01

96

Advanced aeroservoelastic stabilization techniques for hypersonic flight vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Advanced high performance vehicles, including Single-Stage-To-Orbit (SSTO) hypersonic flight vehicles, that are statically unstable, require higher bandwidth flight control systems to compensate for the instability resulting in interactions between the flight control system, the engine/propulsion dynamics, and the low frequency structural modes. Military specifications, such as MIL-F-9490D and MIL-F-87242, tend to limit treatment of structural modes to conventional gain stabilization techniques. The conventional gain stabilization techniques, however, introduce low frequency effective time delays which can be troublesome from a flying qualities standpoint. These time delays can be alleviated by appropriate blending of gain and phase stabilization techniques (referred to as Hybrid Phase Stabilization or HPS) for the low frequency structural modes. The potential of using HPS for compensating structural mode interaction was previously explored. It was shown that effective time delay was significantly reduced with the use of HPS; however, the HPS design was seen to have greater residual response than a conventional gain stablized design. Additional work performed to advance and refine the HPS design procedure, to further develop residual response metrics as a basis for alternative structural stability specifications, and to develop strategies for validating HPS design and specification concepts in manned simulation is presented. Stabilization design sensitivity to structural uncertainties and aircraft-centered requirements are also assessed.

Chan, Samuel Y.; Cheng, Peter Y.; Myers, Thomas T.; Klyde, David H.; Magdaleno, Raymond E.; Mcruer, Duane T.

1992-01-01

97

Advanced techniques in pediatric abdominopelvic oncologic magnetic resonance imaging.  

PubMed

Advances in the treatment of pediatric abdominopelvic malignancies have increased survival drastically. Imaging is critical in initial tumor characterization/staging, assessment of treatment response, and surveillance following therapy. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is playing an increasing role in the care of these patients due to its lack of ionizing radiation, superior contrast resolution and the ability to characterize tumors based on tissue characteristics (e.g., T1 and T2 relaxation times). Modern MR techniques also allow for assessment of tumors based on functional characteristics. This article is focused on emerging MRI technologies and potential applications in the imaging of pediatric abdominopelvic malignancies. PMID:24183528

Smith, Ethan A

2013-11-01

98

A Brief Review of Molecular Techniques to Assess Plant Diversity  

PubMed Central

Massive loss of valuable plant species in the past centuries and its adverse impact on environmental and socioeconomic values has triggered the conservation of plant resources. Appropriate identification and characterization of plant materials is essential for the successful conservation of plant resources and to ensure their sustainable use. Molecular tools developed in the past few years provide easy, less laborious means for assigning known and unknown plant taxa. These techniques answer many new evolutionary and taxonomic questions, which were not previously possible with only phenotypic methods. Molecular techniques such as DNA barcoding, random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD), amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP), microsatellites and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) have recently been used for plant diversity studies. Each technique has its own advantages and limitations. These techniques differ in their resolving power to detect genetic differences, type of data they generate and their applicability to particular taxonomic levels. This review presents a basic description of different molecular techniques that can be utilized for DNA fingerprinting and molecular diversity analysis of plant species.

Arif, Ibrahim A.; Bakir, Mohammad A.; Khan, Haseeb A.; Al Farhan, Ahmad H.; Al Homaidan, Ali A.; Bahkali, Ali H.; Sadoon, Mohammad Al; Shobrak, Mohammad

2010-01-01

99

Advanced bronchoscopic techniques in diagnosis and staging of lung cancer  

PubMed Central

The role of advanced brochoscopic diagnostic techniques in detection and staging of lung cancer has steeply increased in recent years. Bronchoscopic imaging techniques became widely available and easy to use. Technical improvement led to merging in technologies making autofluorescence or narrow band imaging incorporated into one bronchoscope. New tools, such as autofluorescence imagining (AFI), narrow band imaging (NBI) or fuji intelligent chromo endoscopy (FICE), found their place in respiratory endoscopy suites. Development of endobronchial ultrasound (EBUS) improved minimally invasive mediastinal staging and diagnosis of peripheral lung lesions. Linear EBUS proven to be complementary to mediastinoscopy. This technique is now available in almost all high volume centers performing bronchoscopy. Radial EBUS with mini-probes and guiding sheaths provides accurate diagnosis of peripheral pulmonary lesions. Combining EBUS guided procedures with rapid on site cytology (ROSE) increases diagnostic yield even more. Electromagnetic navigation technology (EMN) is also widely used for diagnosis of peripheral lesions. Future development will certainly lead to new improvements in technology and creation of new sophisticated tools for research in respiratory endoscopy. Broncho-microscopy, alveoloscopy, optical coherence tomography are some of the new research techniques emerging for rapid technological development.

Zaric, Bojan; Stojsic, Vladimir; Sarcev, Tatjana; Stojanovic, Goran; Carapic, Vladimir; Perin, Branislav; Darwiche, Kaid; Tsakiridis, Kosmas; Karapantzos, Ilias; Kesisis, Georgios; Kougioumtzi, Ioanna; Katsikogiannis, Nikolaos; Machairiotis, Nikolaos; Stylianaki, Aikaterini; Foroulis, Christophoros N.; Zarogoulidis, Konstantinos

2013-01-01

100

Engineering molecular mechanics: an efficient static high temperature molecular simulation technique.  

PubMed

Inspired by the need for an efficient molecular simulation technique, we have developed engineering molecular mechanics (EMM) as an alternative molecular simulation technique to model high temperature (T>0 K) phenomena. EMM simulations are significantly more computationally efficient than conventional techniques such as molecular dynamics simulations. The advantage of EMM is achieved by converting the dynamic atomistic system at high temperature (T>0 K) into an equivalent static system. Fundamentals of the EMM methodology are derived using thermal expansion to modify the interatomic potential. Temperature dependent interatomic potentials are developed to account for the temperature effect. The efficiency of EMM simulations is demonstrated by simulating the temperature dependence of elastic constants of copper and nickel and the thermal stress developed in a confined copper system. PMID:21828740

Subramaniyan, Arun K; Sun, C T

2008-07-16

101

Advanced Synchrotron Techniques at High Pressure Collaborative Access Team (HPCAT)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High Pressure Collaborative Access Team (HPCAT) is dedicated to advancing cutting-edge, multidisciplinary, high-pressure science and technology using synchrotron radiation at Sector 16 of the Advanced Photon Source (APS) of Argonne National Laboratory. At HPCAT an array of novel x-ray diffraction and spectroscopic techniques has been integrated with high pressure and extreme temperature instrumentation for studies of structure and materials properties at extreme conditions.. HPCAT consists of four active independent beamlines performing a large range of various experiments at extreme conditions. 16BM-B beamline is dedicated to energy dispersive and white Laue X-ray diffraction. The majority of experiments are performed with a Paris-Edinburgh large volume press (to 7GPa and 2500K) and include amorphous and liquid structure measurement, white beam radiography, elastic sound wave velocity measurement of amorphous solid materials, with viscosity and density measurement of liquid being under development. 16BM-D is a monochromatic diffraction beamline for powder and single crystal diffraction at high pressure and high (resistive heating) / low (cryostats) temperature. The additional capabilities include high-resolution powder diffraction and x-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy. The insertion device beamline of HPCAT has two undulators in canted mode (operating independently) and LN cooled Si monochromators capable of providing a large range of energies. 16IDB is a microdiffraction beamline mainly focusing on high-pressure powder and single crystal diffraction in DAC at high temperatures (double-sided laser heating and resistive heating) and low temperature (various cryostats). The modern instrumentation allows high-quality diffraction at megabar pressures from light element, fast experiments with pulsed laser heating, fast dynamic experiments with Pilatus detector, and so on. 16ID-D beamline is dedicated to x-ray scattering and spectroscopy research of materials under high pressure in DAC. The available techniques include nuclear forward scattering, nuclear resonant inelastic scattering with 2meV energy resolution for determining phonon density of state and Mössbauer effect, x-ray inelastic scattering (X-ray Raman) with 1eV energy resolution for the study of charge dynamics and chemical bonding, x-ray spectroscopy for the study of electronic excitations, X-ray emission (including partial fluorescence yield, resonant emission). Many of these measurements can be done at low temperature, with in-situ pressure measurement, or at high temperature with portable laser heating. All these advanced synchrotron techniques, as well as supporting facilities, employed at HPCAT, will be discussed.

Shen, G.; Sinogeikin, S. V.; Chow, P.; Kono, Y.; Meng, Y.; Park, C.; Popov, D.; Rod, E.; Smith, J.; Xiao, Y.; Mao, H.

2012-12-01

102

Advanced techniques for removal of retrievable inferior vena cava filters.  

PubMed

Inferior vena cava (IVC) filters have proven valuable for the prevention of primary or recurrent pulmonary embolism in selected patients with or at high risk for venous thromboembolic disease. Their use has become commonplace, and the numbers implanted increase annually. During the last 3 years, in the United States, the percentage of annually placed optional filters, i.e., filters than can remain as permanent filters or potentially be retrieved, has consistently exceeded that of permanent filters. In parallel, the complications of long- or short-term filtration have become increasingly evident to physicians, regulatory agencies, and the public. Most filter removals are uneventful, with a high degree of success. When routine filter-retrieval techniques prove unsuccessful, progressively more advanced tools and skill sets must be used to enhance filter-retrieval success. These techniques should be used with caution to avoid damage to the filter or cava during IVC retrieval. This review describes the complex techniques for filter retrieval, including use of additional snares, guidewires, angioplasty balloons, and mechanical and thermal approaches as well as illustrates their specific application. PMID:21674279

Iliescu, Bogdan; Haskal, Ziv J

2012-08-01

103

The clinical consequences of advanced imaging techniques in Barrett's esophagus.  

PubMed

Evaluation of patients with Barrett's esophagus (BE) using dye-based chromoendoscopy, optical chromoendoscopy, autofluorescence imaging, or confocal laser endomicroscopy does not significantly increase the number of patients with a diagnosis of early neoplasia compared with high-definition white light endoscopy (HD-WLE) with random biopsy analysis. These newer imaging techniques are not more effective in standard surveillance of patients with BE because the prevalence of early neoplasia is low and HD-WLE with random biopsy analysis detects most cases of neoplasia. The evaluation and treatment of patients with BE and early-stage neoplasia should be centralized in tertiary referral centers, where procedures are performed under optimal conditions, by expert endoscopists. Lesions that require resection are almost always detected by HD-WLE, although advanced imaging techniques can detect additional flat lesions. However, these are of limited clinical significance because they are effectively eradicated by ablation therapy. No endoscopic imaging technique can reliably assess submucosal or lymphangio-invasion. Endoscopic resection of early-stage neoplasia in patients with BE is important for staging and management. Optical chromoendoscopy can also be used to evaluate lesions before endoscopic resection and in follow-up after successful ablation therapy. PMID:24412487

Boerwinkel, David F; Swager, Anne-Fré; Curvers, Wouter L; Bergman, Jacques J G H M

2014-03-01

104

Nonculture molecular techniques for diagnosis of bacterial disease in animals: a diagnostic laboratory perspective.  

PubMed

The past decade has seen remarkable technical advances in infectious disease diagnosis, and the pace of innovation is likely to continue. Many of these techniques are well suited to pathogen identification directly from pathologic or clinical samples, which is the focus of this review. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and gene sequencing are now routinely performed on frozen or fixed tissues for diagnosis of bacterial infections of animals. These assays are most useful for pathogens that are difficult to culture or identify phenotypically, when propagation poses a biosafety hazard, or when suitable fresh tissue is not available. Multiplex PCR assays, DNA microarrays, in situ hybridization, massive parallel DNA sequencing, microbiome profiling, molecular typing of pathogens, identification of antimicrobial resistance genes, and mass spectrometry are additional emerging technologies for the diagnosis of bacterial infections from pathologic and clinical samples in animals. These technical advances come, however, with 2 caveats. First, in the age of molecular diagnosis, quality control has become more important than ever to identify and control for the presence of inhibitors, cross-contamination, inadequate templates from diagnostic specimens, and other causes of erroneous microbial identifications. Second, the attraction of these technologic advances can obscure the reality that medical diagnoses cannot be made on the basis of molecular testing alone but instead through integrated consideration of clinical, pathologic, and laboratory findings. Proper validation of the method is required. It is critical that veterinary diagnosticians understand not only the value but also the limitations of these technical advances for routine diagnosis of infectious disease. PMID:24569613

Cai, H Y; Caswell, J L; Prescott, J F

2014-03-01

105

Advances in molecular design and synthesis of regioregular polythiophenes.  

PubMed

Regioregular poly(3-alkylthiophene)s (rrP3ATs) are an important class of pi-conjugated polymers that can be used in plastic electronic devices such as solar cells and field-effect transistors. rrP3ATs can be ordered in three dimensions: conformational ordering along the backbone, pi-stacking of flat polymer chains, and lamellar stacking between chains. All of these features lead to the excellent electrical properties of these materials. Creative molecular design and advanced synthesis are critical in controlling the properties of the materials as well as their device performance. This Account reports the advances in molecular design of new functional polythiophenes as well as the associated polymerization methods. Many functionalized regioregular polythiophenes have been designed and synthesized and show fascinating properties such as high conductivity, mobility, chemosensitivity, liquid crystallinity, or chirality. The methods for the synthesis of rrP3ATs are also applicable to other functional side chains. Di- and triblock copolymers consisting of rrP3AT and polyacrylate or polystyrene have also been successfully synthesized, which can facilitate the assembly of the polythiophene segments. The synthesis of rrP3ATs has evolved into a simple and economical system in which the synthesis can be carried out quickly at room temperature and is thus suitable for large-scale manufacturing. Intensive study has revealed that the regioregular polymerization of 3-alkylthiophenes proceeds by a chain-growth mechanism and can be made into a living system. This feature enables precise control of the molecular weight and facile end-group functionalization of the polymer chains, leading to tailor-made regioregular polythiophenes for specific applications. In addition, researchers have recently designed and synthesized regiosymmetric polythiophenesthese are regioregular but not coupled in a head-to-tail fashionby various methods. These reports indicate that these regiosymmetric polymers show very high mobilities when used in field-effect transistors due to their highly ordered structure. The remarkable performance of regioregular polythiophenes in recent years has allowed for the rapid development in printable electronics and seems destined to lead to further advances in this field. PMID:18729480

Osaka, Itaru; McCullough, Richard D

2008-09-01

106

Techniques for developing approximate optimal advanced launch system guidance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An extension to the authors' previous technique used to develop a real-time guidance scheme for the Advanced Launch System is presented. The approach is to construct an optimal guidance law based upon an asymptotic expansion associated with small physical parameters, epsilon. The trajectory of a rocket modeled as a point mass is considered with the flight restricted to an equatorial plane while reaching an orbital altitude at orbital injection speeds. The dynamics of this problem can be separated into primary effects due to thrust and gravitational forces, and perturbation effects which include the aerodynamic forces and the remaining inertial forces. An analytic solution to the reduced-order problem represented by the primary dynamics is possible. The Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman or dynamic programming equation is expanded in an asymptotic series where the zeroth-order term (epsilon = 0) can be obtained in closed form.

Feeley, Timothy S.; Speyer, Jason L.

1991-01-01

107

Advanced Fibre Bragg Grating and Microfibre Bragg Grating Fabrication Techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fibre Bragg gratings (FBGs) have become a very important technology for communication systems and fibre optic sensing. Typically, FBGs are less than 10-mm long and are fabricated using fused silica uniform phase masks which become more expensive for longer length or non-uniform pitch. Generally, interference UV laser beams are employed to make long or complex FBGs, and this technique introduces critical precision and control issues. In this work, we demonstrate an advanced FBG fabrication system that enables the writing of long and complex gratings in optical fibres with virtually any apodisation profile, local phase and Bragg wavelength using a novel optical design in which the incident angles of two UV beams onto an optical fibre can be adjusted simultaneously by moving just one optical component, instead of two optics employed in earlier configurations, to vary the grating pitch. The key advantage of the grating fabrication system is that complex gratings can be fabricated by controlling the linear movements of two translation stages. In addition to the study of advanced grating fabrication technique, we also focus on the inscription of FBGs written in optical fibres with a cladding diameter of several ten's of microns. Fabrication of microfibres was investigated using a sophisticated tapering method. We also proposed a simple but practical technique to filter out the higher order modes reflected from the FBG written in microfibres via a linear taper region while the fundamental mode re-couples to the core. By using this technique, reflection from the microfibre Bragg grating (MFBG) can be effectively single mode, simplifying the demultiplexing and demodulation processes. MFBG exhibits high sensitivity to contact force and an MFBG-based force sensor was also constructed and tested to investigate their suitability for use as an invasive surgery device. Performance of the contact force sensor packaged in a conforming elastomer material compares favourably to one of the best-performing commercial contact force sensors in catheterization applications. The proposed sensor features extremely high sensitivity up to 1.37-mN, miniature size (2.4-mm) that meets standard specification, excellent linearity, low hysteresis, and magnetic resonance imaging compatibility.

Chung, Kit Man

108

Advances in Molecular Diagnosis of HBV Infection and Drug Resistance  

PubMed Central

Serological markers are key elements in diagnosing acute hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and determining its possible evolution towards chronicity. Once treatment of chronic HBV is initiated with approved anti-hepadnaviral agents, such as lamivudine, interferon-alpha, or adefovir dipivoxil, the measurement of HBV DNA in serum can not only help monitor treatment efficacy but also indicates breakthrough infection should drug resistance emerge. Advances in the molecular diagnosis of drug resistance using highly sensitive methodologies such as DNA hybridization assays can further pinpoint the type of mutation responsible and, more importantly, detect upcoming viral resistance at an early stage when the variant represents only a minor fraction of the total viral population. Such new tools are especially relevant for patients at high risk for disease progression or acute exacerbation. Recent diagnostic developments including HBV genotyping and precore/core promoter assays that could well play important future roles in HBV patient management are also reviewed.

2005-01-01

109

Advances in understanding the molecular basis of FXTAS  

PubMed Central

Fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome (FXTAS) is an adult-onset neurodegenerative disorder among carriers of premutation expansions (55–200 CGG repeats) of the fragile X mental retardation 1 (FMR1) gene. The clinical features of FXTAS, as well as other forms of clinical involvement in carriers without FXTAS, are thought to arise from a toxic gain of function of transcriptionally active FMR1 containing expanded CGG repeats. Although the precise mechanisms involved in rCGG toxicity are unknown, here we discuss the latest advances and models that contribute to the understanding of the molecular basis of FXTAS, and the emerging view of FXTAS as the end-stage of a process that begins in early development.

Garcia-Arocena, Dolores; Hagerman, Paul J.

2010-01-01

110

Advances in the Rising Bubble Technique for discharge measurement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Already in the 19th century, d'Auria described a discharge measurement technique that applies floats to find the depth-integrated velocity (d'Auria, 1882). The basis of this technique was that the horizontal distance that the float travels on its way to the surface is the image of the integrated velocity profile over depth. Viol and Semenov (1964) improved this method by using air bubbles as floats, but still distances were measured manually until Sargent (1981) introduced a technique that could derive the distances from two photographs simultaneously taken from each side of the river bank. Recently, modern image processing techniques proved to further improve the applicability of the method (Hilgersom and Luxemburg, 2012). In the 2012 article, controlling and determining the rising velocity of an air bubble still appeared a major challenge for the application of this method. Ever since, laboratory experiments with different nozzle and tube sizes lead to advances in our self-made equipment enabling us to produce individual air bubbles with a more constant rising velocity. Also, we introduced an underwater camera to on-site determine the rising velocity, which is dependent on the water temperature and contamination, and therefore is site-specific. Camera measurements of the rising velocity proved successful in a laboratory and field setting, although some improvements to the setup are necessary to capture the air bubbles also at depths where little daylight penetrates. References D'Auria, L.: Velocity of streams; A new method to determine correctly the mean velocity of any perpendicular in rivers and canals, (The) American Engineers, 3, 1882. Hilgersom, K.P. and Luxemburg, W.M.J.: Technical Note: How image processing facilitates the rising bubble technique for discharge measurement, Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 16(2), 345-356, 2012. Sargent, D.: Development of a viable method of stream flow measurement using the integrating float technique, Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers (London), Part 2, 71, 1-15, 1981. Viol, V. and Semenov, V.: Experiments in measuring discharges in canals by the photo-integration method, Soviet Hydrol. Selected Pap, 2, 198-199, 1964.

Hilgersom, Koen; Luxemburg, Willem; Willemsen, Geert; Bussmann, Luuk

2014-05-01

111

Characterising chromosome rearrangements: recent technical advances in molecular cytogenetics  

PubMed Central

Genomic rearrangements can result in losses, amplifications, translocations and inversions of DNA fragments thereby modifying genome architecture, and potentially having clinical consequences. Many genomic disorders caused by structural variation have initially been uncovered by early cytogenetic methods. The last decade has seen significant progression in molecular cytogenetic techniques, allowing rapid and precise detection of structural rearrangements on a whole-genome scale. The high resolution attainable with these recently developed techniques has also uncovered the role of structural variants in normal genetic variation alongside single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). We describe how array-based comparative genomic hybridisation, SNP arrays, array painting and next-generation sequencing analytical methods (read depth, read pair and split read) allow the extensive characterisation of chromosome rearrangements in human genomes.

Le Scouarnec, S; Gribble, S M

2012-01-01

112

Advanced Cytologic Techniques for the Detection of Malignant Pancreatobiliary Strictures  

PubMed Central

Background & Aims Two advanced cytologic techniques for detecting aneuploidy, digital image analysis (DIA) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) have recently been developed to help identify malignant pancreatobiliary strictures. The aim of this study was to assess the clinical utility of cytology, DIA, and FISH for the identification of malignant pancreatobiliary strictures. Methods Brush cytologic specimens from 233 consecutive patients undergoing ERCP for pancreatobiliary strictures were examined by all three techniques. Strictures were stratified as proximal (n=33) or distal (n=114) based on whether they occurred above or below the cystic duct, respectively. Strictures in patients with PSC (n=86) were analyzed separately. Results Despite the stratification, the performances of the tests were similar. Routine cytology has a low sensitivity (5–20%) but 100% specificity. Because of the high specificity for cytology, we assessed the performance of the other tests when routine cytology was negative. In this clinical context, FISH had an increased sensitivity (35–60%) when assessing for chromosomal gains (polysomy) while preserving the specificity of cytology. The sensitivity and specificity of DIA was intermediate as compared to routine cytology and FISH, but was additive to FISH values demonstrating only trisomy of chromosome 7 or chromosome 3. Conclusions These findings suggest that FISH and DIA increase the sensitivity for the diagnosis of malignant pancreatobiliary tract strictures over that obtained by conventional cytology while maintaining an acceptable specificity.

Moreno Luna, Laura E.; Kipp, Benjamin; Halling, Kevin C.; Sebo, Thomas J.; Kremers., Walter K.; Roberts, Lewis R.; Barr Fritcher, Emily G.; Levy, Michael J.; Gores, Gregory J.

2006-01-01

113

Advanced Time-Resolved Fluorescence Microscopy Techniques for the Investigation of Peptide Self-Assembly  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ubiquitous cross beta sheet peptide motif is implicated in numerous neurodegenerative diseases while at the same time offers remarkable potential for constructing isomorphic high-performance bionanomaterials. Despite an emerging understanding of the complex folding landscape of cross beta structures in determining disease etiology and final structure, we lack knowledge of the critical initial stages of nucleation and growth. In this dissertation, I advance our understanding of these key stages in the cross-beta nucleation and growth pathways using cutting-edge microscopy techniques. In addition, I present a new combined time-resolved fluorescence analysis technique with the potential to advance our current understanding of subtle molecular level interactions that play a pivotal role in peptide self-assembly. Using the central nucleating core of Alzheimer's Amyloid-beta protein, Abeta(16 22), as a model system, utilizing electron, time-resolved, and non-linear microscopy, I capture the initial and transient nucleation stages of peptide assembly into the cross beta motif. In addition, I have characterized the nucleation pathway, from monomer to paracrystalline nanotubes in terms of morphology and fluorescence lifetime, corroborating the predicted desolvation process that occurs prior to cross-beta nucleation. Concurrently, I have identified unique heterogeneous cross beta domains contained within individual nanotube structures, which have potential bionanomaterials applications. Finally, I describe a combined fluorescence theory and analysis technique that dramatically increases the sensitivity of current time-resolved techniques. Together these studies demonstrate the potential for advanced microscopy techniques in the identification and characterization of the cross-beta folding pathway, which will further our understanding of both amyloidogenesis and bionanomaterials.

Anthony, Neil R.

114

[Advances of molecular targeted therapy in squamous cell lung cancer].  

PubMed

Squamous cell lung cancer (SQCLC) is one of the most prevalent subtypes of lung cancer worldwide, about 400,000 persons die from squamous-cell lung cancer around the world, and its pathogenesis is closely linked with tobacco exposure. Unfortunately, squamous-cell lung cancer patients do not benefit from major advances in the development of targeted therapeutics such as epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitors or anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) inhibitors that show exquisite activity in lung adenocarcinomas with EGFR mutations or echinoderm microtubule associated protein like-4 (EML4)-ALK fusions, respectively. Major efforts have been launched to characterize the genomes of squamous-cell lung cancers. Among the new results emanating from these efforts are amplifications of the fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 (FGFR1) gene, the discoidin domain receptor 2 (DDR2) gene mutation as potential novel targets for the treatment of SQCLCs. Researchers find that there are many specific molecular targeted genes in the genome of squamous-cell lung cancer patients. These changes play a vital role in cell cycle regulation, oxidative stress, cell apoptosis, squamous epithelium differentiation, may be the candidate targeted moleculars in SQCLCs. Here, we provide a review on these discoveries and their implications for clinical trials in squamous-cell lung cancer assessing the value of novel therapeutics addressing these targets. PMID:24345494

Ma, Li; Zhang, Shucai

2013-12-01

115

Advanced Cell Culture Techniques for Cancer Drug Discovery  

PubMed Central

Human cancer cell lines are an integral part of drug discovery practices. However, modeling the complexity of cancer utilizing these cell lines on standard plastic substrata, does not accurately represent the tumor microenvironment. Research into developing advanced tumor cell culture models in a three-dimensional (3D) architecture that more prescisely characterizes the disease state have been undertaken by a number of laboratories around the world. These 3D cell culture models are particularly beneficial for investigating mechanistic processes and drug resistance in tumor cells. In addition, a range of molecular mechanisms deconstructed by studying cancer cells in 3D models suggest that tumor cells cultured in two-dimensional monolayer conditions do not respond to cancer therapeutics/compounds in a similar manner. Recent studies have demonstrated the potential of utilizing 3D cell culture models in drug discovery programs; however, it is evident that further research is required for the development of more complex models that incorporate the majority of the cellular and physical properties of a tumor.

Lovitt, Carrie J.; Shelper, Todd B.; Avery, Vicky M.

2014-01-01

116

Advanced cell culture techniques for cancer drug discovery.  

PubMed

Human cancer cell lines are an integral part of drug discovery practices. However, modeling the complexity of cancer utilizing these cell lines on standard plastic substrata, does not accurately represent the tumor microenvironment. Research into developing advanced tumor cell culture models in a three-dimensional (3D) architecture that more prescisely characterizes the disease state have been undertaken by a number of laboratories around the world. These 3D cell culture models are particularly beneficial for investigating mechanistic processes and drug resistance in tumor cells. In addition, a range of molecular mechanisms deconstructed by studying cancer cells in 3D models suggest that tumor cells cultured in two-dimensional monolayer conditions do not respond to cancer therapeutics/compounds in a similar manner. Recent studies have demonstrated the potential of utilizing 3D cell culture models in drug discovery programs; however, it is evident that further research is required for the development of more complex models that incorporate the majority of the cellular and physical properties of a tumor. PMID:24887773

Lovitt, Carrie J; Shelper, Todd B; Avery, Vicky M

2014-01-01

117

Molecular Techniques for Classification and Diagnosis of Plant Pathogenic Oomycota  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a With a delay of approximately 10 years, molecular techniques came in use for the investigation of phylogenetic, taxonomic,\\u000a and diagnostic problems in oomycetes. The particular problem in plant pathogenic Oomycota lies in their biotrophic nature,\\u000a which prohibits axenic cultivation of the majority of species, in particular downy mildews and white blister rusts, on artificial\\u000a media. This impeded the broad employment

Otmar Spring; Marco Thines

118

Pediatric Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation: Advances in Science, Techniques, and Outcomes  

PubMed Central

More than 25% of children survive to hospital discharge after in-hospital cardiac arrests, and 5% to 10% survive after out-of-hospital cardiac arrests. This review of pediatric cardiopulmonary resuscitation addresses the epidemiology of pediatric cardiac arrests, mechanisms of coronary blood flow during cardiopulmonary resuscitation, the 4 phases of cardiac arrest resuscitation, appropriate interventions during each phase, special resuscitation circumstances, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation cardiopulmonary resuscitation, and quality of cardiopulmonary resuscitation. The key elements of pathophysiology that impact and match the timing, intensity, duration, and variability of the hypoxic-ischemic insult to evidence-based interventions are reviewed. Exciting discoveries in basic and applied-science laboratories are now relevant for specific subpopulations of pediatric cardiac arrest victims and circumstances (eg, ventricular fibrillation, neonates, congenital heart disease, extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation). Improving the quality of interventions is increasingly recognized as a key factor for improving outcomes. Evolving training strategies include simulation training, just-in-time and just-in-place training, and crisis-team training. The difficult issue of when to discontinue resuscitative efforts is addressed. Outcomes from pediatric cardiac arrests are improving. Advances in resuscitation science and state-of-the-art implementation techniques provide the opportunity for further improvement in outcomes among children after cardiac arrest.

Topjian, Alexis A.; Berg, Robert A.; Nadkarni, Vinay M.

2009-01-01

119

REVIEW ARTICLE: Emission measurement techniques for advanced powertrains  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent developments in high-efficiency low-emission powertrains require the emission measurement technologies to be able to detect regulated and unregulated compounds with very high sensitivity and a fast response. For example, levels of a variety of nitrogen compounds and sulphur compounds should be analysed in real time in order to develop aftertreatment systems to decrease emission of NOx for the lean burning powertrains. Also, real-time information on the emission of particulate matter for the transient operation of diesel engines and direct injection gasoline engines is invaluable. The present paper reviews newly introduced instrumentation for such emission measurement that is demanded for the developments in advanced powertrain systems. They include Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, mass spectrometry and fast response flame ionization detection. In addition, demands and applications of the fuel reformer developments for fuel cell electric vehicles are discussed. Besides the detection methodologies, sample handling techniques for the measurement of concentrations emitted from low emission vehicles for which the concentrations of the pollutants are significantly lower than the concentrations present in ambient air, are also described.

Adachi, Masayuki

2000-10-01

120

Achieving miniature sensor systems via advanced packaging techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Demands for miniaturized networked sensors that can be deployed in large quantities dictate that the packages be small and cost effective. In order to accomplish these objectives, system developers generally apply advanced packaging techniques to proven systems. A partnership of Nova Engineering and Tessera begins with a baseline of Nova's Unattended Ground Sensors (UGS) technology and utilizes Tessera's three-dimensional (3D) Chip-Scale Packaging (CSP), Multi-Chip Packaging (MCP), and System-in-Package (SIP) innovations to enable novel methods for fabricating compact, vertically integrated sensors utilizing digital, RF, and micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS) devices. These technologies, applied to a variety of sensors and integrated radio architectures, enable diverse multi-modal sensing networks with wireless communication capabilities. Sensors including imaging, accelerometers, acoustical, inertial measurement units, and gas and pressure sensors can be utilized. The greatest challenge to high density, multi-modal sensor networks is the ability to test each component prior to integration, commonly called Known Good Die (KGD) testing. In addition, the mix of multi-sourcing and high technology magnifies the challenge of testing at the die level. Utilizing Tessera proprietary CSP, MCP, and SIP interconnection methods enables fully testable, low profile stacking to create multi-modal sensor radios with high yield.

Hartup, David C.; Bobier, Kevin; Demmin, Jeffrey

2005-05-01

121

Development of advanced strain diagnostic techniques for reactor environments.  

SciTech Connect

The following research is operated as a Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) initiative at Sandia National Laboratories. The long-term goals of the program include sophisticated diagnostics of advanced fuels testing for nuclear reactors for the Department of Energy (DOE) Gen IV program, with the future capability to provide real-time measurement of strain in fuel rod cladding during operation in situ at any research or power reactor in the United States. By quantifying the stress and strain in fuel rods, it is possible to significantly improve fuel rod design, and consequently, to improve the performance and lifetime of the cladding. During the past year of this program, two sets of experiments were performed: small-scale tests to ensure reliability of the gages, and reactor pulse experiments involving the most viable samples in the Annulated Core Research Reactor (ACRR), located onsite at Sandia. Strain measurement techniques that can provide useful data in the extreme environment of a nuclear reactor core are needed to characterize nuclear fuel rods. This report documents the progression of solutions to this issue that were explored for feasibility in FY12 at Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM.

Fleming, Darryn D.; Holschuh, Thomas Vernon,; Miller, Timothy J.; Hall, Aaron Christopher; Urrea, David Anthony,; Parma, Edward J.,

2013-02-01

122

Removing baseline flame's spectrum by using advanced recovering spectrum techniques.  

PubMed

In this paper, a novel automated algorithm to estimate and remove the continuous baseline from measured flame spectra is proposed. The algorithm estimates the continuous background based on previous information obtained from a learning database of continuous flame spectra. Then, the discontinuous flame emission is calculated by subtracting the estimated continuous baseline from the measured spectrum. The key issue subtending the learning database is that the continuous flame emissions are predominant in the sooty regions, in absence of discontinuous radiation. The proposed algorithm was tested using natural gas and bio-oil flames spectra at different combustion conditions, and the goodness-of-fit coefficient (GFC) quality metric was used to quantify the performance in the estimation process. Additionally, the commonly used first derivative method (FDM) for baseline removing was applied to the same testing spectra in order to compare and to evaluate the proposed technique. The achieved results show that the proposed method is a very attractive tool for designing advanced combustion monitoring strategies of discontinuous emissions. PMID:22945158

Arias, Luis; Sbarbaro, Daniel; Torres, Sergio

2012-09-01

123

Dissecting cell adhesion architecture using advanced imaging techniques  

PubMed Central

Cell adhesion to extracellular matrix proteins or to other cells is essential for the control of embryonic development, tissue integrity, immune function and wound healing. Adhesions are tightly spatially regulated structures containing over one hundred different proteins that coordinate both dynamics and signaling events at these sites. Extensive biochemical and morphological analysis of adhesion types over the past three decades has greatly improved understanding of individual protein contributions to adhesion signaling and, in some cases, dynamics. However, it is becoming increasingly clear that these diverse macromolecular complexes contain a variety of protein sub-networks, as well as distinct sub-domains that likely play important roles in regulating adhesion behavior. Until recently, resolving these structures, which are often less than a micron in size, was hampered by the limitations of conventional light microscopy. However, recent advances in optical techniques and imaging methods have revealed exciting insight into the intricate control of adhesion structure and assembly. Here we provide an overview of the recent data arising from such studies of cell:matrix and cell:cell contact and an overview of the imaging strategies that have been applied to study the intricacies and hierarchy of proteins within adhesions.

Morton, Penny E

2011-01-01

124

New techniques for sub-doppler spectroscopy of molecular ions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This thesis details research in developing new methods for performing high-resolution sub-Doppler spec- troscopy of molecular ions in the laboratory. Molecular ions are of interest to a variety of fields, from astrochemistry to fundamental physics to the study of chemical reactive intermediates. The limiting factor in developing a deeper understanding of many ion systems is the quality of the available laboratory spectra. Traditional techniques for high-resolution spectroscopy of ions are limited by two factors: the precision is often limited by the Doppler-broadened linewidths of the observed spectra, and the accuracy is typically limited by the laser frequency calibration. Two new techniques are described in this thesis: cavity enhanced velocity modulation spectroscopy (CEVMS) and ion beam spectroscopy. Each of these techniques was first implemented in the near-infrared spectral region using a titanium sapphire laser, and was then extended into the mid-infrared, using an optical parametric oscillator (OPO) for CEVMS and difference frequency generation (DFG) for the ion beam. Both of these techniques allow for sub-Doppler resolution to signifi- cantly improve the precision beyond what was possible with traditional ion spectroscopy, and because both techniques are based on direct absorption spectroscopy, they require nothing of the ion of interest other than an allowed transition within the tuning range of the laser used, making them applicable to a wide variety of ions. The lasers used with both of these techniques have been referenced with an optical frequency comb for sub-megahertz absolute calibration accuracy of linecenters, which is a significant improvement beyond the 20-200 MHz accuracy that was typical of ion spectroscopy before the work presented in this thesis.

Siller, Brian M.

125

Hybrid inverse lithography techniques for advanced hierarchical memories  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Traditional segment-based model-based OPC methods have been the mainstream mask layout optimization techniques in volume production for memory and embedded memory devices for many device generations. These techniques have been continually optimized over time to meet the ever increasing difficulties of memory and memory periphery patterning. There are a range of difficult issues for patterning embedded memories successfully. These difficulties include the need for a very high level of symmetry and consistency (both within memory cells themselves and between cells) due to circuit effects such as noise margin requirements in SRAMs. Memory cells and access structures consume a large percentage of area in embedded devices so there is a very high return from shrinking the cell area as much as possible. This aggressive scaling leads to very difficult resolution, 2D CD control and process window requirements. Additionally, the range of interactions between mask synthesis corrections of neighboring areas can extend well beyond the size of the memory cell, making it difficult to fully take advantage of the inherent designed cell hierarchy in mask pattern optimization. This is especially true for non-traditional (i.e., less dependent on geometric rule) OPC/RET methods such as inverse lithography techniques (ILT) which inherently have more model-based decisions in their optimizations. New inverse methods such as model-based SRAF placement and ILT are, however, well known to have considerable benefits in finding flexible mask pattern solutions to improve process window, improve 2D CD control, and improve resolution in ultra-dense memory patterns. They also are known to reduce recipe complexity and provide native MRC compliant mask pattern solutions. Unfortunately, ILT is also known to be several times slower than traditional OPC methods due to the increased computational lithographic optimizations it performs. In this paper, we describe and present results for a methodology to greatly improve the ability of ILT to optimize advanced embedded memory designs while retaining significant hierarchy and cell design symmetry, therefore, have good turnaround time and CD uniformity. This paper will explain the enhancements which have been developed in order to overcome the traditional difficulties listed above. These enhancements are in the categories of local CD control, global chip processing options, process window benefit, turn-around time and hierarchy retention.

Xiao, Guangming; Hooker, Kevin; Irby, Dave; Zhang, Yunqiang; Ward, Brian; Cecil, Tom; Hall, Brett; Lee, Mindy; Kim, Dave; Lucas, Kevin

2014-03-01

126

Petroleomics: advanced molecular probe for petroleum heavy ends.  

PubMed

To look into complex mixtures of petroleum heavy ends at the molecular level, ultra high-resolution mass spectrometry, i.e. resolving power > 50,000, is needed to resolve overlapping components for accurate determination of molecular composition of individual components. Recent progress in Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS) incorporated with soft ionization techniques adaptable to liquid chromatography enables analysis of petroleum high ends, i.e., heavy oils, residua and asphaltenes. FT-ICR MS at the Future Fuels Institute of Florida State University and the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory (NHMFL) routinely provides 1,000,000 resolving power at 400 Da, with root mean square (rms) mass measurement accuracy between 30 and 500 ppb for 5000-30,000 identified species in a single mass spectrum. Phase correction of the detected ion signal increases resolving power 40-100%, improving mass accuracy up to twofold. Overlapping ionic species that differ in mass by as little as one electron mass (548 µDa) can be resolved. A database of more than 100,000 components of different elemental composition has been generated at NHMFL. PMID:21438082

Hsu, Chang S; Hendrickson, Christopher L; Rodgers, Ryan P; McKenna, Amy M; Marshall, Alan G

2011-04-01

127

Clinical Advances in Molecular Biomarkers for Cancer Diagnosis and Therapy  

PubMed Central

Cancer diagnosis is currently undergoing a paradigm shift with the incorporation of molecular biomarkers as part of routine diagnostic panel. The molecular alteration ranges from those involving the DNA, RNA, microRNAs (miRNAs) and proteins. The miRNAs are recently discovered small non-coding endogenous single-stranded RNAs that critically regulates the development, invasion and metastasis of cancers. They are altered in cancers and have the potential to serve as diagnostic markers for cancer. Moreover, deregulating their activity offers novel cancer therapeutic approaches. The availability of high throughput techniques for the identification of altered cellular molecules allowed their use in cancer diagnosis. Their application to a variety of body specimens from blood to tissues has been helpful for appreciating their use in the clinical context. The development of innovative antibodies for immunohistochemical detection of proteins also assists in diagnosis and risk stratification. Overall, the novel cancer diagnostic tools have extended their application as prognostic risk factors and can be used as targets for personalized medicine.

Sethi, Seema; Ali, Shadan; Philip, Philip A.; Sarkar, Fazlul H.

2013-01-01

128

Clinical advances in molecular biomarkers for cancer diagnosis and therapy.  

PubMed

Cancer diagnosis is currently undergoing a paradigm shift with the incorporation of molecular biomarkers as part of routine diagnostic panel. The molecular alteration ranges from those involving the DNA, RNA, microRNAs (miRNAs) and proteins. The miRNAs are recently discovered small non-coding endogenous single-stranded RNAs that critically regulates the development, invasion and metastasis of cancers. They are altered in cancers and have the potential to serve as diagnostic markers for cancer. Moreover, deregulating their activity offers novel cancer therapeutic approaches. The availability of high throughput techniques for the identification of altered cellular molecules allowed their use in cancer diagnosis. Their application to a variety of body specimens from blood to tissues has been helpful for appreciating their use in the clinical context. The development of innovative antibodies for immunohistochemical detection of proteins also assists in diagnosis and risk stratification. Overall, the novel cancer diagnostic tools have extended their application as prognostic risk factors and can be used as targets for personalized medicine. PMID:23863689

Sethi, Seema; Ali, Shadan; Philip, Philip A; Sarkar, Fazlul H

2013-01-01

129

[Recent advances in molecular genetics of GM2 gangliosidosis].  

PubMed

Recent advances in molecular genetics of GM2 gangliosidosis are reviewed. GM2 gangliosidosis is an autosomal recessive, neurodegenerative disease caused by a deficiency of beta-hexosaminidase (Hex, EC 3.2.1.52) A activity, resulting in accumulation of GM2 ganglioside in the lysosomes of neuronal cells. There are two catalytically active forms of this enzyme: Hex A, composed of one alpha and one beta subunits. Three forms of this disease, Tay-Sachs disease, Sandhoff disease, and GM2 activator deficiency, have been recognized according to whether the defect involves the alpha subunit, beta subunit, or GM2 activator protein, respectively. A number of gene abnormalities responsible for the disease have been identified and mutations specific for phenotypes and racial backgrounds are summarized. Recently, the murine models of human Tay-Sachs disease and Sandhoff disease have been produced. With the finding of dramatically clinical phenotypes in these mice, these models could be useful for research on the pathogenesis or therapy of these diseases. PMID:8577047

Wakamatsu, N

1995-12-01

130

Molecular Diagnosis of Response to Neoadjuvant Chemoradiation Therapy in Patients with Locally Advanced Rectal Cancer  

PubMed Central

Background Pathologic complete response (pCR) to neoadjuvant chemoradiation (CRT) is an important prognostic factor in locally advanced rectal cancer. However, it is uncertain whether histopathological techniques accurately detect pCR. We tested a novel molecular approach for detecting pCR and compared it to current histopathological approaches. Study design Pre-treatment tumor biopsies and surgical specimens were collected from 96 patients with locally advanced rectal cancer treated with neoadjuvant CRT and surgery. Tumor response was categorized by tumor regression grade (TRG). Tumor DNA from pre-CRT tumor biopsies was screened for K-ras and p53 mutations. DNA from paired surgical specimens was then screened for the same mutations using highly sensitive polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based techniques. Results Sixty-eight out of 96 (71%) pre-treatment biopsies harbored K-ras and/or p53 mutation; 36 (38%) had K-ras mutations, 52 (54%) had p53 mutations and 20 (21%) carried both mutations. Of 70 patients with TRG 1–3, 66 (94%) had a concordant K-ras and p53 mutation profile in pre- and post-treatment tissues. Of 26 patients with TRG 0 (pCR), 12 had K-ras or p53 mutations in pre-treatment biopsies. Of these, 2 (17%) patients had the same K-ras (n=1) or p53 (n=1) mutation detected in post-treatment tissue. Conclusions Sensitive molecular techniques detect K-ras and p53 mutations in post-CRT surgical specimens in some patients with a pCR. This suggests histopathological techniques may not be completely accurate, and that some patients diagnosed with a pCR to CRT may indeed have occult cancers cells in their surgical specimens with K-ras and p53 mutations serving as reliable surrogates for residual disease.

Chen, Zhenbin; Duldulao, Marjun P; Li, Wenyan; Lee, Wendy; Kim, Joseph; Garcia-Aguilar, Julio

2011-01-01

131

A Sensitive TLRH Targeted Imaging Technique for Ultrasonic Molecular Imaging  

PubMed Central

The primary goals of ultrasound molecular imaging are the detection and imaging of ultrasound contrast agents (microbubbles), which are bound to specific vascular surface receptors. Imaging methods that can sensitively and selectively detect and distinguish bound microbubbles from freely circulating microbubbles (free microbubbles) and surrounding tissue are critically important for the practical application of ultrasound contrast molecular imaging. Microbubbles excited by low frequency acoustic pulses emit wide-band echoes with a bandwidth extending beyond 20 MHz; we refer to this technique as TLRH (transmission at a low frequency and reception at a high frequency). Using this wideband, transient echo, we have developed and implemented a targeted imaging technique incorporating a multi-frequency co-linear array and the Siemens Antares® imaging system. The multi-frequency co-linear array integrates a center 5.4 MHz array, used to receive echoes and produce radiation force, and two outer 1.5 MHz arrays used to transmit low frequency incident pulses. The targeted imaging technique makes use of an acoustic radiation force sub-sequence to enhance accumulation and a TLRH imaging sub-sequence to detect bound microbubbles. The radiofrequency (RF) data obtained from the TLRH imaging sub-sequence are processsed to separate echo signatures between tissue, free microbubbles, and bound microbubbles. By imaging biotin-coated microbubbles targeted to avidin-coated cellulose tubes, we demonstrate that the proposed method has a high contrast-to-tissue ratio (up to 34 dB) and a high sensitivity to bound microbubbles (with the ratio of echoes from bound microbubbles versus free microbubbles extending up to 23 dB). The effects of the imaging pulse acoustic pressure, the radiation force sub-sequence and the use of various slow-time filters on the targeted imaging quality are studied. The TLRH targeted imaging method is demonstrated in this study to provide sensitive and selective detection of bound microbubbles for ultrasound molecularly-targeted imaging.

Hu, Xiaowen; Zheng, Hairong; Kruse, Dustin E.; Sutcliffe, Patrick; Stephens, Douglas N.; Ferrara, Katherine W.

2010-01-01

132

ADVANCED TECHNIQUES FOR RESERVOIR SIMULATION AND MODELING OF NONCONVENTIONAL WELLS  

SciTech Connect

Nonconventional wells, which include horizontal, deviated, multilateral and ''smart'' wells, offer great potential for the efficient management of oil and gas reservoirs. These wells are able to contact larger regions of the reservoir than conventional wells and can also be used to target isolated hydrocarbon accumulations. The use of nonconventional wells instrumented with downhole inflow control devices allows for even greater flexibility in production. Because nonconventional wells can be very expensive to drill, complete and instrument, it is important to be able to optimize their deployment, which requires the accurate prediction of their performance. However, predictions of nonconventional well performance are often inaccurate. This is likely due to inadequacies in some of the reservoir engineering and reservoir simulation tools used to model and optimize nonconventional well performance. A number of new issues arise in the modeling and optimization of nonconventional wells. For example, the optimal use of downhole inflow control devices has not been addressed for practical problems. In addition, the impact of geological and engineering uncertainty (e.g., valve reliability) has not been previously considered. In order to model and optimize nonconventional wells in different settings, it is essential that the tools be implemented into a general reservoir simulator. This simulator must be sufficiently general and robust and must in addition be linked to a sophisticated well model. Our research under this five year project addressed all of the key areas indicated above. The overall project was divided into three main categories: (1) advanced reservoir simulation techniques for modeling nonconventional wells; (2) improved techniques for computing well productivity (for use in reservoir engineering calculations) and for coupling the well to the simulator (which includes the accurate calculation of well index and the modeling of multiphase flow in the wellbore); and (3) accurate approaches to account for the effects of reservoir heterogeneity and for the optimization of nonconventional well deployment. An overview of our progress in each of these main areas is as follows. A general purpose object-oriented research simulator (GPRS) was developed under this project. The GPRS code is managed using modern software management techniques and has been deployed to many companies and research institutions. The simulator includes general black-oil and compositional modeling modules. The formulation is general in that it allows for the selection of a wide variety of primary and secondary variables and accommodates varying degrees of solution implicitness. Specifically, we developed and implemented an IMPSAT procedure (implicit in pressure and saturation, explicit in all other variables) for compositional modeling as well as an adaptive implicit procedure. Both of these capabilities allow for efficiency gains through selective implicitness. The code treats cell connections through a general connection list, which allows it to accommodate both structured and unstructured grids. The GPRS code was written to be easily extendable so new modeling techniques can be readily incorporated. Along these lines, we developed a new dual porosity module compatible with the GPRS framework, as well as a new discrete fracture model applicable for fractured or faulted reservoirs. Both of these methods display substantial advantages over previous implementations. Further, we assessed the performance of different preconditioners in an attempt to improve the efficiency of the linear solver. As a result of this investigation, substantial improvements in solver performance were achieved.

Louis J. Durlofsky; Khalid Aziz

2004-08-20

133

Advanced Techniques for Simulating the Behavior of Sand  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Computer graphics and visualization techniques continue to provide untapped research opportunities, particularly when working with earth science disciplines. Through collaboration with the Oregon Space Grant and IGERT Ecosystem Informatics programs we are developing new techniques for simulating sand. In addition, through collaboration with the Oregon Space Grant, we’ve been communicating with the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) to exchange ideas and gain feedback on our work. More specifically, JPL’s DARTS Laboratory specializes in planetary vehicle simulation, such as the Mars rovers. This simulation utilizes a virtual "sand box" to test how planetary rovers respond to different terrains while traversing them. Unfortunately, this simulation is unable to fully mimic the harsh, sandy environments of those found on Mars. Ideally, these simulations should allow a rover to interact with the sand beneath it, particularly for different sand granularities and densities. In particular, there may be situations where a rover may become stuck in sand due to lack of friction between the sand and wheels. In fact, in May 2009, the Spirit rover became stuck in the Martian sand and has provided additional motivation for this research. In order to develop a new sand simulation model, high performance computing will play a very important role in this work. More specifically, graphics processing units (GPUs) are useful due to their ability to run general purpose algorithms and ability to perform massively parallel computations. In prior research, simulating vast quantities of sand has been difficult to compute in real-time due to the computational complexity of many colliding particles. With the use of GPUs however, each particle collision will be parallelized, allowing for a dramatic performance increase. In addition, spatial partitioning will also provide a speed boost as this will help limit the number of particle collision calculations. However, since the goal of this research is to simulate the look and behavior of sand, this work will go beyond simple particle collision. In particular, we can continue to use our parallel algorithms not only on single particles but on particle “clumps” that consist of multiple combined particles. Since sand is typically not spherical in nature, these particle “clumps” help to simulate the coarse nature of sand. In a simulation environment, multiple combined particles could be used to simulate the polygonal and granular nature of sand grains. Thus, a diversity of sand particles can be generated. The interaction between these particles can then be parallelized using GPU hardware. As such, this research will investigate different graphics and physics techniques and determine the tradeoffs in performance and visual quality for sand simulation. An enhanced sand model through the use of high performance computing and GPUs has great potential to impact research for both earth and space scientists. Interaction with JPL has provided an opportunity for us to refine our simulation techniques that can ultimately be used for their vehicle simulator. As an added benefit of this work, advancements in simulating sand can also benefit scientists here on earth, especially in regard to understanding landslides and debris flows.

Clothier, M.; Bailey, M.

2009-12-01

134

Weldability and joining techniques for advanced fossil energy system alloys  

SciTech Connect

The efforts represent the concerns for the basic understanding of the weldability and fabricability of the advanced high temperature alloys so necessary to affect increases in the efficiency of the next generation Fossil Energy Power Plants. The effort was divided into three tasks with the first effort dealing with the welding and fabrication behavior of 310HCbN (HR3C), the second task details the studies aimed at understanding the weldability of a newly developed 310TaN high temperature stainless (a modification of 310 stainless) and Task 3 addressed the cladding of austenitic tubing with Iron-Aluminide using the GTAW process. Task 1 consisted of microstructural studies on 310HCbN and the development of a Tube Weldability test which has applications to production welding techniques as well as laboratory weldability assessments. In addition, the evaluation of ex-service 310HCbN which showed fireside erosion and cracking at the attachment weld locations was conducted. Task 2 addressed the behavior of the newly developed 310 TaN modification of standard 310 stainless steel and showed that the weldability was excellent and that the sensitization potential was minimal for normal welding and fabrication conditions. The microstructural evolution during elevated temperature testing was characterized and the second phase particles evolved upon aging were identified. Task 3 details the investigation undertaken to clad 310HCbN tubing with Iron Aluminide and developed welding conditions necessary to provide a crack free cladding. The work showed that both a preheat and a post-heat was necessary for crack free deposits and the effect of a third element on the cracking potential was defined together with the effect of the aluminum level for optimum weldability.

Lundin, C.D.; Qiao, C.Y.P.; Liu, W.; Yang, D.; Zhou, G.; Morrison, M. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

1998-05-01

135

Genetic Analyses of Fish Species in the Upper Midwest. Volume 2. Assessment of Molecular Techniques.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Little comparative work has been done to assess the relative effectiveness of various molecular techniques to detect genetic variation among populations. The objective of the study was to investigate the utility of three molecular techniques allozymes, Re...

C. A. Toline D. P. Philipp J. B. Ludden J. M. Hudson J. V. Tranquilli M. D. G. Desjardins R. D. Fields T. W. Kassler

1997-01-01

136

Integrating advanced materials simulation techniques into an automated data analysis workflow at the Spallation Neutron Source  

SciTech Connect

This presentation will review developments on the integration of advanced modeling and simulation techniques into the analysis step of experimental data obtained at the Spallation Neutron Source. A workflow framework for the purpose of refining molecular mechanics force-fields against quasi-elastic neutron scattering data is presented. The workflow combines software components to submit model simulations to remote high performance computers, a message broker interface for communications between the optimizer engine and the simulation production step, and tools to convolve the simulated data with the experimental resolution. A test application shows the correction to a popular fixed-charge water model in order to account polarization effects due to the presence of solvated ions. Future enhancements to the refinement workflow are discussed. This work is funded through the DOE Center for Accelerating Materials Modeling.

Borreguero Calvo, Jose M [ORNL] [ORNL; Campbell, Stuart I [ORNL] [ORNL; Delaire, Olivier A [ORNL] [ORNL; Doucet, Mathieu [ORNL] [ORNL; Goswami, Monojoy [ORNL] [ORNL; Hagen, Mark E [ORNL] [ORNL; Lynch, Vickie E [ORNL] [ORNL; Proffen, Thomas E [ORNL] [ORNL; Ren, Shelly [ORNL] [ORNL; Savici, Andrei T [ORNL] [ORNL; Sumpter, Bobby G [ORNL] [ORNL

2014-01-01

137

Double-Edge Molecular Technique for Doppler Lidar Wind Measurement  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The double-edge lidar technique for measuring the wind using molecular backscatter is described. Two high spectral resolution edge filters are located in the wings of the Rayleigh-Brillouin profile. This doubles the signal change per unit Doppler shift, the sensitivity, and gives nearly a factor of two improvement in measurement accuracy. The use of a crossover region is described where the sensitivity of a molecular and aerosol-based measurement are equal. This desensitizes the molecular measurement to the effects of aerosol scattering over a frequency range of +/- 100 m/s. We give methods for correcting for short-term frequency jitter and drift using a laser reference frequency measurement and methods for long-term frequency correction using a servo control system. The effects of Rayleigh-Brillouin scattering on the measurement are shown to be significant and are included in the analysis. Simulations for a conical scanning satellite-based lidar at 355 nm show an accuracy of 2-3 m/s for altitudes of 2 to 15 km for a 1 km vertical resolution, a satellite altitude of 400 km and a 200 km x 200 km spatial resolution. Results of ground based wind measurements are presented.

Flesia, Cristina; Korb, C. Laurence

1998-01-01

138

Advanced Techniques and Technology for Efficient Data Storage, Access, and Transfer.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Advanced techniques for efficiently representing most forms of data are being implemented in practical hardware and software form through the joint efforts of three NASA centers. These techniques adapt to local statistical variations to continually provid...

R. F. Rice W. Miller

1991-01-01

139

Euromech 260: Advanced Non-Intrusive Experimental Techniques in Fluid and Plasma Flows.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The following topics are discussed: coherent anti-Stokes and elastic Rayleigh scattering; elastic scattering and non linear dynamics; fluorescence; molecular tracking techniques and particle image velocimetry.

1990-01-01

140

Recent advances in molecular recognition based on nanoengineered platforms.  

PubMed

Nanoparticles and nanoengineered platforms have great potential for technologies involving biomoleuclar detection or cell-related biosensing, and have provided effective chemical interfaces for molecular recognition. Typically, chemists work on the modification of synthetic polymers or macromolecules, which they link to the nanoparticles by covalent or noncovalent approaches. The motivation for chemical modification is to enhance the selectivity and sensitivity, and to improve the biocompatibility for the in vivo applications. In this Account, we present recent advances in the development and application of chemical interfaces for molecular recognition for nanoparticles and nanoengineered platforms, in particular single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs). We discuss emerging approaches for recognizing small molecules, glycosylated proteins, and serum biomarkers. For example, we compare and discuss detection methods for ATP, NO, H2O2, and monosaccharides for recent nanomaterials. Fluorometric detection appears to have great potential for quantifying concentration gradients and determining their location in living cells. For macromolecular detection, new methods for glycoprofiling using such interfaces appear promising, and benefit specifically from the potential elimination of cumbersome labeling and liberation steps during conventional analysis of glycans, augmenting the currently used mass spectrometry (MS), capillary electrophoresis (CE), and liquid chromatography (LC) methods. In particular, we demonstrated the great potential of fluorescent SWNTs for glycan-lectin interactions sensing. In this case, SWNTs are noncovalently functionalized to introduce a chelated nickel group. This group provides a docking site for the His-tagged lectin and acts as the signal modulator. As the nickel proximity to the SWNT surface changes, the fluorescent signal is increased or attenuated. When a free glycan or glycosylated probe interacts with the lectin, the signal increases and they are able to obtain loading curves similar to surface plasmon resonance measurements. They demonstrate the sensitivity and specificity of this platform with two higher-affined glycan-lectin pairs: fucose (Fuc) to PA-IIL and N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) to GafD. Lastly, we discuss how developments in protein biomarker detection in general are benefiting specifically from label-free molecular recognition. Electrical field effect transistors, chemi-resistive and fluorometric nanosensors based on various nanomaterials have demonstrated substantial progress in recent years in addressing this challenging problem. In this Account, we compare the balance between sensitivity, selectivity, and nonspecific adsorption for various applications. In particular, our group has utilized SWNTs as fluorescence sensors for label-free protein-protein interaction measurements. In this assay, we have encapsulated each nanotube in a biocompatible polymer, chitosan, which has been further modified to conjugate nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA) groups. After Ni(2+) chelation, NTA Ni(2+) complexes bind to his-tagged proteins, resulting in a local environment change of the SWNT array, leading to optical fluorescence modulation with detection limit down to 100 nM. We have further engineered the platform to monitor single protein binding events, with an even lower detection limit down to 10 pM. PMID:24467652

Mu, Bin; Zhang, Jingqing; McNicholas, Thomas P; Reuel, Nigel F; Kruss, Sebastian; Strano, Michael S

2014-04-15

141

Investigation and Development of Advanced Surface Microanalysis Techniques and Methods.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The goals of this research program were two-fold: 1. Improve the sensitivity and quantitative capabilities of existing surface microanalysis techniques operating in the 1 to 150 micrometer lateral dimension regime; and 2. Investigate and evaluate techniqu...

R. W. Odom C. A. Evans

1983-01-01

142

Visualizing epigenetics: current advances and advantages in HDAC PET imaging techniques.  

PubMed

Abnormal gene regulation as a consequence of flawed epigenetic mechanisms may be central to the initiation and persistence of many human diseases. However, the association of epigenetic dysfunction with disease and the development of therapeutic agents for treatment are slow. Developing new methodologies used to visualize chromatin-modifying enzymes and their function in the human brain would be valuable for the diagnosis of brain disorders and drug discovery. We provide an overview of current invasive and noninvasive techniques for measuring expression and functions of chromatin-modifying enzymes in the brain, emphasizing tools applicable to histone deacetylase (HDAC) enzymes as a leading example. The majority of current techniques are invasive and difficult to translate to what is happening within a human brain in vivo. However, recent progress in molecular imaging provides new, noninvasive ways to visualize epigenetics in the human brain. Neuroimaging tool development presents a unique set of challenges in order to identify and validate CNS radiotracers for HDACs and other histone-modifying enzymes. We summarize advances in the effort to image HDACs and HDAC inhibitory effects in the brain using positron emission tomography (PET) and highlight generalizable techniques that can be adapted to investigate other specific components of epigenetic machinery. Translational tools like neuroimaging by PET and magnetic resonance imaging provide the best way to link our current understanding of epigenetic changes with in vivo function in normal and diseased brains. These tools will be a critical addition to ex vivo methods to evaluate - and intervene - in CNS dysfunction. PMID:24051365

Wang, C; Schroeder, F A; Hooker, J M

2014-04-01

143

The use of molecular imaging combined with genomic techniques to understand the heterogeneity in cancer metastasis.  

PubMed

Tumour heterogeneity has, in recent times, come to play a vital role in how we understand and treat cancers; however, the clinical translation of this has lagged behind advances in research. Although significant advancements in oncological management have been made, personalized care remains an elusive goal. Inter- and intratumour heterogeneity, particularly in the clinical setting, has been difficult to quantify and therefore to treat. The histological quantification of heterogeneity of tumours can be a logistical and clinical challenge. The ability to examine not just the whole tumour but also all the molecular variations of metastatic disease in a patient is obviously difficult with current histological techniques. Advances in imaging techniques and novel applications, alongside our understanding of tumour heterogeneity, have opened up a plethora of non-invasive biomarker potential to examine tumours, their heterogeneity and the clinical translation. This review will focus on how various imaging methods that allow for quantification of metastatic tumour heterogeneity, along with the potential of developing imaging, integrated with other in vitro diagnostic approaches such as genomics and exosome analyses, have the potential role as a non-invasive biomarker for guiding the treatment algorithm. PMID:24597512

Chowdhury, R; Ganeshan, B; Irshad, S; Lawler, K; Eisenblätter, M; Milewicz, H; Rodriguez-Justo, M; Miles, K; Ellis, P; Groves, A; Punwani, S; Ng, T

2014-06-01

144

Modeling large RNAs and ribonucleoprotein particles using molecular mechanics techniques.  

PubMed Central

There is a growing body of low-resolution structural data that can be utilized to devise structural models for large RNAs and ribonucleoproteins. These models are routinely built manually. We introduce an automated refinement protocol to utilize such data for building low-resolution three-dimensional models using the tools of molecular mechanics. In addition to specifying the positions of each nucleotide, the protocol provides quantitative estimates of the uncertainties in those positions, i.e., the resolution of the model. In typical applications, the resolution of the models is about 10-20 A. Our method uses reduced representations and allows us to refine three-dimensional structures of systems as big as the 16S and 23S ribosomal RNAs, which are about one to two orders of magnitude larger than nucleic acids that can be examined by traditional all-atom modeling methods. Nonatomic resolution structural data--secondary structure, chemical cross-links, chemical and enzymatic footprinting patterns, protein positions, solvent accessibility, and so on--are combined with known motifs in RNA structure to predict low-resolution models of large RNAs. These structural constraints are imposed on the RNA chain using molecular mechanics-type potential functions with parameters based on the quality of experimental data. Surface potential functions are used to incorporate shape and positional data from electron microscopy image reconstruction experiments into our models. The structures are optimized using techniques of energy refinement to get RNA folding patterns. In addition to providing a consensus model, the method finds the range of models consistent with the data, which allows quantitative evaluation of the resolution of the model. The method also identifies conflicts in the experimental data. Although our protocol is aimed at much larger RNAs, we illustrate these techniques using the tRNA structure as an example and test-bed. Images FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8

Malhotra, A; Tan, R K; Harvey, S C

1994-01-01

145

How Molecular Structure Affects Mechanical Properties of an Advanced Polymer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

density was performed over a range of temperatures below the glass transition temperature. The physical characterization, elastic properties and notched tensile strength all as a function of molecular weight and test temperature were determined. For the uncrosslinked SI material, it was shown that notched tensile strength is a strong function of both temperature and molecular weight, whereas stiffness is only a strong function of temperature. For the crosslinked PETI-SI material, it was shown that the effect of crosslinking significantly enhances the mechanical performance of the low molecular weight material; comparable to that exhibited by the high molecular weight material.

Nicholson, Lee M.; Whitley, Karen S.; Gates, Thomas S.; Hinkley, Jeffrey A.

2000-01-01

146

New advanced underwater navigation techniques based on surface relay buoys  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of medium and long range UUVs, associated with most recent operational concepts create new requirements for advanced underwater navigation systems that must be accurate, easy to deploy at sea and low cost. At the same time, the broad use of GPS for navigation purposes allows manufacturers to produce low cost and highly accurate receivers, opening the market to

H. G. Thomas

1994-01-01

147

Applying advanced system simulation techniques to INFOSEC system development  

Microsoft Academic Search

The gate-level system simulation (GLSS) methodology, developed under the demonstration of avionics module exchangeability via simulation (DAMES) program, allows integration of gate-level models to create simulatable system models that reflect actual hardware designs. The virtual integrated systems (VIS) approach expands GLSS to include the use of behavioral models, and allows system software to be developed and debugged. Advanced simulation capabilities

V. P. Calandra; P. Leahy

1990-01-01

148

Advanced NDE techniques for quantitative characterization of aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recent advances in nondestructive evaluation (NDE) at NASA Langley Research Center and their applications that have resulted in quantitative assessment of material properties based on thermal and ultrasonic measurements are reviewed. Specific applications include ultrasonic determination of bolt tension, ultrasonic and thermal characterization of bonded layered structures, characterization of composite materials, and disbonds in aircraft skins.

Heyman, Joseph S.; Winfree, William P.

1990-01-01

149

Minimizing cancer risk using molecular techniques: a review.  

PubMed

This review article summarizes molecular markers that can signal enhanced risk of cancer and provide clinicians with these clues in order to attempt the use of natural and synthetic compounds to intervene in the early precancerous stages of carcinogenesis before invasive disease begins. With an aim such as this in mind, we have begun to apply molecular techniques based on many research articles to look for biomarkers capable of signaling a greater risk of cancer. It is possible to attain relatively quick answers by monitoring selected signs and damage in the body which provide the environment for abnormal cell growth and differentiation. These molecular techniques aim to uncover critical precancerous events taking place inside the body and identify measurable biologic flags signaling their occurrence. For years now, scientists have understood that the onset of cancer is a gradual, step-wise process that may unfold over the course of decades, rather than a single, fixed event that can be dated in a pathologist's report. Carcinogenesis usually encompasses the prolonged accumulation of injuries at several different biological levels and includes both genetic and biochemical changes in cells. At each of these levels there is an opportunity for intervention-a chance to prevent, slow or even halt the gradual march of healthy cells toward malignancy. It is estimated that 75% of cancers are induced by chemicals; thus, if exposure to chemicals is avoided, cancer can be prevented. Also, depending on the individual's genetic background, the ability to metabolize chemicals is different among the population. This means that, "you and I can be exposed to exactly the same amount of a chemical," yet our response will differ because we metabolize carcinogens differently due to different rates of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) repair, apoptosis, and mitosis or different levels of Phase I and Phase II detoxification enzymes. This, along with a more or less efficient immune system, may promote tumor formation or destroy a cancer cell at its earliest stage of development. Therefore, measurement of the biologic markers such as DNA and protein adducts, DNA damage, programmed cell death, DNA repair system, mitosis, gene activation, levels of antioxidants and efficient immune function described in this chapter and summarized in Figures 2 and 10, are biological clues indicating that the body has been assaulted by toxic (or cancer-causing) agents. This early identification of biomarkers for special vulnerability to the effects of chemicals and detection of selected signs of precancerous damage in the body may culminate preventive measures and the saving of lives. PMID:9284532

Vojdani, A; Ghoneum, M; Choppa, P

1997-01-01

150

Advanced Optical Techniques for Measurements of Atmospheric Constituents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spectral models available for calculations of optical propagation conditions provide the research and development community valuable tools for design, simulation, and validation of remote sensing techniques. Examples of these techniques applied to lidar developments are described. A white light super continuum laser has been proposed as a new tool for measurements of minor species concentrations on long paths in the

David M. Brown; Adam Willitsford; Kebin Shi; Zhiwen Liu; C. Russell Philbrick

151

Advanced analysis techniques for cross-product coverage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coverage analysis is used to monitor the quality of the verification process. Reports provided by coverage tools help users identify areas in the design that have not been adequately tested. Because of their sheer size, the analysis of large coverage models can be an intimidating and time-consuming task. This paper presents two new techniques for coverage analysis. The first technique,

Hezi Azatchi; Laurent Fournier; Avi Ziv; Keren Zohar

2005-01-01

152

Molecularly imprinted materials as advanced excipients for drug delivery systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The application of the molecular imprinting technology in the design of new drug delivery systems (DDS) and devices useful in closely related fields, such as diagnostic sensors or biological traps, is receiving increasing attention. Molecular imprinting technology can provide polymeric materials with the ability to recognize specific bioactive molecules and with a sorption\\/release behaviour that can be made sensitive to

Carmen Alvarez-Lorenzo; Angel Concheiro

2006-01-01

153

The advancing clinical impact of molecular imaging in CVD.  

PubMed

Molecular imaging seeks to unravel critical molecular and cellular events in living subjects by providing complementary biological information to current structural clinical imaging modalities. In recent years, molecular imaging efforts have marched forward into the clinical cardiovascular arena, and are now actively illuminating new biology in a broad range of conditions, including atherosclerosis, myocardial infarction, thrombosis, vasculitis, aneurysm, cardiomyopathy, and valvular disease. Development of novel molecular imaging reporters is occurring for many clinical cardiovascular imaging modalities (positron emission tomography, single-photon emission computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging), as well as in translational platforms such as intravascular fluorescence imaging. The ability to image, track, and quantify molecular biomarkers in organs not routinely amenable to biopsy (e.g., the heart and vasculature) open new clinical opportunities to tailor therapeutics based on a cardiovascular disease molecular profile. In addition, molecular imaging is playing an increasing role in atherosclerosis drug development in phase II clinical trials. Here, we present state-of-the-art clinical cardiovascular molecular imaging strategies, and explore promising translational approaches positioned for clinical testing in the near term. PMID:24332285

Osborn, Eric A; Jaffer, Farouc A

2013-12-01

154

New Strategies in Melanoma: Molecular Testing in Advanced Disease  

PubMed Central

Melanoma is one of the most aggressive forms of skin cancer. The management of melanoma is evolving rapidly due to an improved understanding of the molecular heterogeneity of this disease, and the development of effective, personalized targeted therapy strategies. While previous classification systems have been based predominantly on clinical and histologic criteria, there is now a strong rationale to add molecular markers to the diagnostic evaluation of these tumors. Research has demonstrated that the types and prevalence of genetic alterations varies between melanoma subtypes. Thus, rational molecular testing should be based on an understanding of the events likely to be present in a given tumor, and the clinical implications of testing results. This review summarizes the existing data supporting the rationale for molecular testing in clinically-defined melanoma subtypes. Emerging challenges and controversies in the use of various molecular testing platforms, and the implications of these differences for clinical testing, will also be discussed.

Woodman, Scott E.; Lazar, Alexander J.; Aldape, Kenneth D.; Davies, Michael A.

2014-01-01

155

Advances Towards Synthetic Machines at the Molecular and Nanoscale Level  

PubMed Central

The fabrication of increasingly smaller machines to the nanometer scale can be achieved by either a “top-down” or “bottom-up” approach. While the former is reaching its limits of resolution, the latter is showing promise for the assembly of molecular components, in a comparable approach to natural systems, to produce functioning ensembles in a controlled and predetermined manner. In this review we focus on recent progress in molecular systems that act as molecular machine prototypes such as switches, motors, vehicles and logic operators.

Konstas, Kristina; Langford, Steven J.; Latter, Melissa J.

2010-01-01

156

Advanced millimeter-wave security portal imaging techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Millimeter-wave (mm-wave) imaging is rapidly gaining acceptance as a security tool to augment conventional metal detectors and baggage x-ray systems for passenger screening at airports and other secured facilities. This acceptance indicates that the technology has matured; however, many potential improvements can yet be realized. The authors have developed a number of techniques over the last several years including novel image reconstruction and display techniques, polarimetric imaging techniques, array switching schemes, and high-frequency high-bandwidth techniques. All of these may improve the performance of new systems; however, some of these techniques will increase the cost and complexity of the mm-wave security portal imaging systems. Reducing this cost may require the development of novel array designs. In particular, RF photonic methods may provide new solutions to the design and development of the sequentially switched linear mm-wave arrays that are the key element in the mm-wave portal imaging systems. Highfrequency, high-bandwidth designs are difficult to achieve with conventional mm-wave electronic devices, and RF photonic devices may be a practical alternative. In this paper, the mm-wave imaging techniques developed at PNNL are reviewed and the potential for implementing RF photonic mm-wave array designs is explored.

Sheen, David M.; Bernacki, Bruce E.; McMakin, Douglas L.

2012-02-01

157

Well differentiated follicular thyroid neoplasia: Impact of molecular and technological advances on detection, monitoring and treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our understanding of the molecular mechanisms responsible for follicular thyroid cell oncogenesis has been advanced significantly in recent years. Specific genetic alterations and the molecular pathways they affect have been associated with particular histologic subtypes of well-differentiated thyroid cancer and are now being evaluated for their utility as clinical tools with diagnostic, prognostic and even therapeutic relevance. This paper focuses

Andrew G. Gianoukakis; Silvana M. Giannelli; Wael A. Salameh; Laron W. McPhaul

2011-01-01

158

Tagging and Purifying Proteins to Teach Molecular Biology and Advanced Biochemistry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two distinct courses, "Molecular Biology" taught by the Biology Department and "Advanced Biochemistry" taught by the Chemistry Department, complement each other and, when taught in a coordinated and integrated way, can enhance student learning and understanding of complex material. "Molecular Biology" is a comprehensive lecture-based course with a…

Roecklein-Canfield, Jennifer A.; Lopilato, Jane

2004-01-01

159

Development of Advanced In-Situ Techniques for Chemistry Monitoring and Corrosion Mitigation in SCWO Environments  

SciTech Connect

This project is developing sensing technologies and corrosion monitoring techniques for use in super critical water oxidation (SCWO) systems to reduce the volume of mixed low-level nuclear waste by oxidizing organic components in a closed cycle system where CO2 and other gaseous oxides are produced, leaving the radioactive elements concentrated in ash. The technique uses water at supercritical temperatures under highly oxidized conditions by maintaining a high fugacity of molecular oxygen in the system, which causes high corrosion rates of even the most corrosive resistant reactor materials. This project significantly addresses the high corrosion shortcoming through development of (a) advanced electrodes and sensors for in situ potentiometric monitoring of pH in high subcritical and supercritical aqueous solutions, (b) an approach for evaluating the association constants for 1-1 aqueous electrolytes using a flow-through electrochemical thermocell; (c) an electrochemical noise sensor for the in situ measurement of corrosion rate in subcritical and supercritical aqueous systems; (d) a model for estimating the effect of pressure on reaction rates, including corrosion reactions, in high subcritical and supercritical aqueous systems. The project achieved all objectives, except for installing some of the sensors into a fully operating SCWO system.

Macdonald, D. D.; Lvov, S. N.

2000-03-31

160

Advancing the frontiers in nanocatalysis, biointerfaces, and renewable energy conversion by innovations of surface techniques.  

PubMed

The challenge of chemistry in the 21st century is to achieve 100% selectivity of the desired product molecule in multipath reactions ("green chemistry") and develop renewable energy based processes. Surface chemistry and catalysis play key roles in this enterprise. Development of in situ surface techniques such as high-pressure scanning tunneling microscopy, sum frequency generation (SFG) vibrational spectroscopy, time-resolved Fourier transform infrared methods, and ambient pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy enabled the rapid advancement of three fields: nanocatalysts, biointerfaces, and renewable energy conversion chemistry. In materials nanoscience, synthetic methods have been developed to produce monodisperse metal and oxide nanoparticles (NPs) in the 0.8-10 nm range with controlled shape, oxidation states, and composition; these NPs can be used as selective catalysts since chemical selectivity appears to be dependent on all of these experimental parameters. New spectroscopic and microscopic techniques have been developed that operate under reaction conditions and reveal the dynamic change of molecular structure of catalysts and adsorbed molecules as the reactions proceed with changes in reaction intermediates, catalyst composition, and oxidation states. SFG vibrational spectroscopy detects amino acids, peptides, and proteins adsorbed at hydrophobic and hydrophilic interfaces and monitors the change of surface structure and interactions with coadsorbed water. Exothermic reactions and photons generate hot electrons in metal NPs that may be utilized in chemical energy conversion. The photosplitting of water and carbon dioxide, an important research direction in renewable energy conversion, is discussed. PMID:19919130

Somorjai, Gabor A; Frei, Heinz; Park, Jeong Y

2009-11-25

161

Advances in radionuclide molecular imaging in myocardial biology  

PubMed Central

Molecular imaging is a new and evolving field that employs a targeted approach to noninvasively assess biologic processes in vivo. By assessing key elements in specific cellular processes prior to irreversible end-organ damage, molecular tools will allow for earlier detection and intervention, improving management and outcomes associated with cardiovascular diseases. The goal of those working to expand this field is not just to provide diagnostic and prognostic information, but rather to guide an individual’s pharmacological, cell-based, or genetic therapeutic regimen. This article will review molecular imaging tools in the context of our current understanding of biological processes of the myocardium, including angiogenesis, ventricular remodeling, inflammation, and apoptosis. The focus will be on radiotracer-based molecular imaging modalities with an emphasis on clinical application. Though this field is still in its infancy and may not be fully ready for widespread use, molecular imaging of myocardial biology has begun to show promise of clinical utility in acute and chronic ischemia, acute myocardial infarction, congestive heart failure, as well as in more global inflammatory and immune-mediated responses in the heart-like myocarditis and allogeneic cardiac transplant rejection. With continued research and development, molecular imaging promises to be an important tool for the optimization of cardiovascular care.

Morrison, Alan R.; Sinusas, Albert J.

2010-01-01

162

Application of advanced coating techniques to rocket engine components  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The materials problem in the space shuttle main engine (SSME) is reviewed. Potential coatings and the method of their application for improved life of SSME components are discussed. A number of advanced coatings for turbine blade components and disks are being developed and tested in a multispecimen thermal fatigue fluidized bed facility at IIT Research Institute. This facility is capable of producing severe strains of the degree present in blades and disk components of the SSME. The potential coating systems and current efforts at IITRI being taken for life extension of the SSME components are summarized.

Verma, S. K.

1988-01-01

163

Application of Active Learning Techniques to an Advanced Course  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The New Faculty Workshop provided a wealth of techniques as well as an overriding philosophy for the teaching of undergraduate Physics and Astronomy courses. The focus of the workshop was active learning, summarized in ``Learner-Centered Astronomy Teaching" by Slater & Adams: it's not what you do in class that matters, it's what the students do. Much of the specific focus of the New Faculty Workshop is on teaching the large, introductory Physics classes that many of the faculty present are sure to teach, both algebra-based and calculus-based. Many of these techniques apply directly and with little modification to introductory Astronomy courses. However, little direct attention is given to upper-division undergraduate, or even graduate, courses. In this presentation, I will share my experience in attempting to apply some of the techniques discussed at the New Faculty Workshop to an upper-division course in Galactic Astrophysics at Vanderbilt University during the Spring semester of 2004.

Knop, R. A.

2004-05-01

164

Elastic Green's function techniques for molecular dynamics. Applications to tribology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The contact mechanics of solid bodies with rough surfaces is a topic of great practical importance because it affects, among other quantities, friction, adhesion, wear and heat transfer at the interface between two solids. Calculating pressure distributions in contacts has proven difficult due to the complex, multiscale topographies of real surfaces. Being able to predict the distribution of loads in mechanical components within industrial applications bears potential for an improved design of the components' surfaces. For example, unraveling the contact mechanics of aluminum-silicon alloys used in engines of fuel-efficient, lightweight cars, could constitute a big step towards designing an alloy with a reasonable safety factor to avoid aluminum adhesion and scuffing. In this thesis we introduce a new multiscale technique recently developed by us for the simulation of rough, semi-infinite elastic solids. With its help, we address open questions concerning contact mechanics. Pressure profiles, pressure distributions as well as areas of contact are calculated for single and multi-asperites interfaces with both idealized self-affine and experimentally-measured topographies. The methodology is also employed to shed light on the contact mechanics of aluminum-silicon alloys. Our numerical results are compared to the predictions of the analytical theories by Greenwood and Persson. We show how the theory by Greenwood is unable to predict the correct contact morphologies while Perssons' theory fails when predicting the pressure tails on individual silicon grains within aluminum-silicon alloys. Keywords. Contact Mechanics, Molecular Dynamics, Green's Functions, Tribology, Multiscale Techniques, Linear Elasticity, Rough Surfaces.

Campana Cue, Carlos E.

165

Advances in reduction techniques for tire contact problems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Some recent developments in reduction techniques, as applied to predicting the tire contact response and evaluating the sensitivity coefficients of the different response quantities, are reviewed. The sensitivity coefficients measure the sensitivity of the contact response to variations in the geometric and material parameters of the tire. The tire is modeled using a two-dimensional laminated anisotropic shell theory with the effects of variation in geometric and material parameters, transverse shear deformation, and geometric nonlinearities included. The contact conditions are incorporated into the formulation by using a perturbed Lagrangian approach with the fundamental unknowns consisting of the stress resultants, the generalized displacements, and the Lagrange multipliers associated with the contact conditions. The elemental arrays are obtained by using a modified two-field, mixed variational principle. For the application of reduction techniques, the tire finite element model is partitioned into two regions. The first region consists of the nodes that are likely to come in contact with the pavement, and the second region includes all the remaining nodes. The reduction technique is used to significantly reduce the degrees of freedom in the second region. The effectiveness of the computational procedure is demonstrated by a numerical example of the frictionless contact response of the space shuttle nose-gear tire, inflated and pressed against a rigid flat surface. Also, the research topics which have high potential for enhancing the effectiveness of reduction techniques are outlined.

Noor, Ahmed K.

1995-08-01

166

Advances in reduction techniques for tire contact problems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Some recent developments in reduction techniques, as applied to predicting the tire contact response and evaluating the sensitivity coefficients of the different response quantities, are reviewed. The sensitivity coefficients measure the sensitivity of the contact response to variations in the geometric and material parameters of the tire. The tire is modeled using a two-dimensional laminated anisotropic shell theory with the effects of variation in geometric and material parameters, transverse shear deformation, and geometric nonlinearities included. The contact conditions are incorporated into the formulation by using a perturbed Lagrangian approach with the fundamental unknowns consisting of the stress resultants, the generalized displacements, and the Lagrange multipliers associated with the contact conditions. The elemental arrays are obtained by using a modified two-field, mixed variational principle. For the application of reduction techniques, the tire finite element model is partitioned into two regions. The first region consists of the nodes that are likely to come in contact with the pavement, and the second region includes all the remaining nodes. The reduction technique is used to significantly reduce the degrees of freedom in the second region. The effectiveness of the computational procedure is demonstrated by a numerical example of the frictionless contact response of the space shuttle nose-gear tire, inflated and pressed against a rigid flat surface. Also, the research topics which have high potential for enhancing the effectiveness of reduction techniques are outlined.

Noor, Ahmed K.

1995-01-01

167

Solution Techniques for Constraint Satisfaction Problems: Advanced Approaches  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conventional techniques for the constraint satisfaction problem (CSP)have had considerable success in their applications. However,there are many areas in which the performance of the basic approachesmay be improved. These include heuristic ordering of certain tasksperformed by the CSP solver, hybrids which combine compatible solutiontechniques and graph based methods which exploit the structure of theconstraint graph representation of a CSP. Also,

I. Miguel; Q. Shen

2001-01-01

168

Advanced Analysis Techniques for Cross-Product Coverage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract— Coverage analysis is used to monitor the quality of the verification process. Reports provided by coverage tools help users identify areas in the design that have not been adequately tested. Because of their sheer size, the analysis of large coverage models can be an intim- idating and time-consuming task. This paper presents two new techniques for coverage analysis. The

Hezi Azatchi; Laurent Fournier; Eitan Marcus; Ur Shmuel; Avi Ziv; Keren Zohar

2006-01-01

169

In Situ Techniques for Monitoring Electrochromism: An Advanced Laboratory Experiment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This experiment employs current technology to enhance and extend existing lab content. The basic principles of spectroscopic and electroanalytical techniques and their use in determining material properties are covered in some detail in many undergraduate chemistry programs. However, there are limited examples of laboratory experiments with in…

Saricayir, Hakan; Uce, Musa; Koca, Atif

2010-01-01

170

Advances in seismic interpretation using new volume visualization techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

s the use of 3D seismic interpretation continues to become part of the main stream work process with the industry, visualization techniques also continue to evolve as software and hardware improves. In the past 10 years, volume rendering tools have been progres- sively adopted by the geophysical community as the emer- gence of high-end graphics workstations with 3D texture capabilities

Laurent Castanie; Fabien Bosquet; Bruno Levy

171

Quantitative analysis of genomic element interactions by molecular colony technique.  

PubMed

Distant genomic elements were found to interact within the folded eukaryotic genome. However, the used experimental approach (chromosome conformation capture, 3C) enables neither determination of the percentage of cells in which the interactions occur nor demonstration of simultaneous interaction of >2 genomic elements. Each of the above can be done using in-gel replication of interacting DNA segments, the technique reported here. Chromatin fragments released from formaldehyde-cross-linked cells by sodium dodecyl sulfate extraction and sonication are distributed in a polyacrylamide gel layer followed by amplification of selected test regions directly in the gel by multiplex polymerase chain reaction. The fragments that have been cross-linked and separate fragments give rise to multi- and monocomponent molecular colonies, respectively, which can be distinguished and counted. Using in-gel replication of interacting DNA segments, we demonstrate that in the material from mouse erythroid cells, the majority of fragments containing the promoters of active ?-globin genes and their remote enhancers do not form complexes stable enough to survive sodium dodecyl sulfate extraction and sonication. This indicates that either these elements do not interact directly in the majority of cells at a given time moment, or the formed DNA-protein complex cannot be stabilized by formaldehyde cross-linking. PMID:24369423

Gavrilov, Alexey A; Chetverina, Helena V; Chermnykh, Elina S; Razin, Sergey V; Chetverin, Alexander B

2014-03-01

172

Mechanical Properties of Nanostructured Materials Determined Through Molecular Modeling Techniques  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The potential for gains in material properties over conventional materials has motivated an effort to develop novel nanostructured materials for aerospace applications. These novel materials typically consist of a polymer matrix reinforced with particles on the nanometer length scale. In this study, molecular modeling is used to construct fully atomistic models of a carbon nanotube embedded in an epoxy polymer matrix. Functionalization of the nanotube which consists of the introduction of direct chemical bonding between the polymer matrix and the nanotube, hence providing a load transfer mechanism, is systematically varied. The relative effectiveness of functionalization in a nanostructured material may depend on a variety of factors related to the details of the chemical bonding and the polymer structure at the nanotube-polymer interface. The objective of this modeling is to determine what influence the details of functionalization of the carbon nanotube with the polymer matrix has on the resulting mechanical properties. By considering a range of degree of functionalization, the structure-property relationships of these materials is examined and mechanical properties of these models are calculated using standard techniques.

Clancy, Thomas C.; Gates, Thomas S.

2005-01-01

173

Fabrication of Advanced Electrochemical Energy Materials Using Sol-Gel Processing Techniques.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Advanced materials play an important role in electrochemical energy devices such as batteries, fuel cells, and electrochemical capacitors. They are being used as both electrodes and electrolytes. Sol-gel processing is a versatile solution technique used i...

C. T. Chu J. Chu H. Zheng

1995-01-01

174

Advancements in Sensing and Perception using Structured Lighting Techniques: An LDRD Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report summarizes the analytical and experimental efforts for the Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project entitled 'Advancements in Sensing and Perception using Structured Lighting Techniques'. There is an ever-increasing need for...

D. D. Padilla P. A. Davidson J. J. Carlson D. K. Novick

2005-01-01

175

Development of processing techniques for advanced thermal protection materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effort, which was focused on the research and development of advanced materials for use in Thermal Protection Systems (TPS), has involved chemical and physical testing of refractory ceramic tiles, fabrics, threads and fibers. This testing has included determination of the optical properties, thermal shock resistance, high temperature dimensional stability, and tolerance to environmental stresses. Materials have also been tested in the Arc Jet 2 x 9 Turbulent Duct Facility (TDF), the 1 atmosphere Radiant Heat Cycler, and the Mini-Wind Tunnel Facility (MWTF). A significant part of the effort hitherto has gone towards modifying and upgrading the test facilities so that meaningful tests can be carried out. Another important effort during this period has been the creation of a materials database. Computer systems administration and support have also been provided. These are described in greater detail below.

Selvaduray, Guna S.

1994-01-01

176

Advanced computer graphics techniques as applied to the nuclear industry  

SciTech Connect

Computer graphics is a rapidly advancing technological area in computer science. This is being motivated by increased hardware capability coupled with reduced hardware costs. This paper will cover six topics in computer graphics, with examples forecasting how each of these capabilities could be used in the nuclear industry. These topics are: (1) Image Realism with Surfaces and Transparency; (2) Computer Graphics Motion; (3) Graphics Resolution Issues and Examples; (4) Iconic Interaction; (5) Graphic Workstations; and (6) Data Fusion - illustrating data coming from numerous sources, for display through high dimensional, greater than 3-D, graphics. All topics will be discussed using extensive examples with slides, video tapes, and movies. Illustrations have been omitted from the paper due to the complexity of color reproduction. 11 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

Thomas, J.J.; Koontz, A.S.

1985-08-01

177

Recent advances in the molecular biology of metazoan polyamine transport  

PubMed Central

Very limited molecular knowledge exists about the identity and protein components of the ubiquitous polyamine transporters found in animal cells. However, a number of reports have been published over the last 5 years on potential candidates for metazoan polyamine permeases. We review the available evidence on these putative polyamine permeases, as well as establish a useful «identikit picture» of the general polyamine transport system, based on its properties as found in a wide spectrum of mammalian cells. Any molecular candidate encoding a putative «general» polyamine permease should fit that provided portrait. The current models proposed for the mechanism of polyamine internalization in mammalian cells are also briefly reviewed.

Casero, R. A.; Soulet, D.

2013-01-01

178

Advances in Molecular and Cellular Therapies for Hearing Loss  

Microsoft Academic Search

Development of effective therapeutics for hearing loss has proven to be a slow and difficult process, evidenced by the lack of restorative medicines and technologies currently available to the otolaryngologist. In large part this is attributable to the limited regenerative potential in cochlear cells and the secondary degeneration of the cochlear architecture that commonly follows sensorineural hearing impairment. Therapeutic advances

Michael S Hildebrand; Stephen S Newton; Samuel P Gubbels; Abraham M Sheffield; Amit Kochhar; Michelle G de Silva; Hans-Henrik M Dahl; Scott D Rose; Mark A Behlke; Richard JH Smith

2008-01-01

179

Computational ghost imaging: advanced compressive sensing (CS) technique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel efficient variational technique for speckle imaging is discussed. It is developed with the main motivation to filter noise, to wipe out the typical diffraction artifacts and to achieve crisp imaging. A sparse modeling is used for the wave field at the object plane in order to overcome the loss of information due to the ill-posedness of forward propagation image formation operators. This flexible and data adaptive modeling relies on the recent progress in sparse imaging and compressive sensing (CS). Being in line with the general formalism of CS, we develop an original approach to wave field reconstruction.7 In this paper we demonstrate this technique in its application for computational amplitude ghost imaging (GI), where a spatial light modulator (SLM) is used in order to generate a speckle wave field sensing a transmitted mask object.

Katkovnik, Vladimir; Astola, Jaakko

180

Functional characterisation of metal(loid) processes in planta through the integration of synchrotron techniques and plant molecular biology  

PubMed Central

Functional characterisation of the genes regulating metal(loid) homeostasis in plants is a major focus of crop biofortification, phytoremediation, and food security research. This paper focuses on the potential for advancing plant metal(loid) research by combining molecular biology and synchrotron-based techniques. Recent advances in x-ray focussing optics and fluorescence detection have greatly improved the potential of synchrotron techniques for plant science research, allowing metal(loids) to be imaged in vivo in hydrated plant tissues at sub-micron resolution. Laterally resolved metal(loid) speciation can also be determined. By using molecular techniques to probe the location of gene expression and protein localisation and combining it with this synchrotron-derived data, functional information can be effectively and efficiently assigned to specific genes. This paper provides a review of the state of the art in this field, and provides examples as to how synchrotron-based methods can be combined with molecular techniques to facilitate functional characterisation of genes in planta.

Donner, Erica; Punshon, Tracy; Guerinot, Mary Lou; Lombi, Enzo

2013-01-01

181

Advanced gain-scheduling techniques for uncertain systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper is concerned with the design of gain-scheduled controllers for linear parameter-varying systems. Two alternative LMI characterizations are investigated. Both characterizations are amenable to a finite number of LMI conditions either via a gridding of the parameter range or via grid-free techniques which rely on multi-convexity concepts. Practicality and implementation issues are discussed and examples are provided

Pierre Apkarian; Richard J. Adams

1997-01-01

182

[Technique and advance of comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography].  

PubMed

Many analytical problems require more resolution than the conventional single column chromatographic technique can provide. In such cases the separation power can be enhanced by using more than one separation technique or mechanism. The sample is then dispersed in different time dimensions. The resolution obtained depends strongly on the difference between these dimensions. The highest resolution is gained when there is no correlation between the separations, the dimensions being orthogonal to each other. Comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC x GC) provides a true orthogonal separation system in which a modulator serially couples two columns containing dissimilar stationary phases. It focuses and subsequently reinjects components eluting from the first column into the second one. The system generates a peak capacity that is approximately equal to the product of the peak capacities of the two individual separation systems. In this paper, technique and instrumental considerations of GC x GC are discussed. The three designs of contemporary GC x GC systems are presented and compared. A number of typical applications on complex samples such as petroleum products and environmental pollutants are also cited. Finally, the future perspectives of GC x GC are simply discussed. PMID:12541655

Xu, G W; Ye, F; Kong, H W; Lu, X; Zhao, X J

2001-03-01

183

A Coupled Meshless Technique/Molecular Dynamics Approach for Deformation Characterization of Mono-crystalline Metal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a multiscale study using the coupled Meshless technique/Molecular Dynamics (M2) for exploring the deformation mechanism of mono-crystalline metal (focus on copper) under uniaxial tension. In M2, an advanced transition algorithm using transition particles is employed to ensure the compatibility of both displacements and their gradients, and an effective local quasi-continuum approach is also applied to obtain the equivalent continuum strain energy density based on the atomistic potentials and Cauchy-Born rule. The key parameters used in M2 are firstly investigated using a benchmark problem. Then, M2 is applied to the multiscale simulation for a mono-crystalline copper bar. It has found that the mono-crystalline copper has very good elongation property, and the ultimate strength and Young's modulus are much higher than those obtained in macro-scale.

Gu, Y. T.; Yarlagadda, Prasad K. D. V.

2010-05-01

184

Advanced imaging techniques for the study of plant growth and development.  

PubMed

A variety of imaging methodologies are being used to collect data for quantitative studies of plant growth and development from living plants. Multi-level data, from macroscopic to molecular, and from weeks to seconds, can be acquired. Furthermore, advances in parallelized and automated image acquisition enable the throughput to capture images from large populations of plants under specific growth conditions. Image-processing capabilities allow for 3D or 4D reconstruction of image data and automated quantification of biological features. These advances facilitate the integration of imaging data with genome-wide molecular data to enable systems-level modeling. PMID:24434036

Sozzani, Rosangela; Busch, Wolfgang; Spalding, Edgar P; Benfey, Philip N

2014-05-01

185

Advances in dental veneers: materials, applications, and techniques  

PubMed Central

Laminate veneers are a conservative treatment of unaesthetic anterior teeth. The continued development of dental ceramics offers clinicians many options for creating highly aesthetic and functional porcelain veneers. This evolution of materials, ceramics, and adhesive systems permits improvement of the aesthetic of the smile and the self-esteem of the patient. Clinicians should understand the latest ceramic materials in order to be able to recommend them and their applications and techniques, and to ensure the success of the clinical case. The current literature was reviewed to search for the most important parameters determining the long-term success, correct application, and clinical limitations of porcelain veneers.

Pini, Nubia Pavesi; Aguiar, Flavio Henrique Baggio; Lima, Debora Alves Nunes Leite; Lovadino, Jose Roberto; Terada, Raquel Sano Suga; Pascotto, Renata Correa

2012-01-01

186

Advances in parameter estimation techniques applied to flexible structures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this work, various parameter estimation techniques are investigated in the context of structural system identification utilizing distributed parameter models and 'measured' time-domain data. Distributed parameter models are formulated using the PDEMOD software developed by Taylor. Enhancements made to PDEMOD for this work include the following: (1) a Wittrick-Williams based root solving algorithm; (2) a time simulation capability; and (3) various parameter estimation algorithms. The parameter estimations schemes will be contrasted using the NASA Mini-Mast as the focus structure.

Maben, Egbert; Zimmerman, David C.

1994-01-01

187

An Insight into Lüders Deformation Using Advanced Imaging Techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An investigation to explore the feasibility of simultaneous application of infrared thermography (IRT) and digital image correlation (DIC) for analysis of Lüders deformation is carried out. Physical models and proposed concepts explaining the dynamics of deformation localization associated with Lüders band phenomenon addressing band-formation mechanism, inhomogeneity in stress-strain distribution across the band front, and strain localization following band front propagation are successfully correlated with the thermal and strain evolutions obtained using IRT and DIC. The studies revealed the potential of using these techniques simultaneously in providing an enhanced understanding of micro mechanisms involved in Lüders deformation based on associated macroscopic thermal and strain evolutions in a noncontact, nondestructive manner.

Nagarajan, Srinivasan; Narayanaswamy, Raghu; Balasubramaniam, Venkatraman

2013-10-01

188

Advanced processing and information extraction techniques applied to ERTS-1 MSS data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Conventional automatic data processing and information extraction techniques fall short of providing the information required by the user in some applications. For those cases, advanced techniques are needed to permit the extraction of the necessary information. Advanced techniques are described and examples of their application to ERTS-1 MSS data are provided. The techniques are designed to help overcome problems in location, mensuration, and classification accuracies which result from geometric distortions of the ERTS MSS data, the relatively coarse resolution of the sensor, and variations in atmospheric state over the region to be surveyed. It is shown that each of these factors can seriously degrade one's ability to extract necessary information. Further, it is shown that advanced techniques can alleviate the effects of these factors.

Malila, W. A.; Nalepka, R. F.

1974-01-01

189

Pathological and Molecular Advances in Pediatric Low Grade Astrocytoma  

PubMed Central

Pediatric low grade astrocytomas are the commonest brain tumors in children. They sometimes have similar microscopic and clinical features, making accurate diagnosis difficult. For patients whose tumors are in locations that do not permit full resection, or those with an intrinsically aggressive biology, more effective therapies are required. Until recently, little was known about the molecular changes that drive the initiation and growth of pilocytic and other low grade astrocytomas beyond the association of a minority of cases, primarily in the optic nerve, with neurofibromatosis type 1. Over the last several years, a wide range of studies have implicated the BRAF oncogene and other members of this signaling cascade in the pathobiology of pediatric low grade astrocytoma. In this review, we attempt to summarize this rapidly developing field, and discuss the potential for translating our growing molecular knowledge into improved diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers and new targeted therapies.

Rodriguez, Fausto J.; Lim, Kah Suan; Bowers, Daniel; Eberhart, Charles G.

2013-01-01

190

[Advances in molecular mechanism of bacterial reduction of hexavalent chromium].  

PubMed

Cr(VI) has been causing serious environmental pollution due to its carcinogenicity, teratogenicity and strong migration. Reduction of Cr( VI) to Cr(III), a precipitation that is much less toxic, is an efficient strategy to control Cr pollution. Within the strategy, bacterial reduction of Cr(VI) to Cr(III) has been considered as one of the best bioremediation methods because of its efficiency, environment friendly, and low cost; however, the molecular mechanism remains large unknown. This review summarizes Cr(VI) reduction bacterial species and its application in pollution control, elaborates the pathways of Cr( VI) reduction and functional proteins involved, concludes the molecular mechanism of baterial reduction Cr(VI), and discusses the orientation of the future research. PMID:24946623

Li, Dou; Zhao, You-Cai; Song, Li-Yan; Yin, Ya-Jie; Wang, Yang-Qing; Xu, Zhong-Hui

2014-04-01

191

Advances in molecular detection of Aspergillus : an update  

Microsoft Academic Search

Filamentous cosmopolitan fungi of the genus Aspergillus can be harmful in two ways, directly they can be opportunistic pathogens causing aspergillosis and indirectly due to aflatoxin\\u000a production on food products which can lead to aflatoxicosis. Therefore, a number of methods have been proposed so far for\\u000a detection of the fungi with lowest possible concentration at the earliest. Molecular methods such

M. Z. Abdin; Malik M. Ahmad; Saleem Javed

2010-01-01

192

Advances in molecular phytodiagnostics – new solutions for old problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the last decade, developments in molecular (nucleic acid-based) diagnostic methods have made significant improvements in\\u000a the detection of plant pathogens. By using methods such as the polymerase chain reaction (PCR), the range of targets that\\u000a can now be reliably diagnosed has grown to the extent that there are now extremely few, known pathogens that cannot be identified\\u000a accurately by

Rick Mumford; Neil Boonham; Jenny Tomlinson; Ian Barker

2006-01-01

193

Advanced fabrication techniques for hydrogen-cooled engine structures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Described is a program for development of coolant passage geometries, material systems, and joining processes that will produce long-life hydrogen-cooled structures for scramjet applications. Tests were performed to establish basic material properties, and samples constructed and evaluated to substantiate fabrication processes and inspection techniques. Results of the study show that the basic goal of increasing the life of hydrogen-cooled structures two orders of magnitude relative to that of the Hypersonic Research Engine can be reached with available means. Estimated life is 19000 cycles for the channels and 16000 cycles for pin-fin coolant passage configurations using Nickel 201. Additional research is required to establish the fatigue characteristics of dissimilar-metal coolant passages (Nickel 201/Inconel 718) and to investigate the embrittling effects of the hydrogen coolant.

Buchmann, O. A.; Arefian, V. V.; Warren, H. A.; Vuigner, A. A.; Pohlman, M. J.

1985-01-01

194

Application of Advanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging Techniques in Evaluation of the Lower Extremity  

PubMed Central

Synopsis This article reviews current magnetic resonance imaging techniques for imaging the lower extremity, focusing on imaging of the knee, ankle, and hip joints. Recent advancements in MRI include imaging at 7 Tesla, using multiple receiver channels, T2* imaging, and metal suppression techniques, allowing more detailed visualization of complex anatomy, evaluation of morphological changes within articular cartilage, and imaging around orthopedic hardware.

Braun, Hillary J.; Dragoo, Jason L.; Hargreaves, Brian A.; Levenston, Marc E.; Gold, Garry E.

2012-01-01

195

Advanced Techniques for Reservoir Simulation and Modeling of Non-Conventional Wells  

SciTech Connect

This project targets the development of (1) advanced reservoir simulation techniques for modeling non-conventional wells; (2) improved techniques for computing well productivity (for use in reservoir engineering calculations) and well index (for use in simulation models), including the effects of wellbore flow; and (3) accurate approaches to account for heterogeneity in the near-well region.

Durlofsky, Louis J.

2000-08-28

196

Advanced techniques for determining long term compatibility of materials with propellants  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method for the prediction of propellant-material compatibility for periods of time up to ten years is presented. Advanced sensitive measurement techniques used in the prediction method are described. These include: neutron activation analysis, radioactive tracer technique, and atomic absorption spectroscopy with a graphite tube furnace sampler. The results of laboratory tests performed to verify the prediction method are presented.

Green, R. L.; Stebbins, J. P.; Smith, A. W.; Pullen, K. E.

1973-01-01

197

Silicon and germanium crystallization techniques for advanced device applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three-dimensional architectures are believed to be one of the possible approaches to reduce interconnect delay in integrated circuits. Metal-induced crystallization (MIC) can produce reasonably high-quality Si crystals with low-temperature processing, enabling the monolithic integration of multilevel devices and circuits. A two-step MIC process was developed to make single-crystal Si pillars on insulator by forming a single-grain NiSi2 template in the first step and crystallizing the amorphous Si by NiSi2-mediated solid-phase epitaxy (SPE) in the second step. A transmission electron microscopy study clearly showed the quality improvement over the traditional MIC process. Another crystallization technique developed is rapid melt growth (RMG) for the fabrication of Ge crystals and Ge-on-insulator (GeOI) substrates. Ge is an important semiconductor with high carrier mobility and excellent optoelectronic properties. GeOI substrates are particularly desired to achieve high device performances and to solve the process problems traditionally associated with bulk Ge wafers. High-quality Ge crystals and GeOI structures were grown on Si substrates using the novel rapid melt growth technique that integrates the key elements in Czochralski growth---seeding, melting, epitaxy and defect necking. Growth velocity and nucleation rate were calculated to determine the RMG process window. Self-aligned microcrucibles were created to hold the Ge liquid during the RMG annealing. Material characterization showed a very low defect density in the RMG GeOI structures. The Ge films are relaxed, with their orientations controlled by the Si substrates. P-channel MOSFETs and p-i-n photodetectors were fabricated with the GeOI substrates. The device properties are comparable to those obtained with bulk Ge wafers, indicating that the RMG GeOI substrates are well suited for device fabrication. A new theory, growth-induced barrier lowering (GIBL), is proposed to understand the defect generation in epitaxial growth. Thermodynamic derivations show that the energy barrier for nucleation is reduced when the growth front impinges on some of the sub-critical embryos, making it possible for the embryos to grow and form defects. This theory can explain the quality difference between RMG and SPE. It can also explain why SPE ultra-thin films are often defective while RMG can produce high-quality films with thicknesses in the nanometer regime.

Liu, Yaocheng

198

Recent Advances in Stable Isotope Techniques for N2O Source Partitioning in Soils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of 13C, 15N and 18O enables us to overcome uncertainties associated with soil C and N processes and to assess the links between species diversity and ecosystem function. Recent advances in stable isotope techniques enable determination of process rates, and are fundamental for examining interactions between C and N cycles. Here we will introduce the 15N-, 18O- and 13C-enrichment techniques we have developed to distinguish between different N2O-producing processes in situ in soils, presenting selected results, and will critically assess their potential, alone and in combination with molecular techniques, to help address key research questions for soil biogeochemistry and microbial ecology. We have developed 15N- 18O-enrichment techniques to distinguish between, and to quantify, N2O production during ammonia oxidation, nitrifier denitrification and denitrification. This provides a great advantage over natural abundance approaches as it enables quantification of N2O from each microbial source, which can be coupled with quantification of N2 production, and used to examine interactions between different processes and cycles. These approaches have also provided new insights into the N cycle and how it interacts with the C cycle. For example, we now know that ammonia oxidising bacteria significantly contribute to N2O emissions from soils, both via the traditionally accepted ammonia oxidation pathway, and also via denitrification (nitrifier denitrification) which can proceed even under aerobic conditions. We are also linking emissions from each source to diversity and activity of relevant microbial functional groups, for example through the development and application of a specific nirK primer for the nitrite reductase in ammonia oxidising bacteria. Recently, isotopomers have been proposed as an alternative for source partitioning N2O at natural abundance levels, and offers the potential to investigate N2O production from nitrate ammonification, and overcomes the need to apply 18O-H2O to determine nitrifier denitrification. However, this only provides an estimated, not a quantified, contribution, and further developments are required for quantification using isotope enrichment. Despite some limitations, such techniques become even more powerful when linked with other recent developments, such as nanoSIMS, gene expression and 13C-stable isotope probing of microbial RNA, and when linked to other disciplines. These may help address remaining questions such as: which microbes are producing N2O in soil, what is the influence of plants and mycorrhizal fungi on rhizosphere processes, and where is denitrification occurring in soil?

Baggs, E.; Mair, L.; Mahmood, S.

2007-12-01

199

Advances in low energy neutral atom imaging techniques  

SciTech Connect

Recently proposed low energy neutral atom (LENA) imaging techniques use a collisional process to convert the low energy neutrals into ions before detection. At low energies, collisional processes limit the angular resolution and conversion efficiencies of these devices. However, if the intense ultraviolet light background can be suppressed, direct LENA detection is possible. We present results from a series of experiments designed to develop a novel filtering structure based on free-standing transmission gratings. If the grating period is sufficiently small, free standing transmission gratings can be employed to substantially polarize ultraviolet (UV) light in the wavelength range 300 {Angstrom} to 1500 {Angstrom}. If a second grating is placed behind the first grating with its axis of polarization oriented at a right angle to the first`s, a substantial attenuation of UV radiation is achievable. ne neutrals will pass through the remaining open area of two gratings and be detected without UV background complications. We have obtained nominal 2000 {Angstrom} period (1000 {Angstrom} bars with 1000 {Angstrom} slits) free standing, gold transmission gratings and measured their UV and atomic transmission characteristics. The geometric factor of a LENA imager based on this technology is comparable to that of other proposed LENA imagers. In addition, this of imager does not distort the neutral trajectories, allowing for high angular resolution.

Scime, E.E.; Funsten, H.O.; McComas, D.J.; Moore, K.R. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Gruntman, M. [University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States). Space Sciences Center

1993-05-01

200

Advances in low energy neutral atom imaging techniques  

SciTech Connect

Recently proposed low energy neutral atom (LENA) imaging techniques use a collisional process to convert the low energy neutrals into ions before detection. At low energies, collisional processes limit the angular resolution and conversion efficiencies of these devices. However, if the intense ultraviolet light background can be suppressed, direct LENA detection is possible. We present results from a series of experiments designed to develop a novel filtering structure based on free-standing transmission gratings. If the grating period is sufficiently small, free standing transmission gratings can be employed to substantially polarize ultraviolet (UV) light in the wavelength range 300 [Angstrom] to 1500 [Angstrom]. If a second grating is placed behind the first grating with its axis of polarization oriented at a right angle to the first's, a substantial attenuation of UV radiation is achievable. ne neutrals will pass through the remaining open area of two gratings and be detected without UV background complications. We have obtained nominal 2000 [Angstrom] period (1000 [Angstrom] bars with 1000 [Angstrom] slits) free standing, gold transmission gratings and measured their UV and atomic transmission characteristics. The geometric factor of a LENA imager based on this technology is comparable to that of other proposed LENA imagers. In addition, this of imager does not distort the neutral trajectories, allowing for high angular resolution.

Scime, E.E.; Funsten, H.O.; McComas, D.J.; Moore, K.R. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)); Gruntman, M. (University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States). Space Sciences Center)

1993-01-01

201

Advanced Manufacturing Techniques Demonstrated for Fabricating Developmental Hardware  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA Glenn Research Center's Engineering Development Division has been working in support of innovative gas turbine engine systems under development by Glenn's Combustion Branch. These one-of-a-kind components require operation under extreme conditions. High-temperature ceramics were chosen for fabrication was because of the hostile operating environment. During the designing process, it became apparent that traditional machining techniques would not be adequate to produce the small, intricate features for the conceptual design, which was to be produced by stacking over a dozen thin layers with many small features that would then be aligned and bonded together into a one-piece unit. Instead of using traditional machining, we produced computer models in Pro/ENGINEER (Parametric Technology Corporation (PTC), Needham, MA) to the specifications of the research engineer. The computer models were exported in stereolithography standard (STL) format and used to produce full-size rapid prototype polymer models. These semi-opaque plastic models were used for visualization and design verification. The computer models also were exported in International Graphics Exchange Specification (IGES) format and sent to Glenn's Thermal/Fluids Design & Analysis Branch and Applied Structural Mechanics Branch for profiling heat transfer and mechanical strength analysis.

Redding, Chip

2004-01-01

202

Endoscopic therapy for early gastric cancer: Standard techniques and recent advances in ESD  

PubMed Central

The technique of endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) is now a well-known endoscopic therapy for early gastric cancer. ESD was introduced to resect large specimens of early gastric cancer in a single piece. ESD can provide precision of histologic diagnosis and can also reduce the recurrence rate. However, the drawback of ESD is its technical difficulty, and, consequently, it is associated with a high rate of complications, the need for advanced endoscopic techniques, and a lengthy procedure time. Various advances in the devices and techniques used for ESD have contributed to overcoming these drawbacks.

Kume, Keiichiro

2014-01-01

203

Psoriatic arthritis: advances in pharmacotherapy based on molecular target.  

PubMed

The progress on the improved understanding of disease pathogenesis and molecular biology has changed the understanding of disease profiles, emphasizing aspects that simple clinical observation could not identify, and demarcating differences between clinical pictures that seemed to overlap. An example of this spectacular evolution is represented by psoriatic arthritis (PsA). This increase of knowledge on pathogenesis has led to an important impact on therapeutic approach. Therapies are now taken into account because their precise target is known. The authors describe treatment guidelines and revisit traditional therapies as well as innovative therapies in PsA. PMID:24067053

Scarpa, Raffaele; Costa, Luisa; Atteno, Mariangela; Del Puente, Antonio; Caso, Francesco; Moll, John M H

2013-12-01

204

Simulation and Analysis of Dynamic Biomolecule Identification Technique Based on Molecular Motors and GMR Effect  

Microsoft Academic Search

ATP synthase is the minimal molecular motor and a highly efficient rotary machine. Giant magnetoresistance (GMR) effect is the change in electrical resistance that occurs when materials are exposed to a magnetic field. In this paper, a new dynamic biomolecule identification technique is proposed using GMR sensor combined with ATP molecular motors. Molecular motors, attached with magnetic nano-particles, can be

Dan Wu; Changzhe Wu; Jiachang Yue; Ming Wang; Tao Song

2006-01-01

205

Molecular Dynamics: from basic techniques to applications (A Molecular Dynamics Primer)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is now 50 years since the first papers describing the use of Molecular Dynamics (MD) were published by Alder and Wainright, and since then, together with Monte Carlo (MC) techniques, MD has become an essential tool in the theoretical study of materials properties at finite temperatures. In its early days, MD was used in combination with simple yet general models, such as hard spheres or Lennard-Jones models of liquids, systems which, though simple, were nevertheless not amenable to an analytical statistical mechanical treatment. Nowadays, however, MD is most frequently used in combination with rather sophisticated models, ranging all the way between empirical force fields to first-principles methods, with the aim of describing as accurately as possible any given material. From a computational aid in statistical mechanics and many-body physics, MD has evolved to become a widely used tool in physical chemistry, condensed matter physics, biology, geology and materials science. The aim of this course is to describe the basic algorithms of MD, and to provide attendees with the necessary theoretical background in order to enable them to use MD simulations in their research work. Also, examples of the use of MD in different scientific disciplines will be provided, with the aim of illustrating the the many possibilities and the wide spread use of MD simulation techniques in scientific research today.

Hernández, E. R.

2008-11-01

206

Next Generation Risk Assessment: Incorporation of Recent Advances in Molecular, Computational, and Systems Biology (External Review Draft)  

EPA Science Inventory

EPA is releasing a draft report "Next Generation Risk Assessment: Incorporation of Recent Advances in Molecular, Computational, and Systems Biology" that explores how new molecular, computational and systems biology data and approaches (together called "NexGen") could better info...

207

Detecting Molecular Properties by Various Laser-based Techniques.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Four different laser-based techniques were applied to study physical and chemical characteristics of biomolecules and dye molecules. These techniques are hole burning spectroscopy, single molecule spectroscopy, time-resolved coherent anti-Stokes Raman spe...

T. Hsin

2007-01-01

208

A comparative assessment of molecular biological and direct microscopic techniques for assessing aquatic systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Molecular techniques have clear value for community characterization; however, almost all previous datasets are based upon\\u000a non-molecular measurements and it is hard to compare “old” data with “new” data because few correlations have been made. Therefore,\\u000a the purpose of this evaluation was to simultaneously use molecular and non-molecular methods within the same sampling program\\u000a to determine how data compare. Three

C. W. Knapp; D. L. Findlay; K. A. Kidd; D. W. Graham

2008-01-01

209

Analysis of leading edge and trailing edge cover glass samples before and after treatment with advanced satellite contamination removal techniques  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two samples from Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) experiment M0003-4 were analyzed for molecular and particulate contamination prior to and following treatment with advanced satellite contamination removal techniques (CO2 gas/solid jet spray and oxygen ion beam). The pre- and post-cleaning measurements and analyses are presented. The jet spray removed particulates in seconds. The low energy reactive oxygen ion beam removed 5,000 A of photo polymerized organic hydrocarbon contamination in less than 1 hour. Spectroscopic analytical techniques were applied to the analysis of cleaning efficiency including: Fourier transform infrared, Auger, x ray photoemissions, energy dispersive x ray, and ultraviolet/visible. The results of this work suggest that the contamination studied here was due to spacecraft self-contamination enhanced by atomic oxygen plasma dynamics and solar UV radiation. These results also suggest the efficacy for the jet spray and ion beam contamination control technologies for spacecraft optical surfaces.

Hotaling, S. P.

1993-01-01

210

MOLECULAR ADVANCES IN AUTOSOMAL DOMINANT POLYCYSTIC KIDNEY DISEASE  

PubMed Central

Autosomal dominant polycystic disease (ADPKD) is the most common form of inherited kidney disease that results renal failure. The understanding the pathogenesis of ADPKD has advanced significantly since the discovery of the two causative genes, PKD1 or PKD2. Dominantly inherited gene mutations followed by somatic second hit mutations inactivating the normal copy of the respective gene result in renal tubular cyst formation that deforms the kidney and eventually impairs its function. The respective gene products, polycystin-1 and polycystin-2, work together in a common cellular pathway. Polycystin-1, a large receptor molecule, forms a receptor-channel complex with polycystin-2, which is a cation channel belonging to the TRP family. Both polycystin proteins have been localized to the primary cilium, a non-motile microtubule based structure that extends from the apical membrane of tubular cells into the lumen. Here we discuss recent insights in the pathogenesis of ADPKD including the genetics of ADPKD, the properties of the respective polycystin proteins, the role of cilia, and some cell signaling pathways that have been implicated in the pathways related to PKD1 and PKD2.

Gallagher, Anna Rachel; Germino, Gregory G.; Somlo, Stefan

2010-01-01

211

A Novel Microcharacterization Technique in the Measurement of Strain and Orientation Gradient in Advanced Materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Representation of morphology and evolution of the microstructure during processing and their relation to properties requires proper experimental techniques. Residual strains, lattice distortion, and texture (micro-texture) at the interface and the matrix of a layered structure or a functionally gradient material and their variation are among parameters important in materials characterization but hard to measure with present experimental techniques. Current techniques available to measure changes in interred material parameters (residual stress, micro-texture, microplasticity) produce results which are either qualitative or unreliable. This problem becomes even more complicated in the case of a temperature variation. These parameters affect many of the mechanical properties of advanced materials including stress-strain relation, ductility, creep, and fatigue. A review of some novel experimental techniques using recent advances in electron microscopy is presented here to measure internal stress, (micro)texture, interracial strength and (sub)grain formation and realignment. Two of these techniques are combined in the chamber of an Environmental Scanning Electron Microscope to measure strain and orientation gradients in advanced materials. These techniques which include Backscattered Kikuchi Diffractometry (BKD) and Microscopic Strain Field Analysis are used to characterize metallic and intermetallic matrix composites and superplastic materials. These techniques are compared with the more conventional x-ray diffraction and indentation techniques.

Garmestai, H.; Harris, K.; Lourenco, L.

1997-01-01

212

Advances in Carcinogenic Metal Toxicity and Potential Molecular Markers  

PubMed Central

Metal compounds such as arsenic, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, lead, mercury, and nickel are classified as carcinogens affecting human health through occupational and environmental exposure. However, the underlying mechanisms involved in tumor formation are not well clarified. Interference of metal homeostasis may result in oxidative stress which represents an imbalance between production of free radicals and the system’s ability to readily detoxify reactive intermediates. This event consequently causes DNA damage, lipid peroxidation, protein modification, and possibly symptomatic effects for various diseases including cancer. This review discusses predominant modes of action and numerous molecular markers. Attention is paid to metal-induced generation of free radicals, the phenomenon of oxidative stress, damage to DNA, lipid, and proteins, responsive signal transduction pathways with major roles in cell growth and development, and roles of antioxidant enzymatic and DNA repair systems. Interaction of non-enzymatic antioxidants (carotenoids, flavonoids, glutathione, selenium, vitamin C, vitamin E, and others) with cellular oxidative stress markers (catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase) as well as certain regulatory factors, including AP-1, NF-?B, Ref-1, and p53 is also reviewed. Dysregulation of protective pathways, including cellular antioxidant network against free radicals as well as DNA repair deficiency is related to oncogenic stimulation. These observations provide evidence that emerging oxidative stress-responsive regulatory factors and DNA repair proteins are putative predictive factors for tumor initiation and progression.

Koedrith, Preeyaporn; Seo, Young Rok

2011-01-01

213

Molecular alignment and orientation with a hybrid Raman scattering technique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We demonstrate a scheme for the preparation of molecular alignment and angular momentum orientation using a hybrid combination of two limits of Raman scattering. First a weak, impulsive pump pulse initializes the system via the nonresonant dynamic Stark effect. Then, having overcome the influence of the vacuum fluctuations, an amplification pulse selectively enhances the initial coherences by transient stimulated Raman scattering, generating alignment and angular momentum orientation of molecular hydrogen. The amplitude and phase of the resulting coherent dynamics are experimentally probed, indicating an amplification factor of 4.5. An analytic theory is developed to model the dynamics.

Bustard, Philip J.; Lausten, R.; Sussman, Benjamin J.

2012-11-01

214

Recent advances in hantavirus molecular biology and disease.  

PubMed

Hantaviruses are emerging zoonotic pathogens that belong to the Bunyaviridae family. They have been classified as category A pathogens by CDC (centers for disease control and prevention). Hantaviruses pose a serious threat to human health because their infection causes two highly fatal diseases, hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) and hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS). These pathogens are transmitted to humans through aerosolized excreta of their infected rodent hosts. Hantaviruses have a tripartite-segmented negative-sense RNA genome. The three genomic RNA segments, S, M, and L, encode a nucleocapsid protein (N), a precursor glycoprotein that is processed into two envelope glycoproteins (Gn and Gc) and the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp), respectively. N protein is the major structural component of the virus, its main function is to protect and encapsidate the three genomic RNAs forming three viral ribonucleocapsids. Recent studies have proposed that N in conjunction with RdRp plays important roles in the transcription and replication of viral genome. In addition, N preferentially facilitates the translation of viral mRNA in cells. Glycoproteins, Gn and Gc, play major roles in viral attachment and entry to the host cells, virulence, and assembly and packaging of new virions in infected cells. RdRp functions as RNA replicase and transcriptase to replicate and transcribe the viral RNA and is also thought to have endonuclease activity. Currently, no antiviral therapy or vaccine is available for the treatment of hantavirus-associated diseases. Understanding the molecular details of hantavirus life cycle will help in the identification of targets for antiviral therapeutics and in the design of potential antiviral drug for the treatment of HFRS and HCPS. Due to the alarming fatality of hantavirus diseases, development of an effective vaccine against hantaviruses is a necessity. PMID:21459193

Hussein, Islam T M; Haseeb, Abdul; Haque, Absarul; Mir, Mohammad A

2011-01-01

215

Advancing polymer process understanding in package and board applications through molecular modeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we will discuss two molecular modeling methods which have been developed and applied at Honeywell to help predict material behavior from the process engineer's standpoint. Both stress cycling and process analyses have been used to trend the probable behavior of material types in order to provide advanced intelligence on possible failure mechanisms. For instance, we have found

N. E. Iwamoto

2000-01-01

216

Low molecular weight advanced glycation end products predict mortality in asymptomatic patients receiving chronic haemodialysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) have biological properties that may contribute to the premature cardiovascular mortality of haemo- dialysis patients. This study examines the hypothesis that low molecular weight forms of fluorescent AGEs (LMW fluorescence) predict mortality in haemodialy- sis patients. Methods. The LMW fluorescence was measured in 85 patients treated with chronic haemodialysis and prospectively followed for 4

Matthew A. Roberts; Merlin C. Thomas; Dharsh Fernando; Neil Macmillan; David A. Power; Francesco L. Ierino

2006-01-01

217

POC-Scale Testing of an Advanced Fine Coal Dewatering Equipment/Technique  

SciTech Connect

Froth flotation technique is an effective and efficient process for recovering of ultra-fine (minus 74 mm) clean coal. Economical dewatering of an ultra-fine clean coal product to a 20% level moisture will be an important step in successful implementation of the advanced cleaning processes. This project is a step in the Department of Energy's program to show that ultra-clean coal could be effectively dewatered to 20% or lower moisture using either conventional or advanced dewatering techniques. The cost-sharing contract effort is for 45 months beginning September 30, 1994. This report discusses technical progress made during the quarter from January 1 ? March 31, 1998.

B. K. Karekh; D. Tao; J. G. Groppo

1998-08-28

218

Molecular beam epitaxy for advanced gate stack materials and processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The material requirements for future CMOS generations - as given by the ITRS roadmap - are very challenging. This includes a high K dielectric without a low K interfacial layer, a high mobility channel and the appropriate metal gate. With the help of two projects INVEST and ET4US, we are building up a molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) infrastructure to grow this material set on large area wafers that can be further processed into small scale devices. In the INVEST project, we have developed an MBE system for the growth of complex oxides on semiconductors. The system follows the overall design of a production tool and is equipped with an RF atomic oxygen source, effusion cells, e-beam evaporators and a differential pumping stage. The oxide growth process starts with desorbing the initial surface oxide on the Si wafers in ultra-high vacuum and high temperature to create a clean reconstructed 2x1 surface. Using the atomic oxygen it is possible to oxidize the surface in a well controlled manner at low temperature and to grow very thin and dense SiOx layers, followed by the growth of 2-6 nm amorphous high K dielectrics. The process parameters permit to tune the interface layer from a SiOx rich to a silicide rich interface with a significant impact on the capacitance and the leakage. Initial focus is on developing an optimized growth recipe for high quality amorphous HfO2 and LaHfO3.5 films. This recipe was subsequently used to make wafers for a transistor batch that gave us the first N short channel MBE MOSFET's (100 nm) using an etched gate process flow. Some highlights of the first batch for 3nm HfO2 MOSFET are a high mobility (> 270 cm^2/Vs) with a corresponding low leakage current of 2 mA/cm^2). While there were some process issues for LaHfO3.5, the 3 nm MOSFET showed very low leakage currents below 10-6 A/cm^2. Interestingly all the LaHFO3.5 MOSFETs showed very low threshold voltage instabilities. In collaboration with C. Marchiori, M. Sousa, A.Guiller, H. Siegwart, D. Caimi, J. Fompeyrine, D. J Webb, C. Rossel, R. Germann of IBM Research GmbH Zurich Switzerland; L. Pantisano, M. Claes, T. Conard, M. Demand, W. Deweerd, S. DeGendt, M. Heyns, M. Houssa, M. Aoulaiche, G. Lujan, L. Ragnarsson, E. Rohr, T. Schram of IMEC Leuven Belgium; J. Hooker, Z.M Rittersma, Y. Furukawa of Philips Research Leuven Belgium and J. W. Seo of EPFL Lausanne Switzerland.

Locquet, Jean-Pierre

2005-03-01

219

Pushing CT and MR Imaging to the Molecular Level for Studying the "Omics": Current Challenges and Advancements  

PubMed Central

During the past decade, medical imaging has made the transition from anatomical imaging to functional and even molecular imaging. Such transition provides a great opportunity to begin the integration of imaging data and various levels of biological data. In particular, the integration of imaging data and multiomics data such as genomics, metabolomics, proteomics, and pharmacogenomics may open new avenues for predictive, preventive, and personalized medicine. However, to promote imaging-omics integration, the practical challenge of imaging techniques should be addressed. In this paper, we describe key challenges in two imaging techniques: computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and then review existing technological advancements. Despite the fact that CT and MRI have different principles of image formation, both imaging techniques can provide high-resolution anatomical images while playing a more and more important role in providing molecular information. Such imaging techniques that enable single modality to image both the detailed anatomy and function of tissues and organs of the body will be beneficial in the imaging-omics field.

Huang, Hsuan-Ming; Shih, Yi-Yu

2014-01-01

220

Modulation/demodulation techniques for satellite communications. Part 2: Advanced techniques. The linear channel  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A theory is presented for deducing and predicting the performance of transmitter/receivers for bandwidth efficient modulations suitable for use on the linear satellite channel. The underlying principle used is the development of receiver structures based on the maximum-likelihood decision rule. The application of the performance prediction tools, e.g., channel cutoff rate and bit error probability transfer function bounds to these modulation/demodulation techniques.

Omura, J. K.; Simon, M. K.

1982-01-01

221

Imaging Techniques Reveal that HIV Infects Host Cells Using a Molecular Entry Claw  

Cancer.gov

An advanced imaging technique known as electron tomography has allowed researchers to visualize an "entry claw," a unique structure formed between the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) that causes AIDS and the cell it infects.

222

Clinical decision support systems for brain tumor characterization using advanced magnetic resonance imaging techniques  

PubMed Central

In recent years, advanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques, such as magnetic resonance spectroscopy, diffusion weighted imaging, diffusion tensor imaging and perfusion weighted imaging have been used in order to resolve demanding diagnostic problems such as brain tumor characterization and grading, as these techniques offer a more detailed and non-invasive evaluation of the area under study. In the last decade a great effort has been made to import and utilize intelligent systems in the so-called clinical decision support systems (CDSS) for automatic processing, classification, evaluation and representation of MRI data in order for advanced MRI techniques to become a part of the clinical routine, since the amount of data from the aforementioned techniques has gradually increased. Hence, the purpose of the current review article is two-fold. The first is to review and evaluate the progress that has been made towards the utilization of CDSS based on data from advanced MRI techniques. The second is to analyze and propose the future work that has to be done, based on the existing problems and challenges, especially taking into account the new imaging techniques and parameters that can be introduced into intelligent systems to significantly improve their diagnostic specificity and clinical application.

Tsolaki, Evangelia; Kousi, Evanthia; Svolos, Patricia; Kapsalaki, Efthychia; Theodorou, Kyriaki; Kappas, Constastine; Tsougos, Ioannis

2014-01-01

223

Fabrication of advanced electrochemical energy materials using sol-gel processing techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Advanced materials play an important role in electrochemical energy devices such as batteries, fuel cells, and electrochemical capacitors. They are being used as both electrodes and electrolytes. Sol-gel processing is a versatile solution technique used in fabrication of ceramic materials with tailored stoichiometry, microstructure, and properties. The application of sol-gel processing in the fabrication of advanced electrochemical energy materials will be presented. The potentials of sol-gel derived materials for electrochemical energy applications will be discussed along with some examples of successful applications. Sol-gel derived metal oxide electrode materials such as V2O5 cathodes have been demonstrated in solid-slate thin film batteries; solid electrolytes materials such as beta-alumina for advanced secondary batteries had been prepared by the sol-gel technique long time ago; and high surface area transition metal compounds for capacitive energy storage applications can also be synthesized with this method.

Chu, C. T.; Chu, Jay; Zheng, Haixing

1995-04-01

224

Fabrication of advanced electrochemical energy materials using sol-gel processing techniques  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Advanced materials play an important role in electrochemical energy devices such as batteries, fuel cells, and electrochemical capacitors. They are being used as both electrodes and electrolytes. Sol-gel processing is a versatile solution technique used in fabrication of ceramic materials with tailored stoichiometry, microstructure, and properties. The application of sol-gel processing in the fabrication of advanced electrochemical energy materials will be presented. The potentials of sol-gel derived materials for electrochemical energy applications will be discussed along with some examples of successful applications. Sol-gel derived metal oxide electrode materials such as V2O5 cathodes have been demonstrated in solid-slate thin film batteries; solid electrolytes materials such as beta-alumina for advanced secondary batteries had been prepared by the sol-gel technique long time ago; and high surface area transition metal compounds for capacitive energy storage applications can also be synthesized with this method.

Chu, C. T.; Chu, Jay; Zheng, Haixing

1995-01-01

225

Modulation/demodulation techniques for satellite communications. Part 3: Advanced techniques. The nonlinear channel  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A theory for deducing and predicting the performance of transmitter/receivers for bandwidth efficient modulations suitable for use on the nonlinear satellite channel is presented. The underlying principle used throughout is the development of receiver structures based on the maximum likelihood decision rule and aproximations to it. The bit error probability transfer function bounds developed in great detail in Part 4 is applied to these modulation/demodulation techniques. The effects of the various degrees of receiver mismatch are considered both theoretically and by numerous illustrative examples.

Omura, J. K.; Simon, M. K.

1982-01-01

226

Development of advanced instrumentation and control technology -The development of digital monitoring technique-.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A study has been performed for the advanced DSP technology for digital nuclear I and C systems and its prototype, and for the monitoring and diagnosing techniques for the highly-pressurized components in NSSS. In the DSP part, the DSP requirements for NPP...

J. S. Jun B. S. Lee S. J. Han Y. C. Shin Y. B. Kim

1995-01-01

227

Integrated Planarization Technique with Consistency in Abrasive Machining for Advanced Semiconductor Chip Fabrication  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes the establishment of a new integrated planarization technique using ultrafine abrasive machining for application to advanced semiconductor chip fabrication. The main features implemented are integrated planarization for the silicon substrate, blanket films of oxide and wafers with pattern topography. Planarization concepts were brought out for these wafers with different shape and material. The authors tried to apply

Heado Jeong; Hitoshi Ohmori; Toshiroh Karaki Doy; Takeo Nakagawa

1996-01-01

228

Advanced superconducting gradiometer\\/Magnetometer arrays and a novel signal processing technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent developments in superconducting magnetic gradiometer technology have led to the construction of advanced ultrasensitive gradiometer\\/magnetometer arrays. Details of construction techniques and data showing operational capabilities are presented. The most recent of the gradiometer\\/magnetometer arrays simultaneously measures five independent spatial gradients of the magnetic field and three vector components of the magnetic field. The measured signals from this array are

W. Wynn; C. Frahm; P. Carroll; R. Clark; J. Wellhoner; M. Wynn

1975-01-01

229

Improved rolling mill automation by means of advanced control techniques and dynamic simulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the simulation of a multiple-stand hot strip mill and its application for the development of complex control strategies. Both controlled system structure and control functions are explained. The application of advanced control techniques and dynamic simulation improves the thickness tolerances drastically. The results show that the major contribution stems from the feedforward system based on thickness and

Giinter W. Rigler; Heinrich R. Aberl; Wolfgang Staufer; Karl Aistleitner; Karl H. Weinberger

1996-01-01

230

Coolant void reactivity adjustments in advanced CANDU lattices using adjoint sensitivity technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coolant void reactivity (CVR) is an important factor in reactor accident analysis. Here we study the adjustments of CVR at beginning of burnup cycle (BOC) and keff at end of burnup cycle (EOC) for a 2D Advanced CANDU Reactor (ACR) lattice using the optimization and adjoint sensitivity techniques. The sensitivity coefficients are evaluated using the perturbation theory based on the

M. Assawaroongruengchot; G. Marleau

2008-01-01

231

Real-time application of advanced three-dimensional graphic techniques for research aircraft simulation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Visual aids are valuable assets to engineers for design, demonstration, and evaluation. Discussed here are a variety of advanced three-dimensional graphic techniques used to enhance the displays of test aircraft dynamics. The new software's capabilities are examined and possible future uses are considered.

Davis, Steven B.

1990-01-01

232

Molecular imaging with optics: primer and case for near-infrared fluorescence techniques in personalized medicine  

PubMed Central

We compare and contrast the development of optical molecular imaging techniques with nuclear medicine with a didactic emphasis for initiating readers into the field of molecular imaging. The nuclear imaging techniques of gamma scintigraphy, single-photon emission computed tomography, and positron emission tomography are first briefly reviewed. The molecular optical imaging techniques of bioluminescence and fluorescence using gene reporter/probes and gene reporters are described prior to introducing the governing factors of autofluorescence and excitation light leakage. The use of dual-labeled, near-infrared excitable and radio-labeled agents are described with comparative measurements between planar fluorescence and nuclear molecular imaging. The concept of time-independent and -dependent measurements is described with emphasis on integrating time-dependent measurements made in the frequency domain for 3-D tomography. Finally, we comment on the challenges and progress for translating near-infrared (NIR) molecular imaging agents for personalized medicine.

Sevick-Muraca, Eva M.; Rasmussen, John C.

2010-01-01

233

Construction of artificial cyclic amide amidohydrolases using molecular imprinting technique.  

PubMed

A general molecular imprinting approach is proposed to synthesize artificial enzymes to mimic the family of cyclic amide amidohydrolases which share similar active site and catalytic mechanism. The artificial enzymes were constructed by co-polymerizing 4(5)-vinylimidazole-Co2+-methacrylic acid clusters with divinylbenzene micro-spheres in the presence of corresponding substrates. The artificial enzymes mimicked creatininase and hydantoinase by showing specific affinity towards the corresponding substrates in buffer. The artificial hydantoinase also showed specific affinity towards corresponding substrate in organic solvent, and catalyzed the hydrolysis of hydantoin. PMID:15928852

Meng, Zihui; Yamazaki, Tomohiko

2005-04-01

234

Optimization techniques in molecular structure and function elucidation  

PubMed Central

This paper discusses recent optimization approaches to the protein side-chain prediction problem, protein structural alignment, and molecular structure determination from X-ray diffraction measurements. The machinery employed to solve these problems has included algorithms from linear programming, dynamic programming, combinatorial optimization, and mixed-integer nonlinear programming. Many of these problems are purely continuous in nature. Yet, to this date, they have been approached mostly via combinatorial optimization algorithms that are applied to discrete approximations. The main purpose of the paper is to offer an introduction and motivate further systems approaches to these problems.

Sahinidis, Nikolaos V.

2009-01-01

235

Partnership Training Program in Breast Cancer Research Using Molecular Imaging Techniques.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This partnership training program is between Howard University and the Johns Hopkins University to pursue breast cancer research using molecular imaging techniques. The program has two components: a research component and a broad training component. Six H...

P. C. Wang

2009-01-01

236

Panel 4: Recent Advances in Otitis Media in Molecular Biology, Biochemistry, Genetics, and Animal Models  

PubMed Central

Background Otitis media (OM) is the most common childhood bacterial infection and also the leading cause of conductive hearing loss in children. Currently, there is an urgent need for developing novel therapeutic agents for treating OM based on full understanding of molecular pathogenesis in the areas of molecular biology, biochemistry, genetics, and animal model studies in OM. Objective To provide a state-of-the-art review concerning recent advances in OM in the areas of molecular biology, biochemistry, genetics, and animal model studies and to discuss the future directions of OM studies in these areas. Data Sources and Review Methods A structured search of the current literature (since June 2007). The authors searched PubMed for published literature in the areas of molecular biology, biochemistry, genetics, and animal model studies in OM. Results Over the past 4 years, significant progress has been made in the areas of molecular biology, biochemistry, genetics, and animal model studies in OM. These studies brought new insights into our understanding of the molecular and biochemical mechanisms underlying the molecular pathogenesis of OM and helped identify novel therapeutic targets for OM. Conclusions and Implications for Practice Our understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of OM has been significantly advanced, particularly in the areas of inflammation, innate immunity, mucus overproduction, mucosal hyperplasia, middle ear and inner ear interaction, genetics, genome sequencing, and animal model studies. Although these studies are still in their experimental stages, they help identify new potential therapeutic targets. Future preclinical and clinical studies will help to translate these exciting experimental research findings into clinical applications.

Li, Jian-Dong; Hermansson, Ann; Ryan, Allen F.; Bakaletz, Lauren O.; Brown, Steve D.; Cheeseman, Michael T.; Juhn, Steven K.; Jung, Timothy T. K.; Lim, David J.; Lim, Jae Hyang; Lin, Jizhen; Moon, Sung-Kyun; Post, J. Christopher

2014-01-01

237

Detection and Sizing of Fatigue Cracks in Steel Welds with Advanced Eddy Current Techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Butt-welded specimens were fatigued to produce cracks in the weld heat-affected zone. Advanced eddy current (AEC) techniques were used to detect and size the cracks through a coating. AEC results were compared with magnetic particle and phased-array ultrasonic techniques. Validation through destructive crack measurements was also conducted. Factors such as geometry, surface treatment, and crack tightness interfered with depth sizing. AEC inspection techniques have the potential of providing more accurate and complete sizing flaw data for manufacturing and in-service inspections.

Todorov, E. I.; Mohr, W. C.; Lozev, M. G.

2008-02-01

238

Single Molecular Membrane Glue Technique for Laser Driven Shock Experiments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present report describes the adhesion of metal foils without a conventional glue to provide a precise thickness (˜ 20 mum) of an adhered step target for ultrahigh pressure, laser shock experiments. The technique involves two processes: single molecule coating on the metal surface and fastening the two surfaces together. For the two 20 mum aluminum targets of single foil

Keiji Nagai; Takayoshi Norimatsu; Tatsuhiko Yamanaka; Tsutomu Nishibe; Norimasa Ozaki; Kikuo Takamatsu; Takatoshi Ono; Motohiro Nakano; Kazuo A. Tanaka

2002-01-01

239

Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Techniques for Person Characterization  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using the traditional serological tests and the most novel techniques for DNA fingerprinting, forensic scientists scan different traits that vary from person to person and use the data to include or exclude suspects based on matching with the evidence obtained in a criminal case. Although the forensic application of these methods is well known,…

Herrero, Salvador; Ivorra, Jose Luis; Garcia-Sogo, Magdalena; Martinez-Cortina, Carmen

2008-01-01

240

Molecular techniques open up new vistas for typing of coagulase-negative staphylococci  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several methods were used to type 64 clinical isolates of coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) derived from hospitals in Morocco. The clinical isolates originated principally from blood cultures and wound sources. These isolates provided the opportunity to substantially compare the proficiency of developing molecular techniques with conventional phenotypic tests for use in the identification of clinical staphylococci. The following molecular methods were

R Marsou; M Bes; Y Brun; M Boudouma; L Idrissi; H Meugnier; J Freney; J Etienne

2001-01-01

241

Using "Pseudomonas Putida xylE" Gene to Teach Molecular Cloning Techniques for Undergraduates  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We have developed and implemented a serial experiment in molecular cloning laboratory course for undergraduate students majored in biotechnology. "Pseudomonas putida xylE" gene, encoding catechol 2, 3-dioxygenase, was manipulated to learn molecular biology techniques. The integration of cloning, expression, and enzyme assay gave students a chance…

Dong, Xu; Xin, Yi; Ye, Li; Ma, Yufang

2009-01-01

242

The development of optical microscopy techniques for the advancement of single-particle studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Single particle orientation and rotational tracking (SPORT) has recently become a powerful optical microscopy tool that can expose many molecular motions. Unfortunately, there is not yet a single microscopy technique that can decipher all particle motions in all environmental conditions, thus there are limitations to current technologies. Within, the two powerful microscopy tools of total internal reflection and interferometry are advanced to determine the position, orientation, and optical properties of metallic nanoparticles in a variety of environments. Total internal reflection is an optical phenomenon that has been applied to microscopy to produce either fluorescent or scattered light. The non-invasive far-field imaging technique is coupled with a near-field illumination scheme that allows for better axial resolution than confocal microscopy and epi-fluorescence microscopy. By controlling the incident illumination angle using total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy, a new type of imaging probe called "non-blinking" quantum dots (NBQDs) were super-localized in the axial direction to sub-10-nm precision. These particles were also used to study the rotational motion of microtubules being propelled by the motor protein kinesin across the substrate surface. The same instrument was modified to function under total internal reflection scattering (TIRS) microscopy to study metallic anisotropic nanoparticles and their dynamic interactions with synthetic lipid bilayers. Utilizing two illumination lasers with opposite polarization directions at wavelengths corresponding to the short and long axis surface plasmon resonance (SPR) of the nanoparticles, both the in-plane and out-of-plane movements of many particles could be tracked simultaneously. When combined with Gaussian point spread function (PSF) fitting for particle super-localization, the binding status and rotational movement could be resolved without degeneracy. TIRS microscopy was also used to find the 3D orientation of stationary metallic anisotropic nanoparticles utilizing only long-axis SPR enhancement. The polarization direction of the illuminating light was rotated causing the relative intensity of p-polarized and s-polarized light within the evanescent field to change. The interaction of the evanescent field with the particles is dependent on the orientation of the particle producing an intensity curve. This curve and the in-plane angle can be compared with simulations to accurately determine the 3D orientation. Differential interference contrast (DIC) microscopy is another non-invasive far-field technique based upon interferometry that does not rely on staining or other contrast enhancing techniques. In addition, high numerical aperture condensers and objectives can be used to give a very narrow depth of field allowing for the optical tomography of samples, which makes it an ideal candidate to study biological systems. DIC microscopy has also proven itself in determining the orientation of gold nanorods in both engineered environments and within cells. Many types of nanoparticles and nanostructures have been synthesized using lithographic techniques on silicon wafer substrates. Traditionally, reflective mode DIC microscopes have been developed and applied to the topographical study of reflective substrates and the imaging of chips on silicon wafers. Herein, a laser-illuminated reflected-mode DIC was developed for studying nanoparticles on reflective surfaces.

Marchuk, Kyle

243

The development of optical microscopy techniques for the advancement of single-particle studies  

SciTech Connect

Single particle orientation and rotational tracking (SPORT) has recently become a powerful optical microscopy tool that can expose many molecular motions. Unfortunately, there is not yet a single microscopy technique that can decipher all particle motions in all environmental conditions, thus there are limitations to current technologies. Within, the two powerful microscopy tools of total internal reflection and interferometry are advanced to determine the position, orientation, and optical properties of metallic nanoparticles in a variety of environments. Total internal reflection is an optical phenomenon that has been applied to microscopy to produce either fluorescent or scattered light. The non-invasive far-field imaging technique is coupled with a near-field illumination scheme that allows for better axial resolution than confocal microscopy and epi-fluorescence microscopy. By controlling the incident illumination angle using total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy, a new type of imaging probe called “non-blinking” quantum dots (NBQDs) were super-localized in the axial direction to sub-10-nm precision. These particles were also used to study the rotational motion of microtubules being propelled by the motor protein kinesin across the substrate surface. The same instrument was modified to function under total internal reflection scattering (TIRS) microscopy to study metallic anisotropic nanoparticles and their dynamic interactions with synthetic lipid bilayers. Utilizing two illumination lasers with opposite polarization directions at wavelengths corresponding to the short and long axis surface plasmon resonance (SPR) of the nanoparticles, both the in-plane and out-of-plane movements of many particles could be tracked simultaneously. When combined with Gaussian point spread function (PSF) fitting for particle super-localization, the binding status and rotational movement could be resolved without degeneracy. TIRS microscopy was also used to find the 3D orientation of stationary metallic anisotropic nanoparticles utilizing only long-axis SPR enhancement. The polarization direction of the illuminating light was rotated causing the relative intensity of p-polarized and s-polarized light within the evanescent field to change. The interaction of the evanescent field with the particles is dependent on the orientation of the particle producing an intensity curve. This curve and the in-plane angle can be compared with simulations to accurately determine the 3D orientation. Differential interference contrast (DIC) microscopy is another non-invasive far-field technique based upon interferometry that does not rely on staining or other contrast enhancing techniques. In addition, high numerical aperture condensers and objectives can be used to give a very narrow depth of field allowing for the optical tomography of samples, which makes it an ideal candidate to study biological systems. DIC microscopy has also proven itself in determining the orientation of gold nanorods in both engineered environments and within cells. Many types of nanoparticles and nanostructures have been synthesized using lithographic techniques on silicon wafer substrates. Traditionally, reflective mode DIC microscopes have been developed and applied to the topographical study of reflective substrates and the imaging of chips on silicon wafers. Herein, a laser-illuminated reflected-mode DIC was developed for studying nanoparticles on reflective surfaces.

Marchuk, Kyle

2013-05-15

244

Translating molecular advances in fragile X syndrome into therapy: a review.  

PubMed

Fragile X syndrome is an inherited disease with cognitive, behavioral, and neurologic manifestations, resulting from a single genetic mutation. A variety of treatments that target individual symptoms of fragile X syndrome are currently utilized with limited efficacy. Research in animal models has resulted in the development of potential novel pharmacologic treatments that target the underlying molecular defect in fragile X syndrome, rather than the resultant symptoms. This review describes recent advances in our understanding of the molecular basis of fragile X syndrome and summarizes the ongoing clinical research programs. PMID:24813413

Hagerman, Randi J; Des-Portes, Vincent; Gasparini, Fabrizio; Jacquemont, Sébastien; Gomez-Mancilla, Baltazar

2014-04-01

245

Detection of Molecular signatures of life using immunoassay techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Miniaturized Array for Solar System Exploration (MASSE) will use a microarray of antibody assays to search for biomarkers in extraterrestrial environments. We have now used enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to demonstrate the feasibility of immuno-detection of biomarkers in terrestrial soil, JSC-1 Mars regolith simulant, and terrestrial polar permafrost as analogues f ro extraterrestrial materials. We have also demonstrated that the technique works at microgravity and Martian gravity. Studies are now underway to test immunoassay techniques and antibody arrays at varying pressures and temperatures. It is expected that these studies will lead to a flight ready biomarker detection instrument that will be landed and operated on the Martian surface in 2009.

McKay, D.; Steele, A.; Warmflash, D.; Maule, J.; Lynch, K.

246

Reflection mass spectrometry technique for monitoring and controlling composition during molecular beam epitaxy  

DOEpatents

A method for on-line accurate monitoring and precise control of molecular beam epitaxial growth of Groups III-III-V or Groups III-V-V layers in an advanced semiconductor device incorporates reflection mass spectrometry. The reflection mass spectrometry is responsive to intentional perturbations in molecular fluxes incident on a substrate by accurately measuring the molecular fluxes reflected from the substrate. The reflected flux is extremely sensitive to the state of the growing surface and the measurements obtained enable control of newly forming surfaces that are dynamically changing as a result of growth.

Brennan, Thomas M. (Albuquerque, NM); Hammons, B. Eugene (Tijeras, NM); Tsao, Jeffrey Y. (Albuquerque, NM)

1992-01-01

247

Reflection mass spectrometry technique for monitoring and controlling composition during molecular beam epitaxy  

DOEpatents

A method for on-line accurate monitoring and precise control of molecular beam epitaxial growth of Groups III-III-V or Groups III-V-V layers in an advanced semiconductor device incorporates reflection mass spectrometry. The reflection mass spectrometry is responsive to intentional perturbations in molecular fluxes incident on a substrate by accurately measuring the molecular fluxes reflected from the substrate. The reflected flux is extremely sensitive to the state of the growing surface and the measurements obtained enable control of newly forming surfaces that are dynamically changing as a result of growth. 3 figs.

Brennan, T.M.; Hammons, B.E.; Tsao, J.Y.

1992-12-15

248

Advanced techniques for determining long term compatibility of materials with propellants  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The search for advanced measurement techniques for determining long term compatibility of materials with propellants was conducted in several parts. A comprehensive survey of the existing measurement and testing technology for determining material-propellant interactions was performed. Selections were made from those existing techniques which were determined could meet or be made to meet the requirements. Areas of refinement or changes were recommended for improvement of others. Investigations were also performed to determine the feasibility and advantages of developing and using new techniques to achieve significant improvements over existing ones. The most interesting demonstration was that of the new technique, the volatile metal chelate analysis. Rivaling the neutron activation analysis in terms of sensitivity and specificity, the volatile metal chelate technique was fully demonstrated.

Green, R. L.

1972-01-01

249

Advanced imaging techniques for assessment of structure, composition and function in biofilm systems.  

PubMed

Scientific imaging represents an important and accepted research tool for the analysis and understanding of complex natural systems. Apart from traditional microscopic techniques such as light and electron microscopy, new advanced techniques have been established including laser scanning microscopy (LSM), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM). These new techniques allow in situ analysis of the structure, composition, processes and dynamics of microbial communities. The three techniques open up quantitative analytical imaging possibilities that were, until a few years ago, impossible. The microscopic techniques represent powerful tools for examination of mixed environmental microbial communities usually encountered in the form of aggregates and films. As a consequence, LSM, MRI and STXM are being used in order to study complex microbial biofilm systems. This mini review provides a short outline of the more recent applications with the intention to stimulate new research and imaging approaches in microbiology. PMID:20180852

Neu, Thomas R; Manz, Bertram; Volke, Frank; Dynes, James J; Hitchcock, Adam P; Lawrence, John R

2010-04-01

250

Recent advances in 3D computed tomography techniques for simulation and navigation in hepatobiliary pancreatic surgery.  

PubMed

A few years ago it could take several hours to complete a 3D image using a 3D workstation. Thanks to advances in computer science, obtaining results of interest now requires only a few minutes. Many recent 3D workstations or multimedia computers are equipped with onboard 3D virtual patient modeling software, which enables patient-specific preoperative assessment and virtual planning, navigation, and tool positioning. Although medical 3D imaging can now be conducted using various modalities, including computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), positron emission tomography (PET), and ultrasonography (US) among others, the highest quality images are obtained using CT data, and CT images are now the most commonly used source of data for 3D simulation and navigation image. If the 2D source image is bad, no amount of 3D image manipulation in software will provide a quality 3D image. In this exhibition, the recent advances in CT imaging technique and 3D visualization of the hepatobiliary and pancreatic abnormalities are featured, including scan and image reconstruction technique, contrast-enhanced techniques, new application of advanced CT scan techniques, and new virtual reality simulation and navigation imaging. PMID:24464989

Uchida, Masafumi

2014-04-01

251

Nondestructive Characterization by Advanced Synchrotron Light Techniques: Spectromicroscopy and Coherent Radiology  

PubMed Central

The advanced characteristics of synchrotron light has led in recent years to the development of a series of new experimental techniques to investigate chemical and physical properties on a microscopic scale. Although originally developed for materials science and biomedical research, such techniques find increasing applications in other domains – and could be quite useful for the study and conservation of cultural heritage. Specifically, they can nondestructively provide detailed chemical composition information that can be useful for the identification of specimens, for the discovery of historical links based on the sources of chemical raw materials and on chemical processes, for the analysis of damage, their causes and remedies and for many other issues. Likewise, morphological and structural information on a microscopic scale is useful for the identification, study and preservation of many different cultural and historical specimens. We concentrate here on two classes of techniques: in the first case, photoemission spectromicroscopy. This is the result of the advanced evolution of photoemission techniques like ESCA (Electron Microscopy for Chemical Analysis). By combining high lateral resolution to spectroscopy, photoemission spectromicroscopy can deliver fine chemical information on a microscopic scale in a nondestructive fashion. The second class of techniques exploits the high lateral coherence of modern synchrotron sources, a byproduct of the quest for high brightness or brilliance. We will see that such techniques now push radiology into the submicron scale and the submillisecond time domain. Furthermore, they can be implemented in a tomographic mode, increasing the information and becoming potentially quite useful for the analysis of cultural heritage specimens.

Margaritondo, Giorgio; Hwu, Yeukuang; Je, Jung Ho

2008-01-01

252

Probing Molecular Dynamics with Non-linear Optical Techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The dynamics of molecules in the gas and liquid phase is investigated using ultrafast optical techniques. The development of sub-25 fs ultrafast sources using noncollinear optical parametric amplification is discussed. These intense pulses are utilized in coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering to investigate vibrational motion in I2 Br2 and IBr. For larger bio-molecules relevant dynamics may not be related to the absorption of light. Here, a new technique is introduced, in which an optically excitable molecule is incorporated into the bio-molecule. Photoisomerization of the trigger molecule initiates structural rearrangement in the larger system. To demonstrate this approach, azobenzene was synthesized into short strands of DNA to time-resolve base pair destacking dynamics and DNA melting. The isomerization of azobenzene in thin polymer films (and their corresponding change in optical properties) was also used to write birefringence and surface relief gratings. This method was used to demonstrate a rewritable Bragg filter for telecom wavelengths. Lastly, an alternative to typical crystal based wavemixing is presented for the generation of ultrafast tunable ultraviolet and deep ultraviolet pulses. The approach utilizes difference frequency four wave mixing in hollow waveguides filled with noble gas.

Lausten, Rune

253

Formation of Ultra-Shallow Junctions by Advanced Plasma Doping Techniques  

SciTech Connect

The fabrication of advanced CMOS devices calls for production worthy doping solutions to address requirements for increasingly shallow and abrupt junctions, while maintaining high dopant activation to meet series resistance requirements. Plasma Doping (PLAD), which has already been adopted in high volume manufacturing in the ultra high dose, low energy regime for advanced DRAM technology nodes, is now being investigated for source drain extension (SDE) implants, where precise and repeatable dopant placement is critical for maintaining control over device parameters. In this article, we investigate the process performance of SDE implants carried out in a VIISta registered PLAD system using p- type dopant precursors. Key metrics, such as junction depth, profile abruptness and sheet resistance are reported for as-implanted junctions, as well as samples processed with low thermal budget anneal techniques. Device performance data demonstrating the feasibility of the approach are presented. The advanced control features in the PLAD system are critical in enabling the process performance required for SDE implants.

Papasouliotis, G. D.; Godet, L.; Singh, V.; Miura, R.; Ito, H. [Varian Semiconductor Equipment Associates, 35 Dory Road, Gloucester, MA, 01930 (United States)

2011-01-07

254

Advanced semiconductor diagnosis by multidimensional electron-beam-induced current technique.  

PubMed

We present advanced semiconductor diagnosis by using electron-beam-induced current (EBIC) technique. By varying the parameters such as temperature, accelerating voltage (V(acc)), bias voltage, and stressing time, it is possible to extend EBIC application from conventional defect characterization to advanced device diagnosis. As an electron beam can excite a certain volume even beneath the surface passive layer, EBIC can be effectively employed to diagnose complicated devices with hybrid structure. Three topics were selected to demonstrate EBIC applications. First, the recombination activities of grain boundaries and their interaction with Fe impurity in photovoltaic multicrystalline Si (mc-Si) are clarified by temperature-dependent EBIC. Second, the detection of dislocations between strained-Si and SiGe virtual substrate are shown to overcome the limitation of depletion region. Third, the observation of leakage sites in high-k gate dielectric is demonstrated for the characterization of advanced hybrid device structures. PMID:18615457

Chen, J; Yuan, X; Sekiguchi, T

2008-01-01

255

Formation of Ultra-Shallow Junctions by Advanced Plasma Doping Techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The fabrication of advanced CMOS devices calls for production worthy doping solutions to address requirements for increasingly shallow and abrupt junctions, while maintaining high dopant activation to meet series resistance requirements. Plasma Doping (PLAD), which has already been adopted in high volume manufacturing in the ultra high dose, low energy regime for advanced DRAM technology nodes, is now being investigated for source drain extension (SDE) implants, where precise and repeatable dopant placement is critical for maintaining control over device parameters. In this article, we investigate the process performance of SDE implants carried out in a VIISta® PLAD system using p- type dopant precursors. Key metrics, such as junction depth, profile abruptness and sheet resistance are reported for as-implanted junctions, as well as samples processed with low thermal budget anneal techniques. Device performance data demonstrating the feasibility of the approach are presented. The advanced control features in the PLAD system are critical in enabling the process performance required for SDE implants.

Papasouliotis, G. D.; Godet, L.; Singh, V.; Miura, R.; Ito, H.

2011-01-01

256

Flaw Detection for Composite Materials Improved by Advanced Thermal Image Reconstruction Techniques  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development of advanced composite materials for use in space and propulsion components has seen considerable growth over the past few years. In addition to improvements that have been made in material properties and processing techniques, similar growth must be seen in the development of methods for the detection of flaws, either generated in service or during manufacturing. Thermal imaging techniques have proven to be successful for the nondestructive evaluation (NDE) of composite materials, but their detection capabilities decrease as flaw depth increases. The purpose of this research is to investigate advanced thermal imaging methods and thermal image processing technologies to increase the maximum depth below surface that a flaw can be detected and improve the contrast between flawed regions and sound regions.

Martin, Richard E.; Gyekenyesi, Andrew L.

2003-01-01

257

POC-scale testing of an advanced fine coal dewatering equipment/technique  

SciTech Connect

Froth flotation technique is an effective and efficient process for recovering of ultra-fine (minus 74 pm) clean coal. Economical dewatering of an ultra-fine clean-coal product to a 20% level moisture will be an important step in successful implementation of the advanced cleaning processes. This project is a step in the Department of Energy`s program to show that ultra-clean coal could be effectively dewatered to 20% or lower moisture using either conventional or advanced dewatering techniques. The cost-sharing contract effort is for 36 months beginning September 30, 1994. This report discusses technical progress made during the quarter from July 1 - September 30, 1997.

NONE

1998-09-01

258

POC-Scale Testing of an Advanced Fine Coal Dewatering Equipment/Technique.  

SciTech Connect

Froth flotation technique is an effective and efficient process for recovering of ultra-fine (minus 74 mm) clean coal. Economical dewatering of an ultra-fine clean-coal product to a 20% level moisture will be an important step in successful implementation of the advanced cleaning processes. This project is a step in the Department of Energy`s program to show that ultra-clean coal could be effectively dewatered to 20% or lower moisture using either conventional or advanced dewatering techniques. The cost-sharing contract effort is for 36 months beginning September 30, 1994. This report discusses technical progress made during the quarter from July 1 - September 30, 1997.

Tao, D.; Groppo, J.G.; Parekh, B.K.

1997-11-05

259

POC-Scale Testing of an Advanced Fine Coal Dewatering Equipment/Technique.  

SciTech Connect

Froth flotation technique is an effective and efficient process for recovering of ultra-fine (minus 74 mm) clean coal. Economical dewatering of an ultra-fine clean coal product to a 20% level moisture will be an important step in the successful implementation of the advanced cleaning processes. This project is a step in the Department of Energy`s program to show that ultra-clean coal could be effectively dewatered to 20% or lower moisture using either conventional or advanced dewatering techniques. The cost-sharing contract effort is for 36 months beginning September 30, 1994. This report discusses technical progress made during the quarter from April 1 - June 30, 1997.

Tao, D.; Groppo, J.G.; Parekh, B.K.

1997-12-31

260

The investigation of advanced remote sensing techniques for the measurement of aerosol characteristics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Advanced remote sensing techniques and inversion methods for the measurement of characteristics of aerosol and gaseous species in the atmosphere were investigated. Of particular interest were the physical and chemical properties of aerosols, such as their size distribution, number concentration, and complex refractive index, and the vertical distribution of these properties on a local as well as global scale. Remote sensing techniques for monitoring of tropospheric aerosols were developed as well as satellite monitoring of upper tropospheric and stratospheric aerosols. Computer programs were developed for solving multiple scattering and radiative transfer problems, as well as inversion/retrieval problems. A necessary aspect of these efforts was to develop models of aerosol properties.

Deepak, A.; Becher, J.

1979-01-01

261

Advanced digital modulation: Communication techniques and monolithic GaAs technology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Communications theory and practice are merged with state-of-the-art technology in IC fabrication, especially monolithic GaAs technology, to examine the general feasibility of a number of advanced technology digital transmission systems. Satellite-channel models with (1) superior throughput, perhaps 2 Gbps; (2) attractive weight and cost; and (3) high RF power and spectrum efficiency are discussed. Transmission techniques possessing reasonably simple architectures capable of monolithic fabrication at high speeds were surveyed. This included a review of amplitude/phase shift keying (APSK) techniques and the continuous-phase-modulation (CPM) methods, of which MSK represents the simplest case.

Wilson, S. G.; Oliver, J. D., Jr.; Kot, R. C.; Richards, C. R.

1983-01-01

262

An example of requirements for Advanced Subsonic Civil Transport (ASCT) flight control system using structured techniques  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The requirements are presented for an Advanced Subsonic Civil Transport (ASCT) flight control system generated using structured techniques. The requirements definition starts from initially performing a mission analysis to identify the high level control system requirements and functions necessary to satisfy the mission flight. The result of the study is an example set of control system requirements partially represented using a derivative of Yourdon's structured techniques. Also provided is a research focus for studying structured design methodologies and in particular design-for-validation philosophies.

Mclees, Robert E.; Cohen, Gerald C.

1991-01-01

263

New test techniques and analytical procedures for understanding the behavior of advanced propellers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Analytical procedures and experimental techniques were developed to improve the capability to design advanced high speed propellers. Some results from the propeller lifting line and lifting surface aerodynamic analysis codes are compared with propeller force data, probe data and laser velocimeter data. In general, the code comparisons with data indicate good qualitative agreement. A rotating propeller force balance demonstrated good accuracy and reduced test time by 50 percent. Results from three propeller flow visualization techniques are shown which illustrate some of the physical phenomena occurring on these propellers.

Stefko, G. L.; Bober, L. J.; Neumann, H. E.

1983-01-01

264

Analysis of Ni silicide abnormal growth mechanism using advanced TEM techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

We performed detailed analysis of the abnormal growth of Ni silicide that causes leakage-current failure in CMOS devices. We investigated the three-dimensional shape and the crystal microstructure of the abnormal growth by using advanced transmission electron microscope (TEM) techniques: electron tomography and spatially-resolved electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS). Furthermore, we revealed that the abnormal growth is related to crystal microstructure and

S. Kudo; Y. Hirose; N. Hashikawa; T. Yamaguchi; K. Kashihara; K. Maekawa; K. Asai; N. Murata; K. Asayama; E. Murakami

2008-01-01

265

Processing technique for fabrication of advanced YBCO bulk materials for industrial applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a processing technique for fabrication of advanced semi-finished parts and products based on the high-temperature superconductor (HTSC) YBa2Cu3O7-x (YBCO). High-quality YBCO bulk components are produced powder metallurgically by sintering and partial melting of precursor powders. Depending on size, shape, tolerances and levitation requirements, parts are either die-pressed or precision machined from isostatically pressed blocks. The oxygenation process can

H. J. Bornemann; Thomas Burghardt; Wolfgang Hennig; A. Kaiser

1997-01-01

266

A New Experimental Technique for the Multi-axial Testing of Advanced High Strength Steel Sheets  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with the development of a new experimental technique for the multi-axial testing of flat sheets and its application\\u000a to advanced high strength steels. In close analogy with the traditional tension-torsion test for bulk materials, the sheet\\u000a material is subject to combined tension and shear loading. Using a custom-made dual actuator hydraulic testing machine, combinations\\u000a of normal and

D. Mohr; M. Oswald

2008-01-01

267

Achieving molecular selectivity in imaging using multiphoton Raman spectroscopy techniques  

SciTech Connect

In the case of most imaging methods, contrast is generated either by physical properties of the sample (Differential Image Contrast, Phase Contrast), or by fluorescent labels that are localized to a particular protein or organelle. Standard Raman and infrared methods for obtaining images are based upon the intrinsic vibrational properties of molecules, and thus obviate the need for attached flurophores. Unfortunately, they have significant limitations for live-cell imaging. However, an active Raman method, called Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering (CARS), is well suited for microscopy, and provides a new means for imaging specific molecules. Vibrational imaging techniques, such as CARS, avoid problems associated with photobleaching and photo-induced toxicity often associated with the use of fluorescent labels with live cells. Because the laser configuration needed to implement CARS technology is similar to that used in other multiphoton microscopy methods, such as two -photon fluorescence and harmonic generation, it is possible to combine imaging modalities, thus generating simultaneous CARS and fluorescence images. A particularly powerful aspect of CARS microscopy is its ability to selectively image deuterated compounds, thus allowing the visualization of molecules, such as lipids, that are chemically indistinguishable from the native species.

Holtom, Gary R. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Thrall, Brian D. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Chin, Beek Yoke (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Wiley, H Steven (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Colson, Steven D. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB))

2000-12-01

268

A Novel Technique for Advancing the Inferior Labrum in a Bankart Repair  

PubMed Central

Passing suture during a Bankart repair can be a difficult task. A key component of a Bankart repair involves shifting the anteroinferior capsule and labrum superiorly. This technical note describes a new technique of reaching the inferior aspect of the Bankart lesion from posterior. Typical suture passers push the tissue further away. Using a SutureLasso through the low posterolateral portal allows one to push the tissue from inferior toward the suture anchor, making it simpler to advance the capsulolabral complex. Three suture anchors are used in the anteroinferior quadrant. The lowest suture anchor is the critical anchor for advancing the capsule and labrum. The SutureLasso is placed into the axillary recess through the low posterolateral portal, and the nitinol wire is advanced through the capsule and labrum, retrieving the suture and pulling it back through the tissue for tying with a sliding locking knot. This ensures good superior advancement of the tissue and helps obtain an optimal arthroscopic result in Bankart repair. Additional anchors are placed, and suture passage for the middle and superior anchors is then completed from anterior. The advancement and restoration of the tissue tightness provide the optimal components for an excellent result.

Adams, Brook A.; Garrett, William H.; Wright, Garth B.; Khan, Maher W.; Taylor, Jonathon B.; Nord, Keith D.

2013-01-01

269

Integrating Organic Matter Structure with Ecosystem Function using Advanced Analytical Chemistry Techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Microorganisms are the primary transformers of organic matter in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. The structure of organic matter controls its bioavailability and researchers have long sought to link the chemical characteristics of the organic matter pool to its lability. To date this effort has been primarily attempted using low resolution descriptive characteristics (e.g. organic matter content, carbon to nitrogen ratio, aromaticity, etc .). However, recent progress in linking these two important ecosystem components has been advanced using advanced high resolution tools (e.g. nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, and mass spectroscopy (MS)-based techniques). A series of experiments will be presented that highlight the application of high resolution techniques in a variety of terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems with the focus on how these data explicitly provide the foundation for integrating organic matter structure into our concept of ecosystem function. The talk will highlight results from a series of experiments including: an MS-based metabolomics and fluorescence excitation emission matrix approach evaluating seasonal and vegetation based changes in dissolved organic matter (DOM) composition from arctic soils; Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FTICR) MS and MS metabolomics analysis of DOM from three lakes in an alpine watershed; and the transformation of 13C labeled glucose track with NMR during a rewetting experiment from Colorado grassland soils. These data will be synthesized to illustrate how the application of advanced analytical techniques provides novel insight into our understanding of organic matter processing in a wide range of ecosystems.

Boot, C. M.

2012-12-01

270

Molecular targeted therapies in advanced gastric cancer: does tumor histology matter?  

PubMed Central

It is increasingly recognized that gastric cancer is a heterogeneous disease which may be divided into subgroups based on histological, anatomical, epidemiological and molecular classifications. Distinct molecular drivers and tumor biology, and thus different treatment targets and predictive biomarkers, may be implicated in each subtype. However, there is little evidence in the literature regarding the correlation among these different classifications, and particularly the molecular aberrations present in each subtype. In this review, we approach advanced gastric cancer (AGC) by presenting aberrant molecular pathways and their potential therapeutic targets in gastric cancer according to histological and anatomical classification, dividing gastric cancer into proximal nondiffuse, distal nondiffuse and diffuse disease. Several pathways are involved predominantly, although not exclusively, in different subtypes. This may help to explain the disappointing results of many published AGC trials in which study populations were heterogeneous regardless of clinicopathological characteristics of the primary tumor. Histological and anatomical classification may provide insights into tumor biology and facilitate selection of an enriched patient population for targeted agents in future studies and in the clinic. However, some molecular pathways implicated in gastric cancer have not been studied in correlation with histological or anatomical subtypes. Further studies are necessary to confirm the suggestion that such classification may predict tumor biology and facilitate selection of an enriched patient population for targeted agents in future studies and in the clinic.

Wong, Hilda

2013-01-01

271

Choroid plexus papillomas: advances in molecular biology and understanding of tumorigenesis  

PubMed Central

Choroid plexus papillomas are rare, benign tumors originating from the choroid plexus. Although generally found within the ventricular system, they can arise ectopically in the brain parenchyma or disseminate throughout the neuraxis. We sought to review recent advances in our understanding of the molecular biology and oncogenic pathways associated with this disease. A comprehensive PubMed literature review was conducted to identify manuscripts discussing the clinical, molecular, and genetic features of choroid plexus papillomas. Articles concerning diagnosis, treatment, and long-term patient outcomes were also reviewed. The introduction of atypical choroid plexus papilloma as a distinct entity has increased the need for accurate histopathologic diagnosis. Advances in immunohistochemical staining have improved our ability to differentiate choroid plexus papillomas from other intracranial tumors or metastatic lesions using combinations of key markers and mitotic indices. Recent findings have implicated Notch3 signaling, the transcription factor TWIST1, platelet-derived growth factor receptor, and the tumor necrosis factor–related apoptosis-inducing ligand pathway in choroid plexus papilloma tumorigenesis. A combination of commonly occurring chromosomal duplications and deletions has also been identified. Surgical resection remains the standard of care, although chemotherapy and radiotherapy may be considered for recurrent or metastatic lesions. While generally considered benign, these tumors possess a complex biology that sheds insight into other choroid plexus tumors, particularly malignant choroid plexus carcinomas. Improving our understanding of the molecular biology, genetics, and oncogenic pathways associated with this tumor will allow for the development of targeted therapies and improved outcomes for patients with this disease.

Safaee, Michael; Oh, Michael C.; Bloch, Orin; Sun, Matthew Z.; Kaur, Gurvinder; Auguste, Kurtis I.; Tihan, Tarik; Parsa, Andrew T.

2013-01-01

272

Accelerated Testing Methodology in Constant Stress-Rate Testing for Advanced Structural Ceramics: A Preloading Technique  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Preloading technique was used as a means of an accelerated testing methodology in constant stress-rate (dynamic fatigue) testing for two different brittle materials. The theory developed previously for fatigue strength as a function of preload was further verified through extensive constant stress-rate testing for glass-ceramic and CRT glass in room temperature distilled water. The preloading technique was also used in this study to identify the prevailing failure mechanisms at elevated temperatures, particularly at lower test rates in which a series of mechanisms would be associated simultaneously with material failure, resulting in significant strength increase or decrease. Two different advanced ceramics including SiC whisker-reinforced composite silicon nitride and 96 wt% alumina were used at elevated temperatures. It was found that the preloading technique can be used as an additional tool to pinpoint the dominant failure mechanism that is associated with such a phenomenon of considerable strength increase or decrease.

Choi, Sung R.; Gyekenyesi, John P.; Huebert, Dean; Bartlett, Allen; Choi, Han-Ho

2001-01-01

273

Advances in magnetic resonance neuroimaging techniques in the evaluation of neonatal encephalopathy.  

PubMed

Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging has become an essential tool in the evaluation of neonatal encephalopathy. Magnetic resonance-compatible neonatal incubators allow sick neonates to be transported to the MR scanner, and neonatal head coils can improve signal-to-noise ratio, critical for advanced MR imaging techniques. Refinement of conventional imaging techniques include the use of PROPELLER techniques for motion correction. Magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging and diffusion tensor imaging provide quantitative assessment of both brain development and brain injury in the newborn with respect to metabolite abnormalities and hypoxic-ischemic injury. Knowledge of normal developmental changes in MR spectroscopy metabolite concentration and diffusion tensor metrics is essential to interpret pathological cases. Perfusion MR and functional MR can provide additional physiological information. Both MR spectroscopy and diffusion tensor imaging can provide additional information in the differential of neonatal encephalopathy, including perinatal white matter injury, hypoxic-ischemic brain injury, metabolic disease, infection, and birth injury. PMID:17607141

Panigrahy, Ashok; Blüml, Stefan

2007-02-01

274

Nanopositioning techniques development for synchrotron radiation instrumentation applications at the Advanced Photon Source  

SciTech Connect

At modern synchrotron radiation sources and beamlines, high-precision positioning techniques present a significant opportunity to support state-of-the-art synchrotron radiation research. Meanwhile, the required instrument positioning performance and capabilities, such as resolution, dynamic range, repeatability, speed, and multiple axes synchronization are exceeding the limit of commercial availability. This paper presents the current nanopositioning techniques developed for the Argonne Center for Nanoscale Materials (CNM)/Advanced Photon Source (APS) hard x-ray nanoprobe and high-resolution x-ray monochromators and analyzers for the APS X-ray Operations and Research (XOR) beamlines. Future nanopositioning techniques to be developed for the APS renewal project will also be discussed.

Shu Deming [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)

2010-06-23

275

Molecular techniques open up new vistas for typing of coagulase-negative staphylococci.  

PubMed

Several methods were used to type 64 clinical isolates of coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) derived from hospitals in Morocco. The clinical isolates originated principally from blood cultures and wound sources. These isolates provided the opportunity to substantially compare the proficiency of developing molecular techniques with conventional phenotypic tests for use in the identification of clinical staphylococci. The following molecular methods were examined: Utility ribotyping analysis (Ribotyping); PCR analysis performed with 16S-23S ribosomal-DNA intergenic spacer (ITS-PCR); PCR-based random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD). The results obtained by the molecular techniques were contrasted to those of conventional phenotypic tests. Conventional phenotypic tests allowed the outright recognition of the majority of isolates (50/64). These 50 isolates were subdivided into 33 novobiocin-susceptible and 17 novobiocin-resistant strains of CNS. However, 2 other novobiocin-susceptible and 12 other novobiocin-resistant isolates remained unclassified by these tests. There was a good agreement between the conventional phenotypic tests and RAPD for the 33 novobiocin-susceptible isolates. But, the RAPD technique permitted the assignment of the two unidentified novobiocin-susceptible isolates to the Staphylococcus hominis species. A complete correlation was obtained between the three molecular tools for recognition of the 12 novobiocin-resistant isolates that were not identified by phenotypic typing; these were in fact identified as 5 Staphylococcus cohnii and 4 Staphylococcus equorum. Three isolates remained unidentified by all three systems of molecular techniques. PMID:11367554

Marsou, R; Bes, M; Brun, Y; Boudouma, M; Idrissi, L; Meugnier, H; Freney, J; Etienne, J

2001-04-01

276

The Double Edge Aerosol and Molecular Techniques for Doppler Lidar Wind Measurement  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We have developed the theory for aerosol- and molecular-based lidar measurements of the wind using double edge versions of the edge technique. Aerosol-based wind measurements have been made at Goddard Space Flight Center and molecular-based wind measurements at the University of Geneva. We have demonstrated atmospheric measurements using these techniques for altitudes from 1 to more than 10 km. Measurement accuracies of better than 1.25 m/s have been obtained with integration times from 5 to 30 seconds. The measurements can be scaled to space and agree, within a factor of two, with satellite-based simulations of performance based on Poisson statistics.

Korb, C. Laurence; Flesia, Cristina

1998-01-01

277

Local analysis technique for the Advanced Neutron Source Reactor fuel defect studies  

SciTech Connect

The safety analysis for the Advanced Neutron Source Reactor (ANSR) required the development of a new analysis technique to determine fuel integrity and to assure avoidance of critical heat flux (CHF) conditions. The ANSR is a research reactor design intended to provide the highest continuous neutron beam intensity of any reactor in the world. Reliance on previous safety analysis techniques such as those used in the High Flux Isotope Reactor would result in a design that would not meet the requirements. A more accurate but still conservative analysis technique was developed for the ANSR safety analyses. This technique, the local analysis technique (LAT), relaxed some of the overly conservative assumptions of previous hot-spot studies by using a large number of detailed analyses. The conditions used in these analyses were spread over the possible distributions found in specific designs. This technique was used to analyze several core designs to produce confidence in the fuel plate integrity that could be damaged by excessive fuel temperatures and avoidance of CHF conditions. This approach can be used for other reactor designs and should allow increases in the operating power levels. Alternatively, the LAT could be used to demonstrate increased safety margins for present operating conditions.

Giles, G.E. Jr. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

1997-03-01

278

Functional Analysis and Molecular Targeting of Aurora Kinases A and B in Advanced Melanoma  

PubMed Central

Over the past few years, high-throughput analyses have provided important novel insights into molecular pathways that play a crucial role in the progression from early to advanced melanoma, and at the same time, they have led to the identification of genes that as part of melanoma progression are upregulated in advanced melanoma. In the present study, we provide evidence that Aurora kinases A and B, 2 key regulators of M phase progression, are upregulated to high levels with progression from melanoma in situ to primary and metastatic melanoma and that inhibiting the expression of these 2 genes by RNA interference or blocking their function with an Aurora kinase–specific small-molecule inhibitor severely impairs melanoma cell proliferation and cell cycle progression and induces melanoma cell apoptosis. In addition, we present the results of systemic treatment of human melanoma xenografts with an Aurora kinase small-molecule inhibitor as well as Aurora kinase targeting vectors.

Wang, Xiaolei; Moschos, Stergios J.; Becker, Dorothea

2010-01-01

279

High-salt diet advances molecular circadian rhythms in mouse peripheral tissues.  

PubMed

Dietary compounds influence the expression of various genes and play a major role in changing physiological and metabolic states. However, little is known about the role of food ingredients in the regulation of circadian gene expression. Here, we show that feeding mice with a high-salt (HS) diet ad libitum for over 2weeks advanced the phase of clock gene expression by about 3h in the liver, kidney, and lung, but did not change circadian feeding, drinking, and locomotor rhythms. Focused DNA microarray analysis showed that the expression phase of many genes related to metabolism in the liver was also advanced. Immediately before phase advancement in peripheral tissues, the mRNA expression of sodium-glucose cotransporter 1 (Sglt1) and glucose transporter 2 (Glut2), that are responsible for glucose absorption, was increased in the jejunum. Furthermore, blood glucose uptake increased more rapidly after consuming the HS diet than the control diet. Moreover, phloridzin, a specific inhibitor of SGLT1, prevented the increased glucose transporter expression in the jejunum and phase advancement in the livers of mice on the HS diet. These results suggest that increased glucose absorption induced by dietary HS alters the food entrainment of peripheral molecular circadian rhythms. PMID:20888322

Oike, Hideaki; Nagai, Kanji; Fukushima, Tatsunobu; Ishida, Norio; Kobori, Masuko

2010-11-01

280

Impact of advanced microstructural characterization techniques on modeling and analysis of radiation damage  

SciTech Connect

The evolution of radiation-induced alterations of dimensional and mechanical properties has been shown to be a direct and often predictable consequence of radiation-induced microstructural changes. Recent advances in understanding of the nature and role of each microstructural component in determining the property of interest has led to a reappraisal of the type and priority of data needed for further model development. This paper presents an overview of the types of modeling and analysis activities in progress, the insights that prompted these activities, and specific examples of successful and ongoing efforts. A review is presented of some problem areas that in the authors' opinion are not yet receiving sufficient attention and which may benefit from the application of advanced techniques of microstructural characterization. Guidelines based on experience gained in previous studies are also provided for acquisition of data in a form most applicable to modeling needs.

Garner, F.A.; Odette, G.R.

1980-01-01

281

Recent advances in fuel fabrication techniques and prospects for the nineties  

SciTech Connect

Advanced Nuclear Fuels Corporation's approach and experience with the application of a flexible, just-in-time manufacturing philosophy to the production of customized nuclear fuel is described. Automation approaches to improve productivity are described. The transfer of technology across product lines is discussed as well as the challenges presented by a multiple product fabrication facility which produces a wide variety of BWR and PWR designs. This paper also describes the method of managing vendor quality control programs in support of standardization and clarity of documentation. Process simplification and the ensuing experience are discussed. Prospects for fabrication process advancements in the nineties are given with emphasis on the benefits of dry conversion of Uf/sub 6/ to UO/sub 2/ powder, and increased use of automated and computer inspection techniques.

Frain, R.G.; Caudill, H.L.; Faulhaber, R.

1988-01-01

282

Application of Advanced Atomic Force Microscopy Techniques to Study Quantum Dots and Bio-materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years, there has been an increase in research towards micro- and nanoscale devices as they have proliferated into diverse areas of scientific exploration. Many of the general fields of study that have greatly affected the advancement of these devices includes the investigation of their properties. The sensitivity of Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) allows detecting charges up to the single electron value in quantum dots in ambient conditions, the measurement of steric forces on the surface of the human cell brush, determination of cell mechanics, magnetic forces, and other important properties. Utilizing AFM methods, the fast screening of quantum dot efficiency and the differences between cancer, normal (healthy) and precancer (immortalized) human cells has been investigated. The current research using AFM techniques can help to identify biophysical differences of cancer cells to advance our understanding of the resistance of the cells against the existing medicine.

Guz, Nataliia

283

Insights into the molecular interactions between aminopeptidase and amyloid beta peptide using molecular modeling techniques.  

PubMed

Amyloid beta (A?) peptides play a central role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. The accumulation of A? peptides in AD brain was caused due to overproduction or insufficient clearance and defects in the proteolytic degradation of A? peptides. Hence, A? peptide degradation could be a promising therapeutic approach in AD treatment. Recent experimental report suggests that aminopeptidase from Streptomyces griseus KK565 (SGAK) can degrade A? peptides but the interactive residues are yet to be known in detail at the atomic level. Hence, we developed the three-dimensional model of aminopeptidase (SGAK) using SWISS-MODEL, Geno3D and MODELLER. Model built by MODELLER was used for further studies. Molecular docking was performed between aminopeptidase (SGAK) with wild-type and mutated A? peptides. The docked complex of aminopeptidase (SGAK) and wild-type A? peptide (1IYT.pdb) shows more stability than the other complexes. Molecular docking and MD simulation results revealed that the residues His93, Asp105, Glu139, Glu140, Asp168 and His255 are involved in the hydrogen bonding with A? peptide and zinc ions. The interactions between carboxyl oxygen atoms of Glu139 of aminopeptidase (SGAK) with water molecule suggest that the Glu139 may be involved in the nucleophilic attack on Ala2-Glu3 peptide bond of A? peptide. Hence, amino acid Glu139 of aminopeptidase (SGAK) might play an important role to degrade A? peptides, a causative agent of Alzheimer's disease. PMID:24729013

Dhanavade, Maruti J; Sonawane, Kailas D

2014-08-01

284

Advanced optical tweezers for the study of cellular and molecular biomechanics.  

PubMed

Optical tweezers are an important tool for studying cellular and molecular biomechanics. We present a robust optical tweezers device with advanced features including: multiple optical traps, acousto-optic trap steering, and back focal plane interferometry position detection. We integrate these features into an upright microscope, with no compromise to its capabilities (differential interference contrast microscopy, fluorescence microscopy, etc.). Acousto-optic deflectors (AODs) steer each beam and can create multiple time-shared traps. Position detection, force calibrations and AOD performance are presented. The system can detect subnanometer displacements and forces below 0.1 pN. PMID:12617534

Brouhard, Gary J; Schek, Henry T; Hunt, Alan J

2003-01-01

285

[Molecular techniques for cyanobacteria detection at Riogrande II and La Fe water reservoirs, Colombia].  

PubMed

In lentic water bodies as reservoirs occur eutrophication processes, originated mainly from human activities (i.e. agriculture, animal exploitation). This influx of nutrients in aquatic ecosystems could promote blooms of potentially toxic cyanobacteria. The purpose of this work is to detect the presence of cyanobacteria strains in water samples, using molecular techniques to help in preventive management of reservoirs dedicated to water purification. We used two molecular techniques to detect genes implied with the synthesis of hepatotoxic microcystins from potentially toxic cyanobacteria strains, and to evaluate the molecular diversity of cyanobacteria in water samples from two high-mountain reservoirs used for purification of drinking water for the metropolitan area of Medellin, Colombia. Between 2010-2011 collections of 12 water samples were taken and DNA extraction together with PCR and DGGE analyses where carried out. We amplified 22 sequences between 250-300bp of the genes mcyA and mcyE, and these sequences were related with several strains and cyanobacteria genera accessions from NCBI-GenBank databases. Moreover, sequence amplifications of the 16S small ribosomal RNA subunit - 16S rRNA- between 400-800bp were also performed in order to use them for the DGGE technique. The amplification products of DGGE were set in polyacrilamide gel with posterior denaturing electrophoresis, and the scanned images of the gel bands were analysed with the software GelCompar II. For Riogrande II and La Fe reservoirs we found 35 and 30 different DGGE bands, respectively, as a measurement of molecular diversity in these artificial ecosystems. Here, we demonstrated the utility of two molecular techniques for the detection of genes associated with toxicity and molecular diversity of cyanobacteria in reservoirs destined for drinking water in urban centers. We recommend strongly following with periodically molecular biology studies in these ecosystems combined with limnological and ecological data, as new tools for management of plants of water purification and for the prevention of potentially public health concerns. PMID:24912368

Hurtado-Alarcón, Julio César; Polanía-Vorenberg, Jaime

2014-03-01

286

New Generation of High Resolution Ultrasonic Imaging Technique for Advanced Material Characterization: Review  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The role of non-destructive material characterization and NDT is changing at a rapid rate, continuing to evolve alongside the dramatic development of novel techniques based on the principles of high-resolution imaging. The modern use of advanced optical, thermal, ultrasonic, laser-ultrasound, acoustic emission, vibration, electro-magnetic, and X-ray techniques, etc., as well as refined measurement and signal/data processing devices, allows for continuous generation of on-line information. As a result real-time process monitoring can be achieved, leading to the more effective and efficient control of numerous processes, greatly improving manufacturing as a whole. Indeed, concurrent quality inspection has become an attainable reality. With the advent of new materials for use in various structures, joints, and parts, however, innovative applications of modern NDT imaging techniques are necessary to monitor as many stages of manufacturing as possible. Simply put, intelligent advance manufacturing is impossible without actively integrating modern non-destructive evaluation into the production system.

Maev, R. Gr.

287

Effects of Molecular Structure in Macroscopic Mechanical Properties of an Advanced Polymer (LARC(sup TM)-SI)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Mechanical testing of an advanced polymer resin with known variations in molecular weight was performed over a range of temperatures below the glass transition temperature. The elastic properties, inelastic elongation behavior, and notched tensile strength all as a function of molecular weight and test temperature were determined. It was shown that notched tensile strength is a strong function of both temperature and molecular weight, whereas stiffness is only a strong function of temperature.

Nicholson, Lee M.; Hinkley, Jeffrey A.; Whitley, Karen S.; Gates, Thomas S.

2004-01-01

288

Theory of the Double-Edge Molecular Technique for Doppler Lidar Wind Measurement  

Microsoft Academic Search

The theory of the double-edge lidar technique for measuring the wind with molecular backscatter is described. Two high-spectral-resolution edge filters are located in the wings of the Rayleigh Brillouin profile. This doubles the signal change per unit Doppler shift, the sensitivity, and improves measurement accuracy relative to the single-edge technique by nearly a factor of 2. The use of a

Cristina Flesia; C. Laurence Korb

1999-01-01

289

Advances in molecular labeling, high throughput imaging and machine intelligence portend powerful functional cellular biochemistry tools  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cellular behavior is complex. Successfully understanding systems at ever-increasing complexity is fundamentaltoadvancesinmodernscienceandunravelingthefunctionaldetailsofcellularbehaviorisnoexception.We present a collection of prospectives to provide a glimpse of the techniques that will aid in collecting, managing and utilizing information on complex cellular processes via molecular imaging tools. These include: 1) visualizing intracellularproteinactivitywithfluorescentmarkers,2)highthroughput(andautomated)imagingofmultilabeledcellsin statistically significant numbers, and 3) machine intelligence to analyze subcellular image localization and pattern.

Jeffrey H. Price; Angela Goodacre; Klaus Hahn; Louis Hodgson; Edward A. Hunter; Stanislaw Krajewski; Robert F. Murphy; Andrew Rabinovich; John C. Reed; Susanne Heynen

2002-01-01

290

Determination of electromagnetic properties of mesh material using advanced radiometer techniques  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The need for a large diameter deployable antenna to map soil moisture with a 10 kilometer or better resolution using a microwave radiometer is discussed. A 6 meter deployable antenna is also needed to map sea surface temperature on the Navy Remote Ocean Sensor System (NROSS). Both of these deployable antennas require a mesh membrane material as the reflecting surface. The determination of the electromagnetic properties of mesh materials is a difficult problem. The Antenna and Microwave Research Branch (AMRB) of Langley Research Center was asked to measure the material to be used on MROSS by NRL. A cooperative program was initiated to measure this mesh material using two advanced radiometer techniques.

Arrington, R. F.; Blume, H. J. C.

1985-01-01

291

Techniques for measurement of the thermal expansion of advanced composite materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Techniques available to measure small thermal displacements in flat laminates and structural tubular elements of advanced composite materials are described. Emphasis is placed on laser interferometry and the laser interferometric dilatometer system used at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Langley Research Center. Thermal expansion data are presented for graphite-fiber reinforced 6061 and 2024 aluminum laminates and for graphite fiber reinforced AZ91 C and QH21 A magnesium laminates before and after processing to minimize or eliminate thermal strain hysteresis. Data are also presented on the effects of reinforcement volume content on thermal expansion of silicon-carbide whisker and particulate reinforced aluminum.

Tompkins, Stephen S.

1989-01-01

292

Molecular Technique to Reduce PCR Bias for Deeper Understanding of Microbial Diversity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Current planetary protection policies require that spacecraft targeted to sensitive solar system bodies be assembled and readied for launch in controlled cleanroom environments. A better understanding of the distribution and frequency at which high-risk contaminant microbes are encountered on spacecraft surfaces would significantly aid in assessing the threat of forward contamination. However, despite a growing understanding of the diverse microbial populations present in cleanrooms, less abundant microbial populations are probably not adequately taken into account due to technological limitations. This novel approach encompasses a wide spectrum of microbial species and will represent the true picture of spacecraft cleanroom-associated microbial diversity. All of the current microbial diversity assessment techniques are based on an initial PCR amplification step. However, a number of factors are known to bias PCR amplification and jeopardize the true representation of bacterial diversity. PCR amplification of a minor template appears to be suppressed by the amplification of a more abundant template. It is widely acknowledged among environmental molecular microbiologists that genetic biosignatures identified from an environment only represent the most dominant populations. The technological bottleneck overlooks the presence of the less abundant minority population and may underestimate their role in the ecosystem maintenance. DNA intercalating agents such as propidium monoazide (PMA) covalently bind with DNA molecules upon photolysis using visible light, and make it unavailable for DNA polymerase enzyme during polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Environmental DNA samples will be treated with suboptimum PMA concentration, enough to intercalate with 90 99% of the total DNA. The probability of PMA binding with DNA from abundant bacterial species will be much higher than binding with DNA from less abundant species. This will increase the relative DNA concentration of previously "shadowed" less abundant species available for PCR amplification. These PCR products obtained with and without PMA treatment will then be subjected to downstream diversity analyses such as sequencing and DNA microarray. It is expected that PMA-coupled PCR will amplify the "minority population" and help in understanding microbial diversity spectrum of an environmental sample at a much deeper level. This new protocol aims to overcome the major potential biases faced when analyzing microbial 16S rRNA gene diversity. This study will lead to a technological advancement and a commercial product that will aid microbial ecologists in understanding microbial diversity from various environmental niches. Implementation of this technique may lead to discoveries of novel microbes and their functions in sustenance of the ecosystem.

Vaishampayan, Parag A.; Venkateswaran, Kasthuri J.

2012-01-01

293

Molecular techniques in the biotechnological fight against halogenated compounds in anoxic environments  

PubMed Central

Summary Microbial treatment of environmental contamination by anthropogenic halogenated organic compounds has become popular in recent decades, especially in the subsurface environments. Molecular techniques such as polymerase chain reaction?based fingerprinting methods have been extensively used to closely monitor the presence and activities of dehalogenating microbes, which also lead to the discovery of new dehalogenating bacteria and novel functional genes. Nowadays, traditional molecular techniques are being further developed and optimized for higher sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy to better fit the contexts of dehalogenation. On the other hand, newly developed high throughput techniques, such as microarray and next?generation sequencing, provide unsurpassed detection ability, which has enabled large?scale comparative genomic and whole?genome transcriptomic analysis. The aim of this review is to summarize applications of various molecular tools in the field of microbially mediated dehalogenation of various halogenated organic compounds. It is expected that traditional molecular techniques and nucleic?acid?based biomarkers will still be favoured in the foreseeable future because of relative low costs and high flexibility. Collective analyses of metagenomic sequencing data are still in need of information from individual dehalogenating strains and functional reductive dehalogenase genes in order to draw reliable conclusions.

Ding, Chang; He, Jianzhong

2012-01-01

294

Molecular techniques for the identification and detection of microorganisms relevant for the food industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The research described in this thesis concerns the development and application in food microbiology of molecular identification and detection techniques based on 16S rRNA sequences. The technologies developed were applied to study the microbial ecology of two groups of bacteria, namely starter cultures and sporeforming spoilage bacteria, that are of importance to the food industry and in particular the dairy

N. Klijn

1996-01-01

295

The GenTechnique Project: Developing an Open Environment for Learning Molecular Genetics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The GenTechnique project at Washington State University uses a networked learning environment for molecular genetics learning. The project is developing courseware featuring animation, hyper-link controls, and interactive self-assessment exercises focusing on fundamental concepts. The first pilot course featured a Web-based module on DNA…

Calza, R. E.; Meade, J. T.

1998-01-01

296

Individual Particle Analysis of Ambient PM 2.5 Using Advanced Electron Microscopy Techniques  

SciTech Connect

The overall goal of this project was to demonstrate a combination of advanced electron microscopy techniques that can be effectively used to identify and characterize individual particles and their sources. Specific techniques to be used include high-angle annular dark field scanning transmission electron microscopy (HAADF-STEM), STEM energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDX), and energy-filtered TEM (EFTEM). A series of ambient PM{sub 2.5} samples were collected in communities in southwestern Detroit, MI (close to multiple combustion sources) and Steubenville, OH (close to several coal fired utility boilers). High-resolution TEM (HRTEM) -imaging showed a series of nano-metal particles including transition metals and elemental composition of individual particles in detail. Submicron and nano-particles with Al, Fe, Ti, Ca, U, V, Cr, Si, Ba, Mn, Ni, K and S were observed and characterized from the samples. Among the identified nano-particles, combinations of Al, Fe, Si, Ca and Ti nano-particles embedded in carbonaceous particles were observed most frequently. These particles showed very similar characteristics of ultrafine coal fly ash particles that were previously reported. By utilizing HAADF-STEM, STEM-EDX, and EF-TEM, this investigation was able to gain information on the size, morphology, structure, and elemental composition of individual nano-particles collected in Detroit and Steubenville. The results showed that the contributions of local combustion sources - including coal fired utilities - to ultrafine particle levels were significant. Although this combination of advanced electron microscopy techniques by itself can not identify source categories, these techniques can be utilized as complementary analytical tools that are capable of providing detailed information on individual particles.

Gerald J. Keeler; Masako Morishita

2006-12-31

297

Recent Advances and New Techniques in Visualization of Ultra-short Relativistic Electron Bunches  

SciTech Connect

Ultrashort electron bunches with rms length of {approx} 1 femtosecond (fs) can be used to generate ultrashort x-ray pulses in FELs that may open up many new regimes in ultrafast sciences. It is also envisioned that ultrashort electron bunches may excite {approx}TeV/m wake fields for plasma wake field acceleration and high field physics studies. Recent success of using 20 pC electron beam to drive an x-ray FEL at LCLS has stimulated world-wide interests in using low charge beam (1 {approx} 20 pC) to generate ultrashort x-ray pulses (0.1 fs {approx} 10 fs) in FELs. Accurate measurement of the length (preferably the temporal profile) of the ultrashort electron bunch is essential for understanding the physics associated with the bunch compression and transportation. However, the shorter and shorter electron bunch greatly challenges the present beam diagnostic methods. In this paper we review the recent advances in the measurement of ultra-short electron bunches. We will focus on several techniques and their variants that provide the state-of-the-art temporal resolution. Methods to further improve the resolution of these techniques and the promise to break the 1 fs time barrier is discussed. We review recent advances in the measurement of ultrashort relativistic electron bunches. We will focus on several techniques and their variants that are capable of breaking the femtosecond time barrier in measurements of ultrashort bunches. Techniques for measuring beam longitudinal phase space as well as the x-ray pulse shape in an x-ray FEL are also discussed.

Xiang, Dao; /SLAC

2012-06-05

298

Development of advanced in-situ techniques for chemistry monitoring and corrosion mitigation in SCWO environments. 1998 annual progress report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report evaluates the two years results of the research on the development of advanced electrochemical techniques for use in supercritical water oxidation (SCWO) environments. The SCWO technology was found to be a promising approach to treat a variety...

G. Engelhardt K. M. Garcia D. D. Macdonald

1998-01-01

299

Advances in the systemic treatment of neuroendocrine tumors in the era of molecular therapy.  

PubMed

Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) are heterogeneous in underlying tumor biology and clinical presentations. They are generally classified according to their degree of differentiation and sites of origin. Moreover, NETs are further characterized by their secreted bioactive neuroamine. The treatment paradigm used to be surgical intervention in early disease and mostly palliative nature in the metastatic setting. With an increase in the understanding of the molecular signaling pathways involved in tumor growth, there are various emerging treatment options for patients with advanced NETs. Somatostatin analogs have both anti-tumor effects as well as symptom palliation associated with the secreted neuropeptides. Peptide-radio-receptor treatment (PRRT) using radio-labeled peptides which binds to somatostatin receptor is a useful anti-tumor treatment but limited by general availability. Sunitinib, a multi-targeted tyrosine kinase inhibitor, has recently been shown to improve the survival of pancreatic NETs patients. Similarly, the use of an mTOR inhibitor--everolimus, either alone or in combination with somatostatin analogs have demonstrated encouraging efficacy in treating advanced NETs. The success of these two agents in pancreatic NETS supports the notion that targeting angiogenesis and/or PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway is an important strategy for making therapeutic advances in this disease. There are now many ongoing trials in exploring the role of other novel agents in treating patients with pancreatic NETs or carcinoid. The major plaguing problem in this era is the differential response to biological agents amongst NETs of different anatomical origins. Pancreatic NETs are generally more responsive to both chemotherapy and targeted agents than NETs of other sites. Thus, the development of potential predictive and prognostic biomarkers to tailor various molecular therapies to different NETs populations is a major unmet need. PMID:23092266

Leung, Roland; Lang, Brian; Wong, Hilda; Chiu, Joanne; Yat, Wan K; Shek, Tony; Cho, Woo Y; Yau, Lo C; Yau, Thomas

2013-03-01

300

Biotechnology Apprenticeship for Secondary-Level Students: Teaching Advanced Cell Culture Techniques for Research  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this article is to discuss small-group apprenticeships (SGAs) as a method to instruct cell culture techniques to high school participants. The study aimed to teach cell culture practices and to introduce advanced imaging techniques to solve various biomedical engineering problems. Participants designed and completed experiments using both flow cytometry and laser scanning cytometry during the 1-month summer apprenticeship. In addition to effectively and efficiently teaching cell biology laboratory techniques, this course design provided an opportunity for research training, career exploration, and mentoring. Students participated in active research projects, working with a skilled interdisciplinary team of researchers in a large research institution with access to state-of-the-art instrumentation. The instructors, composed of graduate students, laboratory managers, and principal investigators, worked well together to present a real and worthwhile research experience. The students enjoyed learning cell culture techniques while contributing to active research projects. The institution's researchers were equally enthusiastic to instruct and serve as mentors. In this article, we clarify and illuminate the value of small-group laboratory apprenticeships to the institution and the students by presenting the results and experiences of seven middle and high school participants and their instructors.

Lewis, Jennifer R.; Kotur, Mark S.; Butt, Omar; Kulcarni, Sumant; Riley, Alyssa A.; Ferrell, Nick; Sullivan, Kathryn D.; Ferrari, Mauro

2002-01-01

301

Advanced techniques for array processing. Final report, 1 Mar 89-30 Apr 91  

SciTech Connect

Array processing technology is expected to be a key element in communication systems designed for the crowded and hostile environment of the future battlefield. While advanced array processing techniques have been under development for some time, their practical use has been very limited. This project addressed some of the issues which need to be resolved for a successful transition of these promising techniques from theory into practice. The main problem which was studied was that of finding the directions of multiple co-channel transmitters from measurements collected by an antenna array. Two key issues related to high-resolution direction finding were addressed: effects of system calibration errors, and effects of correlation between the received signals due to multipath propagation. A number of useful theoretical performance analysis results were derived, and computationally efficient direction estimation algorithms were developed. These results include: self-calibration techniques for antenna arrays, sensitivity analysis for high-resolution direction finding, extensions of the root-MUSIC algorithm to arbitrary arrays and to arrays with polarization diversity, and new techniques for direction finding in the presence of multipath based on array interpolation. (Author)

Friedlander, B.

1991-05-30

302

Applications of Advanced, Waveform Based AE Techniques for Testing Composite Materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Advanced, waveform based acoustic emission (AE) techniques have been previously used to evaluate damage progression in laboratory tests of composite coupons. In these tests, broad band, high fidelity acoustic sensors were used to detect signals which were then digitized and stored for analysis. Analysis techniques were based on plate mode wave propagation characteristics. This approach, more recently referred to as Modal AE, provides an enhanced capability to discriminate and eliminate noise signals from those generated by damage mechanisms. This technique also allows much more precise source location than conventional, threshold crossing arrival time determination techniques. To apply Modal AE concepts to the interpretation of AE on larger composite structures, the effects of wave propagation over larger distances and through structural complexities must be well characterized and understood. In this research, measurements were made of the attenuation of the extensional and flexural plate mode components of broad band simulated AE signals in large composite panels. As these materials have applications in a cryogenic environment, the effects of cryogenic insulation on the attenuation of plate mode AE signals were also documented.

Prosser, William H.

1996-01-01

303

Study of solid oxide fuel cell interconnects, protective coatings and advanced physical vapor deposition techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High energy conversion efficiency, decreased environmentally-sensitive emissions and fuel flexibility have attracted increasing attention toward solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) systems for stationary, transportation and portable power generation. Critical durability and cost issues, however, continue to impede wide-spread deployment. Many intermediate temperature (600-800°C) planar SOFC systems employ metallic alloy interconnect components, which physically connect individual fuel cells into electric series, facilitate gas distribution to appropriate SOFC electrode chambers (fuel/anode and oxidant[air]/cathode) and provide SOFC stack mechanical support. These demanding multifunctional requirements challenge commercially-available and inexpensive metallic alloys due to corrosion and related effects. Many ongoing investigations are aimed at enabling inexpensive metallic alloys (via bulk and/or surface modifications) as SOFC interconnects (SOFC(IC)s). In this study, two advanced physical vapor deposition (PVD) techniques: large area filtered vacuum arc deposition (LAFAD), and filtered arc plasma-assisted electron beam PVD (FA-EBPVD) were used to deposit a wide-variety of protective nanocomposite (amorphous/nanocrystalline) ceramic thin-film (<5microm) coatings on commercial and specialty stainless steels with different surface finishes. Both bare and coated steel specimens were subjected to SOFC(IC)-relevant exposures and evaluated using complimentary surface analysis techniques. Significant improvements were observed under simulated SOFC(IC) exposures with many coated specimens at ˜800°C relative to uncoated specimens: stable surface morphology; low area specific resistance (ASR <100mO·cm 2 >1,000 hours); and, dramatically reduced Cr volatility (>30-fold). Analyses and discussions of SOFC(IC) corrosion, advanced PVD processes and protective coating behavior are intended to advance understanding and accelerate the development of durable and commercially-viable SOFC systems.

Gannon, Paul Edward

304

Molecular subtype analysis determines the association of advanced breast cancer in Egypt with favorable biology  

PubMed Central

Background Prognostic markers and molecular breast cancer subtypes reflect underlying biological tumor behavior and are important for patient management. Compared to Western countries, women in North Africa are less likely to be prognosticated and treated based on well-characterized markers such as the estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR) and Her2. We conducted this study to determine the prevalence of breast cancer molecular subtypes in the North African country of Egypt as a measure of underlying biological characteristics driving tumor manifestations. Methods To determine molecular subtypes we characterized over 200 tumor specimens obtained from Egypt by performing ER, PR, Her2, CK5/6, EGFR and Ki67 immunohistochemistry. Results Our study demonstrated that the Luminal A subtype, associated with favorable prognosis, was found in nearly 45% of cases examined. However, the basal-like subtype, associated with poor prognosis, was found in 11% of cases. These findings are in sharp contrast to other parts of Africa in which the basal-like subtype is over-represented. Conclusions Egyptians appear to have favorable underlying biology, albeit having advanced disease at diagnosis. These data suggest that Egyptians would largely profit from early detection of their disease. Intervention at the public health level, including education on the benefits of early detection is necessary and would likely have tremendous impact on breast cancer outcome in Egypt.

2011-01-01

305

Process window enhancement using advanced RET techniques for 20nm contact layer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At the 20nm technology node, it is challenging for simple resolution enhancements techniques (RET) to achieve sufficient process margin due to significant coupling effects for dense features. Advanced computational lithography techniques including Source Mask Optimization (SMO), thick mask modeling (M3D), Model Based Sub Resolution Assist Features (MB-SRAF) and Process Window Solver (PW Solver) methods are now required in the mask correction processes to achieve optimal lithographic goals. An OPC solution must not only converge to a nominal condition with high fidelity, but also provide this fidelity over an acceptable process window condition. The solution must also be sufficiently robust to account for potential scanner or OPC model tuning. In many cases, it is observed that with even a small change in OPC parameters, the mask correction could have a big change, therefore making OPC optimization quite challenging. On top of this, different patterns may have significantly different optimum source maps and different optimum OPC solution paths. Consequently, the need for finding a globally optimal OPC solution becomes important. In this work, we introduce a holistic solution including source and mask optimization (SMO), MB-SRAF, conventional OPC and Co-Optimization OPC, in which each technique plays a unique role in process window enhancement: SMO optimizes the source to find the best source solution for all critical patterns; Co-Optimization provides the optimized location and size of scattering bars and guides the optimized OPC solution; MB-SRAF and MB-OPC then utilizes all information from advanced solvers and performs a globally optimized production solution.

Ping, Yang; McGowan, Sarah; Gong, Ying; Foong, Yee Mei; Liu, Jian; Qiu, Jianhong; Shu, Vincent; Yan, Bo; Ye, Jun; Li, Pengcheng; Zhou, Hui; Pandey, Taksh; Liang, Jiao; Aquino, Chris; Baron, Stanislas; Kapasi, Sanjay

2014-03-01

306

Layered OFDMA and Its Radio Access Techniques for LTE-Advanced  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper proposes applying the Layered Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access (OFDMA) radio access scheme and its radio access techniques to LTE (Long-Term Evolution)-Advanced to satisfy its system requirements, which are much stricter than those of the Evolved Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) Terrestrial Radio Access (UTRA) and UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access Network (UTRAN). Layered OFDMA comprises layered transmission bandwidth assignment (bandwidth is assigned to match the required data rate), a layered control signaling structure, and support for layered environments for both the downlink and uplink. Especially in the uplink, an adaptive multi-access scheme with hybrid single-carrier and multicarrier based radio access is applied. Layered OFDMA radio access will support all the functionalities specified in Release 8 LTE and later enhancements. Key radio access techniques such as fast inter-cell radio resource management that takes advantage of remote radio equipment (RRE) so as to realize inter-cell orthogonality, multi-antenna transmission with more antennas, and coverage enhancing techniques are used to achieve a high level of capacity and cell-edge spectrum efficiency.

Tanno, Motohiro; Kishiyama, Yoshihisa; Taoka, Hidekazu; Miki, Nobuhiko; Higuchi, Kenichi; Sawahashi, Mamoru

307

Advanced experimental techniques for measuring oscillator strengths of vacuum ultraviolet lines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Advanced experimental techniques for measuring oscillator strengths of atomic and ionic transitions in the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) are described. A VUV time-resolved laser-induced-fluorescence experiment for radiative lifetime measurements on atoms and ions in a beam is operational. Recent work on VUV transitions of Si I and B I is described. These lifetimes provide the essential absolute normalization for converting relative oscillator strengths to absolute transition probabilities. Emission measurements of branching fractions at VUV and longer wavelengths are proposed. A large echelle spectrograph equipped with a CCD detector array will be used. This experiment will provide the sensitivity, resolving power, and data handling capability required for extensive high quality emission branching fraction measurements. We further propose to use absorption measurements on hollow cathode discharges to determine relative absorption oscillator strengths. A demonstration of a new technique for absorption spectroscopy on glow discharges is reported. The new technique provides the sensitivity, dynamic range, and data handling capability required for extensive high quality absorption measurements. Relative absorption and emission oscillator strengths will be least-square adjusted using the bowtie method and normalized with accurate radiative lifetimes.

Lawler, J. E.; Bergeson, S. D.; Wamsley, R. C.

1993-01-01

308

Survey and assessment of advanced feature extraction techniques and tools for EO applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In addition to the substantial amounts of available Earth Observation (EO) data, there is currently an increasing trend towards the acquisition of larger and larger EO data and image quantities from single satellites or missions, with multiple, higher resolution sensors and with more frequent revisiting. More sophisticated algorithms and techniques than those largely in use today are required to exploit this rapidly growing wealth of data and images to a fuller extent. The project "Survey and Assessment of Advanced Feature Extraction Techniques and Tools for EO Applications" (SURF) funded by the European Space Agency (ESA) will address these issues. The objective of SURF is to provide an overview of the current state-of-the-art Methods within feature extraction and manipulation for EO applications and to identify scenarios and related architectures for exploitation of the most promising EO feature extraction Methods. The task is to identify the most promising Methods to extract pertinent information from EO data on environment, natural resources and security issues. SURF aims at listing existing Methods with the final goal of identifying the three most promising Methods to be implemented in prototype solutions. The work includes the development of the concept for the evaluation and rating of Methods relative to the users needs for information, the maturity and novelty of the Methods, the potential for fusing data and the operational feasibility. Special emphasis will be made regarding the exploitation of state-of-the art image processing, pattern recognition and classification techniques.

Sorensen, Mikael K.; Rasmussen, Michael S.; Skriver, Henning; Johansen, Peter; Pece, Arthur; Thygesen, Jesper H.

2004-02-01

309

Advances of Peripheral Nerve Repair Techniques to Improve Hand Function: A Systematic Review of Literature  

PubMed Central

Concepts of neuronal damage and repair date back to ancient times. The research in this topic has been growing ever since and numerous nerve repair techniques have evolved throughout the years. Due to our greater understanding of nerve injuries and repair we now distinguish between central and peripheral nervous system. In this review, we have chosen to concentrate on peripheral nerve injuries and in particular those involving the hand. There are no reviews bringing together and summarizing the latest research evidence concerning the most up-to-date techniques used to improve hand function. Therefore, by identifying and evaluating all the published literature in this field, we have summarized all the available information about the advances in peripheral nerve techniques used to improve hand function. The most important ones are the use of resorbable poly[(R)-3-hydroxybutyrate] (PHB), epineural end-to-end suturing, graft repair, nerve transfer, side to side neurorrhaphy and end to side neurorrhaphy between median, radial and ulnar nerves, nerve transplant, nerve repair, external neurolysis and epineural sutures, adjacent neurotization without nerve suturing, Agee endoscopic operation, tourniquet induced anesthesia, toe transfer and meticulous intrinsic repair, free auto nerve grafting, use of distal based neurocutaneous flaps and tubulization. At the same time we found that the patient’s age, tension of repair, time of repair, level of injury and scar formation following surgery affect the prognosis. Despite the thorough findings of this systematic review we suggest that further research in this field is needed.

P, Mafi; S, Hindocha; M, Dhital; M, Saleh

2012-01-01

310

Spaceborne radar interferometry techniques for the generation of deformation time series: An advanced tool for Earth's surface displacement analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work is focused on advanced differential SAR interferometry (DInSAR) techniques for the generation of deformation time series from sequences of SAR images. We first present the basic rationale of these techniques providing some details of the most well known algorithms. Subsequently, through the analysis of selected case studies focused on the available C-band SAR data archives, we show the

E. Sansosti; F. Casu; M. Manzo; R. Lanari

2010-01-01

311

Locally advanced and metastatic basal cell carcinoma: molecular pathways, treatment options and new targeted therapies.  

PubMed

The hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway has been identified as important to normal embryonic development in living organisms and it is implicated in processes including cell proliferation, differentiation and tissue patterning. Aberrant Hh pathway has been involved in the pathogenesis and chemotherapy resistance of different solid and hematologic malignancies. Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and medulloblastoma are two well-recognized cancers with mutations in components of the Hh pathway. Vismodegib has recently approved as the first inhibitor of one of the components of the Hh pathway (smoothened). This review attempts to provide current data on the molecular pathways involved in the development of BCC and the therapeutic options available for the treatment of locally advanced and metastatic BCC, and the new targeted therapies in development. PMID:24611655

Ruiz Salas, Veronica; Alegre, Marta; Garcés, Joan Ramón; Puig, Lluis

2014-06-01

312

Molecular fragmentation by electron impact investigated using a time delayed spectroscopic technique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new technique based on time-of-flight mass spectrometry with delayed extraction, in which it is possible to determine the amount of ions with a given energy distribution, is presented. Unlike most techniques designed to measure the energy distribution of molecular fragments, its sensitivity is higher in the low range of the energy distribution, for ions with kinetic energy from thermal energy up to 3 eV. In this progress report we show that this technique is able to open new perspectives for mass spectrometry based on the well established TOF technique, presenting some selected results for collisions of electrons with energy between 15 eV and 400 eV with N2, O2 and CHClF2, which have interesting features involving their low energy fragments.

Ferreira, Natalia; Sigaud, L.; Montenegro, E. C.

2014-04-01

313

STAR-LITE (Safe Techniques Advance Research - Laboratory Interactive Training Environment)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The National Institutes of Health, Division of Occupational Health and Safety (DOHS) developed a laboratory safety training program called STAR-LITE (Safe Techniques Advance Research â Laboratory Interactive Training Environment.) STAR-LITE is an interactive computer-based laboratory safety training program for high school students and undergraduate university students. The program incorporates common features seen in todayâs video games, i.e., selection of an individualized character; first-person views; and three-dimensional graphics. The method of instruction integrates visualization of consequences, e.g., slips/trips/falls, inhalation of chemical hazards, spills of biohazardous liquids, development of critical-thinking proficiencies, and application of problem-solving skills.

Group, Janus R.

314

Advances in surface EMG: recent progress in detection and processing techniques.  

PubMed

This article is the first section of a review work structured in three parts and concerning a) advances in surface EMG detection and processing techniques, b) recent progress in surface EMG clinical research applications and, c) myoelectric control in neurorehabilitation. This article deals with the state of the art regarding a) the electrode-skin interface (equivalent circuits, skin treatment, conductive gels), b) signal detection modalities, spatial filters and front-end amplifiers, c) power line interference removal, separation of propagating and non-propagating potentials and removal of outliers from surface EMG signal maps, d) segmentation of surface EMG signal maps, e) decomposition of surface EMG into the constituent action potential trains, and f) relationship between surface EMG and force. The material is presented with an effort to fill gaps left by previous reviews and identify areas open for future research. PMID:21133837

Merletti, Roberto; Aventaggiato, Matteo; Botter, Alberto; Holobar, Ales; Marateb, Hamid; Vieira, Taian M M

2010-01-01

315

Applications of advanced metrology techniques for the characterization of extreme ultraviolet mask blank defects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Characterization of defects and their sources is essential for developing mitigation solutions to support the production of defect-free extreme ultraviolet (EUV) mask blanks. The characterization of sub-100-nm defects pose challenges to the conventional metrology techniques, such as atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy, limiting mitigation of nanoscale defects. SEMATECH's Mask Blank Development Center houses advanced metrology capabilities that include transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) to address these shortcomings. Scanning TEM was used to study the disruption of the Mo/Si multilayer of phase defects and to perform elemental analysis with energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy that has supported projects including substrate smoothing activities, deposition simulation development, and defect printability studies. The Auger instrument was used to create elemental maps for defect identification and to characterize the ion beam deposition tool. Using advanced metrology, mitigation of small defects is being realized, yielding mask blanks with defect counts as low as eight defects at 50-nm sensitivity (Lasertec M7360 SiO2 sphere equivalent) measured over the quality area of 132×132 mm2. The issues with the metrology of increasingly small EUV mask blank defects will be outlined, and comprehensive defect characterization results using TEM and AES will be presented.

Harris-Jones, Jenah; Stinzianni, Emilio; Lin, Chihcheng; Jindal, Vibhu; Teki, Ranganath; Kwon, Hyuk Joo

2013-01-01

316

Development of Advanced Techniques for Direct-Drive Absolute EOS Measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This project investigates advanced EOS experimental techniques, relevant to measurements such as those suggested for the proposed Trident-upgrade laser facility at Los Alamos. Experiments, which recently began at Nova, are focused towards simultaneous direct-drive Beryllium absolute principal Hugoniot (PH), and zero pressure release isentropes measurements. Be is the chosen EOS sample, since it is an important ICF material with particular relevance to NIF capsule designs. Furthermore, its low x-ray opacity and high shock and particle speed - in comparison to denser materials - makes Be an ideal material with which to develop these advanced methods. Side-on x-radiography - and direct-drive - are currently believed to be the optimum approach towards high-accuracy laser-based EOS. And to this end, a novel high spatial resolution one-dimensional x-ray microscope has been designed and is currently under fabrication. The utilization of the Nova active shock breakout diagnostic in the future, could extend this project to include the addition of sound speed to the PH and isentrope measurements. Progress to date will be discussed.

Bennett, G. R.; Chrien, R. E.; Wallace, J. M.; Collins, G. W.

1997-11-01

317

Fast Benchtop Fabrication of Laminar Flow Chambers for Advanced Microscopy Techniques  

PubMed Central

Background Fluid handling technology is acquiring an ever more prominent place in laboratory science whether it is in simple buffer exchange systems, perfusion chambers, or advanced microfluidic devices. Many of these applications remain the providence of laboratories at large institutions with a great deal of expertise and specialized equipment. Even with the expansion of these techniques, limitations remain that frequently prevent the coupling of controlled fluid flow with other technologies, such as coupling microfluidics and high-resolution position and force measurements by optical trapping microscopy. Method Here we present a method for fabrication of multiple-input laminar flow devices that are optically clear [glass] on each face, chemically inert, reusable, inexpensive, and can be fabricated on the benchtop in approximately one hour. Further these devices are designed to allow flow regulation by a simple gravity method thus requiring no specialized equipment to drive flow. Here we use these devices to perform total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy measurements as well as position sensitive optical trapping experiments. Significance Flow chamber technology needs to be more accessible to the general scientific community. The method presented here is versatile and robust. These devices use standard slides and coverslips making them compatible with nearly all types and models of light microscopes. These devices meet the needs of groups doing advanced optical trapping experiments, but could also be adapted by nearly any lab that has a function for solution flow coupled with microscopy.

Courson, David S.; Rock, Ronald S.

2009-01-01

318

Nonlinear Raman Techniques in Femtosecond Time Resolved Spectroscopy for the Analysis and Control of Molecular Dynamics  

SciTech Connect

The use of four-wave mixing techniques in femtosecond time-resolved spectroscopy has considerable advantages. Due to the many degrees of freedom offered e.g. by coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS), the dynamics even of complex systems can be analyzed in detail. Using pulse shaping techniques in combination with a self-learning loop approach, molecular mode excitation can be controlled very efficiently in a multi-photon excitation process. Results obtained from the optimal control of CARS on {beta}-carotene are discussed.

Materny, Arnulf; Konradi, Jakow; Namboodiri, Vinu; Namboodiri, Mahesh; Scaria, Abraham [Jacobs University Bremen, School of Science and Engineering Campus Ring 1, 28759 Bremen (Germany)

2008-11-14

319

Efficient Boolean and multi-input flow techniques for advanced mask data processing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mask data preparation (MDP) typically involves multiple flows, sometimes consisting of many steps to ensure that the data is properly written on the mask. This may include multiple inputs, transformations (scaling, orientation, etc.), and processing (layer extraction, sizing, Boolean operations, data filtering). Many MDP techniques currently in practice require multiple passes through the input data and/or multiple file I/O steps to achieve these goals. This paper details an approach which efficiently process the data, resulting in minimal I/O and greatly improved turnaround times (TAT). This approach takes advanced processing algorithms and adapts them to produce efficient and reliable data flow. In tandem with this processing flow, an internal jobdeck mapping approach, transparent to the user, allows an essentially unlimited number of pattern inputs to be handled in a single pass, resulting in increased flexibility and ease of use. Transformations and processing operations are critical to MDP. Transformations such as scaling, reverse tone and orientation, along with processing including sizing, Boolean operations and data filtering are key parts of this. These techniques are often employed in sequence and/or in parallel in a complex functional chain. While transformations typically are done "up front" when the data is input, processing is less straightforward, involving multiple reads and writes to handle the more intricate functionality and also the collection of input patterns which may be required to produce the data that comprises a single mask. The approach detailed in this paper consists of two complementary techniques: efficient MDP flow and jobdeck mapping. Efficient MDP flow is achieved by pipelining the output of each step to the input of the subsequent step. Rather than writing the output of a particular processing step to file and then reading it in to the following step, the pipelining or chaining of the steps results in an efficient flow with minimal file I/O. The efficient MDP flow is enhanced by a technique called jobdeck mapping which allows in essence an unlimited number of pattern inputs by taking each transformed pattern and including it in an input jobdeck. Making use of established jobdeck handling capabilities, the user-selected input pattern/transformation combinations are mapped to an input jobdeck which is processed by the advanced flow, allowing great flexibility and user control of the process.

Salazar, Daniel; Moore, Bill; Valadez, John

2012-11-01

320

A real-time technique for selective molecular imaging and drug delivery in large blood vessels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract—Current clinical imaging approaches are limited to detecting atherosclerosis when it manifests as an anatomic change. An ultrasound based real-time molecular imaging technique that assists clinicians in determining the presence or extent of the disease may play a critical role in guiding therapeutic drug delivery. Resonant-stimulation Pulse inversion (RSPI) uses dual frequency excitation pulses for simultaneously guiding and selectively imaging

Abhay V. Patil; Joshua J. Rychak; Brooks Taylor; Bryce T. Lowrey; John A. Hossack

2010-01-01

321

SPECT and PET Serve as Molecular Imaging Techniques and in Vivo Biomarkers for Brain Metastases.  

PubMed

Nuclear medicine techniques (single photon emission computerized tomography, SPECT, and positron emission tomography, PET) represent molecular imaging tools, able to provide in vivo biomarkers of different diseases. To investigate brain tumours and metastases many different radiopharmaceuticals imaged by SPECT and PET can be used. In this review the main and most promising radiopharmaceuticals available to detect brain metastases are reported. Furthermore the diagnostic contribution of the combination of SPECT and PET data with radiological findings (magnetic resonance imaging, MRI) is discussed. PMID:24897023

Palumbo, Barbara; Buresta, Tommaso; Nuvoli, Susanna; Spanu, Angela; Schillaci, Orazio; Fravolini, Mario Luca; Palumbo, Isabella

2014-01-01

322

Ancillary techniques in bone marrow pathology: molecular diagnostics on bone marrow trephine biopsies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pathologic examination of trephine bone marrow (BM) biopsies plays a central role in the diagnosis and staging of haematological\\u000a neoplasms and other disorders affecting haematopoiesis. Haematopathology has been profoundly influenced by the advent of molecular\\u000a genetic techniques suitable for paraffin-embedded tissues, and certain applications, such as the determination of B- and T-cell\\u000a clonality, belong to its standard diagnostic repertoire. Many

Falko Fend; Oliver Bock; Markus Kremer; Katja Specht; Leticia Quintanilla-Martinez

2005-01-01

323

Separation of zinc from aqueous samples using a molecular imprinting technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, the separation of zinc from aqueous samples by solid-phase extraction based on a molecular imprinting technique is described. Zn-imprinted polymer was prepared by free radical solution polymerisation in a glass tube containing ZnSO4, morin, 4-vinylpyridine as a functional monomer, ethyleneglycoldimethacrylate as a cross-linking monomer, and 2,2?-azobisisobutyronitrile as an initiator. The obtained polymer block was ground and sieved

Mostafa Khajeh; Massoud Kaykhaii; Majid Mirmoghaddam; Hossein Hashemi

2009-01-01

324

Investigation of photoinduced molecular switching in a single monolayer by a displacement-current-measuring technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

The optical molecular switching in single monolayers containing azobenzene derivatives at the air water interface due to photoinduced cis-trans isomerization was detected by using a displacement-current-measuring technique. The reversible displacement current generation was found to be sustained by the alternative applications of ultraviolet light and visible light, whereas, the current generation was never initiated by the successive irradiation of ultravilolet

Mitsumasa Iwamoto; Yutaka Majima; Haruhiko Naruse; Tetsuya Noguchi; Hiromasa Fuwa

1991-01-01

325

SPECT and PET Serve as Molecular Imaging Techniques and in Vivo Biomarkers for Brain Metastases  

PubMed Central

Nuclear medicine techniques (single photon emission computerized tomography, SPECT, and positron emission tomography, PET) represent molecular imaging tools, able to provide in vivo biomarkers of different diseases. To investigate brain tumours and metastases many different radiopharmaceuticals imaged by SPECT and PET can be used. In this review the main and most promising radiopharmaceuticals available to detect brain metastases are reported. Furthermore the diagnostic contribution of the combination of SPECT and PET data with radiological findings (magnetic resonance imaging, MRI) is discussed.

Palumbo, Barbara; Buresta, Tommaso; Nuvoli, Susanna; Spanu, Angela; Schillaci, Orazio; Fravolini, Mario Luca; Palumbo, Isabella

2014-01-01

326

Advances in Resistive Pulse Sensors: Devices bridging the void between molecular and microscopic detection  

PubMed Central

Since the first reported use of a biological ion channel to detect differences in single stranded genomic base pairs in 1996, a renaissance in nanoscale resistive pulse sensors has ensued. This resurgence of a technique originally outlined and commercialized over fifty years ago has largely been driven by advances in nanoscaled fabrication, and ultimately, the prospect of a rapid and inexpensive means for genomic sequencing as well as other macromolecular characterization. In this pursuit, the potential application of these devices to characterize additional properties such as the size, shape, charge, and concentration of nanoscaled materials (10 – 900 nm) has been largely overlooked. Advances in nanotechnology and biotechnology are driving the need for simple yet sensitive individual object readout devices such as resistive pulse sensors. This review will examine the recent progress in pore-based sensing in the nanoscale range. A detailed analysis of three new types of pore sensors – in-series, parallel, and size-tunable pores – has been included. These pores offer improved measurement sensitivity over a wider particle size range. The fundamental physical chemistry of these techniques, which is still evolving, will be reviewed.

Kozak, Darby; Anderson, Will; Vogel, Robert; Trau, Matt

2011-01-01

327

Molecular and genetic advances in the regeneration of the intervertebral disc  

PubMed Central

Background: Owing to the debilitating nature of degenerative disc disease (DDD) and other spine pathologies, significant research has been performed with the goal of healing or regenerating the intervertebral disc (IVD). Structural complexity, coupled with low vascularity and cellularity, make IVD regeneration an extremely challenging task. Methods: Tissue engineering-based strategies utilize three components to enhance tissue regeneration; scaffold materials to guide cell growth, biomolecules to enhance cell migration and differentiation, and cells (autologous, or allogeneic) to initiate the process of tissue formation. Significant advances in IVD regeneration have been made utilizing these tissue engineering strategies. Results: The current literature demonstrates that members of the transforming growth factor beta (TGF-?) superfamily are efficacious in the regeneration of an anabolic response in the IVD and to facilitate chondrogenic differentiation. Gene therapy, though thwarted by safety concerns and the risk of ectopic transfection, has significant potential for a targeted and sustained regenerative response. Stem cells in combination with injectable, biocompatible, and biodegradable scaffolds in the form of hydrogels can differentiate into de novo IVD tissue and facilitate regeneration of the existing matrix. Therapies that address both anabolism and the inherent catabolic state of the IVD using either direct inhibitors or broad-spectrum inhibitors show extensive promise. Conclusion: This review article summarizes the genetic and molecular advances that promise to play an integral role in the development of new strategies to combat DDD and promote healing of injured discs.

Maerz, Tristan; Herkowitz, Harry; Baker, Kevin

2013-01-01

328

Advances in the field of high-molecular-weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon biodegradation by bacteria  

PubMed Central

Summary Interest in understanding prokaryotic biotransformation of high?molecular?weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (HMW PAHs) has continued to grow and the scientific literature shows that studies in this field are originating from research groups from many different locations throughout the world. In the last 10 years, research in regard to HMW PAH biodegradation by bacteria has been further advanced through the documentation of new isolates that represent diverse bacterial types that have been isolated from different environments and that possess different metabolic capabilities. This has occurred in addition to the continuation of in?depth comprehensive characterizations of previously isolated organisms, such as Mycobacterium vanbaalenii PYR?1. New metabolites derived from prokaryotic biodegradation of four? and five?ring PAHs have been characterized, our knowledge of the enzymes involved in these transformations has been advanced and HMW PAH biodegradation pathways have been further developed, expanded upon and refined. At the same time, investigation of prokaryotic consortia has furthered our understanding of the capabilities of microorganisms functioning as communities during HMW PAH biodegradation.

Kanaly, Robert A.; Harayama, Shigeaki

2010-01-01

329

Advances in functional X-ray imaging techniques and contrast agents  

PubMed Central

X-rays have been used for non-invasive high-resolution imaging of thick biological specimens since their discovery in 1895. They are widely used for structural imaging of bone, metal implants, and cavities in soft tissue. Recently, a number of new contrast methodologies have emerged which are expanding X-ray’s biomedical applications to functional as well as structural imaging. These techniques are promising to dramatically improve our ability to study in situ biochemistry and disease pathology. In this review, we discuss how X-ray absorption, X-ray fluorescence, and X-ray excited optical luminescence can be used for physiological, elemental, and molecular imaging of vasculature, tumours, pharmaceutical distribution, and the surface of implants. Imaging of endogenous elements, exogenous labels, and analytes detected with optical indicators will be discussed.

Chen, Hongyu; Rogalski, Melissa M.

2012-01-01

330

Advances in the imaging of rheumatic diseases. A window on disease pathogenesis and potential therapeutic strategies: molecular imaging for arthritis  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT: Novel molecular imaging techniques are at the forefront of both preclinical and clinical imaging strategies. They have significant potential to offer visualisation and quantification of molecular and cellular changes in health and disease. This will help to shed light on pathobiology and underlying disease processes and provide further information about the mechanisms of action of novel therapeutic strategies. This

Luke L Gompels; Ewa M Paleolog

2011-01-01

331

Advanced system identification techniques for wind turbine structures with special emphasis on modal parameters  

SciTech Connect

The goal of this research is to develop advanced system identification techniques that can be used to accurately measure the frequency response functions of a wind-turbine structure immersed in wind noise. To allow for accurate identification, the authors have developed a special test signal called the Pseudo-Random Binary Sequence (PRBS). The Matlab program that generates this signal allows the user to interactively tailor its parameters for the frequency range of interest based on the response of the wind turbine under test. By controlling NREL`s Mobile Hydraulic Shaker System, which is attached to the wind turbine structure, the PRBS signal produces the wide-band excitation necessary to perform system identification in the presence of wind noise. The techniques presented here will enable researchers to obtain modal parameters from an operating wind turbine, including frequencies, damping coefficients, and mode shapes. More importantly, the algorithms they have developed and tested (so far using input-output data from a simulated structure) permit state-space representation of the system under test, particularly the modal state space representation. This is the only system description that reveals the internal behavior the system, such as the interaction between the physical parameters, and which, in contrast to transfer functions, is valid for non-zero initial conditions.

Bialasiewicz, J.T.

1995-06-01

332

Advanced Modeling Techniques to Study Anthropogenic Influences on Atmospheric Chemical Budgets  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This research work is a collaborative effort between research groups at MCNC and the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. The overall objective of this research is to improve the level of understanding of the processes that determine the budgets of chemically and radiatively active compounds in the atmosphere through development and application of advanced methods for calculating the chemical change in atmospheric models. The research performed during the second year of this project focused on four major aspects: (1) The continued development and refinement of multiscale modeling techniques to address the issue of the disparate scales of the physico-chemical processes that govern the fate of atmospheric pollutants; (2) Development and application of analysis methods utilizing process and mass balance techniques to increase the interpretive powers of atmospheric models and to aid in complementary analysis of model predictions and observations; (3) Development of meteorological and emission inputs for initial application of the chemistry/transport model over the north Atlantic region; and, (4) The continued development and implementation of a totally new adaptive chemistry representation that changes the details of what is represented as the underlying conditions change.

Mathur, Rohit

1997-01-01

333

Nanostructural defects evidenced in failing silicon-based NMOS capacitors by advanced failure analysis techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An experimental methodology compliant with industrial constraints was deployed to uncover the origin of soft breakdown events in large planar silicon-based NMOS capacitors. Complementary advanced failure analysis techniques were advantageously employed to localize, isolate and observe structural defects at nanoscale. After an accurate localization of the failing area by optical beam-induced resistance change (OBIRCH), focused ion beam (FIB) technique enabled preparing thin specimens adequate for transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Characterization of the gate oxide microstructure was performed by highresolution TEM imaging and energy-filtered spectroscopy. A dedicated experimental protocol relying on iterative FIB thinning and TEM observation enabled improving the quality of electron imaging of defects at atom scale. In that way, the gate oxide integrity was evaluated and an electrical stress-induced silicon epitaxy was detected concomitantly to soft breakdown events appearing during constant voltage stress. The growth of silicon hillocks enables consuming a part of the breakdown energy and may prevent the soft breakdown event to evolve towards a hard breakdown that is catastrophic for device functionality.

Faivre, Emilie; Llido, Roxane; Putero, Magali; Fares, Lahouari; Muller, Christophe

2014-04-01

334

Penicillium marneffei Infection and Recent Advances in the Epidemiology and Molecular Biology Aspects  

PubMed Central

Penicillium marneffei infection is an important emerging public health problem, especially among patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus in the areas of endemicity in southeast Asia, India, and China. Within these regions, P. marneffei infection is regarded as an AIDS-defining illness, and the severity of the disease depends on the immunological status of the infected individual. Early diagnosis by serologic and molecular assay-based methods have been developed and are proving to be important in diagnosing infection. The occurrence of natural reservoirs and the molecular epidemiology of P. marneffei have been studied; however, the natural history and mode of transmission of the organism remain unclear. Soil exposure, especially during the rainy season, has been suggested to be a critical risk factor. Using a highly discriminatory molecular technique, multilocus microsatellite typing, to characterize this fungus, several isolates from bamboo rats and humans were shown to share identical multilocus genotypes. These data suggest either that transmission of P. marneffei may occur from rodents to humans or that rodents and humans are coinfected from common environmental sources. These putative natural cycles of P. marneffei infection need further investigation. Studies on the fungal genetics of P. marneffei have been focused on the characterization of genetic determinants that may play important roles in asexual development, mycelial-to-yeast phase transition, and the expression of antigenic determinants. Molecular studies have identified several genes involved in germination, hyphal development, conidiogenesis, and yeast cell polarity. A number of functionally important genes, such as the malate synthase- and catalase-peroxidase protein-encoding genes, have been identified as being upregulated in the yeast phase. Future investigations pertaining to the roles of these genes in host-fungus interactions may provide the key knowledge to understanding the pathogenicity of P. marneffei.

Vanittanakom, Nongnuch; Cooper, Chester R.; Fisher, Matthew C.; Sirisanthana, Thira

2006-01-01

335

PREFACE: 15th International Workshop on Advanced Computing and Analysis Techniques in Physics Research (ACAT2013)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series is dedicated to scientific contributions presented at the 15th International Workshop on Advanced Computing and Analysis Techniques in Physics Research (ACAT 2013) which took place on 16–21 May 2013 at the Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China. The workshop series brings together computer science researchers and practitioners, and researchers from particle physics and related fields to explore and confront the boundaries of computing and of automatic data analysis and theoretical calculation techniques. This year's edition of the workshop brought together over 120 participants from all over the world. 18 invited speakers presented key topics on the universe in computer, Computing in Earth Sciences, multivariate data analysis, automated computation in Quantum Field Theory as well as computing and data analysis challenges in many fields. Over 70 other talks and posters presented state-of-the-art developments in the areas of the workshop's three tracks: Computing Technologies, Data Analysis Algorithms and Tools, and Computational Techniques in Theoretical Physics. The round table discussions on open-source, knowledge sharing and scientific collaboration stimulate us to think over the issue in the respective areas. ACAT 2013 was generously sponsored by the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), National Natural Science Foundation of China (NFSC), Brookhaven National Laboratory in the USA (BNL), Peking University (PKU), Theoretical Physics Cernter for Science facilities of CAS (TPCSF-CAS) and Sugon. We would like to thank all the participants for their scientific contributions and for the en- thusiastic participation in all its activities of the workshop. Further information on ACAT 2013 can be found at http://acat2013.ihep.ac.cn. Professor Jianxiong Wang Institute of High Energy Physics Chinese Academy of Science Details of committees and sponsors are available in the PDF

Wang, Jianxiong

2014-06-01

336

Molecular entomology and prospects for malaria control  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the past decade, the techniques of molecular and cell biology have been embraced by many scientists doing research on anopheline vectors of malaria parasites. Some of the most important research advances in molecular entomology have concerned the development of sophisticated molecular tools for procedures such as genetic and physical mapping and germ line transformation. Major advances have also been

Frank H. Collins; Luna Kamau; Hilary A. Ranson; John M. Vulule

2000-01-01

337

Tracking down sulphate-reducing microorganisms by molecular and isotope-labelling techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sulphate-reducing microorganisms (SRM) are of great ecological importance for carbon compound degradation and sulphur cycling in many anoxic ecosystems, including marine sediments, peatlands, and oil reservoirs. However, the activity of SRM can result in oil souring and pipeline corrosion and thus is also an economic burden for the oil industry. Molecular diversity surveys based on rRNA genes and dsrAB, genes that encode major subunits of the dissimilatory sulfite reductase, indicate that our view of the natural diversity of SRM (as we know it from cultivation) is far from being complete. This enormous phylogenetic diversity complicates unbiased identification and quantification of SRM by molecular methods such as fluorescence in situ hybridization, real-time PCR or DNA microarrays. Combining these 16S rRNA and dsrAB-based molecular methods with substrate-mediated isotope labelling techniques is a potential solution for identification and functional characterization of yet uncultivated SRM. Using SRM in peatlands as an example, the problems and opportunities of these techniques for diagnosing and monitoring SRM in the environment will be discussed in this talk.

Loy, Alexander

2010-05-01

338

Theory of the double-edge molecular technique for Doppler lidar wind measurement.  

PubMed

The theory of the double-edge lidar technique for measuring the wind with molecular backscatter is described. Two high-spectral-resolution edge filters are located in the wings of the Rayleigh-Brillouin profile. This doubles the signal change per unit Doppler shift, the sensitivity, and improves measurement accuracy relative to the single-edge technique by nearly a factor of 2. The use of a crossover region where the sensitivity of a molecular- and an aerosol-based measurement is equal is described. Use of this region desensitizes the molecular measurement to the effects of aerosol scattering over a velocity range of +/-100 m/s. We give methods for correcting short-term, shot-to-shot, frequency jitter and drift with a laser reference frequency measurement and methods for long-term frequency correction with a servo control system. The effects of Rayleigh-Brillouin scattering on the measurement are shown to be significant and are included in the analysis. Simulations for a conical scanning satellite-based lidar at 355 nm show an accuracy of 2-3 m/s for altitudes of 2-15 km for a 1-km vertical resolution, a satellite altitude of 400 km, and a 200 km x 200 km spatial resolution. PMID:18305631

Flesia, C; Korb, C L

1999-01-20

339

A multiscale modeling technique for bridging molecular dynamics with finite element method  

SciTech Connect

In computational mechanics, molecular dynamics (MD) and finite element (FE) analysis are well developed and most popular on nanoscale and macroscale analysis, respectively. MD can very well simulate the atomistic behavior, but cannot simulate macroscale length and time due to computational limits. FE can very well simulate continuum mechanics (CM) problems, but has the limitation of the lack of atomistic level degrees of freedom. Multiscale modeling is an expedient methodology with a potential to connect different levels of modeling such as quantum mechanics, molecular dynamics, and continuum mechanics. This study proposes a new multiscale modeling technique to couple MD with FE. The proposed method relies on weighted average momentum principle. A wave propagation example has been used to illustrate the challenges in coupling MD with FE and to verify the proposed technique. Furthermore, 2-Dimensional problem has also been used to demonstrate how this method would translate into real world applications. -- Highlights: •A weighted averaging momentum method is introduced for bridging molecular dynamics (MD) with finite element (FE) method. •The proposed method shows excellent coupling results in 1-D and 2-D examples. •The proposed method successfully reduces the spurious wave reflection at the border of MD and FE regions. •Big advantages of the proposed method are simplicity and inexpensive computational cost of multiscale analysis.

Lee, Yongchang, E-mail: yl83@buffalo.edu; Basaran, Cemal

2013-11-15

340

Molecular-Based Optical Measurement Techniques for Transition and Turbulence in High-Speed Flow  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

High-speed laminar-to-turbulent transition and turbulence affect the control of flight vehicles, the heat transfer rate to a flight vehicle's surface, the material selected to protect such vehicles from high heating loads, the ultimate weight of a flight vehicle due to the presence of thermal protection systems, the efficiency of fuel-air mixing processes in high-speed combustion applications, etc. Gaining a fundamental understanding of the physical mechanisms involved in the transition process will lead to the development of predictive capabilities that can identify transition location and its impact on parameters like surface heating. Currently, there is no general theory that can completely describe the transition-to-turbulence process. However, transition research has led to the identification of the predominant pathways by which this process occurs. For a truly physics-based model of transition to be developed, the individual stages in the paths leading to the onset of fully turbulent flow must be well understood. This requires that each pathway be computationally modeled and experimentally characterized and validated. This may also lead to the discovery of new physical pathways. This document is intended to describe molecular based measurement techniques that have been developed, addressing the needs of the high-speed transition-to-turbulence and high-speed turbulence research fields. In particular, we focus on techniques that have either been used to study high speed transition and turbulence or techniques that show promise for studying these flows. This review is not exhaustive. In addition to the probe-based techniques described in the previous paragraph, several other classes of measurement techniques that are, or could be, used to study high speed transition and turbulence are excluded from this manuscript. For example, surface measurement techniques such as pressure and temperature paint, phosphor thermography, skin friction measurements and photogrammetry (for model attitude and deformation measurement) are excluded to limit the scope of this report. Other physical probes such as heat flux gauges, total temperature probes are also excluded. We further exclude measurement techniques that require particle seeding though particle based methods may still be useful in many high speed flow applications. This manuscript details some of the more widely used molecular-based measurement techniques for studying transition and turbulence: laser-induced fluorescence (LIF), Rayleigh and Raman Scattering and coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS). These techniques are emphasized, in part, because of the prior experience of the authors. Additional molecular based techniques are described, albeit in less detail. Where possible, an effort is made to compare the relative advantages and disadvantages of the various measurement techniques, although these comparisons can be subjective views of the authors. Finally, the manuscript concludes by evaluating the different measurement techniques in view of the precision requirements described in this chapter. Additional requirements and considerations are discussed to assist with choosing an optical measurement technique for a given application.

Bathel, Brett F.; Danehy, Paul M.; Cutler, Andrew D.

2013-01-01

341

75 FR 81643 - In the Matter of Certain Semiconductor Products Made by Advanced Lithography Techniques and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...337-TA-729] In the Matter of Certain Semiconductor Products Made by Advanced Lithography...States after importation of certain semiconductor products made by advanced lithography...complaint named two respondents: Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing, Co., Ltd....

2010-12-28

342

Enhancement of the catalytic activity of an artificial phosphotriesterase using a molecular imprinting technique.  

PubMed

An artificial phosphotriesterase (PTE) was constructed by co-polymerization of 4(5)-vinylimidazole-Zn(2+)-methacrylic acid cluster with a divinylbenzene polymer. Compared with the spontaneous hydrolysis, the resulting polymer catalyst caused 105-fold rate acceleration towards the hydrolysis of diethyl p-nitrophenyl phosphate (Paraoxon). The catalytic activity of the polymer catalyst could be enhanced for 30% using molecular imprinting technique and the molecularly-imprinted catalyst (MIC) showed a turnover rate of 7.4 x 10(-2) s(-1) towards the hydrolysis of Paraoxon. The MIC also hydrolyzed thiophosphates and phosphorothiolate triester pesticides. Construction of an amperometric sensor employing the MIC as catalyst achieved a detection limit of 0.1 mM Paraoxon. PMID:12889817

Meng, Zihui; Yamazaki, Tomohiko; Sode, Koji

2003-07-01

343

Technique for Elimination of Excited States from Atomic and Molecular Ion Beams  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fundamental interactions of atomic and molecular ions with electrons, neutral atoms and molecules, surfaces, and photons play major roles in many important plasma and chemical environments. Achieving a detailed understanding of these interactions is often complicated by the presence of uncharacterized populations of electronic or vibrational excited states, especially in making direct comparisons with theoretical predictions problematic. We are developing experimental techniques for reducing or eliminating ion source-generated excited states in atomic and molecular ion beams using a gas-filled RF quadrupole (RFQ) ion cooler, through natural radiative cooling during ion transit, and by preferential quenching in charge transfer collisions with selected buffer gases. Technical details and progress toward these goals will be presented. Research sponsored by the Laboratory Directed Research and Development Program of Oak Ridge National Laboratory, managed by UT-Battelle, LLC, for the U. S. Department of Energy.

Vane, C. R.; Bannister, M. E.; Havener, C. C.; Liu, Yuan

2012-06-01

344

78 FR 59927 - Next Generation Risk Assessment: Incorporation of Recent Advances in Molecular, Computational...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...in Molecular, Computational, and Systems Biology...announcing that Eastern Research Group, Inc...identify priority research needs. The...in Molecular, Computational, and Systems Biology...project suggested research needs and near...incorporating molecular, computational, and systems...

2013-09-30

345

Coulomb-explosion technique for determining geometrical structures of molecular ions  

SciTech Connect

Traditional experimental techniques (e.g. studies on photon absorption or emission) for determining the sterochemical structures of neutral molecules are extremeley difficult to apply to molecular ions because of problems in obtaining a sufficient spatial density of the ions to be studied. Recent high-resolution measurements on the energy and angle distributions of the fragments produced when fast (MeV) molecular-ion beams from an electrostatic accelerator dissociate (Coulomb explode) in thin foils and in gases, offer promising possibilities for deducing the sterochemical structures of the molecular ions constituting the incident beams. Bond lengths have been determined in this way for several diatomic projectiles (H/sub 2//sup +/, HeH/sup +/, CH/sup +/, NH/sup +/, OH/sup +/, N/sub 2//sup +/, O/sub 2//sup +/, etc.) with an accuracy of approx. 0.01 A. H/sub 3//sup +/ has been demonstrated (for the first time) to be equilateral triangular and the interproton distance measured. Measurements on single fragments from CO/sub 2//sup +/, N/sub 2/O/sup +/, C/sub 3/H/sub 3//sup +/, and CH/sub n//sup +/ have revealed the gross structures of the projectiles. An apparatus has recently been constructed at Argonne to permit precise measurements on fragments in coincidence. The apparatus has been tested on a known structure (OH/sub 2//sup +/). The O-H bond length was found to be 1.0 +- 0.04 A and the H-O-H bond angle was measured as 110 --- 2/sup 0/. These values are in excellent agreement with those found in optical experiments (0.999 A and 110.5/sup 0/). This Coulomb explosion technique can be expected to be refined in accuracy and to be extended to a wide range of molecular ions whose structures are inaccessible by other means.

Gemmell, D.S.

1981-01-01

346

Craniospinal Irradiation Techniques: A Dosimetric Comparison of Proton Beams With Standard and Advanced Photon Radiotherapy  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To evaluate the dosimetric benefits of advanced radiotherapy techniques for craniospinal irradiation in cancer in children. Methods and Materials: Craniospinal irradiation (CSI) using three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT), tomotherapy (TOMO), and proton beam treatment (PBT) in the scattering mode was planned for each of 10 patients at our institution. Dosimetric benefits and organ-specific radiation-induced cancer risks were based on comparisons of dose-volume histograms (DVHs) and on the application of organ equivalent doses (OEDs), respectively. Results: When we analyzed the organ-at-risk volumes that received 30%, 60%, and 90% of the prescribed dose (PD), we found that PBT was superior to TOMO and 3D-CRT. On average, the doses delivered by PBT to the esophagus, stomach, liver, lung, pancreas, and kidney were 19.4 Gy, 0.6 Gy, 0.3 Gy, 2.5 Gy, 0.2 Gy, and 2.2 Gy for the PD of 36 Gy, respectively, which were significantly lower than the doses delivered by TOMO (22.9 Gy, 4.5 Gy, 6.1 Gy, 4.0 Gy, 13.3 Gy, and 4.9 Gy, respectively) and 3D-CRT (34.6 Gy, 3.6 Gy, 8.0 Gy, 4.6 Gy, 22.9 Gy, and 4.3 Gy, respectively). Although the average doses delivered by PBT to the chest and abdomen were significantly lower than those of 3D-CRT or TOMO, these differences were reduced in the head-and-neck region. OED calculations showed that the risk of secondary cancers in organs such as the stomach, lungs, thyroid, and pancreas was much higher when 3D-CRT or TOMO was used than when PBT was used. Conclusions: Compared with photon techniques, PBT showed improvements in most dosimetric parameters for CSI patients, with lower OEDs to organs at risk.

Yoon, Myonggeun, E-mail: radioyoon@gmail.com [Proton Therapy Center, National Cancer Center, Goyang (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Dong Ho [Proton Therapy Center, National Cancer Center, Goyang (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jinsung [Department of Radiation Oncology, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jong Won; Kim, Dae Woong; Park, Sung Yong; Lee, Se Byeong; Kim, Joo Young [Proton Therapy Center, National Cancer Center, Goyang (Korea, Republic of); Park, Hyeon-Jin; Park, Byung Kiu [Pediatric Oncology Clinic, Center for Specific Organs Cancer, National Cancer Center, Goyang (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Sang Hoon [Neuro-Oncology Clinic, Center for Specific Organs Cancer, National Cancer Center, Goyang (Korea, Republic of)

2011-11-01

347

Application of Energy Integration Techniques to the Design of Advanced Life Support Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Exchanging heat between hot and cold streams within an advanced life support system can save energy. This savings will reduce the equivalent system mass (ESM) of the system. Different system configurations are examined under steady-state conditions for various percentages of food growth and waste treatment. The scenarios investigated represent possible design options for a Mars reference mission. Reference mission definitions are drawn from the ALSS Modeling and Analysis Reference Missions Document, which includes definitions for space station evolution, Mars landers, and a Mars base. For each scenario, streams requiring heating or cooling are identified and characterized by mass flow, supply and target temperatures and heat capacities. The Pinch Technique is applied to identify good matches for energy exchange between the hot and cold streams and to calculate the minimum external heating and cooling requirements for the system. For each pair of hot and cold streams that are matched, there will be a reduction in the amount of external heating and cooling required, and the original heating and cooling equipment will be replaced with a heat exchanger. The net cost savings can be either positive or negative for each stream pairing, and the priority for implementing each pairing can be ranked according to its potential cost savings. Using the Pinch technique, a complete system heat exchange network is developed and heat exchangers are sized to allow for calculation of ESM. The energy-integrated design typically has a lower total ESM than the original design with no energy integration. A comparison of ESM savings in each of the scenarios is made to direct future Pinch Analysis efforts.

Levri, Julie; Finn, Cory

2000-01-01

348

Predictors of gefitinib outcomes in advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC): Study of a comprehensive panel of molecular markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of different clinical characteristics and molecular markers related to epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) activation have been reported to singly correlate with therapeutic activity of EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) in advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). This study was designed to evaluate the predictive value on gefitinib outcomes of a comprehensive panel of molecular parameters in advanced

Marcello Tiseo; Giulio Rossi; Marzia Capelletti; Giuliana Sartori; Elena Spiritelli; Alessandro Marchioni; Cecilia Bozzetti; Giuseppe De Palma; Costanza Lagrasta; Nicoletta Campanini; Roberta Camisa; Luca Boni; Vittorio Franciosi; Guido Rindi; Andrea Ardizzoni

2010-01-01

349

Classification of human colonic tissues using FTIR spectra and advanced statistical techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the major public health hazards is colon cancer. There is a great necessity to develop new methods for early detection of cancer. If colon cancer is detected and treated early, cure rate of more than 90% can be achieved. In this study we used FTIR microscopy (MSP), which has shown a good potential in the last 20 years in the fields of medical diagnostic and early detection of abnormal tissues. Large database of FTIR microscopic spectra was acquired from 230 human colonic biopsies. Five different subgroups were included in our database, normal and cancer tissues as well as three stages of benign colonic polyps, namely, mild, moderate and severe polyps which are precursors of carcinoma. In this study we applied advanced mathematical and statistical techniques including principal component analysis (PCA) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA), on human colonic FTIR spectra in order to differentiate among the mentioned subgroups' tissues. Good classification accuracy between normal, polyps and cancer groups was achieved with approximately 85% success rate. Our results showed that there is a great potential of developing FTIR-micro spectroscopy as a simple, reagent-free viable tool for early detection of colon cancer in particular the early stages of premalignancy among the benign colonic polyps.

Zwielly, A.; Argov, S.; Salman, A.; Bogomolny, E.; Mordechai, S.

2010-04-01

350

Characterization techniques for the high-brightness particle beams of the Advanced Photon Source (APS)  

SciTech Connect

The Advanced Photon Source (APS) will be a third-generation synchrotron radiation (SR) user facility in the hard x-ray regime (10--100 keV). The design objectives for the 7-GeV storage ring include a positron beam natural emittance of 8 {times} 10{sup {minus}9} m-rad at an average current of 100 mA. Proposed methods for measuring the transverse and longitudinal profiles will be described. Additionally, a research and development effort using an rf gun as a low-emittance source of electrons for injection into the 200- to 650-MeV linac subsystem is underway. This latter system is projected to produce electron beams with a normalized, rms emittance of {approximately}2 {pi} mm-mrad at peak currents of near one hundred amps. This interesting characterization problem will also be briefly discussed. The combination of both source types within one laboratory facility will stimulate the development of diagnostic techniques in these parameter spaces.

Lumpkin, A.H.

1993-08-01

351

An advanced noise source identification technique using the inverse boundary-element method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The application of the inverse BEM method as an advanced, non-contact noise source identification technique will be discussed. In the first and most conventional experiment, the inverse BEM is used to reconstruct the vibration pattern on the surface of a motorcycle engine oil pan cover. In the second experiment, the inverse BEM is used to determine the distribution of particle velocity on the open end of a rectangular duct. Measurements of the particle velocity using the two-microphone method are compared to those predicted using the inverse BEM. In the third experiment, the inverse BEM is used to identify the mechanism of an aeroacoustics noise problem (a vortex tone) created by flow over a circular rod. The spectrum of the tonal sound within the flow field is reconstructed using the inverse BEM, and a near field spatial reconstruction of the sound pressure shows clearly the nature of the vortex source. This paper will also show that only a relatively small number sound pressure measurements are required for the inverse BEM and that these measurements need not be in the near field of the source nor conformal to it to obtain good results.

Martinus, Ferdy

2005-09-01

352

High-rate-long-distance fiber-optic communication based on advanced modulation techniques.  

PubMed

The presence of fiber attenuation and chromatic dispersion is one of the major design aspects of fiber-optic communication systems when one addresses high-rate and long-distance digital data transmission. Conventional digital communication systems implement a modulation technique that generates light pulses at the fiber input end and tries to detect them at the fiber output end. Here an advanced modulation transmission system is developed based on knowledge of the exact dispersion parameters of the fiber and the principles of space-time mathematical analogy. The information encodes the phase of the input light beam (a continuous laser beam). This phase is designed such that, when the signal is transmitted through a fiber with a given chromatic dispersion, high peak pulses emerge at the output, which follows a desired bit pattern. Thus the continuous input energy is concentrated into short time intervals in which the information needs to be represented at the output. The proposed method provides a high rate-distance product even for fibers with high dispersion parameters, high power at the output, and also unique protection properties. Theoretical analysis of the proposed method, computer simulations, and some design aspects are given. PMID:18324062

Ivankovski, Y; Mendlovic, D

1999-09-10

353

Advanced techniques and painless procedures for nonlinear contact analysis and forming simulation via implicit FEM  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nonlinear contact analysis including forming simulation via finite element methods has a crucial and practical application in many engineering fields. However, because of high nonlinearity, nonlinear contact analysis still remains as an extremely challenging obstacle for many industrial applications. The implicit finite element scheme is generally more accurate than the explicit finite element scheme, but it has a known challenge of convergence because of complex geometries, large relative motion and rapid contact state change. It might be thought as a very painful process to diagnose the convergence issue of nonlinear contact. Most complicated contact models have a great many contact surfaces, and it is hard work to well define the contact pairs using the common contact definition methods, which either result in hundreds of contact pairs or are time-consuming. This paper presents the advanced techniques of nonlinear contact analysis and forming simulation via the implicit finite element scheme and the penalty method. The calculation of the default automatic contact stiffness is addressed. Furthermore, this paper presents the idea of selection groups to help easily and efficiently define contact pairs for complicated contact analysis, and the corresponding implementation and usage are discussed. Lastly, typical nonlinear contact models and forming models with nonlinear material models are shown in the paper to demonstrate the key presented method and technologies.

Zhuang, Shoubing

2013-05-01

354

Nanocasting technique to prepare lotus-leaf-like superhydrophobic electroactive polyimide as advanced anticorrosive coatings.  

PubMed

Nanocasting technique was used to obtain a biomimetic superhydrophobic electroactive polyimide (SEPI) surface structure from a natural Xanthosoma sagittifolium leaf. An electroactive polyimide (EPI) was first synthesized through thermal imidization. An impression of the superhydrophobic Xanthosoma sagittifolium leaf was then nanocasted onto the surface of the EPI so that the resulting EPI was superhydrophobic and would prevent corrosion. Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) was then used as a negative template to transfer the impression of the superhydrophobic surface of the biomimetic EPI onto a cold-rolled steel (CRS) electrode. The superhydrophobic electroactive material could be used as advanced coatings that protect metals against corrosion. The morphology of the surface of the as-synthesized SEPI coating was investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The surface showed numerous micromastoids, each decorated with many nanowrinkles. The water contact angle (CA) for the SEPI coating was 155°, which was significantly larger than that for the EPI coating (i.e., CA = 87°). The significant increase in the contact angle indicated that the biomimetic morphology effectively repelled water. Potentiodynamic and electrochemical impedance spectroscopic measurements indicated that the SEPI coating offered better protection against corrosion than the EPI coating did. PMID:23384046

Chang, Kung-Chin; Lu, Hsin-I; Peng, Chih-Wei; Lai, Mei-Chun; Hsu, Sheng-Chieh; Hsu, Min-Hsiang; Tsai, Yuan-Kai; Chang, Chi-Hao; Hung, Wei-I; Wei, Yen; Yeh, Jui-Ming

2013-02-01

355

On Advanced Estimation Techniques for Exoplanet Detection and Characterization using Ground-based Coronagraphs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The direct imaging of planets around nearby stars is exceedingly difficult. Only about 14 exoplanets have been imaged to date that have masses less than 13 times that of Jupiter. The next generation of planet-finding coronagraphs, including VLT-SPHERE, the Gemini Planet Imager, Palomar P1640, and Subaru HiCIAO have predicted contrast performance of roughly a thousand times less than would be needed to detect Earth-like planets. In this paper we review the state of the art in exoplanet imaging, most notably the method of Locally Optimized Combination of Images (LOCI), and we investigate the potential of improving the detectability of faint exoplanets through the use of advanced statistical methods based on the concepts of the ideal observer and the Hotelling observer. We propose a formal comparison of techniques using a blind data challenge with an evaluation of performance using the Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) and Localization ROC (LROC) curves. We place particular emphasis on the understanding and modeling of realistic sources of measurement noise in ground-based AO-corrected coronagraphs. The work reported in this paper is the result of interactions between the co-authors during a week-long workshop on exoplanet imaging that was held in Squaw Valley, California, in March of 2012

Lawson, Peter; Frazin, Richard

2012-01-01

356

On Advanced Estimation Techniques for Exoplanet Detection and Characterization using Ground-Based Coronagraphs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The direct imaging of planets around nearby stars is exceedingly difficult. Only about 14 exoplanets have been imaged to date that have masses less than 13 times that of Jupiter. The next generation of planet-finding coronagraphs, including VLT-SPHERE, the Gemini Planet Imager, Palomar P1640, and Subaru HiCIAO have predicted contrast performance of roughly a thousand times less than would be needed to detect Earth-like planets. In this paper we review the state of the art in exoplanet imaging, most notably the method of Locally Optimized Combination of Images (LOCI), and we investigate the potential of improving the detectability of faint exoplanets through the use of advanced statistical methods based on the concepts of the ideal observer and the Hotelling observer. We provide a formal comparison of techniques through a blind data challenge and evaluate performance using the Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) and Localization ROC (LROC) curves. We place particular emphasis on the understanding and modeling of realistic sources of measurement noise in ground-based AO-corrected coronagraphs. The work reported in this paper is the result of interactions between the co-authors during a week-long workshop on exoplanet imaging that was held in Squaw Valley, California, in March of 2012.

Lawson, Peter R.; Frazin, Richard; Barrett, Harrison; Caucci, Luca; Devaney, Nicholas; Furenlid, Lars; Gladysz, Szymon; Guyon, Olivier; Krist, John; Maire, Jerome; Marois, Christian; Mawet, Dimitri; Mouillet, David; Mugnier, Laurent; Perrin, Marshall; Poyneer, Lisa; Pueyo, Laurent; Savransky, Dmitry; Soummer, Remi

2012-01-01

357

On advanced estimation techniques for exoplanet detection and characterization using ground-based coronagraphs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The direct imaging of planets around nearby stars is exceedingly difficult. Only about 14 exoplanets have been imaged to date that have masses less than 13 times that of Jupiter. The next generation of planet-finding coronagraphs, including VLT-SPHERE, the Gemini Planet Imager, Palomar P1640, and Subaru HiCIAO have predicted contrast performance of roughly a thousand times less than would be needed to detect Earth-like planets. In this paper we review the state of the art in exoplanet imaging, most notably the method of Locally Optimized Combination of Images (LOCI), and we investigate the potential of improving the detectability of faint exoplanets through the use of advanced statistical methods based on the concepts of the ideal observer and the Hotelling observer. We propose a formal comparison of techniques using a blind data challenge with an evaluation of performance using the Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) and Localization ROC (LROC) curves. We place particular emphasis on the understanding and modeling of realistic sources of measurement noise in ground-based AO-corrected coronagraphs. The work reported in this paper is the result of interactions between the co-authors during a week-long workshop on exoplanet imaging that was held in Squaw Valley, California, in March of 2012.

Lawson, Peter R.; Poyneer, Lisa; Barrett, Harrison; Frazin, Richard; Caucci, Luca; Devaney, Nicholas; Furenlid, Lars; G?adysz, Szymon; Guyon, Olivier; Krist, John; Maire, Jérôme; Marois, Christian; Mawet, Dimitri; Mouillet, David; Mugnier, Laurent; Pearson, Iain; Perrin, Marshall; Pueyo, Laurent; Savransky, Dmitry

2012-07-01

358

Fabrication of integrated electrodes of molecular transistor by lithographic techniques and electromigration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Integrated electrodes of molecular transistor were obtained. Electrodes includes thin-film Au strips with a 2 - 3 nm gap between them and Al gate electrode covered by Al2O3 oxide. The gap formation were made by electromigration technique and self-breaking process. Small (3 - 5 nm) gold nanoparticle were placed into the gap by self assembling. IV curves were measured at room temperature. These IV curves demonstrated single-electron conductivity of system. Such integrated system of electrodes is suitable to be the source-drain electrodes of planar single-electron transistors based on nano-particles or molecules.

Stepanov, A. S.; Soldatov, E. S.; Snigirev, O. V.

2013-01-01

359

The ORIGAMI Project: advanced tools and techniques for high-end mixing and interaction between real and virtual content  

Microsoft Academic Search

ORIGAMI is an EU-funded IST project with the goal to develop advanced tools and new production techniques for high-quality mixing of real and virtual content for film and TV productions. In particular, the project proposes new techniques for 3D camera calibration and tracking and for 3D scene reconstruction and plenoptic modelling. Such solutions will support a variety of different object

Giovanni Bazzoni; Enrico Bianchi; Oliver Grau; Alec Knox; Reinhard Koch; Fabio Lavagetto; Alex Parkinson; Federico Pedersini; Augusto Sarti; Graham Thomas; Stefano Tubaro

2002-01-01

360

Inherited pancreatic endocrine tumor syndromes: advances in molecular pathogenesis, diagnosis, management and controversies  

PubMed Central

Pancreatic endocrine tumors (PETs) can occur in as part of four inherited disorders including: Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia type 1 (MEN1), von Hippel-Lindau disease (VHL), neurofibromatosis 1(NF-1) [von Recklinghausen’s disease] and the tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC). The relative frequency with which patients with these disorders develop PETs is MEN1>VHL>NF-1>TSC. Over the last few years there have been major advances in the understanding of the genetics and molecular pathogenesis of these disorders as well in the localization, medical and surgical treatment of the PETs in these patients. The study of the PETs in these disorders has not only provided insights into the possible pathogenesis of sporadic PETs, but have also presented a number of unique management and treatment issues, some of which are applicable to patients with sporadic PETs. Therefore the study of PETs in these uncommon disorders has provided valuable insights that in many cases are applicable to the general group of patients with sporadic PETs. In this article these areas are briefly reviewed as well as the current state of knowledge of the PETs in these disorders and the controversies that exist in their management are briefly summarized and discussed.

Jensen, Robert T.; Berna, Marc J.; Bingham, David B; Norton, Jeffrey A.

2008-01-01

361

APPLICATION OF ADVANCED IN VITRO TECHNIQUES TO MEASURE, UNDERSTAND AND PREDICT THE KINETICS AND MECHANISMS OF XENOBIOTIC METABOLISM  

EPA Science Inventory

We have developed a research program in metabolism that involves numerous collaborators across EPA as well as other federal and academic labs. A primary goal is to develop and apply advanced in vitro techniques to measure, understand and predict the kinetics and mechanisms of xen...

362

Recent applications of boxed molecular dynamics: a simple multiscale technique for atomistic simulations.  

PubMed

In this paper, we briefly review the boxed molecular dynamics (BXD) method which allows analysis of thermodynamics and kinetics in complicated molecular systems. BXD is a multiscale technique, in which thermodynamics and long-time dynamics are recovered from a set of short-time simulations. In this paper, we review previous applications of BXD to peptide cyclization, solution phase organic reaction dynamics and desorption of ions from self-assembled monolayers (SAMs). We also report preliminary results of simulations of diamond etching mechanisms and protein unfolding in atomic force microscopy experiments. The latter demonstrate a correlation between the protein's structural motifs and its potential of mean force. Simulations of these processes by standard molecular dynamics (MD) is typically not possible, because the experimental time scales are very long. However, BXD yields well-converged and physically meaningful results. Compared with other methods of accelerated MD, our BXD approach is very simple; it is easy to implement, and it provides an integrated approach for simultaneously obtaining both thermodynamics and kinetics. It also provides a strategy for obtaining statistically meaningful dynamical results in regions of configuration space that standard MD approaches would visit only very rarely. PMID:24982247

Booth, Jonathan; Vazquez, Saulo; Martinez-Nunez, Emilio; Marks, Alison; Rodgers, Jeff; Glowacki, David R; Shalashilin, Dmitrii V

2014-08-01

363

An effusive molecular beam technique for studies of polyatomic gas-surface reactivity and energy transfer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An effusive molecular beam technique is described to measure alkane dissociative sticking coefficients, S(Tg, Ts; ?), on metal surfaces for which the impinging gas temperature, Tg, and surface temperature, Ts, can be independently varied, along with the angle of incidence, ?, of the impinging gas. Effusive beam experiments with Tg = Ts = T allow for determination of angle-resolved dissociative sticking coefficients, S(T; ?), which when averaged over the cos (?)/? angular distribution appropriate to the impinging flux from a thermal ambient gas yield the thermal dissociative sticking coefficient, S(T). Nonequilibrium S(Tg, Ts; ?) measurements for which Tg ? Ts provide additional opportunities to characterize the transition state and gas-surface energy transfer at reactive energies. A resistively heated effusive molecular beam doser controls the Tg of the impinging gas striking the surface. The flux of molecules striking the surface from the effusive beam is determined from knowledge of the dosing geometry, chamber pressure, and pumping speed. Separate experiments with a calibrated leak serve to fix the chamber pumping speed. Postdosing Auger electron spectroscopy is used to measure the carbon of the alkyl radical reaction product that is deposited on the surface as a result of alkane dissociative sticking. As implemented in a typical ultrahigh vacuum chamber for surface analysis, the technique has provided access to a dynamic range of roughly 6 orders of magnitude in the initial dissociative sticking coefficient for small alkanes on Pt(111).

Cushing, G. W.; Navin, J. K.; Valadez, L.; Johánek, V.; Harrison, I.

2011-04-01

364

Sample preparation and in situ hybridization techniques for automated molecular cytogenetic analysis of white blood cells  

SciTech Connect

With the advent in situ hybridization techniques for the analysis of chromosome copy number or structure in interphase cells, the diagnostic and prognostic potential of cytogenetics has been augmented considerably. In theory, the strategies for detection of cytogenetically aberrant cells by in situ hybridization are simple and straightforward. In practice, however, they are fallible, because false classification of hybridization spot number or patterns occurs. When a decision has to be made on molecular cytogenetic normalcy or abnormalcy of a cell sample, the problem of false classification becomes particularly prominent if the fraction of aberrant cells is relatively small. In such mosaic situations, often > 200 cells have to be evaluated to reach a statistical sound figure. The manual enumeration of in situ hybridization spots in many cells in many patient samples is tedious. Assistance in the evaluation process by automation of microscope functions and image analysis techniques is, therefore, strongly indicated. Next to research and development of microscope hardware, camera technology, and image analysis, the optimization of the specimen for the (semi)automated microscopic analysis is essential, since factors such as cell density, thickness, and overlap have dramatic influences on the speed and complexity of the analysis process. Here we describe experiments that have led to a protocol for blood cell specimen that results in microscope preparations that are well suited for automated molecular cytogenetic analysis. 13 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

Rijke, F.M. van de; Vrolijk, H.; Sloos, W. [Leiden Univ. (Netherlands)] [and others] [Leiden Univ. (Netherlands); and others

1996-06-01

365

Application of different molecular techniques for characterization of catalase-positive cocci isolated from sucuk.  

PubMed

This study was carried out for the characterization and discrimination of the indigenous Gram positive, catalase-positive cocci (GCC) population in sucuk, a traditional Turkish dry-fermented sausage. Sucuk samples, produced by the traditional method without starter culture were collected from 8 local producers in Kayseri/Turkey and a total of 116 GCC isolates were identified by using different molecular techniques. Two different molecular fingerprinting methods; namely, randomly amplified polymorphic DNA-PCR (RAPD-PCR) and repetitive extragenic palindrome-PCR (rep-PCR), were used for the clustering of isolates and identification at species level was carried out by full length sequencing of 16S rDNA. Combining the results obtained from molecular fingerprinting and 16S rDNA sequencing showed that the dominant GCC species isolated from the sucuk samples was Staphylococcus saprophyticus followed by Staphylococcus succinus and Staphylococcus equorum belonging to the Staphylococcus genus. Real-time PCR DNA melting curve analysis and high-resolution melting (HRM) analysis targeting the V1 + V3 regions of 16S rDNA were also applied for the discrimination of isolates belonging to different species. It was observed statistically different Tm values and species-specific HRM profiles for all except 2 species (S. saprophyticus and Staphylococcus xylosus) that have high 16S rDNA sequence similarity. The combination of rep-PCR and/or PCR-RAPD with 16S rRNA gene sequencing was an efficient approach for the characterization and identification of the GCC population in spontaneously fermented sucuk. On the other hand, intercalating dye assays were found to be a simple and very promising technique for the differentiation of the GCC population at species level. PMID:24410408

Kesmen, Zülal; Yarimcam, Burcu; Aslan, Hakiye; Ozbekar, Esra; Yetim, Hasan

2014-02-01

366

Evaluation of disinfection techniques in the treatment of advanced primary treated wastewater for Ciudad Juárez, México.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to develop and evaluate the effectiveness of alternative disinfection techniques at the bench-scale level using wastewater from Ciudad Juarez, Mexico, as model feed. This paper presents findings on the effectiveness of UV radiation, peracetic acid (PAA), chlorine dioxide (ClO2), and hypochlorous acid (HOCl) as disinfectants for advanced primary treatment (APT) plant effluent. Wastewater samples for bench-scale testing were collected from an agua negra ("black water") ditch that is part of the combined sewer system in Ciudad Juarez. Bench-scale simulations of the APT process used in Ciudad Juarez were run using a jar test apparatus and aluminum sulfate [Al2(SO4)3] as the coagulant. Jar test effluent from the bench system was used for disinfection testing. The Mexican discharge quality standard for total coliforms is 10 000/100 mL. Ultraviolet radiation met this standard at a dose of 47.5 mW-s/cm2. Ultraviolet disinfection proved reliable and effective despite the presence of suspended solids, and UV dose effectiveness expressed as a total coliforms survival ratio was best explained by a linear regression model. The ClO2 dose ranged from 10 to 20 mg/L and was only effective under ambient temperature conditions found during the winter months; PAA disinfection never met Mexican standards. Chlorine disinfection was effective at a dose range of 8 to 10 mg/L on samples collected at low temperature conditions. Since the completion of this research, Ciudad Juarez has discontinued the use of chlorine disinfection because of its high cost and ineffectiveness. PMID:16553166

Carrasco, Leirad; Turner, Charles D

2006-01-01

367

Advances in molecular techniques for the detection and quantification of genetically modified organisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Progress in genetic engineering has led to the introduction of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) whose genomes have been\\u000a altered by the integration of a novel sequence conferring a new trait. To allow consumers an informed choice, many countries\\u000a require food products to be labeled if the GMO content exceeds a certain threshold. Consequently, the development of analytical\\u000a methods for GMO

Dimitrios S. Elenis; Despina P. Kalogianni; Kyriaki Glynou; Penelope C. Ioannou; Theodore K. Christopoulos

2008-01-01

368

A Research Project-Based and Self-Determined Teaching System of Molecular Biology Techniques for Undergraduates  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Molecular biology techniques play a very important role in understanding the biological activity. Students who major in biology should know not only how to perform experiments, but also the reasons for performing them. Having the concept of conducting research by integrating various techniques is especially important. This paper introduces a…

Zhang, Shuping

2008-01-01

369

Soft X-ray microscopy and spectroscopy at the molecular environmental science beamline at the Advanced Light Source  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present examples of the application of synchrotron-based spectroscopies and microscopies to environmentally relevant samples. The experiments were performed at the molecular environmental science beamline (11.0.2) at the Advanced Light Source, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. Examples range from the study of water monolayers on Pt(111) single crystal surfaces using X-ray emission spectroscopy and the examination of alkali halide solution\\/water vapor

Hendrik Bluhm; Klas J. Andersson; Tohru Araki; Karim Benzerara; Gordon E. Brown; Jay J. Dynes; Sutapa Ghosal; Mary K. Gilles; Hans C. Hansen; J. C. Hemminger; Adam P. Hitchcock; Guido Ketteler; Arthur L. Kilcoyne; Eric M. Kneedler; John R. Lawrence; Gary G. Leppard; Juraj Majzlam; B. S. Mun; Satish C. Myneni; Anders R. Nilsson; Hirohito Ogasawara; D. F. Ogletree; Klaus H. Pecher; Miquel B. Salmeron; David K. Shuh; Brian Tonner; Tolek Tyliszczak; Tony Warwick; T. H. Yoon

2006-01-01

370

Wang-Landau molecular dynamics technique to search for low-energy conformational space of proteins  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Multicanonical molecular dynamics (MD) is a powerful technique for sampling conformations on rugged potential surfaces such as protein. However, it is notoriously difficult to estimate the multicanonical temperature effectively. Wang and Landau developed a convenient method for estimating the density of states based on a multicanonical Monte Carlo method. In their method, the density of states is calculated autonomously during a simulation. In this paper, we develop a set of techniques to effectively apply the Wang-Landau method to MD simulations. In the multicanonical MD, the estimation of the derivative of the density of states is critical. In order to estimate it accurately, we devise two original improvements. First, the correction for the density of states is made smooth by using the Gaussian distribution obtained by a short canonical simulation. Second, an approximation is applied to the derivative, which is based on the Gaussian distribution and the multiple weighted histogram technique. A test of this method was performed with small polypeptides, Met-enkephalin and Trp-cage, and it is demonstrated that Wang-Landau MD is consistent with replica exchange MD but can sample much larger conformational space.

Nagasima, Takehiro; Kinjo, Akira R.; Mitsui, Takashi; Nishikawa, Ken

2007-06-01

371

Individual Particle Analysis of Ambient PM(2.5) Using Advanced Electron Microscopy Techniques (Final Report, August 1, 2005-December 31, 2006).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The overall goal of this project was to demonstrate a combination of advanced electron microscopy techniques that can be effectively used to identify and characterize individual particles and their sources. Specific techniques to be used include high-angl...

G. J. Keeler M. Morishita

2006-01-01

372

Advance InSAR techniques for the characterization of deep seated gravitational slope deformation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SqueeSAR SAR interferometry is one of today's most advanced technologies for surface deformation analysis, capable of overcoming most of the limitations of conventional differential radar interferometry. It exploits long temporal series of satellite radar data, acquired over the same area of interest at different times, to identify "natural radar targets" where very precise displacement information can be retrieved. Thanks to its capability in detecting millimetre level displacements over long time periods and large areas, SqueeSAR can be considered complementary to conventional geological and geomorphological studies in landslide detection and monitoring, supporting the effectiveness of landslide inventories at regional scales. The availability of surface displacement time series for all radar targets identified also makes it possible to change the scale of analysis from regional to local, allowing in depth studies into the evolution of single instability phenomena, supporting the design of traditional monitoring networks, and even verifying the efficiency of remedial works. SqueeSAR analysis is particularly suitable for the study of Deep-seated Gravitational Slope Deformation (DSGSD) characterised by large extents and slow surface displacement (ranging from a few millimeters to tens of millimeters per year). A detailed case study of the DSGSD at Berceto (Parma, Italy) is presented here. By processing satellite SAR data from 1992-2000 and combining the results obtained both from ascending and descending acquisition geometries it was possible to obtain the vertical and E-W components of surface displacement. The results of the analysis suggested that the model describing the evolution of the DSGSD at Berceto is nevertheless more complex than previously expected. Further investigations (geophysical surveys and borehole analysis) were carried out in order to gather additional subsurface data. Moreover, a new ground based monitoring system was designed in order to integrate the results obtained from satellite radar interferometry and improve knowledge of the landslide dynamics. In this paper, the results obtained from applying the SqueeSAR technique are presented. A correlation with the results of the geophysical investigations are proposed, with a preliminary interpretation of the surface displacement trends on the upper part of the slope.

Tamburini, A.; Del Conte, S.; Lopardo, L.; Malaguti, C.; Larini, G.; Vescovi, P.

2012-04-01

373

Electrical characterization of ensemble of GaN nanowires grown by the molecular beam epitaxy technique  

SciTech Connect

High quality Schottky contacts are formed on GaN nanowires (NWs) structures grown by the molecular beam epitaxy technique on Si(111) substrate. The current-voltage characteristics show the rectification ratio of about 10{sup 3} and the leakage current of about 10{sup ?4} A/cm{sup 2} at room temperature. From the capacitance-voltage measurements the free carrier concentration in GaN NWs is determined as about 10{sup 16} cm{sup ?3}. Two deep levels (H200 and E280) are found in the structures containing GaN NWs. H200 is attributed to an extended defect located at the interface between the substrate and SiN{sub x} or near the sidewalls at the bottom of the NWs whereas E280 is tentatively assigned to a gallium-vacancy- or nitrogen interstitials-related defect.

Kolkovsky, Vl. [Technische Universität Dresden, 01062 Dresden (Germany)] [Technische Universität Dresden, 01062 Dresden (Germany); Zytkiewicz, Z. R.; Sobanska, M.; Klosek, K. [Institute of Physics Polish Academy of Sciences, Al. Lotnikow 32-46, 02-668 Warsaw (Poland)] [Institute of Physics Polish Academy of Sciences, Al. Lotnikow 32-46, 02-668 Warsaw (Poland)

2013-08-26

374

Operation mechanism of rotary molecular motor F1 probed by single-molecule techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

F1 is a rotary motor protein. Three catalytic ?-subunits in the stator ?3?3 ring are torque generators, and rotate the rotor ?-subunit by sequential and cooperative conformational changes coupled with adenosine triphosphate (ATP) hydrolysis reaction. F1 shows remarkable performances such as rotation rate faster than 10,000 rpm, high reversibility and efficiency in chemo-mechanical energy conversion. I will introduce basic characteristics of F1 revealed by single-molecule imaging and manipulation techniques based on optical microscopy and high-speed atomic force microscopy. I will also discuss the possible operation mechanism behind the F1, along with structurally-related hexameric ATPases, also mentioning the possibility of generating hybrid molecular motors.

Iino, Ryota

2013-03-01

375

A study on the molecular interaction of PPG 3000 and its blend using ultrasonic technique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ultrasonic study has become an important research tool in the field of polymers for investigating the structure and molecular interactions in multi component system. Ultrasonic studies were carried out on Polypropylene glycol [PPG 3000] at different concentrations [0-1%] in toluene at 303K. Various parameters like adiabatic compressibility, free volume and internal pressure were calculated. The ultrasonic velocity increases with increase in the concentration. An attempt has been made to blend Polypropylene glycol [PPG] 400 with PPG 3000 at 303K at various compositions and the miscibility nature of the blend is analyzed through ultrasonic study. The variation of ultrasonic velocity with blend composition is nonlinear and follows S-type pattern, which shows that the blend is immiscible. The miscibility nature of the blend is further confirmed through other techniques like viscosity and optical studies.

Venkatramanan, K.; Padmanaban, R.; Arumugam, V.

2012-05-01

376

Synthesis and Bioconjugation of Gold Nanoparticles as Potential Molecular Probes for Light-Based Imaging Techniques  

PubMed Central

We have synthesized and characterized gold nanoparticles (spheres and rods) with optical extinction bands within the “optical imaging window.” The intense plasmon resonant driven absorption and scattering peaks of these nanoparticles make them suitable as contrast agents for optical imaging techniques. Further, we have conjugated these gold nanoparticles to a mouse monoclonal antibody specific to HER2 overexpressing SKBR3 breast carcinoma cells. The bioconjugation protocol uses noncovalent modes of binding based on a combination of electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions of the antibody and the gold surface. We discuss various aspects of the synthesis and bioconjugation protocols and the characterization results of the functionalized nanoparticles. Some proposed applications of these potential molecular probes in the field of biomedical imaging are also discussed.

Rayavarapu, Raja Gopal; Petersen, Wilma; Ungureanu, Constantin; Post, Janine N.; van Leeuwen, Ton G.; Manohar, Srirang

2007-01-01

377

The Application of Molecular Techniques to the Study of Wastewater Treatment Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wastewater treatment systems tend to be engineered to select for a few functional microbial groups that may be organized in various spatial structures such as activated sludge flocs, biofilm or granules and represented by single coherent phylogenic groups such as ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and polyphosphate-accumulating organisms (PAO). In order to monitor and control engineered microbial structure in wastewater treatment systems, it is necessary to understand the relationships between the microbial community structure and the process performance. This review focuses on bacterial communities in wastewater treatment processes, the quantity of microorganisms and structure of microbial consortia in wastewater treatment bioreactors. The review shows that the application of molecular techniques in studies of engineered environmental systems has increased our insight into the vast diversity and interaction of microorganisms present in wastewater treatment systems.

Wojnowska-Bary?a, Irena; Cydzik-Kwiatkowska, Agnieszka; Zieli?ska, Magdalena

378

Selective extraction of lamivudine in human serum and urine using molecularly imprinted polymer technique.  

PubMed

In this work, a novel technique is described for determination of lamivudine in biological fluids by molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) as the sample clean-up method joint with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). MIPs were prepared using methacrylic acid as functional monomer, ethylene glycol dimethacrylate as crosslinker, acetonitrile and tetrahydrofuran as porogen and lamivudine as the template molecule. The new imprinted polymer was used as a molecular sorbent for the separation of lamivudine from human serum and urine. Molecular recognition properties, binding capacity and selectivity of the MIPs were evaluated and the results showed that the obtained MIPs have a high affinity for lamivudine in aqueous medium. HPLC analyses showed that the extraction of lamivudine from serum and urine by MIPs had a linear calibration curve in the range of 60-700?g/L with excellent precisions of 2.73% for serum and 2.60% for urine. The limit of detection and quantization of lamivudine was 19.34 and 58.6?g/L in serum and 7.95 and 24.05?g/L in urine respectively. MIP extraction provided about 10 fold LOQ improvement in serum and 5 fold LOQ improvement in urine samples. The recoveries of lamivudine in serum and urine samples were found to be 84.2-93.5% and 82.5-90.8% respectively. Due to the high precision and accuracy, this method may be the UV-HPLC choice with MIP extraction for bioequivalence analysis of lamivudine in serum and urine. PMID:23764731

Shekarchi, Maryam; Pourfarzib, Mojgan; Akbari-Adergani, Behrouz; Mehramizi, Ali; Javanbakht, Mehran; Dinarvand, Rassoul

2013-07-15

379

Detection and Location of the Dead Sea Shots Using Advanced Processing Techniques.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Seismic data of the Dead Sea calibration experiment, which provided Ground Truth source parameters, were used in studying advanced signal processing methods. The data set includes recordings of the SP stations of the Israel Seismic Network (ISN), the EILA...

A. Malitzky A. Shapira V. Pinsky Y. Gitterman

2000-01-01

380

Use of molecular epidemiological techniques in a pilot study on workers exposed to chromium.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES--Molecular epidemiological techniques, capable of detecting damage to DNA, were used to see if such damage occurred in the lymphocytes of a group of workers exposed to chromium. The two aims of this pilot study were to see if these new techniques might make useful biological monitoring tools for workers exposed to chromium and also, to help assess whether the current occupational exposure limit for chromium (VI) was sufficiently protective in this specific working situation. METHODS--Volunteer groups of 10 workers exposed to chromium and 10 non-exposed workers provided urine and blood samples towards the end of the working week. Chromium concentrations were measured in whole blood, plasma, lymphocytes, and urine. Lymphocytes were used to examine two forms of DNA damage in the two groups; these were the level of DNA strand breakage and, the production of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine. RESULTS--Chromium concentration in whole blood, plasma, and urine of workers exposed to chromium was significantly raised (P < 0.01) compared with non-exposed controls, but in isolated lymphocytes, there was only a modest but significant (P < 0.05) increase in chromium in the group exposed to chromium. There was no difference in the levels of DNA strand breaks or 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine between the groups. Air monitoring for chromium was not undertaken but current levels for the group exposed to chromium were reported to be around 0.01 mg/m3, which is 20% of the current United Kingdom occupational exposure limit. CONCLUSIONS--We were unable to detect any damage in lymphocytic DNA due to exposure to chromium. This may have been due to the low chromium exposure (< 20% of the United Kingdom occupational exposure limit), the ability of plasma to detoxify chromium (VI) to chromium (III) before it reached the lymphocytes, or perhaps the insensitivity of the molecular techniques used. It is now important to test these and other such techniques on groups exposed to levels closer to the United Kingdom occupational exposure limit.

Gao, M; Levy, L S; Faux, S P; Aw, T C; Braithwaite, R A; Brown, S S

1994-01-01

381

Sex determination of Pohnpei Micronesian kingfishers using morphological and molecular genetic techniques  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Conservation-oriented studies of Micronesian Kingfishers (Todiramphus cinnamominus) have been hindered by a lack of basic natural history information, despite the status of the Guam subspecies (T. c. cinnamominus) as one of the most endangered species in the world. We used tissue samples and morphometric measures from museum specimens and wild-captured Pohnpei Micronesian Kingfishers (T. c. reichenbachii) to develop methods for sex determination. We present a modified molecular protocol and a discriminant function that yields the probability that a particular individual is male or female. Our results revealed that females were significantly larger than males, and the discriminant function correctly predicted sex in 73% (30/41) of the individuals. The sex of 86% (18/21) of individuals was correctly assigned when a moderate reliability threshold was set. Sex determination using molecular genetic techniques was more reliable than methods based on morphology. Our results will facilitate recovery efforts for the critically endangered Guam Micronesian Kingfisher and provide a basis for sex determination in the 11 other endangered congeners in the Pacific Basin.

Kesler, Dylan C.; Lopes, I. F.; Haig, Susan M.

2006-01-01

382

Application of molecular techniques for the assessment of microorganism diversity on cultural heritage objects.  

PubMed

As a result of their unpredictable ability to adapt to varying environmental conditions, microorganisms inhabit different types of biological niches on Earth. Owing to the key role of microorganisms in many biogeochemical processes, trends in modern microbiology emphasize the need to know and understand the structure and function of complex microbial communities. This is particularly important if the strategy relates to microbial communities that cause biodeterioration of materials that constitute our cultural heritage. Until recently, the detection and identification of microorganisms inhabiting objects of cultural value was based only on cultivation-dependent methods. In spite of many advantages, these methods provide limited information because they identify only viable organisms capable of growth under standard laboratory conditions. However, in order to carry out proper conservation and renovation, it is necessary to know the complete composition of microbial communities and their activity. This paper presents and characterizes modern techniques such as genetic fingerprinting and clone library construction for the assessment of microbial diversity based on molecular biology. Molecular methods represent a favourable alternative to culture-dependent methods and make it possible to assess the biodiversity of microorganisms inhabiting technical materials and cultural heritage objects. PMID:24927237

Otlewska, Anna; Adamiak, Justyna; Gutarowska, Beata

2014-01-01

383

The challenge of advanced model-based fdir techniques for aerospace systems: the 2011 situation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For aerospace systems, advanced model-based Fault Detection, Identification, and Recovery (FDIR) challenges range from predesign and design stages for upcoming and new programs up to the improvement of the performance of in-service flying systems. However, today, their application to real aerospace world has remained extremely limited. The paper underlines the reasons for a widening gap between the advanced scientific FDIR methods being developed by the academic community and technological solutions demanded by the aerospace industry.

Zolghadri, A.

2013-12-01

384

An effusive molecular beam technique for studies of polyatomic gas-surface reactivity and energy transfer.  

PubMed

An effusive molecular beam technique is described to measure alkane dissociative sticking coefficients, S(T(g), T(s); ?), on metal surfaces for which the impinging gas temperature, T(g), and surface temperature, T(s), can be independently varied, along with the angle of incidence, ?, of the impinging gas. Effusive beam experiments with T(g) = T(s) = T allow for determination of angle-resolved dissociative sticking coefficients, S(T; ?), which when averaged over the cos?(?)/? angular distribution appropriate to the impinging flux from a thermal ambient gas yield the thermal dissociative sticking coefficient, S(T). Nonequilibrium S(T(g), T(s); ?) measurements for which T(g) ? T(s) provide additional opportunities to characterize the transition state and gas-surface energy transfer at reactive energies. A resistively heated effusive molecular beam doser controls the T(g) of the impinging gas striking the surface. The flux of molecules striking the surface from the effusive beam is determined from knowledge of the dosing geometry, chamber pressure, and pumping speed. Separate experiments with a calibrated leak serve to fix the chamber pumping speed. Postdosing Auger electron spectroscopy is used to measure the carbon of the alkyl radical reaction product that is deposited on the surface as a result of alkane dissociative sticking. As implemented in a typical ultrahigh vacuum chamber for surface analysis, the technique has provided access to a dynamic range of roughly 6 orders of magnitude in the initial dissociative sticking coefficient for small alkanes on Pt(111). PMID:21529024

Cushing, G W; Navin, J K; Valadez, L; Johánek, V; Harrison, I

2011-04-01

385

Studies of Signaling Domains in Model and Biological Membranes through Advanced Imaging Techniques: Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Cellular membranes have complex lipid and protein structures that are laterally organized for optimized molecular recognition and signal transduction processes. Knowledge of nanometer-scale lateral organization and its function is of great importance in t...

A. R. Burns B. S. Wilson J. M. Oliver J. R. Pfeiffer

2006-01-01

386

The investigation of advanced remote sensing, radiative transfer and inversion techniques for the measurement of atmospheric constituents  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The research program is documented for developing space and ground-based remote sensing techniques performed during the period from December 15, 1977 to March 15, 1985. The program involved the application of sophisticated radiative transfer codes and inversion methods to various advanced remote sensing concepts for determining atmospheric constituents, particularly aerosols. It covers detailed discussions of the solar aureole technique for monitoring columnar aerosol size distribution, and the multispectral limb scattered radiance and limb attenuated radiance (solar occultation) techniques, as well as the upwelling scattered solar radiance method for determining the aerosol and gaseous characteristics. In addition, analytical models of aerosol size distribution and simulation studies of the limb solar aureole radiance technique and the variability of ozone at high altitudes during satellite sunrise/sunset events are also described in detail.

Deepak, Adarsh; Wang, Pi-Huan

1985-01-01

387

Advances in the 3-D Forward–Backward Time-Stepping (FBTS) Inverse Scattering Technique for Breast Cancer Detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents recent advances in a 3-D inverse scattering technique, called forward-backward time-stepping (FBTS), applied to the reconstruction of the microwave properties of the breast. The FBTS algorithm is utilized for a numerical-based study of a 3-D breast model based on an MRI. Several illumination schemes, based on different microwave transmitter\\/receiver configurations, are compared based on the quality of

Takashi Takenaka; Kismet Anak Hong Ping; Shunsuke Honda; Toshiyuki Tanaka

2009-01-01

388

Primary repair of advanced obstetric anal sphincter tears: should it be performed by the overlapping sphincteroplasty technique?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Advanced obstetric anal sphincter tears are often associated with a high incidence of fecal and flatus incontinence. We aimed\\u000a to assess the clinical outcome of these repairs when done by the overlapping sphincteroplasty technique with reconstruction\\u000a of the internal anal sphincter and perineum. Between August 2005 and December 2006, all grades 3 and 4 obstetric anal sphincter\\u000a tears in our

Yoram Abramov; Beni Feiner; Thalma Rosen; Motti Bardichev; Eli Gutterman; Arie Lissak; Ron Auslander

2008-01-01

389

Studies of the nuclear processes of proton capture photon production and spallation neutron emission with advanced experimental techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of nuclear reaction experiments have been performed in the intermediate energy range up to 1.6 GeV using advanced techniques to detect and measure neutral ejectiles resulting mainly from proton bombardment of both light and heavy nuclei. The proton capture reaction A(p,gamma)A + 1 was studied using a new type of pair spectrometer with large acceptance (PACMAN), which was

Johan Thun

1999-01-01

390

New AFM Techniques for Investigating Molecular Growth Mechanisms of Protein Crystals  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) has emerged as a powerful technique for investigating protein crystal growth. Earlier AFM studies were among the first to demonstrate that these crystals grew by dislocation and 2D nucleation growth mechanisms [1]. These investigations were restricted to the micron range where only surface features, such as dislocation hillocks and 2D islands are visible. Most AFM instruments can scan at higher resolutions and have the potential to resolve individual protein molecules at nanometer ranges. Such scans are essential for determining the molecular packing arrangements on crystal faces and for probing the growth process at the molecular level. However, at this resolution the AFM tip influences the image produced, with the resulting image being a convolution of the tip shape and the surface morphology [2]. In most studies this problem is resolved by deconvoluting the image to obtain the true surface morphology. Although deconvolution routines work reasonably well for simple one- dimensional shapes, for complex surfaces this approach does not produce accurate results. In this study we devised a new approach which takes advantage of the precise molecular order of crystal surfaces, combined with the knowledge of individual molecular shapes from the crystallographic data of the protein and the AFM tip shape. This information is used to construct expected theoretical AFM images by convoluting the tip shape with the constructed crystal surface shape for a given surface packing arrangement. By comparing the images from actual AFM scans with the constructed ones for different possible surface packing arrangements, the correct packing arrangement can be conclusively determined. This approach was used in this study to determine the correct one from two possible packing arrangements on (I 10) faces of tetragonal lysozyme crystals. Another novel AFM technique was also devised to measure the dimension of individual growth units of the crystal faces. Measuring these units was not attempted before and most studies have assumed that the growth unit consisted of individual protein molecules. The linescan mode of AFM instruments allows the crystal surface to be scanned along a single line. By scanning across a growth step an image showing the motion of the step is obtained. Normally such an image shows a straight line for continuous and constant step velocity. In this study by increasing the scan rate and by decreasing the step velocity (by decreasing the supersaturation), we were able to capture images of individual growth events, shown by jump discontinuities in the step line. By suitable integration of the image the growth unit dimension in the scanned direction can be obtained. Since multiple units can be involved in the growth process it is necessary to collect a statistically relevant sample before drawing conclusions about the growth mechanism. This technique was successfully employed to obtain the dimensions of growth units for the (110) face, showing that they consisted of various aggregates corresponding to the 43 helices in the crystal structure.

Li, Huayu; Nadarajah, Arunan; Konnert, John H.; Pusey, Marc L.

1998-01-01

391

Comparative study of four advanced 3d-conformal radiation therapy treatment planning techniques for head and neck cancer  

PubMed Central

For the head-and-neck cancer bilateral irradiation, intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) is the most reported technique as it enables both target dose coverage and organ-at-risk (OAR) sparing. However, during the last 20 years, three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT) techniques have been introduced, which are tailored to improve the classic shrinking field technique, as regards both planning target volume (PTV) dose conformality and sparing of OAR’s, such as parotid glands and spinal cord. In this study, we tested experimentally in a sample of 13 patients, four of these advanced 3DCRT techniques, all using photon beams only and a unique isocentre, namely Bellinzona, Forward-Planned Multisegments (FPMS), ConPas, and field-in-field (FIF) techniques. Statistical analysis of the main dosimetric parameters of PTV and OAR’s DVH’s as well as of homogeneity and conformity indexes was carried out in order to compare the performance of each technique. The results show that the PTV dose coverage is adequate for all the techniques, with the FPMS techniques providing the highest value for D95%; on the other hand, the best sparing of parotid glands is achieved using the FIF and ConPas techniques, with a mean dose of 26 Gy to parotid glands for a PTV prescription dose of 54 Gy. After taking into account both PTV coverage and parotid sparing, the best global performance was achieved by the FIF technique with results comparable to that of IMRT plans. This technique can be proposed as a valid alternative when IMRT equipment is not available or patient is not suitable for IMRT treatment.

Herrassi, Mohamed Yassine; Bentayeb, Farida; Malisan, Maria Rosa

2013-01-01

392

Development of heat transfer enhancement techniques for external cooling of an advanced reactor vessel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nucleate boiling is a well-recognized means for passively removing high heat loads (up to ˜106 W/m2) generated by a molten reactor core under severe accident conditions while maintaining relatively low reactor vessel temperature (<800 °C). With the upgrade and development of advanced power reactors, however, enhancing the nucleate boiling rate and its upper limit, Critical Heat Flux (CHF), becomes the key to the success of external passive cooling of reactor vessel undergoing core disrupture accidents. In the present study, two boiling heat transfer enhancement methods have been proposed, experimentally investigated and theoretically modelled. The first method involves the use of a suitable surface coating to enhance downward-facing boiling rate and CHF limit so as to substantially increase the possibility of reactor vessel surviving high thermal load attack. The second method involves the use of an enhanced vessel/insulation design to facilitate the process of steam venting through the annular channel formed between the reactor vessel and the insulation structure, which in turn would further enhance both the boiling rate and CHF limit. Among the various available surface coating techniques, metallic micro-porous layer surface coating has been identified as an appropriate coating material for use in External Reactor Vessel Cooling (ERVC) based on the overall consideration of enhanced performance, durability, the ease of manufacturing and application. Since no previous research work had explored the feasibility of applying such a metallic micro-porous layer surface coating on a large, downward facing and curved surface such as the bottom head of a reactor vessel, a series of characterization tests and experiments were performed in the present study to determine a suitable coating material composition and application method. Using the optimized metallic micro-porous surface coatings, quenching and steady-state boiling experiments were conducted in the Sub-scale Boundary Layer Boiling (SBLB) test facility at Penn State to investigate the nucleate boiling and CHF enhancement effects of the surface coatings by comparing the measurements with those for a plain vessel without coatings. An overall enhancement in nucleate boiling rates and CHF limits up to 100% were observed. Moreover, combination of data from quenching experiments and steady-state experiments produced new sets of boiling curves, which covered both the nucleate and transient boiling regimes with much greater accuracy. Beside the experimental work, a theoretical CHF model has also been developed by considering the vapor dynamics and the boiling-induced two-phase motions in three separate regions adjacent to the heating surface. The CHF model is capable of predicting the performance of micro-porous coatings with given particle diameter, porosity, media permeability and thickness. It is found that the present CHF model agrees favorably with the experimental data. Effects of an enhanced vessel/insulation structure on the local nucleate boiling rate and CHF limit have also been investigated experimentally. It is observed that the local two-phase flow quantities such as the local void fraction, quality, mean vapor velocity, mean liquid velocity, and mean vapor and liquid mass flow rates could have great impact on the local surface heat flux as boiling of water takes place on the vessel surface. An upward co-current two-phase flow model has been developed to predict the local two-phase flow behavior for different flow channel geometries, which are set by the design of insulation structures. It is found from the two-phase flow visualization experiments and the two-phase flow model calculations that the enhanced vessel/insulation structure greatly improved the steam venting process at the minimum gap location compared to the performance of thermal insulation structures without enhancement. Moveover, depending on the angular location, steady-state boiling experiments with the enhanced insulation design showed an enhancement of 1.8 to 3.0 times in the local critical h

Yang, Jun

393

Molecular pathology and genetic advances in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: an emerging molecular pathway and the significance of glial pathology.  

PubMed

Research into amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) has been stimulated by a series of genetic and molecular pathology discoveries. The hallmark neuronal cytoplasmic inclusions of sporadic ALS (sALS) predominantly comprise a nuclear RNA processing protein, TDP-43 encoded by the gene TARDBP, a discovery that emerged from high throughput analysis of human brain tissue from patients with frontotemporal dementia (FTD) who share a common molecular pathology with ALS. The link between RNA processing and ALS was further strengthened by the discovery that another genetic locus linking familial ALS (fALS) and FTD was due to mutation of the fused in sarcoma (FUS) gene. Of potentially even greater importance it emerges that TDP-43 accumulation and inclusion formation characterises not only most sALS cases but also those that arise from mutations in several genes including TARDBP (predominantly ALS cases) itself, C9ORF72 (ALS and FTD cases), progranulin (predominantly FTD phenotypes), VAPB (predominantly ALS cases) and in some ALS cases with rare genetic variants of uncertain pathogenicity (CHMP2B). "TDP-proteinopathy" therefore now represents a final common pathology associated with changes in multiple genes and opens the possibility of research by triangulation towards key common upstream molecular events. It also delivers final proof of the hypothesis that ALS and most FTD cases are disorders within a common pathology expressed as a clinico-anatomical spectrum. The emergence of TDP-proteinopathy also confirms the view that glial pathology is a crucial facet in this class of neurodegeneration, adding to the established view of non-nerve cell autonomous degeneration of the motor system from previous research on SOD1 fALS. Future research into the mechanisms of TDP-43 and FUS-related neurodegeneration, taking into account the major component of glial pathology now revealed in those disorders will significantly accelerate new discoveries in this field, including target identification for new therapy. PMID:22105541

Ince, Paul G; Highley, J Robin; Kirby, Janine; Wharton, Stephen B; Takahashi, Hitoshi; Strong, Michael J; Shaw, Pamela J

2011-12-01

394

Experimental and molecular docking studies on DNA binding interaction of adefovir dipivoxil: advances toward treatment of hepatitis B virus infections.  

PubMed

The toxic interaction of adefovir dipivoxil with calf thymus DNA (CT-DNA) was investigated in vitro under simulated physiological conditions by multi-spectroscopic techniques and molecular modeling study. The fluorescence spectroscopy and UV absorption spectroscopy indicated drug interacted with CT-DNA in a groove binding mode. The binding constant of UV-visible and the number of binding sites were 3.33±0.2×10(4) L mol(-1)and 0.99, respectively. The fluorimetric studies showed that the reaction between the drug and CT-DNA is exothermic (?H=34.4 kJ mol(-1); ?S=184.32 J mol(-1) K(-1)). Circular dichroism spectroscopy (CD) was employed to measure the conformational change of CT-DNA in the presence of adefovir dipivoxil, which verified the groove binding mode. Furthermore, the drug induces detectable changes in its viscosity. The molecular modeling results illustrated that adefovir strongly binds to groove of DNA by relative binding energy of docked structure -16.83 kJ mol(-1). This combination of multiple spectroscopic techniques and molecular modeling methods can be widely used in the investigation on the toxic interaction of small molecular pollutants and drugs with bio macromolecules, which contributes to clarify the molecular mechanism of toxicity or side effect in vivo. PMID:24548808

Shahabadi, Nahid; Falsafi, Monireh

2014-05-01

395

Experimental and molecular docking studies on DNA binding interaction of adefovir dipivoxil: Advances toward treatment of hepatitis B virus infections  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The toxic interaction of adefovir dipivoxil with calf thymus DNA (CT-DNA) was investigated in vitro under simulated physiological conditions by multi-spectroscopic techniques and molecular modeling study. The fluorescence spectroscopy and UV absorption spectroscopy indicated drug interacted with CT-DNA in a groove binding mode. The binding constant of UV-visible and the number of binding sites were 3.33 ± 0.2 × 104 L mol-1and 0.99, respectively. The fluorimetric studies showed that the reaction between the drug and CT-DNA is exothermic (?H = 34.4 kJ mol-1; ?S = 184.32 J mol-1 K-1). Circular dichroism spectroscopy (CD) was employed to measure the conformational change of CT-DNA in the presence of adefovir dipivoxil, which verified the groove binding mode. Furthermore, the drug induces detectable changes in its viscosity. The molecular modeling results illustrated that adefovir strongly binds to groove of DNA by relative binding energy of docked structure -16.83 kJ mol-1. This combination of multiple spectroscopic techniques and molecular modeling methods can be widely used in the investigation on the toxic interaction of small molecular pollutants and drugs with bio macromolecules, which contributes to clarify the molecular mechanism of toxicity or side effect in vivo.

Shahabadi, Nahid; Falsafi, Monireh

396

An Advanced Optimization Technique for Layer-Specific Characterization of Slab Metamaterials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new optimization technique for evaluating the complex effective relative permittivity and permeability of elementary sub-slab whose thickness equals to the constant of a unit cell of a slab metamaterial is developed. The objective of the technique is based on a numerical solving of appropriate minimization problem for a cascaded network representation of the slab metamaterial utilizing the Effective Medium Theory (EMT) and the definition of S- and T-parameters of the metamaterials considered as a four-pole network. The technique is tested using the open source FDTD software package and the optimization technique obtained [O. Rybin and M. Raza, Int. J. Appl. Electrom. Mech.32, 207 (2010)].

Rybin, Oleg

2013-04-01

397

Advances in methods and techniques for the identification of xenobiotic conjugates  

SciTech Connect

This review discusses recent advances in methods and instrumentation that are potentially useful for the characterization of polar xenobiotic conjugates. Topics that are discussed include: fast atom bombardment, secondary ion, /sup 252/Cf-plasma desorption, field desorption and direct chemical ionization mass spectrometry and, proton and carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry.

Paulson, G.D.; Lamoureux, G.L.; Feil, V.J.

1982-01-01

398

Recent Developments of Aircraft Nondestructive Evaluation Based on Advanced Sensor Techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

The safety and structural integrity are of great importa nce to military and commercial aircraft, and the developments of effective nondestruct ive evaluation (NDE) methods are receiving much attention in recent years. The objective o f this paper was to provide the recent developments of aircraft NDE based on advanced sensor t echniques: (a) Ultrasonic testing with piezoceramic sensor arrays,

Gongjin QI; Hong LEI; Rongsheng GENG; Peng JING

399

FINAL REPORT. ADVANCED SENSING AND CONTROL TECHNIQUES TO FACILITATE SEMI-AUTONOMOUS DECOMMISSIONING  

EPA Science Inventory

This research is intended to advance the technology of semi-autonomous teleoperated robotics as applied to Decontamination and Decommissioning (D&D) tasks. Specifically, research leading to a prototype dual-manipulator mobile work cell is underway. This cell is supported and enha...

400

Advancement in OCT and image-processing techniques for automated ophthalmic diagnosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) is a recently developed, non-invasive, biomedical imaging modality. It is progressively gaining popularity in ophthalmologic diagnostics. Compared to any other imaging modality, OCT enables clinicians to obtain retinal images with much higher resolution. This paper discusses the basic functioning principle of OCT and various advancements that it has gone through starting from its invention by Huang

Rupsa Datta; S. Aditya; D. N. Tibrewala

2010-01-01

401

Oncoplastic technique in breast conservative surgery for locally advanced breast cancer  

PubMed Central

Locally advanced breast cancer (LABC) should be taken into decision making when planning breast conservative surgery, but this procedure should be done on the principle of oncologic safety in order to achieve negative surgical margin and maintain aesthetic result. This procedure should be offered as the choice of treatment in selected patients.

Kongdan, Youwanush; Vassanasiri, Wichai; Ratchaworapong, Kampol; Sukarayothin, Thongchai; Supsamutchai, Chairat; Klaiklern, Phatarachate; Leesombatpaiboon, Monchai; Hamza, Alaa; Zurrida, Stefano

2014-01-01

402

Studies on advanced glycation end products by recent mass spectrometric techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results obtained by different mass spectrometric approaches in the field of advanced glycation of proteins are reported and discussed in detail in comparison with those obtained by other analytical methodologies (fluorescence and absorbance spectroscopies, radioimmunoassay, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay). They have been subdivided in three main groups: analysis on degraded glycated proteins, direct analysis of glycated proteins and studies on

A. Lapolla; D. Fedele; P. Traldi

1994-01-01

403

ADVANCED SENSING AND CONTROL TECHNIQUES TO FACILITATE SEMI-AUTONOMOUS DECOMMISSIONING  

EPA Science Inventory

This research is intended to advance the technology of semiautonomous teleoperated robotics as applied to Decontamination and Decommissioning (D&D) tasks. Specifically, research leading to a prototype dual-manipulator mobile work cell is proposed. This cell is supported and enhan...

404

Review of advanced techniques for the estimation of brain connectivity measured with EEG\\/MEG  

Microsoft Academic Search

Brain connectivity can be modeled and quantified with a large number of techniques. The main objective of this paper is to present the most modern and widely established mathematical methods for calculating connectivity that is commonly applied to functional high resolution multichannel neurophysiological signals, including electroencephalographic (EEG) and magnetoencephalographic (MEG) signals. A historical timeline of each technique is outlined along

V. Sakkalis

405

Improvements and recent advances in nanocomposite capacitors using a colloidal technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, a colloidal technique is used to improve the dielectric properties of nanocomposite materials and to achieve thin film deposition (<5 ?m) on large area substrates using meniscus coating. Using this technique, improved particle dispersion is achieved, which in turn allows for higher volume loading (increased dielectric constant), small variation of dielectric constant across the substrate, and thin-film

Vishal Agarwal; Premjeet Chahal; Rao R. Tummala; Mark G. Allen

1998-01-01

406

The Advanced Electric Power Grid: Reliability Modeling and Complexity Reduction Techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

The power grid is a large system, and analyzing its reliability is computationally intensive, which renders conventional methods inef- fective. This paper proposes techniques for reducing the complexity of representations of the grid, resulting in a mathematically tractable prob- lem to which our previously developed reliability analysis techniques can be applied. The IEEE118 bus system is analyzed as an example,