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1

Vibrio parahaemolyticus: a review on the pathogenesis, prevalence, and advance molecular identification techniques  

PubMed Central

Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a Gram-negative halophilic bacterium that is found in estuarine, marine and coastal environments. V. parahaemolyticus is the leading causal agent of human acute gastroenteritis following the consumption of raw, undercooked, or mishandled marine products. In rare cases, V. parahaemolyticus causes wound infection, ear infection or septicaemia in individuals with pre-existing medical conditions. V. parahaemolyticus has two hemolysins virulence factors that are thermostable direct hemolysin (tdh)-a pore-forming protein that contributes to the invasiveness of the bacterium in humans, and TDH-related hemolysin (trh), which plays a similar role as tdh in the disease pathogenesis. In addition, the bacterium is also encodes for adhesions and type III secretion systems (T3SS1 and T3SS2) to ensure its survival in the environment. This review aims at discussing the V. parahaemolyticus growth and characteristics, pathogenesis, prevalence and advances in molecular identification techniques.

Letchumanan, Vengadesh; Chan, Kok-Gan; Lee, Learn-Han

2014-01-01

2

Advanced Molecular Biology Techniques Laboratory: A Research-Integrated Approach using Drosophila melanogaster  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This advanced molecular biology laboratory course, which uses a project approach to learning and incorporates an independent research component, was designed to enhance the preparation of students for careers in research, biotechnology and science education and to increase knowledge retention and integration of concepts among upper level biology majors. The students use enhancer trap techniques in Drosophila melanogaster to work on two related projects in a single semester. One project has been carefully worked out to proceed through a set of experiments that take the students from a behavior mutant (flightless), to a cloned and sequenced gene (gene for muscle myosin heavy chain protein), and finally to a study of the protein. This part of the laboratory experience exposes the students to a wide array of molecular biology methodologies and instrumentation commonly used in biotechnology and molecular biology laboratories and demonstrates the logical progression of a research project. The research project starts with mutants which are already available but for which the mutated gene has not yet been discovered. The students will use the techniques that they have learned to clone and sequence the gene and to begin to study the protein. The integration of a research component into this laboratory course will increase students' mastery of the principles of scientific inquiry and their ability to draw on their accumulated knowledge to solve research problems. This course will give students who plan career in research or biotechnology practical experience that mimics the realities of the laboratory setting. It will provide students who are planning careers in education with the background necessary to bring modern technology and inquiry-based learning into the classroom.

Hofstra University (Hofstra University)

2012-01-06

3

Advances in molecular techniques for the detection and quantification of genetically modified organisms.  

PubMed

Progress in genetic engineering has led to the introduction of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) whose genomes have been altered by the integration of a novel sequence conferring a new trait. To allow consumers an informed choice, many countries require food products to be labeled if the GMO content exceeds a certain threshold. Consequently, the development of analytical methods for GMO screening and quantification is of great interest. Exponential amplification by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) remains a central step in molecular methods of GMO detection and quantification. In order to meet the challenge posed by the continuously increasing number of GMOs, various multiplex assays have been developed for the simultaneous amplification and/or detection of several GMOs. Classical agarose gel electrophoresis is being replaced by capillary electrophoresis (CE) systems, including CE chips, for the rapid and automatable separation of amplified fragments. Microtiter well-based hybridization assays allow high-throughput analysis of many samples in a single plate. Microarrays have been introduced in GMO screening as a technique for the simultaneous multianalyte detection of amplified sequences. Various types of biosensors, including surface plasmon resonance sensors, quartz crystal microbalance piezoelectric sensors, thin-film optical sensors, dry-reagent dipstick-type sensors and electrochemical sensors were introduced in GMO screening because they offer simplicity and lower cost. GMO quantification is performed by real-time PCR (rt-QPCR) and competitive PCR. New endogenous reference genes have been validated. rt-QPCR is the most widely used approach. Multiplexing is another trend in this field. Strategies for high-throughput multiplex competitive quantitative PCR have been reported. PMID:18239909

Elenis, Dimitrios S; Kalogianni, Despina P; Glynou, Kyriaki; Ioannou, Penelope C; Christopoulos, Theodore K

2008-10-01

4

Recent Advances in Nanobiotechnology and High-Throughput Molecular Techniques for Systems Biomedicine  

PubMed Central

Nanotechnology-based tools are beginning to emerge as promising platforms for quantitative high-throughput analysis of live cells and tissues. Despite unprecedented progress made over the last decade, a challenge still lies in integrating emerging nanotechnology-based tools into macroscopic biomedical apparatuses for practical purposes in biomedical sciences. In this review, we discuss the recent advances and limitations in the analysis and control of mechanical, biochemical, fluidic, and optical interactions in the interface areas of nanotechnology-based materials and living cells in both in vitro and in vivo settings. PMID:24258011

Kim, Eung-Sam; Ahn, Eun Hyun; Chung, Euiheon; Kim, Deok-Ho

2013-01-01

5

Advanced radiographic imaging techniques.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Examination of the nature and operational constraints of conventional X-radiographic and neutron imaging methods, providing a foundation for a discussion of advanced radiographic imaging systems. Two types of solid-state image amplifiers designed to image X rays are described. Operational theory, panel construction, and performance characteristics are discussed. A closed-circuit television system for imaging neutrons is then described and the system design, operational theory, and performance characteristics are outlined. Emphasis is placed on a description of the advantages of these imaging systems over conventional methods.

Beal, J. B.; Brown, R. L.

1973-01-01

6

Advanced qualification techniques  

SciTech Connect

This paper demonstrates use of the Qualified Manufacturers List (QML) methodology to qualify commercial and military microelectronics for use in space applications. QML ``builds in`` the hardness of product through statistical process control (SPC) of technology parameters relevant to the radiation response, test structure to integrated circuit (IC) correlations, and techniques for extrapolating laboratory test results to low-dose-rate space scenarios. Each of these elements is demonstrated and shown to be a cost-effective alternative to expensive end-of-line IC testing. Several examples of test structured-IC correlations are provided and recent work on complications arising from transistor scaling and geometry is discussed. The use of a 10-keV x-ray wafer-level test system to support SPC and establish ``process capability`` is illustrated and a comparison of 10-keV x-ray and Co{sup 60} gamma irradiations is provided for a wide range of CMOS technologies. The x-ray tester is shown to be cost-effective and its use in lot acceptance/qualification is recommended. Finally, a comparison is provided between MIL-STD-883D, Test Method 1019.4, which governs the testing of packaged semiconductor microcircuits in the DoD, and ESA/SSC Basic Specification No. 22900, Europe`s Total Dose Steady-State Irradiation Test Method. Test Method 1019.4 focuses on conservative estimates of MOS hardness for space and tactical applications, while Basic Specification 22900 focuses on improved simulation of low-dose-rate space environments.

Winokur, P.S; Shaneyfelt, M.R.; Meisenheimer, T.L.; Fleetwood, D.M.

1993-12-01

7

Advanced Molecular Genetics Prerequisite  

E-print Network

The molecular mechanisms of gene action in prokaryotes and eukaryotes, including discussions of chromosome Topic . Instructor . Jan. 9 F Transcription and gene regulation - prokaryotes Westpheling Jan. 12 M - Jan. 21 W Transcription and gene regulation - prokaryotes " " Jan. 23 F RNA splicing - eukaryotes

Arnold, Jonathan

8

Review of advanced imaging techniques  

PubMed Central

Pathology informatics encompasses digital imaging and related applications. Several specialized microscopy techniques have emerged which permit the acquisition of digital images (“optical biopsies”) at high resolution. Coupled with fiber-optic and micro-optic components, some of these imaging techniques (e.g., optical coherence tomography) are now integrated with a wide range of imaging devices such as endoscopes, laparoscopes, catheters, and needles that enable imaging inside the body. These advanced imaging modalities have exciting diagnostic potential and introduce new opportunities in pathology. Therefore, it is important that pathology informaticists understand these advanced imaging techniques and the impact they have on pathology. This paper reviews several recently developed microscopic techniques, including diffraction-limited methods (e.g., confocal microscopy, 2-photon microscopy, 4Pi microscopy, and spatially modulated illumination microscopy) and subdiffraction techniques (e.g., photoactivated localization microscopy, stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy, and stimulated emission depletion microscopy). This article serves as a primer for pathology informaticists, highlighting the fundamentals and applications of advanced optical imaging techniques. PMID:22754737

Chen, Yu; Liang, Chia-Pin; Liu, Yang; Fischer, Andrew H.; Parwani, Anil V.; Pantanowitz, Liron

2012-01-01

9

Advanced Metamorphic Techniques in Computer Philippe Beaucamps  

E-print Network

Advanced Metamorphic Techniques in Computer Viruses Philippe Beaucamps Abstract--Nowadays viruses- tiviruses. However detection by emulation can defeat simple poly- morphism: thus metamorphic techniques metamorphic virus. Keywords--Computer virus, Viral mutation, Polymorphism, Meta- morphism, MetaPHOR, Virus

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

10

Advances in multimodality molecular imaging  

PubMed Central

Multimodality molecular imaging using high resolution positron emission tomography (PET) combined with other modalities is now playing a pivotal role in basic and clinical research. The introduction of combined PET/CT systems in clinical setting has revolutionized the practice of diagnostic imaging. The complementarity between the intrinsically aligned anatomic (CT) and functional or metabolic (PET) information provided in a “one-stop shop” and the possibility to use CT images for attenuation correction of the PET data has been the driving force behind the success of this technology. On the other hand, combining PET with Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) in a single gantry is technically more challenging owing to the strong magnetic fields. Nevertheless, significant progress has been made resulting in the design of few preclinical PET systems and one human prototype dedicated for simultaneous PET/MR brain imaging. This paper discusses recent advances in PET instrumentation and the advantages and challenges of multimodality imaging systems. Future opportunities and the challenges facing the adoption of multimodality imaging instrumentation will also be addressed. PMID:20098557

Zaidi, Habib; Prasad, Rameshwar

2009-01-01

11

Advanced Spectroscopy Technique for Biomedicine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This chapter presents an overview of the applications of optical spectroscopy in biomedicine. We focus on the optical design aspects of advanced biomedical spectroscopy systems, Raman spectroscopy system in particular. Detailed components and system integration are provided. As examples, two real-time in vivo Raman spectroscopy systems, one for skin cancer detection and the other for endoscopic lung cancer detection, and an in vivo confocal Raman spectroscopy system for skin assessment are presented. The applications of Raman spectroscopy in cancer diagnosis of the skin, lung, colon, oral cavity, gastrointestinal tract, breast, and cervix are summarized.

Zhao, Jianhua; Zeng, Haishan

12

Advanced measurement techniques, part 1  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In modern laminar flow flight and wind tunnel research, it is important to understand the specific cause(s) of laminar to turbulent boundary layer transition. Such information is crucial to the exploration of the limits of practical application of laminar flow for drag reduction on aircraft. The process of transition involves both the possible modes of disturbance growth, and the environmental conditioning of the instabilities by freestream or surface conditions. The possible modes of disturbance growth include viscous, inviscid, and modes which may bypass these natural ones. Theory provides information on the possible modes of disturbance amplification, but experimentation must be relied upon to determine which of those modes actually dominates the transition process in a given environment. The results to date of research on advanced devices and methods used for the study of transition phenomena in the subsonic and transonic flight and wind tunnel environments are presented.

Holmes, Bruce J.; Carraway, Debra L.; Manuel, Gregory S.; Croom, Cynthia C.

1987-01-01

13

Advances in alternative DNA delivery techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review describes recent advances in alternative DNA-delivery techniques with particular emphasis on silicon carbide fibers, intact tissue electroporation, electrophoresis and microinjection. The advantages\\/disadvantages of each method along with a historical overview and theory of practice are discussed.

D. D. Songstad; D. A. Somers; R. J. Griesbach

1995-01-01

14

Advanced Techniques Using Contrast Media in Neuroimaging  

PubMed Central

This article presents an overview of advanced MRI techniques using contrast media in neuroimaging, focusing on T2*-weighted dynamic susceptibility contrast MR imaging (DSC-MRI) and T1-weighted dynamic contrast-enhanced MR imaging (DCE-MRI). Image acquisition and data processing methods as well as their clinical application in brain tumors, stroke, dementia and multiple sclerosis are discussed. PMID:23088946

Ferré, Jean-Christophe; Shiroishi, Mark S.; Law, Meng

2012-01-01

15

Emerging techniques and molecular imaging in breast cancer.  

PubMed

The sensitivity of screening mammography is limited in the evaluation of dense breasts, with as few as 45% of cancers visible in extremely dense breasts. Supplementary imaging for improved sensitivity in women with dense breasts is necessary to overcome this limitation. Emerging technologies that advance the applications of digital mammography include digital breast tomosynthesis and dedicated breast cone-beam computed tomography. Molecular imaging goes beyond structural imaging. A functional imaging technique that provides information on the biology, physiology, and metabolic pathways of cancer might help to improve the sensitivity and specificity of breast cancer diagnosis, facilitate early assessment of treatment response, and help individualize therapy options for patients. Advanced magnetic resonance, nuclear medicine, and optical imaging techniques in the realm of molecular imaging will be explored in this article. PMID:21782119

Yang, Wei Tse

2011-08-01

16

Advanced Tools and Techniques for Formal Techniques in Aerospace Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This is the final technical report for grant number NAG-1-02101. The title of this grant was "Advanced Tools and Techniques for Formal Techniques In Aerospace Systems". The principal investigator on this grant was Dr. John C. Knight of the Computer Science Department, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia 22904-4740. This report summarizes activities under the grant during the period 7/01/2002 to 9/30/2004. This report is organized as follows. In section 2, the technical background of the grant is summarized. Section 3 lists accomplishments and section 4 lists students funded under the grant. In section 5, we present a list of presentations given at various academic and research institutions about the research conducted. Finally, a list of publications generated under this grant is included in section 6.

Knight, John C.

2005-01-01

17

Advanced decision aiding techniques applicable to space  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

RADC has had an intensive program to show the feasibility of applying advanced technology to Air Force decision aiding situations. Some aspects of the program, such as Satellite Autonomy, are directly applicable to space systems. For example, RADC has shown the feasibility of decision aids that combine the advantages of laser disks and computer generated graphics; decision aids that interface object-oriented programs with expert systems; decision aids that solve path optimization problems; etc. Some of the key techniques that could be used in space applications are reviewed. Current applications are reviewed along with their advantages and disadvantages, and examples are given of possible space applications. The emphasis is to share RADC experience in decision aiding techniques.

Kruchten, Robert J.

1987-01-01

18

Insect pathogens: molecular approaches and techniques  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This book serves as a primer for molecular techniques in insect pathology and is tailored for a wide scientific audience. Contributing authors are internationally recognized experts. The book comprises four sections: 1) pathogen identification and diagnostics, 2) pathogen population genetics and p...

19

Molecular epidemiology: recent advances and future directions.  

PubMed

In 1982 we proposed the concept and a framework for implementing molecular cancer epidemiology. Here, we review progress during the past 17 years in validating and applying this approach to cancer prevention. There have been major advances, notably in the understanding of environment-susceptibility interactions in human cancer. However, a review of major findings to date reveals several urgent research needs to keep pace with the rapid evolution in knowledge of mechanisms in carcinogenesis. Although much valuable progress continues to be made in the study of carcinogens that cause direct DNA damage and are mutagenic, exogenous and endogenous carcinogens can also act by altering gene expression, cell proliferation and differentiation. The mechanisms include aberrant DNA methylation, oxidative damage, effects on metabolism of nitrogen oxide and nitrites, activation of receptors and transcription factors, cyclins and other cell cycle proteins. Sensitive, validated biomarkers are needed to detect these mechanisms in small numbers of cells, tissues or fluids. There is also increasing recognition that individual risk from carcinogen exposure varies as a function of both inherited and acquired factors. Recent advances in genomics, microassay technologies and informatics hold promise for rapid identification of polymorphic variants or changes in expression of genes influencing both response and susceptibility to carcinogens. Another emerging area of molecular epidemiology concerns the role of nutrition and specific dietary factors (including studies on antioxidants, energy metabolism, insulin and various growth factors) and the modulating effect of genetic polymorphisms. Finally, molecular epidemiology has enormous potential in cancer prevention through the early identification of 'at risk' populations and the rapid assessment of intervention efficacy. Its success in fully reaching this potential will depend on the application of validated biomarkers, with adherence to sound epidemiologic and ethical principles. PMID:10688872

Perera, F P; Weinstein, I B

2000-03-01

20

Advanced techniques in current signature analysis  

SciTech Connect

In general, both ac and dc motors can be characterized as weakly nonlinear systems, in which both linear and nonlinear effects occur simultaneously. Fortunately, the nonlinearities are generally well behaved and understood and an be handled via several standard mathematical techniques already well developed in the systems modeling area; examples are piecewise linear approximations and Volterra series representations. Field measurements of numerous motors and motor-driven systems confirm the rather complex nature of motor current spectra and illustrate both linear and nonlinear effects (including line harmonics and modulation components). Although previous current signature analysis (CSA) work at Oak Ridge and other sites has principally focused on the modulation mechanisms and detection methods (AM, PM, and FM), more recent studies have been conducted on linear spectral components (those appearing in the electric current at their actual frequencies and not as modulation sidebands). For example, large axial-flow compressors ({approximately}3300 hp) in the US gaseous diffusion uranium enrichment plants exhibit running-speed ({approximately}20 Hz) and high-frequency vibrational information (>1 kHz) in their motor current spectra. Several signal-processing techniques developed to facilitate analysis of these components, including specialized filtering schemes, are presented. Finally, concepts for the designs of advanced digitally based CSA units are offered, which should serve to foster the development of much more computationally capable ``smart`` CSA instrumentation in the next several years. 3 refs.

Smith, S.F.; Castleberry, K.N.

1992-03-01

21

Advances in nanodiagnostic techniques for microbial agents.  

PubMed

Infectious diseases account for millions of sufferings and deaths in both developing as well as developed countries with a substantial economic loss. Massive increase in world population and international travel has facilitated their spread from one part of the world to other areas, making them one of the most significant global health risks. Furthermore, detection of bioterrorism agents in water, food and environmental samples as well traveler's baggage is a great challenge of the time for security purpose. Prevention strategies against infectious agents demand rapid and accurate detection and identification of the causative agents with highest sensitivity which should be equally available in different parts of the globe. Similarly, rapid and early diagnosis of infectious diseases has always been indispensable for their prompt cure and management, which has stimulated scientists to develop highly sophisticated techniques over centuries and the efforts continue unabated. Conventional diagnostic techniques are time consuming, tedious, expensive, less sensitive, and unsuitable for field situations. Nanodiagnostic assays have been promising for early, sensitive, point-of-care and cost-effective detection of microbial agents. There has been an explosive research in this area of science in last two decades yielding highly fascinating results. This review highlights some of the advancements made in the field of nanotechnology based assays for microbial detection since 2005 along with providing the basic understanding. PMID:24012709

Syed, Muhammad Ali

2014-01-15

22

Advanced techniques in current signature analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In general, both ac and dc motors can be characterized as weakly nonlinear systems, in which both linear and nonlinear effects occur simultaneously. Fortunately, the nonlinearities are generally well behaved and understood and can be handled via several standard mathematical techniques already well developed in the systems modeling area; examples are piecewise linear approximations and Volterra series representations. Field measurements of numerous motors and motor-driven systems confirm the rather complex nature of motor current spectra and illustrate both linear and nonlinear effects (including line harmonics and modulation components). Although previous current signature analysis (CSA) work at Oak Ridge and other sites has principally focused on the modulation mechanisms and detection methods (AM, PM, and FM), more recent studies have been conducted on linear spectral components (those appearing in the electric current at their actual frequencies and not as modulation sidebands). For example, large axial-flow compressors (approximately 3300 hp) in the US gaseous diffusion uranium enrichment plants exhibit running-speed (approximately 20 Hz) and high-frequency vibrational information (greater than 1 kHz) in their motor current spectra. Several signal-processing techniques developed to facilitate analysis of these components, including specialized filtering schemes, are presented. Finally, concepts for the designs of advanced digitally based CSA units are offered, which should serve to foster the development of much more computationally capable 'smart' CSA instrumentation in the next several years.

Smith, S. F.; Castleberry, K. N.

1992-02-01

23

Molecular imaging: the key to advancing cardiac stem cell therapy.  

PubMed

Cardiac stem cell therapy continues to hold promise for the treatment of ischemic heart disease despite the fact that early promising pre-clinical findings have yet to be translated into consistent clinical success. The latest human studies have collectively identified a pressing need to better understand stem cell behavior in humans and called for more incorporation of noninvasive imaging techniques into the design and evaluation of human stem cell therapy trials. This review discusses the various molecular imaging techniques validated to date for studying stem cells in living subjects, with a particular emphasis on their utilities in assessing the acute retention and the long-term survival of transplanted stem cells. These imaging techniques will be essential for advancing cardiac stem cell therapy by providing the means to both guide ongoing optimization and predict treatment response in humans. PMID:23561794

Chen, Ian Y; Wu, Joseph C

2013-08-01

24

NATO Advanced Study Institute "Special Detection Technique (Polarimetry) and  

E-print Network

NATO Advanced Study Institute on "Special Detection Technique (Polarimetry) and Remote Sensing is to contribute to the dissemination of knowledge and the formation of international scientific con- tacts through advances in polarimetric detection, characterization, and remote sensing, including military

25

Advanced integrated technique in breast cancer thermography.  

PubMed

Thermography is a passive and non-contact imaging technique used extensively in the medical arena, but in relation to breast care, it has not been accepted as being on a par with mammography. This paper proposes the analysis of thermograms with the use of artificial neural networks (ANN) and bio-statistical methods, including regression and receiver operating characteristics (ROC). It is desired that through these approaches, highly accurate diagnosis using thermography techniques can be achieved. The suggested method is a multi-pronged approach comprising of linear regression, radial basis function network (RBFN) and ROC analysis. It is a novel, integrative and powerful technique that can be used to analyse large amounts of complicated measured data such as temperature values extracted from abnormal and healthy breast thermograms. The use of regression allows the correlation between the variables and the actual health status of the subject, which is decided by other traditional means such as the gold standard of mammography for breast cancer detection. This is important as it helps to select the appropriate variables to be used as inputs for building the neural network. RBFN is next trained to produce the desired outcome that is either positive or negative. When this is done, the RBFN possess the ability to predict the outcome when there are new input variables. The advantages of using RBFN include fast training of superior classification and decision-making abilities as compared to other networks such as backpropagation. Lastly, ROC is applied to evaluate the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of the outcome for the RBFN test files. The proposed technique has an accuracy rate of 80.95%, with 100% sensitivity and 70.6% specificity in identifying breast cancer. The results are promising as compared to clinical examination by experienced radiologists, which has an accuracy rate of approximately 60-70%. To sum up, technological advances in the field of infrared thermography over the last 20 years warrant a re-evaluation of the use of high-resolution digital thermographic camera systems in the diagnosis and management of breast cancer. Thermography seeks to identify the presence of a tumour by the elevated temperature associated with increase blood flow and cellular activity. Of particular interest would be investigation in younger women and men, for whom mammography is either unsuitable or of limited effectiveness. The paper evaluated the high-definition digital infrared thermographic technology and knowledge base; and supports the development of future diagnostic and therapeutic services in breast cancer imaging. Through the use of integrative ANN and bio-statistical methods, advances are made in thermography application with regard to achieving a higher level of consistency. For breast cancer care, it has become possible to use thermography as a powerful adjunct and biomarker tool, together with mammography for diagnosis purposes. PMID:17852648

Ng, E Y K; Kee, E C

2008-01-01

26

Molecular imaging of rheumatoid arthritis: emerging markers, tools, and techniques  

PubMed Central

Early diagnosis and effective monitoring of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) are important for a positive outcome. Instant treatment often results in faster reduction of inflammation and, as a consequence, less structural damage. Anatomical imaging techniques have been in use for a long time, facilitating diagnosis and monitoring of RA. However, mere imaging of anatomical structures provides little information on the processes preceding changes in synovial tissue, cartilage, and bone. Molecular imaging might facilitate more effective diagnosis and monitoring in addition to providing new information on the disease pathogenesis. A limiting factor in the development of new molecular imaging techniques is the availability of suitable probes. Here, we review which cells and molecules can be targeted in the RA joint and discuss the advances that have been made in imaging of arthritis with a focus on such molecular targets as folate receptor, F4/80, macrophage mannose receptor, E-selectin, intercellular adhesion molecule-1, phosphatidylserine, and matrix metalloproteinases. In addition, we discuss a new tool that is being introduced in the field, namely the use of nanobodies as tracers. Finally, we describe additional molecules displaying specific features in joint inflammation and propose these as potential new molecular imaging targets, more specifically receptor activator of nuclear factor ?B and its ligand, chemokine receptors, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, ?V?3 integrin, P2X7 receptor, suppression of tumorigenicity 2, dendritic cell-specific transmembrane protein, and osteoclast-stimulatory transmembrane protein. PMID:25099015

2014-01-01

27

Advances in molecular imaging of pancreatic beta cells.  

PubMed

The development of non-invasive imaging methods for early diagnosis of beta cell associated metabolic diseases, including type 1 and type 2 diabetes (T1D and T2D), has recently drawn interest from the molecular imaging community and clinical investigators. Due to the challenges imposed by the location of the pancreas, the sparsely dispersed beta cell population within the pancreas, and the poor understanding of the pathogenesis of the diseases, clinical diagnosis of beta cell abnormalities is still limited. Current diagnostic methods are invasive, often inaccurate, and usually performed post-onset of the disease. Advances in imaging techniques for probing beta cell mass and function are needed to address this critical health care problem. A variety of imaging techniques have been tested for the assessment of pancreatic beta cell islets. Here we discuss current advances in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), bioluminescence imaging (BLI), and nuclear imaging for the study of beta cell diseases. Spurred by early successes in nuclear imaging techniques for beta cells, especially positron emission tomography (PET), the need for beta cell specific ligands has expanded. Progress for obtaining such ligands is presented. We report our preliminary efforts of developing such a peptidic ligand for PET imaging of pancreatic beta cells. PMID:18508529

Lin, Mai; Lubag, Angelo; McGuire, Michael J; Seliounine, Serguei Y; Tsyganov, Edward N; Antich, Peter P; Sherry, A Dean; Brown, Kathlynn C; Sun, Xiankai

2008-01-01

28

Stochastic molecular dynamics: A combined Monte Carlo and molecular dynamics technique for isothermal simulations  

E-print Network

Stochastic molecular dynamics: A combined Monte Carlo and molecular dynamics technique techniques--Monte Carlo and molecular dynamics--has their own advantage. The molecular dynamics method can to cover the important states of the system in an efficient manner. In recent years the molecular dynamics

Attard, Phil

29

HLA allele detection using molecular techniques.  

PubMed

There are now many molecular biological techniques available to define HLA class I and class II alleles. Some of these are also applicable to other human polymorphic genes, in particular to those non-HLA genes encoded within the Mhc. The range of techniques available allows laboratories to choose those most suited to their purpose. The routine laboratory supporting solid organ transplants will need to type large numbers of potential recipients over a period of time, probably using PCR-SSOP while donors will be typed singly and rapidly using PCR-SSP with HLA allele compatibility determined by heteroduplex analysis. Laboratories supporting bone marrow transplantation, where time is less pressing, can choose from the whole range of techniques to determine accurately donor recipient Mhc compatibility. For disease studies, techniques defining precise HLA allele sequence polymorphisms are needed and high sample numbers have to be accommodated. When an association is established allele sequencing has to be used. In the near future, the precise role of HLA alleles in transplantation and disease susceptibility is likely to be established unambiguously. PMID:8112019

Dyer, P A; Jawaheer, D; Ollier, B; Poulton, K; Sinnott, P; Thomson, W

1993-11-01

30

Advances in Diagnostic Techniques for Induction Machines  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates diagnostic techniques for electrical machines with special reference to induction machines and to papers published in the last ten years. A comprehensive list of references is reported and examined, and research activities classified into four main topics: 1) electrical faults; 2) mechanical faults; 3) signal processing for analysis and monitoring; and 4) artificial intelligence and decision-making techniques.

Alberto Bellini; Fiorenzo Filippetti; Carla Tassoni; GÉrard-AndrÉ Capolino

2008-01-01

31

Advanced neuroimaging techniques for central neuromodulation.  

PubMed

Deep brain stimulation an effective treatment of many neurologic conditions such as Parkinson disease, essential tremor, dystonia, and obsessive-compulsive disorder. Structural and functional neuroimaging studies provide the opportunity to visualize the dysfunctional nodes and networks underlying neurologic and psychiatric disease, and to thereby realize new targets for neuromodulation as well as personalize current therapy. This article reviews contemporary advances in neuroimaging in the basic sciences and how they can be applied to redirect and propel functional neurosurgery toward a goal of functional localization of targets with individualized maps and identification of novel targets for other neuropsychiatric diseases. PMID:24262908

Downes, Angela; Pouratian, Nader

2014-01-01

32

Advanced airfoil design empirically based transonic aircraft drag buildup technique  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

To systematically investigate the potential of advanced airfoils in advance preliminary design studies, empirical relationships were derived, based on available wind tunnel test data, through which total drag is determined recognizing all major aircraft geometric variables. This technique recognizes a single design lift coefficient and Mach number for each aircraft. Using this technique drag polars are derived for all Mach numbers up to MDesign + 0.05 and lift coefficients -0.40 to +0.20 from CLDesign.

Morrison, W. D., Jr.

1976-01-01

33

Advanced molecular self-assemblies facilitated by simple molecules.  

PubMed

Advanced materials are often based on smart molecular self-assemblies that either respond to external stimuli or have hierarchical structures. Approaches to this goal usually stem from complicated molecular design and difficult organic synthesis. In this invited feature article, we demonstrate that desired molecular self-assemblies can be made conveniently by introducing simple functional molecules into amphiphilic systems. We show that upon introducing specific small molecules which serve as responders, modulators, or even building blocks, smart supramolecular architectures can be achieved which avoid complicated organic synthesis. We expect that this could be a general and economical way to produce advanced materials in the near future. PMID:24870151

Wu, Zheng; Yan, Yun; Huang, Jianbin

2014-12-01

34

Application of molecular techniques on heterotrophic hydrogen production research  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews the application of molecular techniques in heterotrophic hydrogen production studies. Commonly used molecular techniques are introduced briefly first, including cloning-sequencing after polymerase chain reaction (PCR), denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP), fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and quantitative real-time PCR. Application of the molecular techniques in heterotrophic hydrogen production studies are discussed in

R. Y. Li; T. Zhang; H. H. P. Fang

2011-01-01

35

DFG IUSS SYMPOSIUM Advances of Molecular Modeling  

E-print Network

between chemistry, physics, and biology in natural environments. There are a number of areas dealing with computational modeling approaches, is rapidly advancing a number of research frontiers in geochemistry

Sparks, Donald L.

36

Botanical Illustration III: Advanced Techniques June 2 July 17, 2014  

E-print Network

Botanical Illustration III: Advanced Techniques June 2 ­ July 17, 2014 This 6-lesson course builds considerable experience with botanical drawing techniques by using various art media, culminating This course teaches a traditional form of botanical illustration, along with a few different creative

Pawlowski, Wojtek

37

Advanced automated char image analysis techniques  

SciTech Connect

Char morphology is an important characteristic when attempting to understand coal behavior and coal burnout. In this study, an augmented algorithm has been proposed to identify char types using image analysis. On the basis of a series of image processing steps, a char image is singled out from the whole image, which then allows the important major features of the char particle to be measured, including size, porosity, and wall thickness. The techniques for automated char image analysis have been tested against char images taken from ICCP Char Atlas as well as actual char particles derived from pyrolyzed char samples. Thirty different chars were prepared in a drop tube furnace operating at 1300{sup o}C, 1% oxygen, and 100 ms from 15 different world coals sieved into two size fractions (53-75 and 106-125 {mu}m). The results from this automated technique are comparable with those from manual analysis, and the additional detail from the automated sytem has potential use in applications such as combustion modeling systems. Obtaining highly detailed char information with automated methods has traditionally been hampered by the difficulty of automatic recognition of individual char particles. 20 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs.

Tao Wu; Edward Lester; Michael Cloke [University of Nottingham, Nottingham (United Kingdom). School of Chemical, Environmental and Mining Engineering

2006-05-15

38

Recent advances in DNA sequencing techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Successful mapping of the draft human genome in 2001 and more recent mapping of the human microbiome genome in 2012 have relied heavily on the parallel processing of the second generation/Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) DNA machines at a cost of several millions dollars and long computer processing times. These have been mainly biochemical approaches. Here a system analysis approach is used to review these techniques by identifying the requirements, specifications, test methods, error estimates, repeatability, reliability and trends in the cost reduction. The first generation, NGS and the Third Generation Single Molecule Real Time (SMART) detection sequencing methods are reviewed. Based on the National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI) data, the achieved cost reduction of 1.5 times per yr. from Sep. 2001 to July 2007; 7 times per yr., from Oct. 2007 to Apr. 2010; and 2.5 times per yr. from July 2010 to Jan 2012 are discussed.

Singh, Rama Shankar

2013-06-01

39

Advanced cooling techniques for FASTBUS electronics  

SciTech Connect

A multi-phase research and development effort has been conducted to explore improved cooling techniques for the FASTBUS system. The research was supported by the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory. Some of the relevant, major requirements and limits of this system are: 1. The cooling system should not significantly interfere with the rapid handling of the cards; 2. The die temperatures of the integrated circuits should not exceed 85/sup 0/C; 3. The temperature differential between the dies of emitter coupled logic (ECL) circuits that connect directly to each other should not exceed 30/sup 0/C; 4. The temperature differential of the cooling air between any two points in the module should not exceed 20/sup 0/C; 5. In air cooled modules, the air temperature should not exceed 60/sup 0/C anywhere; and 6. The noise emanating from the computer should be at a tolerable level. The first requirement, together with some related considerations, virtually excludes any direct liquid cooling schemes. Thus heat removal from the chips themselves can be achieved either by convection to air or by a heat conducting structure which transfers the heat to the coolant used. The second through fourth requirements are generally rigorous. However, the fifth is for plastic encased microchips (CA3083 16-pin, high current transistor, dual in-line package) and can be relaxed for other types with lower internal thermal resistances. Our work can be divided into three parts. The first dealt with the development of an air cooled system based on the state-of-the-art of commercially available technology. The second explored various air cooling techniques and the third, examined methods where the heat from the chips was conducted to water cooled plates located parallel to the chip carrying cards.

Chato, J.C.; Golliher, E.L.; Downing, R.W.

1986-02-01

40

Molecular Techniques to Assess Microbial Community Structure, Function, and Dynamics in the Environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Culture-based methods are important in investigating the microbial ecology of natural and anthropogenically impacted environments,\\u000a but they are extremely biased in their evaluation of microbial genetic diversity by selecting a particular population of microorganisms.\\u000a With recent advances in genomics and sequencing technologies, microbial community analyses using culture-independent molecular\\u000a techniques have initiated a new era of microbial ecology. Molecular analyses of

Gurdeep Rastogi; Rajesh K. Sani

41

Molecular Genetics Techniques to Develop New Treatments for Brain Cancers  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of this report are: (1) to devise novel molecular gene therapies for malignant brain tumors, (2) advance our understanding of the immune system in the central nervous system; and (3) apply genomics to find molecular probes to diagnose brain tumors, predict prognosis, biological behavior and their response to treatment.

Fox, Jacob; Fathallan-Shaykh, Hassan

2006-09-22

42

Innovative Tools Advance Revolutionary Weld Technique  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The iconic, orange external tank of the space shuttle launch system not only contains the fuel used by the shuttle s main engines during liftoff but also comprises the shuttle s backbone, supporting the space shuttle orbiter and solid rocket boosters. Given the tank s structural importance and the extreme forces (7.8 million pounds of thrust load) and temperatures it encounters during launch, the welds used to construct the tank must be highly reliable. Variable polarity plasma arc welding, developed for manufacturing the external tank and later employed for building the International Space Station, was until 1994 the best process for joining the aluminum alloys used during construction. That year, Marshall Space Flight Center engineers began experimenting with a relatively new welding technique called friction stir welding (FSW), developed in 1991 by The Welding Institute, of Cambridge, England. FSW differs from traditional fusion welding in that it is a solid-state welding technique, using frictional heat and motion to join structural components without actually melting any of the material. The weld is created by a shouldered pin tool that is plunged into the seam of the materials to be joined. The tool traverses the line while rotating at high speeds, generating friction that heats and softens but does not melt the metal. (The heat produced approaches about 80 percent of the metal s melting temperature.) The pin tool s rotation crushes and stirs the plasticized metal, extruding it along the seam as the tool moves forward. The material cools and consolidates, resulting in a weld with superior mechanical properties as compared to those weld properties of fusion welds. The innovative FSW technology promises a number of attractive benefits. Because the welded materials are not melted, many of the undesirables associated with fusion welding porosity, cracking, shrinkage, and distortion of the weld are minimized or avoided. The process is more energy efficient, safe (no toxic smoke or shielding gas, liquid metal splatter, arcing, dangerous voltage, or radiation), and environmentally sound (no consumables, fumes, or noise) than fusion welding. Under computer control, an automated FSW machine can create welds with high reproducibility, improving efficiency and overall quality of manufactured materials. The process also allows for welding dissimilar metals as well as those metals considered to be "unweldable" such as the 7xxx series aluminum alloys. Its effectiveness and versatility makes FSW useful for aerospace, rail, automotive, marine, and military applications. A downside to FSW, however, is the keyhole opening left in the weld when the FSW pin tool exits the weld joint. This is a significant problem when using the FSW process to join circumferential structures such as pipes and storage containers. Furthermore, weld joints that taper in material thickness also present problems when using the conventional FSW pin tool, because the threaded pin rotating within the weld joint material is a fixed length. There must be capability for the rotating pin to both increase and decrease in length in real time while welding the tapered material. (Both circumferential and tapered thickness weldments are found in the space shuttle external tank.) Marshall engineers addressed both the keyhole and tapered material thickness problems by developing the auto-adjustable pin tool. This unique piece of equipment automatically withdraws the pin into the tool s shoulder for keyhole closeout. In addition, the auto-adjustable pin tool retracts, or shortens, the rotating pin while welding a weld joint that tapers from one thickness to a thinner thickness. This year, the impact of the Marshall innovation was recognized with an "Excellence in Technology Transfer Award" from the Federal Laboratory Consortium.

2009-01-01

43

Advanced liner-cooling techniques for gas turbine combustors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Component research for advanced small gas turbine engines is currently underway at the NASA Lewis Research Center. As part of this program, a basic reverse-flow combustor geometry was being maintained while different advanced liner wall cooling techniques were investigated. Performance and liner cooling effectiveness of the experimental combustor configuration featuring counter-flow film-cooled panels is presented and compared with two previously reported combustors featuring: splash film-cooled liner walls; and transpiration cooled liner walls (Lamilloy).

Norgren, C. T.; Riddlebaugh, S. M.

1985-01-01

44

Interventional and Molecular MRI 1 An Interventional MRI Technique for the Molecular Characterization of  

E-print Network

Interventional and Molecular MRI 1 An Interventional MRI Technique for the Molecular-946-2936 Fax: 416-946-2227 #12;Interventional and Molecular MRI 2 Key Words: angiogenesis, molecular imaging, interventional MRI, prostate cancer, microarray analysis Sources of funding: Robert Susil was supported by an NIH

Whitcomb, Louis L.

45

Advanced neuroimaging techniques in the management of glioblastoma multiforme.  

PubMed

Despite the extensive research efforts over the past century, glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) remains an ominous diagnosis leading fast to progressive disability and death despite the aggressive treatment including microsurgical resection, chemotherapy, radiotherapy and stereotactic radiosurgery. Advanced neuroimaging techniques, such as volumetric acquisitions, spectroscopy, diffusion and perfusion studies added to conventional imaging, provide in selected cases a non-invasive alternative to pathological diagnosis but they are also precious tools to define the boundaries of image-guided microsurgical resection and/or radiosurgical ablation. This paper reviews the role of advanced neuroimaging techniques in the diagnosis and treatment of GBM. PMID:22642424

Colonnese, Claudio; Romanelli, Pantaleo

2012-10-01

46

GENE 8600 GENETICS SEMINAR Description: Seminars emphasizing advances in genetics, molecular genetics,  

E-print Network

GENE 8600 GENETICS SEMINAR Description: Seminars emphasizing advances in genetics, molecular genetics, and molecular biology. Course Objectives Students will gain experience in reading and presenting the primary literature in genetics, molecular genetics, and molecular biology. Evaluations will be based

Arnold, Jonathan

47

Coal and char studies by advanced EMR techniques  

SciTech Connect

Advanced magnetic resonance (EMR) methods are used to examine properties of coals, chars, and molecular species related to constituents of coal. During this grant period, further progress was made on proton NMR and low-frequency dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) to examine the interaction between fluids such as water and the surface of suspended char particles. Effects of char particle size and type on water nuclear spin relaxation, T2, were measured and modeled.

Belford, R.L.; Clarkson, R.B.; Odintsov, B.M.

1999-03-31

48

Coal and char studies by advanced EMR techniques  

SciTech Connect

Advanced magnetic resonance (EMR) methods are used to examine properties of coals, chars, and molecular species related to constituents of coal. During this grant period, further progress was made on proton NMR and low-frequency dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) to examine the interaction between fluids such as water and the surface of suspended char particles. Effects of char particle size on water nuclear spin relaxation, T2, were measured.

Belford, R.L.; Clarkson, R.B.; Odintsov, B.M.

1998-09-30

49

Molecular biology techniques and applications for ocean sensing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study of marine microorganisms using molecular biological techniques is now widespread in the ocean sciences. These techniques target nucleic acids which record the evolutionary history of microbes, and encode for processes which are active in the ocean today. Here we review some of the most commonly used molecular biological techniques. Molecular biological techniques permit study of the abundance, distribution, diversity, and physiology of microorganisms in situ. These techniques include the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and reverse-transcriptase PCR, quantitative PCR, whole assemblage "fingerprinting" approaches (based on nucleic acid sequence or length heterogeneity), oligonucleotide microarrays, and high-throughput shotgun sequencing of whole genomes and gene transcripts, which can be used to answer biological, ecological, evolutionary and biogeochemical questions in the ocean sciences. Moreover, molecular biological approaches may be deployed on ocean sensor platforms and hold promise for tracking of organisms or processes of interest in near-real time.

Zehr, J. P.; Hewson, I.; Moisander, P. H.

2008-11-01

50

Advanced Groupband Data Modem Using Orthogonally Multiplexed QAM Technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

An advanced groupband data modem based on the orthogonally multiplexed QAM technique is proposed. Its performance is evaluated through experiments. In the proposed modem, data are transmitted by a number of orthogonally multiplexed parallel subchannels. Because of this orthogonally multiplexing parallelism, the proposed modem becomes more immune to Gaussian noises, impulsive noises, and channel distortions, compared to the conventional Class

B. Hirosaki; S. Hasegawa; A. Sabato

1986-01-01

51

Advanced Fault Diagnosis Methods in Molecular Networks  

PubMed Central

Analysis of the failure of cell signaling networks is an important topic in systems biology and has applications in target discovery and drug development. In this paper, some advanced methods for fault diagnosis in signaling networks are developed and then applied to a caspase network and an SHP2 network. The goal is to understand how, and to what extent, the dysfunction of molecules in a network contributes to the failure of the entire network. Network dysfunction (failure) is defined as failure to produce the expected outputs in response to the input signals. Vulnerability level of a molecule is defined as the probability of the network failure, when the molecule is dysfunctional. In this study, a method to calculate the vulnerability level of single molecules for different combinations of input signals is developed. Furthermore, a more complex yet biologically meaningful method for calculating the multi-fault vulnerability levels is suggested, in which two or more molecules are simultaneously dysfunctional. Finally, a method is developed for fault diagnosis of networks based on a ternary logic model, which considers three activity levels for a molecule instead of the previously published binary logic model, and provides equations for the vulnerabilities of molecules in a ternary framework. Multi-fault analysis shows that the pairs of molecules with high vulnerability typically include a highly vulnerable molecule identified by the single fault analysis. The ternary fault analysis for the caspase network shows that predictions obtained using the more complex ternary model are about the same as the predictions of the simpler binary approach. This study suggests that by increasing the number of activity levels the complexity of the model grows; however, the predictive power of the ternary model does not appear to be increased proportionally. PMID:25290670

Habibi, Iman; Emamian, Effat S.; Abdi, Ali

2014-01-01

52

Application of molecular techniques on heterotrophic hydrogen production research.  

PubMed

This paper reviews the application of molecular techniques in heterotrophic hydrogen production studies. Commonly used molecular techniques are introduced briefly first, including cloning-sequencing after polymerase chain reaction (PCR), denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP), fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and quantitative real-time PCR. Application of the molecular techniques in heterotrophic hydrogen production studies are discussed in details, focusing on identification of new isolates for hydrogen production, characterization of microbial compositions in bioreactors, monitoring microbial diversity variation, visualization of microbial distribution in hydrogen-producing granular sludge, and quantification of various microbial populations. Some significant findings in recent hydrogen production studies with the application of molecular techniques are discussed, followed by a research outlook of the heterotrophic biohydrogen field. PMID:21398117

Li, R Y; Zhang, T; Fang, H H P

2011-09-01

53

Applications of molecular biology techniques to transfusion medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Other articles in this issue of Seminars in Hematology have reviewed the results of basic research in relation to the understanding of the genes, the molecular basis of blood group variants, and structural and functional aspects of the proteins carrying blood group antigens. Although molecular techniques are currently being used in a limited fashion in clinical laboratories, their application has

Marion E Reid; Maria Rios; Karina Yazdanbakhsh

2000-01-01

54

Teaching Molecular Biological Techniques in a Research Content  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Molecular biological methods, such as the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and gel electrophoresis, are now commonly taught to students in introductory biology courses at the college and even high school levels. This often includes hands-on experience with one or more molecular techniques as part of a general biology laboratory. To assure that most…

Stiller, John W.; Coggins, T. Chad

2006-01-01

55

Airborne myxomycete spores: detection using molecular techniques.  

PubMed

Myxomycetes are organisms characterized by a life cycle that includes a fruiting body stage. Myxomycete fruiting bodies contain spores, and wind dispersal of the spores is considered important for this organism to colonize new areas. In this study, the presence of airborne myxomycetes and the temporal changes in the myxomycete composition of atmospheric particles (aerosols) were investigated with a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based method for Didymiaceae and Physaraceae. Twenty-one aerosol samples were collected on the roof of a three-story building located in Sapporo, Hokkaido Island, northern Japan. PCR analysis of DNA extracts from the aerosol samples indicated the presence of airborne myxomycetes in all the samples, except for the one collected during the snowfall season. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis of the PCR products showed seasonally varying banding patterns. The detected DGGE bands were subjected to sequence analyses, and four out of nine obtained sequences were identical to those of fruiting body samples collected in Hokkaido Island. It appears that the difference in the fruiting period of each species was correlated with the seasonal changes in the myxomycete composition of the aerosols. Molecular evidence shows that newly formed spores are released and dispersed in the air, suggesting that wind-driven dispersal of spores is an important process in the life history of myxomycetes. This study is the first to detect airborne myxomycetes with the use of molecular ecological analyses and to characterize their seasonal distribution. PMID:18836695

Kamono, Akiko; Kojima, Hisaya; Matsumoto, Jun; Kawamura, Kimitaka; Fukui, Manabu

2009-01-01

56

Airborne myxomycete spores: detection using molecular techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Myxomycetes are organisms characterized by a life cycle that includes a fruiting body stage. Myxomycete fruiting bodies contain spores, and wind dispersal of the spores is considered important for this organism to colonize new areas. In this study, the presence of airborne myxomycetes and the temporal changes in the myxomycete composition of atmospheric particles (aerosols) were investigated with a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based method for Didymiaceae and Physaraceae. Twenty-one aerosol samples were collected on the roof of a three-story building located in Sapporo, Hokkaido Island, northern Japan. PCR analysis of DNA extracts from the aerosol samples indicated the presence of airborne myxomycetes in all the samples, except for the one collected during the snowfall season. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis of the PCR products showed seasonally varying banding patterns. The detected DGGE bands were subjected to sequence analyses, and four out of nine obtained sequences were identical to those of fruiting body samples collected in Hokkaido Island. It appears that the difference in the fruiting period of each species was correlated with the seasonal changes in the myxomycete composition of the aerosols. Molecular evidence shows that newly formed spores are released and dispersed in the air, suggesting that wind-driven dispersal of spores is an important process in the life history of myxomycetes. This study is the first to detect airborne myxomycetes with the use of molecular ecological analyses and to characterize their seasonal distribution.

Kamono, Akiko; Kojima, Hisaya; Matsumoto, Jun; Kawamura, Kimitaka; Fukui, Manabu

2009-01-01

57

Three-dimensional hybrid grid generation using advancing front techniques  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new 3-dimensional hybrid grid generation technique has been developed, based on ideas of advancing fronts for both structured and unstructured grids. In this approach, structured grids are first generate independently around individual components of the geometry. Fronts are initialized on these structure grids, and advanced outward so that new cells are extracted directly from the structured grids. Employing typical advancing front techniques, cells are rejected if they intersect the existing front or fail other criteria When no more viable structured cells exist further cells are advanced in an unstructured manner to close off the overall domain, resulting in a grid of 'hybrid' form. There are two primary advantages to the hybrid formulation. First, generating blocks with limited regard to topology eliminates the bottleneck encountered when a multiple block system is used to fully encapsulate a domain. Individual blocks may be generated free of external constraints, which will significantly reduce the generation time. Secondly, grid points near the body (presumably with high aspect ratio) will still maintain a structured (non-triangular or tetrahedral) character, thereby maximizing grid quality and solution accuracy near the surface.

Steinbrenner, John P.; Noack, Ralph W.

1995-01-01

58

Data Compression Techniques for Advanced Space Transportation Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Advanced space transportation systems, including vehicle state of health systems, will produce large amounts of data which must be stored on board the vehicle and or transmitted to the ground and stored. The cost of storage or transmission of the data could be reduced if the number of bits required to represent the data is reduced by the use of data compression techniques. Most of the work done in this study was rather generic and could apply to many data compression systems, but the first application area to be considered was launch vehicle state of health telemetry systems. Both lossless and lossy compression techniques were considered in this study.

Bradley, William G.

1998-01-01

59

Urethral advancement technique for repair of distal hypospadias.  

PubMed

Eighty children with distal hypospadias were operated upon by this technique. It is a modification from the old Beck technique and is applicable only for distal types (coronal and subcoronal) with minimal chordae and rotation. The urethral meatus could be placed to the tip of the glans penis by mobilizing and advancing the urethra without constructing a neourethra. Children did not need catheterization or diversion. The average hospital stay was 2 days. Success rate was 98%. Children who developed fistulae were treated by simple closure of the defect. PMID:2318238

Wishahi, M M; Wishahy, M K; Kaddah, N

1990-01-01

60

Molecular Techniques in the Assessment of Botanical Diversity  

Microsoft Academic Search

A variety of different molecular techniques can be used for the study of botanical diversity. Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP), arbitrary primed DNA, amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP), variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR), sequence-tagged simple sequence repeats (SSRs) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) sequencing are briefly reviewed here. These techniques differ in the way that they resolve genetic differences,

ANGELA KARP; OLE SEBERG; MARCELLO BUIATTI

1996-01-01

61

Recent Advances in Molecular, Multimodal and Theranostic Ultrasound Imaging  

PubMed Central

Ultrasound (US) imaging is an exquisite tool for the non-invasive and real-time diagnosis of many different diseases. In this context, US contrast agents can improve lesion delineation, characterization and therapy response evaluation. US contrast agents are usually micrometer-sized gas bubbles, stabilized with soft or hard shells. By conjugating antibodies to the microbubble (MB) surface, and by incorporating diagnostic agents, drugs or nucleic acids into or onto the MB shell, molecular, multimodal and theranostic MB can be generated. We here summarize recent advances in molecular, multimodal and theranostic US imaging, and introduce concepts how such advanced MB can be generated, applied and imaged. Examples are given for their use to image and treat oncological, cardiovascular and neurological diseases. Furthermore, we discuss for which therapeutic entities incorporation into (or conjugation to) MB is meaningful, and how US-mediated MB destruction can increase their extravasation, penetration, internalization and efficacy. PMID:24316070

Kiessling, Fabian; Fokong, Stanley; Bzyl, Jessica; Lederle, Wiltrud; Palmowski, Moritz; Lammers, Twan

2014-01-01

62

Recent Advances in the Molecular Characterization of Circulating Tumor Cells  

PubMed Central

Although circulating tumor cells (CTCs) were first observed over a century ago, lack of sensitive methodology precluded detailed study of these cells until recently. However, technological advances have now facilitated the identification, enumeration, and characterization of CTCs using a variety of methods. The majority of evidence supporting the use of CTCs in clinical decision-making has been related to enumeration using the CellSearch® system and correlation with prognosis. Growing evidence also suggests that CTC monitoring can provide an early indication of patient treatment response based on comparison of CTC levels before and after therapy. However, perhaps the greatest potential that CTCs hold for oncology lies at the level of molecular characterization. Clinical treatment decisions may be more effective if they are based on molecular characteristics of metastatic cells rather than on those of the primary tumor alone. Molecular characterization of CTCs (which can be repeatedly isolated in a minimally invasive fashion) provides the opportunity for a “real-time liquid biopsy” that allows assessment of genetic drift, investigation of molecular disease evolution, and identification of actionable genomic characteristics. This review focuses on recent advances in this area, including approaches involving immunophenotyping, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), multiplex RT-PCR, microarray, and genomic sequencing. PMID:24633084

Lowes, Lori E.; Allan, Alison L.

2014-01-01

63

Molecular classification and novel targets in hepatocellular carcinoma: recent advancements.  

PubMed

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of most lethal cancers worldwide. Strategic decisions for the advancement of molecular therapies in this neoplasm require a clear understanding of its molecular classification. Studies indicate aberrant activation of signaling pathways involved in cellular proliferation (e.g., epidermal growth factor and RAS/mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways), survival (e.g., Akt/mechanistic target of rapamycin pathway), differentiation (e.g., Wnt and Hedgehog pathways), and angiogenesis (e.g., vascular endothelial growth factor and platelet-derived growth factor), which is heterogeneously presented in each tumor. Integrative analysis of accumulated genomic datasets has revealed a global scheme of molecular classification of HCC tumors observed across diverse etiologic factors and geographic locations. Such a framework will allow systematic understanding of the frequently co-occurring molecular aberrations to design treatment strategy for each specific subclass of tumors. Accompanied by a growing number of clinical trials of molecular targeted drugs, diagnostic and prognostic biomarker development will be facilitated with special attention on study design and with new assay technologies specialized for archived fixed tissues. A new class of genomic information, microRNA dysregulation and epigenetic alterations, will provide insight for more precise understanding of disease mechanism and expand the opportunity of biomarker/therapeutic target discovery. These efforts will eventually enable personalized management of HCC. PMID:20175032

Hoshida, Yujin; Toffanin, Sara; Lachenmayer, Anja; Villanueva, Augusto; Minguez, Beatriz; Llovet, Josep M

2010-02-01

64

Stem cell systems informatics for advanced clinical biodiagnostics: tracing molecular signatures from bench to bedside  

PubMed Central

Development of innovative high throughput technologies has enabled a variety of molecular landscapes to be interrogated with an unprecedented degree of detail. Emergence of next generation nucleotide sequencing methods, advanced proteomic techniques, and metabolic profiling approaches continue to produce a wealth of biological data that captures molecular frameworks underlying phenotype. The advent of these novel technologies has significant translational applications, as investigators can now explore molecular underpinnings of developmental states with a high degree of resolution. Application of these leading-edge techniques to patient samples has been successfully used to unmask nuanced molecular details of disease vs healthy tissue, which may provide novel targets for palliative intervention. To enhance such approaches, concomitant development of algorithms to reprogram differentiated cells in order to recapitulate pluripotent capacity offers a distinct advantage to advancing diagnostic methodology. Bioinformatic deconvolution of several “-omic” layers extracted from reprogrammed patient cells, could, in principle, provide a means by which the evolution of individual pathology can be developmentally monitored. Significant logistic challenges face current implementation of this novel paradigm of patient treatment and care, however, several of these limitations have been successfully addressed through continuous development of cutting edge in silico archiving and processing methods. Comprehensive elucidation of genomic, transcriptomic, proteomic, and metabolomic networks that define normal and pathological states, in combination with reprogrammed patient cells are thus poised to become high value resources in modern diagnosis and prognosis of patient disease. PMID:23986272

Faustino, Randolph S.; Arrell, D. Kent; Folmes, Clifford D.L.; Terzic, Andre; Perez-Terzic, Carmen

2013-01-01

65

Advanced aeroservoelastic stabilization techniques for hypersonic flight vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Advanced high performance vehicles, including Single-Stage-To-Orbit (SSTO) hypersonic flight vehicles, that are statically unstable, require higher bandwidth flight control systems to compensate for the instability resulting in interactions between the flight control system, the engine/propulsion dynamics, and the low frequency structural modes. Military specifications, such as MIL-F-9490D and MIL-F-87242, tend to limit treatment of structural modes to conventional gain stabilization techniques. The conventional gain stabilization techniques, however, introduce low frequency effective time delays which can be troublesome from a flying qualities standpoint. These time delays can be alleviated by appropriate blending of gain and phase stabilization techniques (referred to as Hybrid Phase Stabilization or HPS) for the low frequency structural modes. The potential of using HPS for compensating structural mode interaction was previously explored. It was shown that effective time delay was significantly reduced with the use of HPS; however, the HPS design was seen to have greater residual response than a conventional gain stablized design. Additional work performed to advance and refine the HPS design procedure, to further develop residual response metrics as a basis for alternative structural stability specifications, and to develop strategies for validating HPS design and specification concepts in manned simulation is presented. Stabilization design sensitivity to structural uncertainties and aircraft-centered requirements are also assessed.

Chan, Samuel Y.; Cheng, Peter Y.; Myers, Thomas T.; Klyde, David H.; Magdaleno, Raymond E.; Mcruer, Duane T.

1992-01-01

66

Molecular ultrastructure of the urothelial surface: insights from a combination of various microscopic techniques.  

PubMed

The urothelium forms the blood-urine barrier, which depends on the complex organization of transmembrane proteins, uroplakins, in the apical plasma membrane of umbrella cells. Uroplakins compose 16 nm intramembrane particles, which are assembled into urothelial plaques. Here we present an integrated survey on the molecular ultrastructure of urothelial plaques in normal umbrella cells with advanced microscopic techniques. We analyzed the ultrastructure and performed measurements of urothelial plaques in the normal mouse urothelium. We used field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) on immunolabeled ultrathin sections (immuno-TEM), and freeze-fracture replicas (FRIL). We performed immunolabeling of uroplakins for scanning electron microscopy (immuno-FESEM). All microscopic techniques revealed a variability of urothelial plaque diameters ranging from 332 to 1179 nm. All immunolabeling techniques confirmed the presence of uroplakins in urothelial plaques. FRIL showed the association of uroplakins with 16 nm intramembrane particles and their organization into plaques. Using different microscopic techniques and applied qualitative and quantitative evaluation, new insights into the urothelial apical surface molecular ultrastructure have emerged and may hopefully provide a timely impulse for many ongoing studies. The combination of various microscopic techniques used in this study shows how these techniques complement one another. The described advantages and disadvantages of each technique should be considered for future studies of molecular and structural membrane specializations in other cells and tissues. PMID:25060677

Zupan?i?, Daša; Romih, Rok; Robenek, Horst; Žužek Rožman, Kristina; Samardžija, Zoran; Kostanjšek, Rok; Kreft, Mateja Erdani

2014-11-01

67

A brief review of molecular techniques to assess plant diversity.  

PubMed

Massive loss of valuable plant species in the past centuries and its adverse impact on environmental and socioeconomic values has triggered the conservation of plant resources. Appropriate identification and characterization of plant materials is essential for the successful conservation of plant resources and to ensure their sustainable use. Molecular tools developed in the past few years provide easy, less laborious means for assigning known and unknown plant taxa. These techniques answer many new evolutionary and taxonomic questions, which were not previously possible with only phenotypic methods. Molecular techniques such as DNA barcoding, random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD), amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP), microsatellites and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) have recently been used for plant diversity studies. Each technique has its own advantages and limitations. These techniques differ in their resolving power to detect genetic differences, type of data they generate and their applicability to particular taxonomic levels. This review presents a basic description of different molecular techniques that can be utilized for DNA fingerprinting and molecular diversity analysis of plant species. PMID:20559503

Arif, Ibrahim A; Bakir, Mohammad A; Khan, Haseeb A; Al Farhan, Ahmad H; Al Homaidan, Ali A; Bahkali, Ali H; Sadoon, Mohammad Al; Shobrak, Mohammad

2010-01-01

68

A Brief Review of Molecular Techniques to Assess Plant Diversity  

PubMed Central

Massive loss of valuable plant species in the past centuries and its adverse impact on environmental and socioeconomic values has triggered the conservation of plant resources. Appropriate identification and characterization of plant materials is essential for the successful conservation of plant resources and to ensure their sustainable use. Molecular tools developed in the past few years provide easy, less laborious means for assigning known and unknown plant taxa. These techniques answer many new evolutionary and taxonomic questions, which were not previously possible with only phenotypic methods. Molecular techniques such as DNA barcoding, random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD), amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP), microsatellites and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) have recently been used for plant diversity studies. Each technique has its own advantages and limitations. These techniques differ in their resolving power to detect genetic differences, type of data they generate and their applicability to particular taxonomic levels. This review presents a basic description of different molecular techniques that can be utilized for DNA fingerprinting and molecular diversity analysis of plant species. PMID:20559503

Arif, Ibrahim A.; Bakir, Mohammad A.; Khan, Haseeb A.; Al Farhan, Ahmad H.; Al Homaidan, Ali A.; Bahkali, Ali H.; Sadoon, Mohammad Al; Shobrak, Mohammad

2010-01-01

69

[Recent advances in capillary electrochromatography and its coupling techniques].  

PubMed

As a novel micro-separation technique, capillary electrochromatography (CEC) has the merits of high efficiency, high selectivity, high resolution and rapid analysis. However, the small-volume injection manipulated in capillary dimensions poses a great challenge for detectors in achieving high sensitivity. Currently, one of the major researches into CEC involves the development of some sensitive detection modes. The general introduction, which includes the historical perspectives and the principles of CEC, is briefly described. The recent advances about CEC coupled with various detectors and its applications in the separation of complex samples are summarized. A total of 141 references are reviewed. PMID:20549979

Lin, Zian; Pang, Jilei; Huang, Hui; Zhang, Lan; Chen, Guonan

2010-03-01

70

Advanced optical techniques for monitoring dosimetric parameters in photodynamic therapy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is based on the generation of highly reactive singlet oxygen through interactions of photosensitizer, light and molecular oxygen. PDT has become a clinically approved, minimally invasive therapeutic modality for a wide variety of malignant and nonmalignant diseases. The main dosimetric parameters for predicting the PDT efficacy include the delivered light dose, the quantification and photobleaching of the administrated photosensitizer, the tissue oxygen concentration, the amount of singlet oxygen generation and the resulting biological responses. This review article presents the emerging optical techniques that in use or under development for monitoring dosimetric parameters during PDT treatment. Moreover, the main challenges in developing real-time and noninvasive optical techniques for monitoring dosimetric parameters in PDT will be described.

Li, Buhong; Qiu, Zhihai; Huang, Zheng

2012-12-01

71

MOLECULAR OPTICAL SPECTROSCOPIC TECHNIQUES FOR HAZARDOUS WASTE SITE SCREENING  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency is interested in field screening hazardous waste sites for contaminants in the soil and surface and ground water. his study is an initial technical overview of the principal molecular spectroscopic techniques and instrumentation currently ...

72

Multialkali photocathodes grown by molecular beam epitaxy technique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new technique of bialkali photocathodes growth by molecular beam epitaxy (MI3E) has been developed. The photocathode film was deposited onto the substrate from molecular beams produced by simultaneously operating molecular sources of Sb, Na and K. Thus suggested procedure is noticeably differed from the classical one. Growth rate was about 1 A/sec and complete cycle of photocathode fabrication was 15-20 minutes. A special ultra high vacuum (UHV) chamber for MBE of multialkali photocathodes has been designed. The chamber is a part of UHV system consisting of an analysis vessel supplied with Auger and ESCA electron spectrometer and low energy electron diffractometer (LEED), the MBE chamber itself and a chamber for cold sealing of photocathodes with device body through indium ring. The system gives a possibility to carry out investigations of multialkali photocathode physics and to produce commercial devices. Developed technique can be used for fabrication of vacuum devices including streak tubes.

Dubovoi, I. A.; Chernikov, A. S.; Prokhorov, Alexander M.; Schelev, Mikhail Y.; Ushakov, Victor N.

1991-04-01

73

Advanced bronchoscopic techniques in diagnosis and staging of lung cancer  

PubMed Central

The role of advanced brochoscopic diagnostic techniques in detection and staging of lung cancer has steeply increased in recent years. Bronchoscopic imaging techniques became widely available and easy to use. Technical improvement led to merging in technologies making autofluorescence or narrow band imaging incorporated into one bronchoscope. New tools, such as autofluorescence imagining (AFI), narrow band imaging (NBI) or fuji intelligent chromo endoscopy (FICE), found their place in respiratory endoscopy suites. Development of endobronchial ultrasound (EBUS) improved minimally invasive mediastinal staging and diagnosis of peripheral lung lesions. Linear EBUS proven to be complementary to mediastinoscopy. This technique is now available in almost all high volume centers performing bronchoscopy. Radial EBUS with mini-probes and guiding sheaths provides accurate diagnosis of peripheral pulmonary lesions. Combining EBUS guided procedures with rapid on site cytology (ROSE) increases diagnostic yield even more. Electromagnetic navigation technology (EMN) is also widely used for diagnosis of peripheral lesions. Future development will certainly lead to new improvements in technology and creation of new sophisticated tools for research in respiratory endoscopy. Broncho-microscopy, alveoloscopy, optical coherence tomography are some of the new research techniques emerging for rapid technological development. PMID:24102008

Zaric, Bojan; Stojsic, Vladimir; Sarcev, Tatjana; Stojanovic, Goran; Carapic, Vladimir; Perin, Branislav; Darwiche, Kaid; Tsakiridis, Kosmas; Karapantzos, Ilias; Kesisis, Georgios; Kougioumtzi, Ioanna; Katsikogiannis, Nikolaos; Machairiotis, Nikolaos; Stylianaki, Aikaterini; Foroulis, Christophoros N.; Zarogoulidis, Konstantinos

2013-01-01

74

Recent Advances in Techniques for Hyperspectral Image Processing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Imaging spectroscopy, also known as hyperspectral imaging, has been transformed in less than 30 years from being a sparse research tool into a commodity product available to a broad user community. Currently, there is a need for standardized data processing techniques able to take into account the special properties of hyperspectral data. In this paper, we provide a seminal view on recent advances in techniques for hyperspectral image processing. Our main focus is on the design of techniques able to deal with the highdimensional nature of the data, and to integrate the spatial and spectral information. Performance of the discussed techniques is evaluated in different analysis scenarios. To satisfy time-critical constraints in specific applications, we also develop efficient parallel implementations of some of the discussed algorithms. Combined, these parts provide an excellent snapshot of the state-of-the-art in those areas, and offer a thoughtful perspective on future potentials and emerging challenges in the design of robust hyperspectral imaging algorithms

Plaza, Antonio; Benediktsson, Jon Atli; Boardman, Joseph W.; Brazile, Jason; Bruzzone, Lorenzo; Camps-Valls, Gustavo; Chanussot, Jocelyn; Fauvel, Mathieu; Gamba, Paolo; Gualtieri, Anthony; Marconcini, Mattia; Tilton, James C.; Trianni, Giovanna

2009-01-01

75

Advanced Techniques for Removal of Retrievable Inferior Vena Cava Filters  

SciTech Connect

Inferior vena cava (IVC) filters have proven valuable for the prevention of primary or recurrent pulmonary embolism in selected patients with or at high risk for venous thromboembolic disease. Their use has become commonplace, and the numbers implanted increase annually. During the last 3 years, in the United States, the percentage of annually placed optional filters, i.e., filters than can remain as permanent filters or potentially be retrieved, has consistently exceeded that of permanent filters. In parallel, the complications of long- or short-term filtration have become increasingly evident to physicians, regulatory agencies, and the public. Most filter removals are uneventful, with a high degree of success. When routine filter-retrieval techniques prove unsuccessful, progressively more advanced tools and skill sets must be used to enhance filter-retrieval success. These techniques should be used with caution to avoid damage to the filter or cava during IVC retrieval. This review describes the complex techniques for filter retrieval, including use of additional snares, guidewires, angioplasty balloons, and mechanical and thermal approaches as well as illustrates their specific application.

Iliescu, Bogdan; Haskal, Ziv J., E-mail: ziv2@mac.com [University of Maryland School of Medicine, Division of Vascular and Interventional Radiology (United States)

2012-08-15

76

Advanced Synchrotron Techniques at High Pressure Collaborative Access Team (HPCAT)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High Pressure Collaborative Access Team (HPCAT) is dedicated to advancing cutting-edge, multidisciplinary, high-pressure science and technology using synchrotron radiation at Sector 16 of the Advanced Photon Source (APS) of Argonne National Laboratory. At HPCAT an array of novel x-ray diffraction and spectroscopic techniques has been integrated with high pressure and extreme temperature instrumentation for studies of structure and materials properties at extreme conditions.. HPCAT consists of four active independent beamlines performing a large range of various experiments at extreme conditions. 16BM-B beamline is dedicated to energy dispersive and white Laue X-ray diffraction. The majority of experiments are performed with a Paris-Edinburgh large volume press (to 7GPa and 2500K) and include amorphous and liquid structure measurement, white beam radiography, elastic sound wave velocity measurement of amorphous solid materials, with viscosity and density measurement of liquid being under development. 16BM-D is a monochromatic diffraction beamline for powder and single crystal diffraction at high pressure and high (resistive heating) / low (cryostats) temperature. The additional capabilities include high-resolution powder diffraction and x-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy. The insertion device beamline of HPCAT has two undulators in canted mode (operating independently) and LN cooled Si monochromators capable of providing a large range of energies. 16IDB is a microdiffraction beamline mainly focusing on high-pressure powder and single crystal diffraction in DAC at high temperatures (double-sided laser heating and resistive heating) and low temperature (various cryostats). The modern instrumentation allows high-quality diffraction at megabar pressures from light element, fast experiments with pulsed laser heating, fast dynamic experiments with Pilatus detector, and so on. 16ID-D beamline is dedicated to x-ray scattering and spectroscopy research of materials under high pressure in DAC. The available techniques include nuclear forward scattering, nuclear resonant inelastic scattering with 2meV energy resolution for determining phonon density of state and Mössbauer effect, x-ray inelastic scattering (X-ray Raman) with 1eV energy resolution for the study of charge dynamics and chemical bonding, x-ray spectroscopy for the study of electronic excitations, X-ray emission (including partial fluorescence yield, resonant emission). Many of these measurements can be done at low temperature, with in-situ pressure measurement, or at high temperature with portable laser heating. All these advanced synchrotron techniques, as well as supporting facilities, employed at HPCAT, will be discussed.

Shen, G.; Sinogeikin, S. V.; Chow, P.; Kono, Y.; Meng, Y.; Park, C.; Popov, D.; Rod, E.; Smith, J.; Xiao, Y.; Mao, H.

2012-12-01

77

CD52 is a molecular target in advanced systemic mastocytosis.  

PubMed

Advanced systemic mastocytosis (SM) is an aggressive hematopoietic neoplasm with poor prognosis and short survival times. So far, no curative therapy is available for affected patients. We have identified the cell surface antigen CD52 (CAMPATH-1) as a molecular target expressed abundantly on the surface of primary neoplastic mast cells (MCs) in patients with advanced SM. In contrast, neoplastic MCs of patients with indolent SM and normal MCs expressed only low levels or did not express CD52. To study the mechanisms of CD52 expression and the value of this antigen as a potential therapeutic target, we generated a human MC cell line, designated MCPV-1, by lentiviral immortalization of cord blood-derived MC progenitor cells. Functional studies revealed that activated RAS profoundly promotes surface expression of CD52. The CD52-targeting antibody alemtuzumab induced cell death in CD52(+) primary neoplastic MCs obtained from patients with SM as well as in MCPV-1 cells. NSG mice xenotransplanted with MCPV-1 cells survived significantly longer after treatment with alemtuzumab (median survival: 31 d untreated vs. 46 d treated; P=0.0012). We conclude that CD52 is a novel marker and potential therapeutic target in neoplastic MCs in patients with advanced SM. PMID:24760752

Hoermann, Gregor; Blatt, Katharina; Greiner, Georg; Putz, Eva Maria; Berger, Angelika; Herrmann, Harald; Cerny-Reiterer, Sabine; Gleixner, Karoline V; Walz, Christoph; Hoetzenecker, Konrad; Müllauer, Leonhard; Reiter, Andreas; Sotlar, Karl; Sexl, Veronika; Valent, Peter; Mayerhofer, Matthias

2014-08-01

78

Non-intrusive sensing techniques for advanced turbine engine structures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents an overview of current research efforts aimed at improving turbine engine structural instrumentation capabilities. Emphasis is placed on non-intrusive concepts which will be applicable to the advanced engines currently being designed for initial operational testing around the turn of the century. Technologies to be described include: blade tip deflection sensors to determine dynamic stress, thermographic phosphors to measure metal temperature, fiber optics to measure both temperature and steady-state strain while embedded in composites, and neutron diagnostic techniques. Advantages of the various systems, potential problems and limitations, as well as, an assessment as to when the various technologies are likely to be ready for actual engine test usage are discussed.

Stange, William A.

1990-06-01

79

Advanced Techniques for Power System Identification from Measured Data  

SciTech Connect

Time-synchronized measurements provide rich information for estimating a power-system's electromechanical modal properties via advanced signal processing. This information is becoming critical for the improved operational reliability of interconnected grids. A given mode's properties are described by its frequency, damping, and shape. Modal frequencies and damping are useful indicators of power-system stress, usually declining with increased load or reduced grid capacity. Mode shape provides critical information for operational control actions. This project investigated many advanced techniques for power system identification from measured data focusing on mode frequency and damping ratio estimation. Investigators from the three universities coordinated their effort with Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). Significant progress was made on developing appropriate techniques for system identification with confidence intervals and testing those techniques on field measured data and through simulation. Experimental data from the western area power system was provided by PNNL and Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) for both ambient conditions and for signal injection tests. Three large-scale tests were conducted for the western area in 2005 and 2006. Measured field PMU (Phasor Measurement Unit) data was provided to the three universities. A 19-machine simulation model was enhanced for testing the system identification algorithms. Extensive simulations were run with this model to test the performance of the algorithms. University of Wyoming researchers participated in four primary activities: (1) Block and adaptive processing techniques for mode estimation from ambient signals and probing signals, (2) confidence interval estimation, (3) probing signal design and injection method analysis, and (4) performance assessment and validation from simulated and field measured data. Subspace based methods have been use to improve previous results from block processing techniques. Bootstrap techniques have been developed to estimate confidence intervals for the electromechanical modes from field measured data. Results were obtained using injected signal data provided by BPA. A new probing signal was designed that puts more strength into the signal for a given maximum peak to peak swing. Further simulations were conducted on a model based on measured data and with the modifications of the 19-machine simulation model. Montana Tech researchers participated in two primary activities: (1) continued development of the 19-machine simulation test system to include a DC line; and (2) extensive simulation analysis of the various system identification algorithms and bootstrap techniques using the 19 machine model. Researchers at the University of Alaska-Fairbanks focused on the development and testing of adaptive filter algorithms for mode estimation using data generated from simulation models and on data provided in collaboration with BPA and PNNL. There efforts consist of pre-processing field data, testing and refining adaptive filter techniques (specifically the Least Mean Squares (LMS), the Adaptive Step-size LMS (ASLMS), and Error Tracking (ET) algorithms). They also improved convergence of the adaptive algorithms by using an initial estimate from block processing AR method to initialize the weight vector for LMS. Extensive testing was performed on simulated data from the 19 machine model. This project was also extensively involved in the WECC (Western Electricity Coordinating Council) system wide tests carried out in 2005 and 2006. These tests involved injecting known probing signals into the western power grid. One of the primary goals of these tests was the reliable estimation of electromechanical mode properties from measured PMU data. Applied to the system were three types of probing inputs: (1) activation of the Chief Joseph Dynamic Brake, (2) mid-level probing at the Pacific DC Intertie (PDCI), and (3) low-level probing on the PDCI. The Chief Joseph Dynamic Brake is a 1400 MW disturbance to the system and is injected for a ha

Pierre, John W.; Wies, Richard; Trudnowski, Daniel

2008-11-25

80

Advanced Fibre Bragg Grating and Microfibre Bragg Grating Fabrication Techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fibre Bragg gratings (FBGs) have become a very important technology for communication systems and fibre optic sensing. Typically, FBGs are less than 10-mm long and are fabricated using fused silica uniform phase masks which become more expensive for longer length or non-uniform pitch. Generally, interference UV laser beams are employed to make long or complex FBGs, and this technique introduces critical precision and control issues. In this work, we demonstrate an advanced FBG fabrication system that enables the writing of long and complex gratings in optical fibres with virtually any apodisation profile, local phase and Bragg wavelength using a novel optical design in which the incident angles of two UV beams onto an optical fibre can be adjusted simultaneously by moving just one optical component, instead of two optics employed in earlier configurations, to vary the grating pitch. The key advantage of the grating fabrication system is that complex gratings can be fabricated by controlling the linear movements of two translation stages. In addition to the study of advanced grating fabrication technique, we also focus on the inscription of FBGs written in optical fibres with a cladding diameter of several ten's of microns. Fabrication of microfibres was investigated using a sophisticated tapering method. We also proposed a simple but practical technique to filter out the higher order modes reflected from the FBG written in microfibres via a linear taper region while the fundamental mode re-couples to the core. By using this technique, reflection from the microfibre Bragg grating (MFBG) can be effectively single mode, simplifying the demultiplexing and demodulation processes. MFBG exhibits high sensitivity to contact force and an MFBG-based force sensor was also constructed and tested to investigate their suitability for use as an invasive surgery device. Performance of the contact force sensor packaged in a conforming elastomer material compares favourably to one of the best-performing commercial contact force sensors in catheterization applications. The proposed sensor features extremely high sensitivity up to 1.37-mN, miniature size (2.4-mm) that meets standard specification, excellent linearity, low hysteresis, and magnetic resonance imaging compatibility.

Chung, Kit Man

81

Advances in the Rising Bubble Technique for discharge measurement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Already in the 19th century, d'Auria described a discharge measurement technique that applies floats to find the depth-integrated velocity (d'Auria, 1882). The basis of this technique was that the horizontal distance that the float travels on its way to the surface is the image of the integrated velocity profile over depth. Viol and Semenov (1964) improved this method by using air bubbles as floats, but still distances were measured manually until Sargent (1981) introduced a technique that could derive the distances from two photographs simultaneously taken from each side of the river bank. Recently, modern image processing techniques proved to further improve the applicability of the method (Hilgersom and Luxemburg, 2012). In the 2012 article, controlling and determining the rising velocity of an air bubble still appeared a major challenge for the application of this method. Ever since, laboratory experiments with different nozzle and tube sizes lead to advances in our self-made equipment enabling us to produce individual air bubbles with a more constant rising velocity. Also, we introduced an underwater camera to on-site determine the rising velocity, which is dependent on the water temperature and contamination, and therefore is site-specific. Camera measurements of the rising velocity proved successful in a laboratory and field setting, although some improvements to the setup are necessary to capture the air bubbles also at depths where little daylight penetrates. References D'Auria, L.: Velocity of streams; A new method to determine correctly the mean velocity of any perpendicular in rivers and canals, (The) American Engineers, 3, 1882. Hilgersom, K.P. and Luxemburg, W.M.J.: Technical Note: How image processing facilitates the rising bubble technique for discharge measurement, Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 16(2), 345-356, 2012. Sargent, D.: Development of a viable method of stream flow measurement using the integrating float technique, Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers (London), Part 2, 71, 1-15, 1981. Viol, V. and Semenov, V.: Experiments in measuring discharges in canals by the photo-integration method, Soviet Hydrol. Selected Pap, 2, 198-199, 1964.

Hilgersom, Koen; Luxemburg, Willem; Willemsen, Geert; Bussmann, Luuk

2014-05-01

82

Advanced Cell Culture Techniques for Cancer Drug Discovery  

PubMed Central

Human cancer cell lines are an integral part of drug discovery practices. However, modeling the complexity of cancer utilizing these cell lines on standard plastic substrata, does not accurately represent the tumor microenvironment. Research into developing advanced tumor cell culture models in a three-dimensional (3D) architecture that more prescisely characterizes the disease state have been undertaken by a number of laboratories around the world. These 3D cell culture models are particularly beneficial for investigating mechanistic processes and drug resistance in tumor cells. In addition, a range of molecular mechanisms deconstructed by studying cancer cells in 3D models suggest that tumor cells cultured in two-dimensional monolayer conditions do not respond to cancer therapeutics/compounds in a similar manner. Recent studies have demonstrated the potential of utilizing 3D cell culture models in drug discovery programs; however, it is evident that further research is required for the development of more complex models that incorporate the majority of the cellular and physical properties of a tumor. PMID:24887773

Lovitt, Carrie J.; Shelper, Todd B.; Avery, Vicky M.

2014-01-01

83

Coal and Coal Constituent Studies by Advanced EMR Techniques  

SciTech Connect

Advanced electronic magnetic resonance (EMR) methods are used to examine properties of coals, chars, and molecular species related to constituents of coal. We have achieved substantial progress on upgrading the high field (HF) EMR (W-band, 95 GHz) spectrometers that are especially advantageous for such studies. Particularly, we have built a new second W-band instrument (Mark II) in addition to our Mark I. Briefly, Mark II features: (i) an Oxford custom-built 7 T superconducting magnet which is scannable from 0 to 7 T at up to 0.5 T/min; (ii) water-cooled coaxial solenoid with up to ±550 G scan under digital (15 bits resolution) computer control; (iii) custom-engineered precision feed-back circuit, which is used to drive this solenoid, is based on an Ultrastab 860R sensor that has linearity better than 5 ppm and resolution of 0.05 ppm; (iv) an Oxford CF 1200 cryostat for variable temperature studies from 1.8 to 340 K. During this grant period we have completed several key upgrades of both Mark I and II, particularly microwave bridge, W-band probehead, and computer interfaces. We utilize these improved instruments for HF EMR studies of spin-spin interaction and existence of different paramagnetic species in carbonaceous solids.

Alex I. Smirnov; Mark J. Nilges; R. Linn Belford; Robert B. Clarkson

1998-03-31

84

Nanocrystalline materials: recent advances in crystallographic characterization techniques.  

PubMed

Most properties of nanocrystalline materials are shape-dependent, providing their exquisite tunability in optical, mechanical, electronic and catalytic properties. An example of the former is localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR), the coherent oscillation of conduction electrons in metals that can be excited by the electric field of light; this resonance frequency is highly dependent on both the size and shape of a nanocrystal. An example of the latter is the marked difference in catalytic activity observed for different Pd nanoparticles. Such examples highlight the importance of particle shape in nanocrystalline materials and their practical applications. However, one may ask 'how are nanoshapes created?', 'how does the shape relate to the atomic packing and crystallography of the material?', 'how can we control and characterize the external shape and crystal structure of such small nanocrystals?'. This feature article aims to give the reader an overview of important techniques, concepts and recent advances related to these questions. Nucleation, growth and how seed crystallography influences the final synthesis product are discussed, followed by shape prediction models based on seed crystallography and thermodynamic or kinetic parameters. The crystallographic implications of epitaxy and orientation in multilayered, core-shell nanoparticles are overviewed, and, finally, the development and implications of novel, spatially resolved analysis tools are discussed. PMID:25485133

Ringe, Emilie

2014-11-01

85

Sculpting 3D worlds with music: advanced texturing techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sound within the virtual environment is often considered to be secondary to the graphics. In a typical scenario, either audio cues are locally associated with specific 3D objects or a general aural ambiance is supplied in order to alleviate the sterility of an artificial experience. This paper discusses a completely different approach, in which cues are extracted from live or recorded music in order to create geometry and control object behaviors within a computer- generated environment. Advanced texturing techniques used to generate complex stereoscopic images are also discussed. By analyzing music for standard audio characteristics such as rhythm and frequency, information is extracted and repackaged for processing. With the Soundsculpt Toolkit, this data is mapped onto individual objects within the virtual environment, along with one or more predetermined behaviors. Mapping decisions are implemented with a user definable schedule and are based on the aesthetic requirements of directors and designers. This provides for visually active, immersive environments in which virtual objects behave in real-time correlation with the music. The resulting music-driven virtual reality opens up several possibilities for new types of artistic and entertainment experiences, such as fully immersive 3D `music videos' and interactive landscapes for live performance.

Greuel, Christian; Bolas, Mark T.; Bolas, Niko; McDowall, Ian E.

1996-04-01

86

Advances and Trends in the Molecular Systematics of the Parasitic Platyhelminthes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The application of molecular systematics to the parasitic Platyhelminthes (Cestoda, Digenea and Monogenea) over the last decade has advanced our understanding of their interrelationships and evolution substantially. Here we review the current state of play and the early works that led to the molecular-based hypotheses that now predominate in the field; advances in their systematics, taxonomy, classification and phylogeny, as

Peter D. Olson; Vasyl V. Tkach

2005-01-01

87

Hybrid inverse lithography techniques for advanced hierarchical memories  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Traditional segment-based model-based OPC methods have been the mainstream mask layout optimization techniques in volume production for memory and embedded memory devices for many device generations. These techniques have been continually optimized over time to meet the ever increasing difficulties of memory and memory periphery patterning. There are a range of difficult issues for patterning embedded memories successfully. These difficulties include the need for a very high level of symmetry and consistency (both within memory cells themselves and between cells) due to circuit effects such as noise margin requirements in SRAMs. Memory cells and access structures consume a large percentage of area in embedded devices so there is a very high return from shrinking the cell area as much as possible. This aggressive scaling leads to very difficult resolution, 2D CD control and process window requirements. Additionally, the range of interactions between mask synthesis corrections of neighboring areas can extend well beyond the size of the memory cell, making it difficult to fully take advantage of the inherent designed cell hierarchy in mask pattern optimization. This is especially true for non-traditional (i.e., less dependent on geometric rule) OPC/RET methods such as inverse lithography techniques (ILT) which inherently have more model-based decisions in their optimizations. New inverse methods such as model-based SRAF placement and ILT are, however, well known to have considerable benefits in finding flexible mask pattern solutions to improve process window, improve 2D CD control, and improve resolution in ultra-dense memory patterns. They also are known to reduce recipe complexity and provide native MRC compliant mask pattern solutions. Unfortunately, ILT is also known to be several times slower than traditional OPC methods due to the increased computational lithographic optimizations it performs. In this paper, we describe and present results for a methodology to greatly improve the ability of ILT to optimize advanced embedded memory designs while retaining significant hierarchy and cell design symmetry, therefore, have good turnaround time and CD uniformity. This paper will explain the enhancements which have been developed in order to overcome the traditional difficulties listed above. These enhancements are in the categories of local CD control, global chip processing options, process window benefit, turn-around time and hierarchy retention.

Xiao, Guangming; Hooker, Kevin; Irby, Dave; Zhang, Yunqiang; Ward, Brian; Cecil, Tom; Hall, Brett; Lee, Mindy; Kim, Dave; Lucas, Kevin

2014-03-01

88

Integrating advanced materials simulation techniques into an automated data analysis workflow at the Spallation Neutron Source  

SciTech Connect

This presentation will review developments on the integration of advanced modeling and simulation techniques into the analysis step of experimental data obtained at the Spallation Neutron Source. A workflow framework for the purpose of refining molecular mechanics force-fields against quasi-elastic neutron scattering data is presented. The workflow combines software components to submit model simulations to remote high performance computers, a message broker interface for communications between the optimizer engine and the simulation production step, and tools to convolve the simulated data with the experimental resolution. A test application shows the correction to a popular fixed-charge water model in order to account polarization effects due to the presence of solvated ions. Future enhancements to the refinement workflow are discussed. This work is funded through the DOE Center for Accelerating Materials Modeling.

Borreguero Calvo, Jose M [ORNL] [ORNL; Campbell, Stuart I [ORNL] [ORNL; Delaire, Olivier A [ORNL] [ORNL; Doucet, Mathieu [ORNL] [ORNL; Goswami, Monojoy [ORNL] [ORNL; Hagen, Mark E [ORNL] [ORNL; Lynch, Vickie E [ORNL] [ORNL; Proffen, Thomas E [ORNL] [ORNL; Ren, Shelly [ORNL] [ORNL; Savici, Andrei T [ORNL] [ORNL; Sumpter, Bobby G [ORNL] [ORNL

2014-01-01

89

Clinical Advances in Molecular Biomarkers for Cancer Diagnosis and Therapy  

PubMed Central

Cancer diagnosis is currently undergoing a paradigm shift with the incorporation of molecular biomarkers as part of routine diagnostic panel. The molecular alteration ranges from those involving the DNA, RNA, microRNAs (miRNAs) and proteins. The miRNAs are recently discovered small non-coding endogenous single-stranded RNAs that critically regulates the development, invasion and metastasis of cancers. They are altered in cancers and have the potential to serve as diagnostic markers for cancer. Moreover, deregulating their activity offers novel cancer therapeutic approaches. The availability of high throughput techniques for the identification of altered cellular molecules allowed their use in cancer diagnosis. Their application to a variety of body specimens from blood to tissues has been helpful for appreciating their use in the clinical context. The development of innovative antibodies for immunohistochemical detection of proteins also assists in diagnosis and risk stratification. Overall, the novel cancer diagnostic tools have extended their application as prognostic risk factors and can be used as targets for personalized medicine. PMID:23863689

Sethi, Seema; Ali, Shadan; Philip, Philip A.; Sarkar, Fazlul H.

2013-01-01

90

ADVANCED TECHNIQUES FOR RESERVOIR SIMULATION AND MODELING OF NONCONVENTIONAL WELLS  

SciTech Connect

Nonconventional wells, which include horizontal, deviated, multilateral and ''smart'' wells, offer great potential for the efficient management of oil and gas reservoirs. These wells are able to contact larger regions of the reservoir than conventional wells and can also be used to target isolated hydrocarbon accumulations. The use of nonconventional wells instrumented with downhole inflow control devices allows for even greater flexibility in production. Because nonconventional wells can be very expensive to drill, complete and instrument, it is important to be able to optimize their deployment, which requires the accurate prediction of their performance. However, predictions of nonconventional well performance are often inaccurate. This is likely due to inadequacies in some of the reservoir engineering and reservoir simulation tools used to model and optimize nonconventional well performance. A number of new issues arise in the modeling and optimization of nonconventional wells. For example, the optimal use of downhole inflow control devices has not been addressed for practical problems. In addition, the impact of geological and engineering uncertainty (e.g., valve reliability) has not been previously considered. In order to model and optimize nonconventional wells in different settings, it is essential that the tools be implemented into a general reservoir simulator. This simulator must be sufficiently general and robust and must in addition be linked to a sophisticated well model. Our research under this five year project addressed all of the key areas indicated above. The overall project was divided into three main categories: (1) advanced reservoir simulation techniques for modeling nonconventional wells; (2) improved techniques for computing well productivity (for use in reservoir engineering calculations) and for coupling the well to the simulator (which includes the accurate calculation of well index and the modeling of multiphase flow in the wellbore); and (3) accurate approaches to account for the effects of reservoir heterogeneity and for the optimization of nonconventional well deployment. An overview of our progress in each of these main areas is as follows. A general purpose object-oriented research simulator (GPRS) was developed under this project. The GPRS code is managed using modern software management techniques and has been deployed to many companies and research institutions. The simulator includes general black-oil and compositional modeling modules. The formulation is general in that it allows for the selection of a wide variety of primary and secondary variables and accommodates varying degrees of solution implicitness. Specifically, we developed and implemented an IMPSAT procedure (implicit in pressure and saturation, explicit in all other variables) for compositional modeling as well as an adaptive implicit procedure. Both of these capabilities allow for efficiency gains through selective implicitness. The code treats cell connections through a general connection list, which allows it to accommodate both structured and unstructured grids. The GPRS code was written to be easily extendable so new modeling techniques can be readily incorporated. Along these lines, we developed a new dual porosity module compatible with the GPRS framework, as well as a new discrete fracture model applicable for fractured or faulted reservoirs. Both of these methods display substantial advantages over previous implementations. Further, we assessed the performance of different preconditioners in an attempt to improve the efficiency of the linear solver. As a result of this investigation, substantial improvements in solver performance were achieved.

Louis J. Durlofsky; Khalid Aziz

2004-08-20

91

Weldability and joining techniques for advanced fossil energy system alloys  

SciTech Connect

The efforts represent the concerns for the basic understanding of the weldability and fabricability of the advanced high temperature alloys so necessary to affect increases in the efficiency of the next generation Fossil Energy Power Plants. The effort was divided into three tasks with the first effort dealing with the welding and fabrication behavior of 310HCbN (HR3C), the second task details the studies aimed at understanding the weldability of a newly developed 310TaN high temperature stainless (a modification of 310 stainless) and Task 3 addressed the cladding of austenitic tubing with Iron-Aluminide using the GTAW process. Task 1 consisted of microstructural studies on 310HCbN and the development of a Tube Weldability test which has applications to production welding techniques as well as laboratory weldability assessments. In addition, the evaluation of ex-service 310HCbN which showed fireside erosion and cracking at the attachment weld locations was conducted. Task 2 addressed the behavior of the newly developed 310 TaN modification of standard 310 stainless steel and showed that the weldability was excellent and that the sensitization potential was minimal for normal welding and fabrication conditions. The microstructural evolution during elevated temperature testing was characterized and the second phase particles evolved upon aging were identified. Task 3 details the investigation undertaken to clad 310HCbN tubing with Iron Aluminide and developed welding conditions necessary to provide a crack free cladding. The work showed that both a preheat and a post-heat was necessary for crack free deposits and the effect of a third element on the cracking potential was defined together with the effect of the aluminum level for optimum weldability.

Lundin, C.D.; Qiao, C.Y.P.; Liu, W.; Yang, D.; Zhou, G.; Morrison, M. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

1998-05-01

92

Recent advances in the molecular and cellular biology of bunyaviruses.  

PubMed

The family Bunyaviridae of segmented, negative-stranded RNA viruses includes over 350 members that infect a bewildering variety of animals and plants. Many of these bunyaviruses are the causative agents of serious disease in their respective hosts, and are classified as emerging viruses because of their increased incidence in new populations and geographical locations throughout the world. Emerging bunyaviruses, such as Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus, tomato spotted wilt virus and Rift Valley fever virus, are currently attracting great interest due to migration of their arthropod vectors, a situation possibly linked to climate change. These and other examples of continued emergence suggest that bunyaviruses will probably continue to pose a sustained global threat to agricultural productivity, animal welfare and human health. The threat of emergence is particularly acute in light of the lack of effective preventative or therapeutic treatments for any of these viruses, making their study an important priority. This review presents recent advances in the understanding of the bunyavirus life cycle, including aspects of their molecular, cellular and structural biology. Whilst special emphasis is placed upon the emerging bunyaviruses, we also describe the extensive body of work involving model bunyaviruses, which have been the subject of major contributions to our overall understanding of this important group of viruses. PMID:21865443

Walter, Cheryl T; Barr, John N

2011-11-01

93

PDE Estimation Techniques for Advanced Battery Management Systems -Part II: SOH Identification  

E-print Network

PDE Estimation Techniques for Advanced Battery Management Systems - Part II: SOH Identification S and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) of 2009 [3]. As such, battery management systems within these advanced transportation vehi- cles and renewable energy resources is battery energy storage. Advanced battery systems represent

Krstic, Miroslav

94

ADVANCED NUMERICAL TECHNIQUES IN ROCK SLOPE STABILITY ANALYSIS APPLICATIONS AND LIMITATIONS  

E-print Network

ADVANCED NUMERICAL TECHNIQUES IN ROCK SLOPE STABILITY ANALYSIS ­ APPLICATIONS AND LIMITATIONS Doug slope stability analysis emphasising recent developments in numerical modelling, including advances/or the equilibrium conditions of a natural slope. The analysis technique chosen depends on both site conditions

95

Advanced interpretation technique integrates well-log and core data for thinly bedded reservoir evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Integrating reservoir parameters derived from log and core data allows previously bypassed, thin productive zones to be identified. Recent advancement in enhanced data acquisition methods and well-log interpretation techniques have reduced problems encountered with conventional well logging and data analyses. Improved data acquisition methods record filter-free data at higher sample rates. Advanced log interpretation techniques utilize enhanced porosity, shaliness, and

A. Sinha; B. Simmons; T. Lawrence

1989-01-01

96

Recent advances in molecular recognition based on nanoengineered platforms.  

PubMed

Nanoparticles and nanoengineered platforms have great potential for technologies involving biomoleuclar detection or cell-related biosensing, and have provided effective chemical interfaces for molecular recognition. Typically, chemists work on the modification of synthetic polymers or macromolecules, which they link to the nanoparticles by covalent or noncovalent approaches. The motivation for chemical modification is to enhance the selectivity and sensitivity, and to improve the biocompatibility for the in vivo applications. In this Account, we present recent advances in the development and application of chemical interfaces for molecular recognition for nanoparticles and nanoengineered platforms, in particular single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs). We discuss emerging approaches for recognizing small molecules, glycosylated proteins, and serum biomarkers. For example, we compare and discuss detection methods for ATP, NO, H2O2, and monosaccharides for recent nanomaterials. Fluorometric detection appears to have great potential for quantifying concentration gradients and determining their location in living cells. For macromolecular detection, new methods for glycoprofiling using such interfaces appear promising, and benefit specifically from the potential elimination of cumbersome labeling and liberation steps during conventional analysis of glycans, augmenting the currently used mass spectrometry (MS), capillary electrophoresis (CE), and liquid chromatography (LC) methods. In particular, we demonstrated the great potential of fluorescent SWNTs for glycan-lectin interactions sensing. In this case, SWNTs are noncovalently functionalized to introduce a chelated nickel group. This group provides a docking site for the His-tagged lectin and acts as the signal modulator. As the nickel proximity to the SWNT surface changes, the fluorescent signal is increased or attenuated. When a free glycan or glycosylated probe interacts with the lectin, the signal increases and they are able to obtain loading curves similar to surface plasmon resonance measurements. They demonstrate the sensitivity and specificity of this platform with two higher-affined glycan-lectin pairs: fucose (Fuc) to PA-IIL and N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) to GafD. Lastly, we discuss how developments in protein biomarker detection in general are benefiting specifically from label-free molecular recognition. Electrical field effect transistors, chemi-resistive and fluorometric nanosensors based on various nanomaterials have demonstrated substantial progress in recent years in addressing this challenging problem. In this Account, we compare the balance between sensitivity, selectivity, and nonspecific adsorption for various applications. In particular, our group has utilized SWNTs as fluorescence sensors for label-free protein-protein interaction measurements. In this assay, we have encapsulated each nanotube in a biocompatible polymer, chitosan, which has been further modified to conjugate nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA) groups. After Ni(2+) chelation, NTA Ni(2+) complexes bind to his-tagged proteins, resulting in a local environment change of the SWNT array, leading to optical fluorescence modulation with detection limit down to 100 nM. We have further engineered the platform to monitor single protein binding events, with an even lower detection limit down to 10 pM. PMID:24467652

Mu, Bin; Zhang, Jingqing; McNicholas, Thomas P; Reuel, Nigel F; Kruss, Sebastian; Strano, Michael S

2014-04-15

97

New Molecular Techniques to Study the Skin Microbiota of Diabetic Foot Ulcers  

PubMed Central

Significance: Diabetic foot ulcers (DFU) are a major and growing public health problem. They pose difficulties in clinical practice in both diagnosis and management. Bacterial interactions on the skin surface are important in the pathophysiology of DFU and may contribute to a delay in healing. Fully identifying bacteria present in these wounds is difficult with traditional culture methods. New molecular tools, however, have greatly contributed to our understanding of the role of the cutaneous microbiota in DFU. Recent Advances: Molecular technologies revealed new information concerning how bacteria are organized in DFU. This has led to the concept of “functionally equivalent pathogroups,” meaning that certain bacterial species which are usually nonpathogenic (or at least incapable of maintaining a chronic infection on their own) may coaggregate symbiotically in a pathogenic biofilm and act synergistically to cause a chronic infection. The distribution of pathogens in multispecies biofilms is nonrandom. The high bacterial diversity is probably related to the development of a microbial biofilm that is irreversibly attached to the wound matrix. Critical Issues: Using molecular techniques requires a financial outlay for high-cost equipment. They are still too time-consuming to perform and reporting is too delayed for them to be used in routine practice. Finally, they do not differentiate live from dead or pathogenic from nonpathogenic microorganisms. Future Directions: Molecular tools have better documented the composition and organization of the skin flora. Further advances are required to elucidate which among the many bacteria in the DFU flora are likely to be pathogens, rather than colonizers. PMID:25566413

Lavigne, Jean-Philippe; Sotto, Albert; Dunyach-Remy, Catherine; Lipsky, Benjamin A.

2015-01-01

98

Next Generation Risk Assessment: Incorporation of Recent Advances in Molecular, Computational, and Systems Biology (Final Report)  

EPA Science Inventory

This final report, "Next Generation Risk Assessment: Recent Advances in Molecular, Computational, and Systems Biology", describes new approaches that are faster, less resource intensive, and more robust that can help address the challenges of assessing potential health hazards fo...

99

Bricklaying Curriculum: Advanced Bricklaying Techniques. Instructional Materials. Revised.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This curriculum guide is designed to assist bricklaying instructors in providing performance-based instruction in advanced bricklaying. Included in the first section of the guide are units on customized or architectural masonry units; glass block; sills, lintels, and copings; and control (expansion) joints. The next two units deal with cut,…

Turcotte, Raymond J.; Hendrix, Laborn J.

100

Advances in Calibration and Imaging Techniques in Radio Interferometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper summarizes some of the major calibration and image reconstruction techniques used in radio interferometry and describes them in a common mathematical framework. The use of this framework has a number of benefits, ranging from clarification of the fundamentals, use of standard numerical optimization techniques, and generalization or specialization to new algorithms.

Rau, Urvashi; Bhatnagar, Sanjay; Voronkov, Maxim A.; Cornwell, Tim J.

2009-08-01

101

Advancing the Frontiers in Nanocatalysis, Biointerfaces, and Renewable Energy Conversion by Innovations of Surface Techniques  

SciTech Connect

The challenge of chemistry in the 21st century is to achieve 100% selectivity of the desired product molecule in multipath reactions ('green chemistry') and develop renewable energy based processes. Surface chemistry and catalysis play key roles in this enterprise. Development of in situ surface techniques such as high-pressure scanning tunneling microscopy, sum frequency generation (SFG) vibrational spectroscopy, time-resolved Fourier transform infrared methods, and ambient pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy enabled the rapid advancement of three fields: nanocatalysts, biointerfaces, and renewable energy conversion chemistry. In materials nanoscience, synthetic methods have been developed to produce monodisperse metal and oxide nanoparticles (NPs) in the 0.8-10 nm range with controlled shape, oxidation states, and composition; these NPs can be used as selective catalysts since chemical selectivity appears to be dependent on all of these experimental parameters. New spectroscopic and microscopic techniques have been developed that operate under reaction conditions and reveal the dynamic change of molecular structure of catalysts and adsorbed molecules as the reactions proceed with changes in reaction intermediates, catalyst composition, and oxidation states. SFG vibrational spectroscopy detects amino acids, peptides, and proteins adsorbed at hydrophobic and hydrophilic interfaces and monitors the change of surface structure and interactions with coadsorbed water. Exothermic reactions and photons generate hot electrons in metal NPs that may be utilized in chemical energy conversion. The photosplitting of water and carbon dioxide, an important research direction in renewable energy conversion, is discussed.

Somorjai, G.A.; Frei, H.; Park, J.Y.

2009-07-23

102

Development of Advanced In-Situ Techniques for Chemistry Monitoring and Corrosion Mitigation in SCWO Environments  

SciTech Connect

This project is developing sensing technologies and corrosion monitoring techniques for use in super critical water oxidation (SCWO) systems to reduce the volume of mixed low-level nuclear waste by oxidizing organic components in a closed cycle system where CO2 and other gaseous oxides are produced, leaving the radioactive elements concentrated in ash. The technique uses water at supercritical temperatures under highly oxidized conditions by maintaining a high fugacity of molecular oxygen in the system, which causes high corrosion rates of even the most corrosive resistant reactor materials. This project significantly addresses the high corrosion shortcoming through development of (a) advanced electrodes and sensors for in situ potentiometric monitoring of pH in high subcritical and supercritical aqueous solutions, (b) an approach for evaluating the association constants for 1-1 aqueous electrolytes using a flow-through electrochemical thermocell; (c) an electrochemical noise sensor for the in situ measurement of corrosion rate in subcritical and supercritical aqueous systems; (d) a model for estimating the effect of pressure on reaction rates, including corrosion reactions, in high subcritical and supercritical aqueous systems. The project achieved all objectives, except for installing some of the sensors into a fully operating SCWO system.

Macdonald, D. D.; Lvov, S. N.

2000-03-31

103

Investigation of PACVD protective coating processes using advanced diagnostics techniques  

SciTech Connect

Objective is to understand the mechanisms governing nonequilibrium plasma atomistic or molecular deposition of hard face coatings. Laser diagnostic methods include coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS) and laser-induced fluorescence. TiB[sub 2] and diamonds were used as the hard face coating materials. Diborane was used as precursor to TiB[sub 2].

Roman, W.C.

1993-05-07

104

New molecular targeted therapies against advanced hepatocellular carcinoma: from molecular pathogenesis to clinical trials and future directions.  

PubMed

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) can be lethal due to its aggressive course and lack of effective systemic therapies for advanced disease. Sorafenib is the only systemic therapy that has demonstrated an overall survival (OS) benefit in patients with advanced HCC, and new agents for treatment of advanced HCC are needed. The multiple pathways involved in HCC oncogenesis, proliferation, and survival provide many opportunities for the development of molecularly targeted therapies. Molecular targets of interest have expanded from angiogenesis to cancer cell-directed oncogenic signaling pathways for treatment of advanced HCC. Agents targeting vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR), platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR), c-mesenchymal-epithelial transition factor-1 (c-Met), and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling have been actively explored. This article focuses on the evaluation of molecular agents targeting pathogenic HCC and provides a review of recently completed phase III drug studies (e.g., involving sorafenib, sunitinib, brivanib, linifanib, erlotinib, everolimus, ramucirumab, or orantinib) and ongoing drug studies (e.g., involving lenvatinib, regorafenib, tivantinib, or cabozantinib) of molecular targeted agents in advanced HCC, including a brief description of the biologic rationale behind these agents. PMID:25472913

Chuma, Makoto; Terashita, Katsuimi; Sakamoto, Naoya

2014-12-01

105

Molecular Analysis of Microbial Diversity in Advanced Caries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Received 13 May 2004\\/Returned for modification 15 July 2004\\/Accepted 24 September 2004 Real-time PCR analysis of the total bacterial load in advanced carious lesions has shown that the total load exceeds the number of cultivable bacteria. This suggests that an unresolved complexity exists in bacteria associated with advanced caries. In this report, the profile of the microflora of carious dentine

Kim-Ly Chhour; Mangala A. Nadkarni; Roy Byun; F. Elizabeth Martin; Nicholas A. Jacques; Neil Hunter

2005-01-01

106

Functional characterisation of metal(loid) processes in planta through the integration of synchrotron techniques and plant molecular biology  

PubMed Central

Functional characterisation of the genes regulating metal(loid) homeostasis in plants is a major focus of crop biofortification, phytoremediation, and food security research. This paper focuses on the potential for advancing plant metal(loid) research by combining molecular biology and synchrotron-based techniques. Recent advances in x-ray focussing optics and fluorescence detection have greatly improved the potential of synchrotron techniques for plant science research, allowing metal(loids) to be imaged in vivo in hydrated plant tissues at sub-micron resolution. Laterally resolved metal(loid) speciation can also be determined. By using molecular techniques to probe the location of gene expression and protein localisation and combining it with this synchrotron-derived data, functional information can be effectively and efficiently assigned to specific genes. This paper provides a review of the state of the art in this field, and provides examples as to how synchrotron-based methods can be combined with molecular techniques to facilitate functional characterisation of genes in planta. PMID:22200921

Donner, Erica; Punshon, Tracy; Guerinot, Mary Lou; Lombi, Enzo

2013-01-01

107

Backscattered Electron Microscopy as an Advanced Technique in Petrography.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three uses of this method with sandstone, desert varnish, and granite weathering are described. Background information on this technique is provided. Advantages of this type of microscopy are stressed. (CW)

Krinsley, David Henry; Manley, Curtis Robert

1989-01-01

108

Tagging and Purifying Proteins to Teach Molecular Biology and Advanced Biochemistry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two distinct courses, "Molecular Biology" taught by the Biology Department and "Advanced Biochemistry" taught by the Chemistry Department, complement each other and, when taught in a coordinated and integrated way, can enhance student learning and understanding of complex material. "Molecular Biology" is a comprehensive lecture-based course with a…

Roecklein-Canfield, Jennifer A.; Lopilato, Jane

2004-01-01

109

AN ADVANCED ENSEMBLE IMPACT MONITORING AND IDENTIFICATION TECHNIQUE FOR AEROSPACE COMPOSITE  

E-print Network

AN ADVANCED ENSEMBLE IMPACT MONITORING AND IDENTIFICATION TECHNIQUE FOR AEROSPACE COMPOSITE network, cantilever composite structure, random interfering noise 1. INTRODUCTION Aerospace structures can's so difficult for aerospace transportation vehicle to identify real-time this kind of damage on board

Boyer, Edmond

110

Antenna Advancement Techniques and Integration of RFID Electronics on Organic Substrates for UHF RFID Applications in  

E-print Network

Antenna Advancement Techniques and Integration of RFID Electronics on Organic Substrates for UHF RFID Applications in Automotive Sensing and Vehicle Security Li Yang, Amin Rida, Jiexin Li, and Manos M requirements and advanced approaches for improved performance UHF radio frequency identification (RFID) tags

Tentzeris, Manos

111

PDE Estimation Techniques for Advanced Battery Management Systems -Part I: SOC Estimation  

E-print Network

This paper investigates a Li-ion battery state-of-charge (SOC) estimation algorithm based uponPDE Estimation Techniques for Advanced Battery Management Systems - Part I: SOC Estimation S. J- cles and renewable energy resources is battery energy storage. Advanced battery systems represent

Krstic, Miroslav

112

Advances in grid-based numerical modeling techniques for improving gas management in coal mines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effective gas management in coal mines, as well as proper ventilation design, is very important for maintaining the safety of underground coal miners. Advances in numerical modeling techniques have enabled evaluations of the coal mining environment using advanced grid designs and computed gas distributions through detailed mathematical models. These models help engineers to \\

C. Ö. Karacan

113

ADVANCES IN OPTICALLY PUMPED He4 MAGNETOMETERS : RESONANCE AND NONRESONANCE TECHNIQUES  

E-print Network

109. ADVANCES IN OPTICALLY PUMPED He4 MAGNETOMETERS : RESONANCE AND NONRESONANCE TECHNIQUES By R. E pumped 23S1 helium atoms are currently studied in our laboratory for use in advanced magnetometer pumping process is used to construct a non- resonance magnetometer (no magnetic resonance) suitable

Boyer, Edmond

114

Recent advances in wavefront shaping techniques for biomedical applications  

E-print Network

Due to the highly inhomogeneous distributions of refractive indexes, light propagation in complex media such as biological tissue experiences multiple light scattering events. The suppression and control of multiple light scattering events are investigated because they offer the possibility of optical focusing and imaging through biological tissues, and they may open new avenues for diagnosis and treatment of several human diseases. In order to provide insight into how new optical techniques can address the issues of multiple light scattering in biomedical applications, the recent progress in optical wavefront-shaping techniques is summarized.

Yu, Hyeonseung; Lee, KyoReh; Yoon, Jonghee; Kim, KyungDuk; Lee, Shinwha; Park, YongKeun

2015-01-01

115

Advanced imaging techniques for the study of plant growth and development.  

PubMed

A variety of imaging methodologies are being used to collect data for quantitative studies of plant growth and development from living plants. Multi-level data, from macroscopic to molecular, and from weeks to seconds, can be acquired. Furthermore, advances in parallelized and automated image acquisition enable the throughput to capture images from large populations of plants under specific growth conditions. Image-processing capabilities allow for 3D or 4D reconstruction of image data and automated quantification of biological features. These advances facilitate the integration of imaging data with genome-wide molecular data to enable systems-level modeling. PMID:24434036

Sozzani, Rosangela; Busch, Wolfgang; Spalding, Edgar P; Benfey, Philip N

2014-05-01

116

DOE`s new advanced and simplified VA technique  

SciTech Connect

``Experience indicates that most security systems are poorly designed and easily breached. The integrity of electronic security systems depends on the conceptual design philosophy, including a complete analysis of requirements and a thorough vulnerability assessment, prior to the selection, placement, and utilization of detection equipment.`` [Quote by the Center for Continuing Engineering Education, University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee] A new advanced vulnerability analysis model has been developed for use by security professionals who have comprehensive backgrounds in physical security. The model has been developed as an analytical tool to aid in the management, engineering design, analysis, tactical planning, and testing of security systems. It is comprised of elements that together combine to provide quantitative and qualitative evaluation of protection effectiveness. The Advanced Logic Prototype Heuristic Analysis (ALPHA) model is comprised of three basic parts: (1) an event tree logic diagram, (2) a heuristic rule base, and (3) a fuzzy set decision guide. These three parts when manipulated together, provide a top-down overview of a protection system that portrays the layers, balance, and gradation of the security system and its protection elements.

Timm, R.E. [R.E. Timm and Associates, Inc., Hinsdale, IL (United States)

1993-12-31

117

In Situ Techniques for Monitoring Electrochromism: An Advanced Laboratory Experiment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This experiment employs current technology to enhance and extend existing lab content. The basic principles of spectroscopic and electroanalytical techniques and their use in determining material properties are covered in some detail in many undergraduate chemistry programs. However, there are limited examples of laboratory experiments with in…

Saricayir, Hakan; Uce, Musa; Koca, Atif

2010-01-01

118

Advances in reduction techniques for tire contact problems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Some recent developments in reduction techniques, as applied to predicting the tire contact response and evaluating the sensitivity coefficients of the different response quantities, are reviewed. The sensitivity coefficients measure the sensitivity of the contact response to variations in the geometric and material parameters of the tire. The tire is modeled using a two-dimensional laminated anisotropic shell theory with the effects of variation in geometric and material parameters, transverse shear deformation, and geometric nonlinearities included. The contact conditions are incorporated into the formulation by using a perturbed Lagrangian approach with the fundamental unknowns consisting of the stress resultants, the generalized displacements, and the Lagrange multipliers associated with the contact conditions. The elemental arrays are obtained by using a modified two-field, mixed variational principle. For the application of reduction techniques, the tire finite element model is partitioned into two regions. The first region consists of the nodes that are likely to come in contact with the pavement, and the second region includes all the remaining nodes. The reduction technique is used to significantly reduce the degrees of freedom in the second region. The effectiveness of the computational procedure is demonstrated by a numerical example of the frictionless contact response of the space shuttle nose-gear tire, inflated and pressed against a rigid flat surface. Also, the research topics which have high potential for enhancing the effectiveness of reduction techniques are outlined.

Noor, Ahmed K.

1995-01-01

119

Development of processing techniques for advanced thermal protection materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effort, which was focused on the research and development of advanced materials for use in Thermal Protection Systems (TPS), has involved chemical and physical testing of refractory ceramic tiles, fabrics, threads and fibers. This testing has included determination of the optical properties, thermal shock resistance, high temperature dimensional stability, and tolerance to environmental stresses. Materials have also been tested in the Arc Jet 2 x 9 Turbulent Duct Facility (TDF), the 1 atmosphere Radiant Heat Cycler, and the Mini-Wind Tunnel Facility (MWTF). A significant part of the effort hitherto has gone towards modifying and upgrading the test facilities so that meaningful tests can be carried out. Another important effort during this period has been the creation of a materials database. Computer systems administration and support have also been provided. These are described in greater detail below.

Selvaduray, Guna S.

1994-01-01

120

Advances in epidemiology survey methodology and techniques in schistosomiasis  

PubMed Central

Quantitative techniques are now recognized to contribute to the validity and comparability of data from epidemiological studies in schistosomiasis. These methods have been developed and tested in field investigations in areas where Schistosoma mansoni is endemic and, to a lesser extent, S. haematobium endemic areas. Carefully planned epidemiological investigations using standardized and quantitative methods have contributed to our understanding of the relationships between intensity of infection and morbidity, as well as to the development of improved control strategies relevant to these areas. This article reviews the newer parasitological techniques, methods of morbidity assessment, and data analysis procedures employed in current epidemiological studies in schistosomiasis, as well as the analytical questions involved in research on the epidemiology of schistosomiasis. PMID:6969136

Mott, K. E.; Cline, B. L.

1980-01-01

121

Advanced gain-scheduling techniques for uncertain systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper is concerned with the design of gain-scheduled controllers for linear parameter-varying systems. Two alternative LMI characterizations are investigated. Both characterizations are amenable to a finite number of LMI conditions either via a gridding of the parameter range or via grid-free techniques which rely on multi-convexity concepts. Practicality and implementation issues are discussed and examples are provided

Pierre Apkarian; Richard J. Adams

1997-01-01

122

An Interventional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Technique for the Molecular Characterization of Intraprostatic  

E-print Network

an important role in cancer care and clinical research if the molecular processes that underlie the image data, molecular imaging, interventional MRI, prostate cancer, micro- array analysis. Introduction Dynamic contrastAn Interventional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Technique for the Molecular Characterization

Whitcomb, Louis L.

123

Advances in dental local anesthesia techniques and devices: An update  

PubMed Central

Although local anesthesia remains the backbone of pain control in dentistry, researches are going to seek new and better means of managing the pain. Most of the researches are focused on improvement in the area of anesthetic agents, delivery devices and technique involved. Newer technologies have been developed that can assist the dentist in providing enhanced pain relief with reduced injection pain and fewer adverse effects. This overview will enlighten the practicing dentists regarding newer devices and methods of rendering pain control comparing these with the earlier used ones on the basis of research and clinical studies available. PMID:24163548

Saxena, Payal; Gupta, Saurabh K.; Newaskar, Vilas; Chandra, Anil

2013-01-01

124

Investigation of bus transit schedule behavior modeling using advanced techniques  

SciTech Connect

This research focused on investigating the application of artificial neural networks (ANN) and the Box-Jenkins technique for developing and testing schedule behavior models using data obtained for a test route from Tidewater Regional Transit`s AVL system. The three ANN architectures investigated were: Feedforward Network, Elman Network and Jordan Network. In addition, five different model structures were investigated. The time-series methodology was adopted for developing the schedule behavior models. Finally, the role of a schedule behavior model within the framework of an intelligent transit management system is defined and the potential utility of the schedule behavior model is discussed using an example application.

Kalaputapu, R.; Demetsky, M.J.

1998-05-15

125

Advances in parameter estimation techniques applied to flexible structures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this work, various parameter estimation techniques are investigated in the context of structural system identification utilizing distributed parameter models and 'measured' time-domain data. Distributed parameter models are formulated using the PDEMOD software developed by Taylor. Enhancements made to PDEMOD for this work include the following: (1) a Wittrick-Williams based root solving algorithm; (2) a time simulation capability; and (3) various parameter estimation algorithms. The parameter estimations schemes will be contrasted using the NASA Mini-Mast as the focus structure.

Maben, Egbert; Zimmerman, David C.

1994-01-01

126

New advanced surface modification technique: titanium oxide ceramic surface implants: long-term clinical results  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this paper is to discuss the background to advanced surface modification technologies and to present a new technique, involving the formation of a titanium oxide ceramic coating, with relatively long-term results of its clinical utilization. Three general techniques are used to modify surfaces: the addition or removal of material and the change of material already present. Surface

Gyorgy Szabo; Lajos Kovacs; Jozsef Barabas; Zsolt Nemeth; Carlo Maironna

2001-01-01

127

Advanced Sonar Processing Techniques for Underwater Acoustic Multi-Input Multi-Output Communications  

E-print Network

Advanced Sonar Processing Techniques for Underwater Acoustic Multi-Input Multi sonar array processing techniques such as multichan- nel combining. In order to justify this assertion the communications as well as sonar fields; however, due to the unique propagat- ing physics of sound waves in water

Evans, Brian L.

128

Advanced techniques for determining long term compatibility of materials with propellants  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method for the prediction of propellant-material compatibility for periods of time up to ten years is presented. Advanced sensitive measurement techniques used in the prediction method are described. These include: neutron activation analysis, radioactive tracer technique, and atomic absorption spectroscopy with a graphite tube furnace sampler. The results of laboratory tests performed to verify the prediction method are presented.

Green, R. L.; Stebbins, J. P.; Smith, A. W.; Pullen, K. E.

1973-01-01

129

Biotechnology Apprenticeship for Secondary-Level Students: Teaching Advanced Cell Culture Techniques for Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this article is to discuss "small-group apprenticeships (SGAs)" as a method to instruct cell culture techniques to high school participants. The study aimed to teach cell culture practices and to introduce advanced imaging techniques to solve various biomedical engineering problems. Participants designed and completed experiments…

Lewis, Jennifer R.; Kotur, Mark S.; Butt, Omar; Kulcarni, Sumant; Riley, Alyssa A.; Ferrell, Nick; Sullivan, Kathryn D.; Ferrari, Mauro

2002-01-01

130

Biotechnology Apprenticeship for Secondary-Level Students: Teaching Advanced Cell Culture Techniques for Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses small-group apprenticeships (SGAs) as a method for introducing cell culture techniques to high school participants. Teaches cell culture practices and introduces advance imaging techniques to solve various biomedical engineering problems. Clarifies and illuminates the value of small-group laboratory apprenticeships. (Author/KHR)

Lewis, Jennifer R.; Kotur, Mark S.; Butt, Omar; Kulcarni, Sumant; Riley, Alyssa A.; Ferrell, Nick; Sullivan, Kathryn D.; Ferrari, Mauro

2002-01-01

131

Analysis techniques for coronary arteries and cardiac function using advanced MRI and CT imaging  

E-print Network

Analysis techniques for coronary arteries and cardiac function using advanced MRI and CT imaging angiography is used to assess the coronary arteries due to its high spatial resolution, and MR is used by CT feasible, while new MR techniques increase the spatial resolution imaging the coronary arteries

Greenaway, Alan

132

XII Advanced Computing and Analysis Techniques in Physics Research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

November 2008 will be a few months after the official start of LHC when the highest quantum energy ever produced by mankind will be observed by the most complex piece of scientific equipment ever built. LHC will open a new era in physics research and push further the frontier of Knowledge This achievement has been made possible by new technological developments in many fields, but computing is certainly the technology that has made possible this whole enterprise. Accelerator and detector design, construction management, data acquisition, detectors monitoring, data analysis, event simulation and theoretical interpretation are all computing based HEP activities but also occurring many other research fields. Computing is everywhere and forms the common link between all involved scientists and engineers. The ACAT workshop series, created back in 1990 as AIHENP (Artificial Intelligence in High Energy and Nuclear Research) has been covering the tremendous evolution of computing in its most advanced topics, trying to setup bridges between computer science, experimental and theoretical physics. Conference web-site: http://acat2008.cern.ch/ Programme and presentations: http://indico.cern.ch/conferenceDisplay.py?confId=34666

Speer, Thomas; Carminati, Federico; Werlen, Monique

133

Advances in Techniques for Probing Mechanoregulation of Tissue Morphogenesis.  

PubMed

Cells process various mechanical cues in the microenvironment to self-organize into high-order architectures during tissue morphogenesis. Impairment of morphogenic processes is the underlying cause of many diseases; as such, understanding the regulatory mechanisms associated with these processes will form the foundation for the development of innovative approaches in cell therapy and tissue engineering. Nevertheless, little is known about how cells collectively respond to mechanical cues in the microenvironment, such as global geometric guidance, local cell-cell interactions, and other physicochemical factors, for the emergence of the structural hierarchy across multiple length scales. To elucidate the mechanoregulation of tissue morphogenesis, numerous approaches based on biochemical, biomaterial, and biophysical techniques have been developed in the past decades. In this review, we summarize techniques and approaches for probing the mechanoregulation of tissue morphogenesis and illustrate their applications in vasculature development. The potential and limitations of these methods are also discussed with a view toward the investigation of a wide spectrum of tissue morphogenic processes. PMID:25331491

Sun, Jian; Xiao, Yuan; Wang, Shue; Slepian, Marvin J; Wong, Pak Kin

2014-10-20

134

Advances in dynamic relaxation techniques for nonlinear finite element analysis  

SciTech Connect

Traditionally, the finite element technique has been applied to static and steady-state problems using implicit methods. When nonlinearities exist, equilibrium iterations must be performed using Newton-Raphson or quasi-Newton techniques at each load level. In the presence of complex geometry, nonlinear material behavior, and large relative sliding of material interfaces, solutions using implicit methods often become intractable. A dynamic relaxation algorithm is developed for inclusion in finite element codes. The explicit nature of the method avoids large computer memory requirements and makes possible the solution of large-scale problems. The method described approaches the steady-state solution with no overshoot, a problem which has plagued researchers in the past. The method is included in a general nonlinear finite element code. A description of the method along with a number of new applications involving geometric and material nonlinearities are presented. They include: (1) nonlinear geometric cantilever plate; (2) moment-loaded nonlinear beam; and (3) creep of nuclear fuel channel assemblies.

Sauve, R.G.; Metzger, D.R. [Ontario Hydro Technologies, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

1995-05-01

135

Advanced techniques in reliability model representation and solution  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The current tendency of flight control system designs is towards increased integration of applications and increased distribution of computational elements. The reliability analysis of such systems is difficult because subsystem interactions are increasingly interdependent. Researchers at NASA Langley Research Center have been working for several years to extend the capability of Markov modeling techniques to address these problems. This effort has been focused in the areas of increased model abstraction and increased computational capability. The reliability model generator (RMG) is a software tool that uses as input a graphical object-oriented block diagram of the system. RMG uses a failure-effects algorithm to produce the reliability model from the graphical description. The ASSURE software tool is a parallel processing program that uses the semi-Markov unreliability range evaluator (SURE) solution technique and the abstract semi-Markov specification interface to the SURE tool (ASSIST) modeling language. A failure modes-effects simulation is used by ASSURE. These tools were used to analyze a significant portion of a complex flight control system. The successful combination of the power of graphical representation, automated model generation, and parallel computation leads to the conclusion that distributed fault-tolerant system architectures can now be analyzed.

Palumbo, Daniel L.; Nicol, David M.

1992-01-01

136

Recent advances in techniques for tsetse-fly control*  

PubMed Central

With the advent of modern persistent insecticides, it has become possible to utilize some of the knowledge that has accumulated on the ecology and bionomics of Glossina and to devise more effective techniques for the control and eventual extermination of these species. The present article, based on experience of the tsetse fly problem in Northern Nigeria, points out that the disadvantages of control techniques—heavy expenditure of money and manpower and undue damage to the biosystem—can now largely be overcome by basing the application of insecticides on knowledge of the habits of the particular species of Glossina in a particular environment. Two factors are essential to the success of a control project: the proper selection of sites for spraying (the concept of restricted application) and the degree of persistence of the insecticide used. Reinfestation from within or outside the project area must also be taken into account. These and other aspects are discussed in relation to experience gained from a successful extermination project carried out in the Sudan vegetation zone and from present control activities in the Northern Guinea vegetation zone. PMID:5301739

MacLennan, K. J. R.

1967-01-01

137

Advanced microscopy techniques resolving complex precipitates in steels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Scanning electron microscopy as well as analytical transmission electron microscopy techniques such as high resolution, electron diffraction, energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDX), parallel electron energy loss spectroscopy (PEELS) and elemental mapping via a Gatan Imaging Filter (GIF) have been used to study complex precipitation in commercial dual phase steels microalloyed with titanium. Titanium nitrides, titanium carbosulfides, titanium carbonitrides and titanium carbides were characterized in this study. Both carbon extraction replicas and thin foils were used as sample preparation techniques. On both the microscopic and nanometric scales, it was found that a large amount of precipitation occurred heterogeneously on already existing inclusions/precipitates. CaS inclusions (1 to 2 ?m), already present in liquid steel, acted as nucleation sites for TiN precipitating upon the steel's solidification. In addition, TiC nucleated on existing smaller TiN (around 30 to 50 nm). Despite the complexity of such alloys, the statistical analysis conducted on the non-equilibrium samples were found to be in rather good agreement with the theoretical equilibrium calculations. Heterogeneous precipitation must have played a role in bringing these results closer together.

Saikaly, W.; Soto, R.; Bano, X.; Issartel, C.; Rigaut, G.; Charaï, A.

1999-06-01

138

Recent advances in yeast molecular biology: recombinant DNA. [Lead abstract  

SciTech Connect

Separate abstracts were prepared for the 25 papers presented at a workshop focusing on chromosomal structure, gene regulation, recombination, DNA repair, and cell type control, that have been obtained by experimental approaches incorporating the new technologies of yeast DNA transformation, molecular cloning, and DNA sequence analysis. (KRM)

Not Available

1982-09-01

139

Advanced fabrication techniques for hydrogen-cooled engine structures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Described is a program for development of coolant passage geometries, material systems, and joining processes that will produce long-life hydrogen-cooled structures for scramjet applications. Tests were performed to establish basic material properties, and samples constructed and evaluated to substantiate fabrication processes and inspection techniques. Results of the study show that the basic goal of increasing the life of hydrogen-cooled structures two orders of magnitude relative to that of the Hypersonic Research Engine can be reached with available means. Estimated life is 19000 cycles for the channels and 16000 cycles for pin-fin coolant passage configurations using Nickel 201. Additional research is required to establish the fatigue characteristics of dissimilar-metal coolant passages (Nickel 201/Inconel 718) and to investigate the embrittling effects of the hydrogen coolant.

Buchmann, O. A.; Arefian, V. V.; Warren, H. A.; Vuigner, A. A.; Pohlman, M. J.

1985-01-01

140

Next Generation Risk Assessment: Incorporation of Recent Advances in Molecular, Computational, and Systems Biology (External Review Draft)  

EPA Science Inventory

EPA is releasing a draft report "Next Generation Risk Assessment: Incorporation of Recent Advances in Molecular, Computational, and Systems Biology" that explores how new molecular, computational and systems biology data and approaches (together called "NexGen") could better info...

141

Analysis of leading edge and trailing edge cover glass samples before and after treatment with advanced satellite contamination removal techniques  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two samples from Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) experiment M0003-4 were analyzed for molecular and particulate contamination prior to and following treatment with advanced satellite contamination removal techniques (CO2 gas/solid jet spray and oxygen ion beam). The pre- and post-cleaning measurements and analyses are presented. The jet spray removed particulates in seconds. The low energy reactive oxygen ion beam removed 5,000 A of photo polymerized organic hydrocarbon contamination in less than 1 hour. Spectroscopic analytical techniques were applied to the analysis of cleaning efficiency including: Fourier transform infrared, Auger, x ray photoemissions, energy dispersive x ray, and ultraviolet/visible. The results of this work suggest that the contamination studied here was due to spacecraft self-contamination enhanced by atomic oxygen plasma dynamics and solar UV radiation. These results also suggest the efficacy for the jet spray and ion beam contamination control technologies for spacecraft optical surfaces.

Hotaling, S. P.

1993-01-01

142

Advances in low energy neutral atom imaging techniques  

SciTech Connect

Recently proposed low energy neutral atom (LENA) imaging techniques use a collisional process to convert the low energy neutrals into ions before detection. At low energies, collisional processes limit the angular resolution and conversion efficiencies of these devices. However, if the intense ultraviolet light background can be suppressed, direct LENA detection is possible. We present results from a series of experiments designed to develop a novel filtering structure based on free-standing transmission gratings. If the grating period is sufficiently small, free standing transmission gratings can be employed to substantially polarize ultraviolet (UV) light in the wavelength range 300 {Angstrom} to 1500 {Angstrom}. If a second grating is placed behind the first grating with its axis of polarization oriented at a right angle to the first`s, a substantial attenuation of UV radiation is achievable. ne neutrals will pass through the remaining open area of two gratings and be detected without UV background complications. We have obtained nominal 2000 {Angstrom} period (1000 {Angstrom} bars with 1000 {Angstrom} slits) free standing, gold transmission gratings and measured their UV and atomic transmission characteristics. The geometric factor of a LENA imager based on this technology is comparable to that of other proposed LENA imagers. In addition, this of imager does not distort the neutral trajectories, allowing for high angular resolution.

Scime, E.E.; Funsten, H.O.; McComas, D.J.; Moore, K.R. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Gruntman, M. [University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States). Space Sciences Center

1993-05-01

143

Advances in low energy neutral atom imaging techniques  

SciTech Connect

Recently proposed low energy neutral atom (LENA) imaging techniques use a collisional process to convert the low energy neutrals into ions before detection. At low energies, collisional processes limit the angular resolution and conversion efficiencies of these devices. However, if the intense ultraviolet light background can be suppressed, direct LENA detection is possible. We present results from a series of experiments designed to develop a novel filtering structure based on free-standing transmission gratings. If the grating period is sufficiently small, free standing transmission gratings can be employed to substantially polarize ultraviolet (UV) light in the wavelength range 300 [Angstrom] to 1500 [Angstrom]. If a second grating is placed behind the first grating with its axis of polarization oriented at a right angle to the first's, a substantial attenuation of UV radiation is achievable. ne neutrals will pass through the remaining open area of two gratings and be detected without UV background complications. We have obtained nominal 2000 [Angstrom] period (1000 [Angstrom] bars with 1000 [Angstrom] slits) free standing, gold transmission gratings and measured their UV and atomic transmission characteristics. The geometric factor of a LENA imager based on this technology is comparable to that of other proposed LENA imagers. In addition, this of imager does not distort the neutral trajectories, allowing for high angular resolution.

Scime, E.E.; Funsten, H.O.; McComas, D.J.; Moore, K.R. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)); Gruntman, M. (University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States). Space Sciences Center)

1993-01-01

144

Pathological and Molecular Advances in Pediatric Low Grade Astrocytoma  

PubMed Central

Pediatric low grade astrocytomas are the commonest brain tumors in children. They sometimes have similar microscopic and clinical features, making accurate diagnosis difficult. For patients whose tumors are in locations that do not permit full resection, or those with an intrinsically aggressive biology, more effective therapies are required. Until recently, little was known about the molecular changes that drive the initiation and growth of pilocytic and other low grade astrocytomas beyond the association of a minority of cases, primarily in the optic nerve, with neurofibromatosis type 1. Over the last several years, a wide range of studies have implicated the BRAF oncogene and other members of this signaling cascade in the pathobiology of pediatric low grade astrocytoma. In this review, we attempt to summarize this rapidly developing field, and discuss the potential for translating our growing molecular knowledge into improved diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers and new targeted therapies. PMID:23121055

Rodriguez, Fausto J.; Lim, Kah Suan; Bowers, Daniel; Eberhart, Charles G.

2013-01-01

145

Advances in molecular detection of Aspergillus : an update  

Microsoft Academic Search

Filamentous cosmopolitan fungi of the genus Aspergillus can be harmful in two ways, directly they can be opportunistic pathogens causing aspergillosis and indirectly due to aflatoxin\\u000a production on food products which can lead to aflatoxicosis. Therefore, a number of methods have been proposed so far for\\u000a detection of the fungi with lowest possible concentration at the earliest. Molecular methods such

M. Z. Abdin; Malik M. Ahmad; Saleem Javed

2010-01-01

146

A Novel Microcharacterization Technique in the Measurement of Strain and Orientation Gradient in Advanced Materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Representation of morphology and evolution of the microstructure during processing and their relation to properties requires proper experimental techniques. Residual strains, lattice distortion, and texture (micro-texture) at the interface and the matrix of a layered structure or a functionally gradient material and their variation are among parameters important in materials characterization but hard to measure with present experimental techniques. Current techniques available to measure changes in interred material parameters (residual stress, micro-texture, microplasticity) produce results which are either qualitative or unreliable. This problem becomes even more complicated in the case of a temperature variation. These parameters affect many of the mechanical properties of advanced materials including stress-strain relation, ductility, creep, and fatigue. A review of some novel experimental techniques using recent advances in electron microscopy is presented here to measure internal stress, (micro)texture, interracial strength and (sub)grain formation and realignment. Two of these techniques are combined in the chamber of an Environmental Scanning Electron Microscope to measure strain and orientation gradients in advanced materials. These techniques which include Backscattered Kikuchi Diffractometry (BKD) and Microscopic Strain Field Analysis are used to characterize metallic and intermetallic matrix composites and superplastic materials. These techniques are compared with the more conventional x-ray diffraction and indentation techniques.

Garmestai, H.; Harris, K.; Lourenco, L.

1997-01-01

147

Hydrogeophysical Techniques for Site Characterization and Monitoring: Recent Advances in Ground-penetrating Radar  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a We introduce ground penetrating radar (GPR) basic principles and applications in environmental engineering, with emphasis\\u000a on quantitative methods for soil water content estimation. The main limitations of these techniques are discussed. Then, we\\u000a summarize our recent advances on the development and use of advanced off-ground GPR for shallow subsurface characterization.\\u000a The proposed method is based on full-waveform forward and inverse

Sébastien Lambot; Evert Slob; Marnik Vanclooster; Johan A. Huisman; Harry Vereecken

148

The Role of XAFS in Advancing the Frontiers of Molecular  

E-print Network

. Hallock du Pont Chair of Soil and Environmental Chemistry Spectroscopy/Microscopy 4th PSI Summer School Environmental Systems Vibrational spectroscopies Infrared, Raman Technique Capabilities Shortcomings Gives spectroscopies NMR, EPR Determines chemical environment of a species Need to have an element or compound

Sparks, Donald L.

149

POC-Scale Testing of an Advanced Fine Coal Dewatering Equipment/Technique  

SciTech Connect

Froth flotation technique is an effective and efficient process for recovering of ultra-fine (minus 74 mm) clean coal. Economical dewatering of an ultra-fine clean coal product to a 20% level moisture will be an important step in successful implementation of the advanced cleaning processes. This project is a step in the Department of Energy's program to show that ultra-clean coal could be effectively dewatered to 20% or lower moisture using either conventional or advanced dewatering techniques. The cost-sharing contract effort is for 45 months beginning September 30, 1994. This report discusses technical progress made during the quarter from January 1 ? March 31, 1998.

B. K. Karekh; D. Tao; J. G. Groppo

1998-08-28

150

Treatment algorithm in 2014 for advanced non-small cell lung cancer: therapy selection by tumour histology and molecular biology.  

PubMed

The availability of antineoplastic monoclonal antibodies, small molecules and newer cytotoxics such as pemetrexed, the EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitors erlotinib, gefitinib, afatinib as well as the anti-angiogenic bevacizumab and the ALK-inhibitor crizotinib has recently changes the treatment algorithm of advanced non-small cell lung cancer. Decision making in 2014 is characterized by customizing therapy, by selecting a specific therapeutic regimen based on the histotype and the genotype of the tumour. This refers to first-line induction therapy and maintenance therapy as well, but also to subsequent lines of therapy since anti-neoplastic drugs and regimens used upfront clinically influence the selection of agents/regimes considered for second-/third-line treatment. Consequently, therapy customization through tumour histology and molecular markers has significantly influenced the work of pathologists around the globe and the process of obtaining an extended therapeutically relevant tumour diagnosis. Not only histological sub-typing became standard but molecular information is also considered of increasing importance for treatment selection. Routine molecular testing in certified laboratories must be established, and the diagnostic process should ideally be performed under the guidance of evidence based recommendation. The process of investigating and implementing medical targeting in lung cancer therefore, requires advanced diagnostic techniques and expertise and because of its large dimension is costly and influenced by the limitation of financial and clinical resources. PMID:25240504

Manegold, Christian

2014-09-01

151

Clinical management of advanced gastric cancer: The role of new molecular drugs  

PubMed Central

Gastric cancer is the fourth most common malignant neoplasm and the second leading cause of death for cancer in Western countries with more than 20000 new cases yearly diagnosed in the United States. Surgery represents the main approach for this disease but, notwithstanding the advances in surgical techniques, we observed a minimal improvement in terms of overall survival with a significant increasing of relapsing disease rates. Despite the development of new drugs has significantly improved the effectiveness of chemotherapy, the prognosis of patients with unresectable or metastatic gastric adenocarcinoma remains poor. Recently, several molecular target agents have been investigated; in particular, trastuzumab represents the first target molecule showing improvements in overall survival in human epithelial growth factor 2-positive gastric cancer patients. New molecules targeting vascular epithelial growth factor, mammalian target of rapamycin, and anti hepatocyte growth factor-c-Met pathway are also under investigation, with interesting results. Anyway, it seems necessary to select more accurately the population to treat with new agents by the identification of new biomarkers in order to optimize the results. In this paper we review the actual “scenario” of targeted treatments, also focusing on the new agents in development for gastric cancer and gastro-esophageal carcinoma, discussing their efficacy and potential applications in clinical practice. PMID:25356019

De Vita, Ferdinando; Di Martino, Natale; Fabozzi, Alessio; Laterza, Maria Maddalena; Ventriglia, Jole; Savastano, Beatrice; Petrillo, Angelica; Gambardella, Valentina; Sforza, Vincenzo; Marano, Luigi; Auricchio, Annamaria; Galizia, Gennaro; Ciardiello, Fortunato; Orditura, Michele

2014-01-01

152

Pushing CT and MR Imaging to the Molecular Level for Studying the “Omics”: Current Challenges and Advancements  

PubMed Central

During the past decade, medical imaging has made the transition from anatomical imaging to functional and even molecular imaging. Such transition provides a great opportunity to begin the integration of imaging data and various levels of biological data. In particular, the integration of imaging data and multiomics data such as genomics, metabolomics, proteomics, and pharmacogenomics may open new avenues for predictive, preventive, and personalized medicine. However, to promote imaging-omics integration, the practical challenge of imaging techniques should be addressed. In this paper, we describe key challenges in two imaging techniques: computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and then review existing technological advancements. Despite the fact that CT and MRI have different principles of image formation, both imaging techniques can provide high-resolution anatomical images while playing a more and more important role in providing molecular information. Such imaging techniques that enable single modality to image both the detailed anatomy and function of tissues and organs of the body will be beneficial in the imaging-omics field. PMID:24738056

Huang, Hsuan-Ming; Shih, Yi-Yu

2014-01-01

153

[Status and Advances of RGD Molecular Imaging in Lung Cancer].  

PubMed

Lung cancer has been one of the most common and the highest mortality rates malignant tumors at home and abroad. Sustained angiogenesis was not only the characteristic of malignant tumors, but also the foundation of tumor proliferation, invasion, recurrence and metastasis, it was also one of the hot spots of treatments in lung cancer biology currently. Integrins played an important part in tumor angiogenesis. Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) peptides could combine with integrins specifically, and the application of radionuclide-labeled RGD molecular probes enabled imaging of tumor blood vessels to reflect its changes. The lung cancer imaging of RGD peptides at home and abroad in recent years was reviewed in this article. PMID:25539611

Yue, Ning; Yuan, Shuanghu; Yang, Guoren

2014-12-20

154

2011NatureAmerica,Inc.Allrightsreserved. nature structural & molecular biology advance online publication  

E-print Network

©2011NatureAmerica,Inc.Allrightsreserved. nature structural & molecular biology advance online flies is sufficient to cause pathology mimicking that found in individuals with TDP-43 proteinopathy19,20 for Genetic Medicine, Lurie Cancer Center, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, USA

Wu, Jane Y.

155

Chemistry 685 (CHE 685) Advanced Organic Chemistry: Organic Reaction Mechanisms and Molecular Interactions  

E-print Network

Chemistry 685 (CHE 685) Advanced Organic Chemistry: Organic Reaction Mechanisms and Molecular and physical chemistry Course description and rationale CHE685 is a graduate-level organic chemistry course. These two courses focus on physical organic chemistry, which deals with the structure and reactivity

Mather, Patrick T.

156

Clinical applications of recent molecular advances in urologic malignancies: no longer chasing a "mirage"?  

PubMed

As our understanding of the molecular events leading to the development and progression of genitourologic malignancies, new markers of detection, prognostication, and therapy prediction can be exploited in the management of these prevalent tumors. The current review discusses the recent advances in prostate, bladder, renal, and testicular neoplasms that are pertinent to the anatomic pathologist. PMID:23574774

Netto, George J

2013-05-01

157

Improving human forensics through advances in genetics, genomics and molecular biology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forensic DNA profiling currently allows the identification of persons already known to investigating authorities. Recent advances have produced new types of genetic markers with the potential to overcome some important limitations of current DNA profiling methods. Moreover, other developments are enabling completely new kinds of forensically relevant information to be extracted from biological samples. These include new molecular approaches for

Peter de Knijff; Manfred Kayser

2011-01-01

158

Application of Molecular Diagnostic Techniques for Viral Testing  

PubMed Central

Nucleic acid amplification techniques are commonly used currently to diagnose viral diseases and manage patients with this kind of illnesses. These techniques have had a rapid but unconventional route of development during the last 30 years, with the discovery and introduction of several assays in clinical diagnosis. The increase in the number of commercially available methods has facilitated the use of this technology in the majority of laboratories worldwide. This technology has reduced the use of some other techniques such as viral culture based methods and serological assays in the clinical virology laboratory. Moreover, nucleic acid amplification techniques are now the methods of reference and also the most useful assays for the diagnosis in several diseases. The introduction of these techniques and their automation provides new opportunities for the clinical laboratory to affect patient care. The main objectives in performing nucleic acid tests in this field are to provide timely results useful for high-quality patient care at a reasonable cost, because rapid results are associated with improvements in patients care. The use of amplification techniques such as polymerase chain reaction, real-time polymerase chain reaction or nucleic acid sequence-based amplification for virus detection, genotyping and quantification have some advantages like high sensitivity and reproducibility, as well as a broad dynamic range. This review is an up-to-date of the main nucleic acid techniques and their clinical applications, and special challenges and opportunities that these techniques currently provide for the clinical virology laboratory. PMID:23248732

Cobo, Fernando

2012-01-01

159

Parallel reactive molecular dynamics: Numerical methods and algorithmic techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

Molecular dynamics modeling has provided a powerful tool for simulating and understanding diverse systems – ranging from materials processes to biophysical phenomena. Parallel formulations of these methods have been shown to be among the most scalable scientific computing applications. Many instances of this class of methods rely on a static bond structure for molecules, rendering them infeasible for reactive systems.

Hasan Metin Aktulga; Joseph C. Fogarty; Sagar A. Pandit; Ananth Y Grama

2009-01-01

160

The Use of Molecular Techniques at Hazardous Waste Sites  

EPA Science Inventory

It is clear that typical protocols used for soil analysis would certainly fail to adequately interrogate ground-water treatment systems unless they were substantially modified. The modifications found necessary to compensate for the low biomass include molecular tools and techniq...

161

Application of Advanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging Techniques in Evaluation of the Lower Extremity  

PubMed Central

Synopsis This article reviews current magnetic resonance imaging techniques for imaging the lower extremity, focusing on imaging of the knee, ankle, and hip joints. Recent advancements in MRI include imaging at 7 Tesla, using multiple receiver channels, T2* imaging, and metal suppression techniques, allowing more detailed visualization of complex anatomy, evaluation of morphological changes within articular cartilage, and imaging around orthopedic hardware. PMID:23622097

Braun, Hillary J.; Dragoo, Jason L.; Hargreaves, Brian A.; Levenston, Marc E.; Gold, Garry E.

2012-01-01

162

Multifunctional nanomaterials for advanced molecular imaging and cancer therapy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nanotechnology offers tremendous potential for use in biomedical applications, including cancer and stem cell imaging, disease diagnosis and drug delivery. The development of nanosystems has aided in understanding the molecular mechanisms of many diseases and permitted the controlled nanoscale manipulation of biological phenomena. In recent years, many studies have focused on the use of several kinds of nanomaterials for cancer and stem cell imaging and also for the delivery of anticancer therapeutics to tumor cells. However, the proper diagnosis and treatment of aggressive tumors such as brain and breast cancer requires highly sensitive diagnostic agents, in addition to the ability to deliver multiple therapeutics using a single platform to the target cells. Addressing these challenges, novel multifunctional nanomaterial-based platforms that incorporate multiple therapeutic and diagnostic agents, with superior molecular imaging and targeting capabilities, has been presented in this work. The initial part of this work presents the development of novel nanomaterials with superior optical properties for efficiently delivering soluble cues such as small interfering RNA (siRNA) into brain cancer cells with minimal toxicity. Specifically, this section details the development of non-toxic quantums dots for the imaging and delivery of siRNA into brain cancer and mesenchymal stem cells, with the hope of using these quantum dots as multiplexed imaging and delivery vehicles. The use of these quantum dots could overcome the toxicity issues associated with the use of conventional quantum dots, enabled the imaging of brain cancer and stem cells with high efficiency and allowed for the delivery of siRNA to knockdown the target oncogene in brain cancer cells. The latter part of this thesis details the development of nanomaterial-based drug delivery platforms for the co-delivery of multiple anticancer drugs to brain tumor cells. In particular, this part of the thesis focuses on the synthesis and use of a biodegradable dendritic polypeptide-based nanocarrier for the delivery of multiple anticancer drugs and siRNA to brain tumor cells. The co-delivery of important anticancer agents using a single platform was shown to increase the efficacy of the drugs manyfold, ensuring the cancer cell-specific delivery and minimizing dose limiting toxicities of the individual drugs. This would be of immense importance when used in vivo.

Subramaniam, Prasad

163

Clinical decision support systems for brain tumor characterization using advanced magnetic resonance imaging techniques  

PubMed Central

In recent years, advanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques, such as magnetic resonance spectroscopy, diffusion weighted imaging, diffusion tensor imaging and perfusion weighted imaging have been used in order to resolve demanding diagnostic problems such as brain tumor characterization and grading, as these techniques offer a more detailed and non-invasive evaluation of the area under study. In the last decade a great effort has been made to import and utilize intelligent systems in the so-called clinical decision support systems (CDSS) for automatic processing, classification, evaluation and representation of MRI data in order for advanced MRI techniques to become a part of the clinical routine, since the amount of data from the aforementioned techniques has gradually increased. Hence, the purpose of the current review article is two-fold. The first is to review and evaluate the progress that has been made towards the utilization of CDSS based on data from advanced MRI techniques. The second is to analyze and propose the future work that has to be done, based on the existing problems and challenges, especially taking into account the new imaging techniques and parameters that can be introduced into intelligent systems to significantly improve their diagnostic specificity and clinical application. PMID:24778769

Tsolaki, Evangelia; Kousi, Evanthia; Svolos, Patricia; Kapsalaki, Efthychia; Theodorou, Kyriaki; Kappas, Constastine; Tsougos, Ioannis

2014-01-01

164

Progress of molecular targeted therapies for advanced renal cell carcinoma.  

PubMed

Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) plays a crucial role in tumor angiogenesis. VEGF expression in metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) is mostly regulated by hypoxia, predominantly via the hypoxia-induced factor (HIF)/Von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) pathway. Advances in our knowledge of VEGF role in tumor angiogenesis, growth, and progression have permitted development of new approaches for the treatment of mRCC, including several agents targeting VEGF and VEGF receptors: tyrosine kinase pathway, serine/threonine kinases, ? 5 ? 1-integrin, deacetylase, CD70, mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), AKT, and phosphatidylinositol 3'-kinase (PI3K). Starting from sorafenib and sunitinib, several targeted therapies have been approved for mRCC treatment, with a long list of agents in course of evaluation, such as tivozanib, cediranib, and VEGF-Trap. Here we illustrate the main steps of tumor angiogenesis process, defining the pertinent therapeutic targets and the efficacy and toxicity profiles of these new promising agents. PMID:24093097

Conti, Alessandro; Santoni, Matteo; Amantini, Consuelo; Burattini, Luciano; Berardi, Rossana; Santoni, Giorgio; Cascinu, Stefano; Muzzonigro, Giovanni

2013-01-01

165

Progress of Molecular Targeted Therapies for Advanced Renal Cell Carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) plays a crucial role in tumor angiogenesis. VEGF expression in metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) is mostly regulated by hypoxia, predominantly via the hypoxia-induced factor (HIF)/Von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) pathway. Advances in our knowledge of VEGF role in tumor angiogenesis, growth, and progression have permitted development of new approaches for the treatment of mRCC, including several agents targeting VEGF and VEGF receptors: tyrosine kinase pathway, serine/threonine kinases, ?5?1-integrin, deacetylase, CD70, mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), AKT, and phosphatidylinositol 3?-kinase (PI3K). Starting from sorafenib and sunitinib, several targeted therapies have been approved for mRCC treatment, with a long list of agents in course of evaluation, such as tivozanib, cediranib, and VEGF-Trap. Here we illustrate the main steps of tumor angiogenesis process, defining the pertinent therapeutic targets and the efficacy and toxicity profiles of these new promising agents. PMID:24093097

Santoni, Matteo; Amantini, Consuelo; Burattini, Luciano; Berardi, Rossana; Santoni, Giorgio; Cascinu, Stefano; Muzzonigro, Giovanni

2013-01-01

166

Fabrication of advanced electrochemical energy materials using sol-gel processing techniques  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Advanced materials play an important role in electrochemical energy devices such as batteries, fuel cells, and electrochemical capacitors. They are being used as both electrodes and electrolytes. Sol-gel processing is a versatile solution technique used in fabrication of ceramic materials with tailored stoichiometry, microstructure, and properties. The application of sol-gel processing in the fabrication of advanced electrochemical energy materials will be presented. The potentials of sol-gel derived materials for electrochemical energy applications will be discussed along with some examples of successful applications. Sol-gel derived metal oxide electrode materials such as V2O5 cathodes have been demonstrated in solid-slate thin film batteries; solid electrolytes materials such as beta-alumina for advanced secondary batteries had been prepared by the sol-gel technique long time ago; and high surface area transition metal compounds for capacitive energy storage applications can also be synthesized with this method.

Chu, C. T.; Chu, Jay; Zheng, Haixing

1995-01-01

167

Real-time application of advanced three-dimensional graphic techniques for research aircraft simulation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Visual aids are valuable assets to engineers for design, demonstration, and evaluation. Discussed here are a variety of advanced three-dimensional graphic techniques used to enhance the displays of test aircraft dynamics. The new software's capabilities are examined and possible future uses are considered.

Davis, Steven B.

1990-01-01

168

Advanced Signal Processing Techniques for Fault Detection and Diagnosis in a Wind Turbine  

E-print Network

Advanced Signal Processing Techniques for Fault Detection and Diagnosis in a Wind Turbine Induction Assad, R. Karam, and S. Farah Abstract--This paper deals with the diagnosis of Wind Tur- bines based simulation experiments and compared for several types of fault, including air-gap eccentricities, broken

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

169

Advanced Techniques for the Creation and Propagation of Modules in Cartesian Genetic Programming  

E-print Network

Advanced Techniques for the Creation and Propagation of Modules in Cartesian Genetic Programming The choice of an appropriate hardware representation model is key to successful evolution of digital circuits. A recent approach towards scalable hardware evolution is based on the automated cre- ation of modules from

Fernandez, Thomas

170

Coolant void reactivity adjustments in advanced CANDU lattices using adjoint sensitivity technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coolant void reactivity (CVR) is an important factor in reactor accident analysis. Here we study the adjustments of CVR at beginning of burnup cycle (BOC) and keff at end of burnup cycle (EOC) for a 2D Advanced CANDU Reactor (ACR) lattice using the optimization and adjoint sensitivity techniques. The sensitivity coefficients are evaluated using the perturbation theory based on the

M. Assawaroongruengchot; G. Marleau

2008-01-01

171

Advanced superconducting gradiometer\\/Magnetometer arrays and a novel signal processing technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent developments in superconducting magnetic gradiometer technology have led to the construction of advanced ultrasensitive gradiometer\\/magnetometer arrays. Details of construction techniques and data showing operational capabilities are presented. The most recent of the gradiometer\\/magnetometer arrays simultaneously measures five independent spatial gradients of the magnetic field and three vector components of the magnetic field. The measured signals from this array are

W. Wynn; C. Frahm; P. Carroll; R. Clark; J. Wellhoner; M. Wynn

1975-01-01

172

Modulation/demodulation techniques for satellite communications. Part 3: Advanced techniques. The nonlinear channel  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A theory for deducing and predicting the performance of transmitter/receivers for bandwidth efficient modulations suitable for use on the nonlinear satellite channel is presented. The underlying principle used throughout is the development of receiver structures based on the maximum likelihood decision rule and aproximations to it. The bit error probability transfer function bounds developed in great detail in Part 4 is applied to these modulation/demodulation techniques. The effects of the various degrees of receiver mismatch are considered both theoretically and by numerous illustrative examples.

Omura, J. K.; Simon, M. K.

1982-01-01

173

Detection and Sizing of Fatigue Cracks in Steel Welds with Advanced Eddy Current Techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Butt-welded specimens were fatigued to produce cracks in the weld heat-affected zone. Advanced eddy current (AEC) techniques were used to detect and size the cracks through a coating. AEC results were compared with magnetic particle and phased-array ultrasonic techniques. Validation through destructive crack measurements was also conducted. Factors such as geometry, surface treatment, and crack tightness interfered with depth sizing. AEC inspection techniques have the potential of providing more accurate and complete sizing flaw data for manufacturing and in-service inspections.

Todorov, E. I.; Mohr, W. C.; Lozev, M. G.

2008-02-01

174

The development of optical microscopy techniques for the advancement of single-particle studies  

SciTech Connect

Single particle orientation and rotational tracking (SPORT) has recently become a powerful optical microscopy tool that can expose many molecular motions. Unfortunately, there is not yet a single microscopy technique that can decipher all particle motions in all environmental conditions, thus there are limitations to current technologies. Within, the two powerful microscopy tools of total internal reflection and interferometry are advanced to determine the position, orientation, and optical properties of metallic nanoparticles in a variety of environments. Total internal reflection is an optical phenomenon that has been applied to microscopy to produce either fluorescent or scattered light. The non-invasive far-field imaging technique is coupled with a near-field illumination scheme that allows for better axial resolution than confocal microscopy and epi-fluorescence microscopy. By controlling the incident illumination angle using total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy, a new type of imaging probe called “non-blinking” quantum dots (NBQDs) were super-localized in the axial direction to sub-10-nm precision. These particles were also used to study the rotational motion of microtubules being propelled by the motor protein kinesin across the substrate surface. The same instrument was modified to function under total internal reflection scattering (TIRS) microscopy to study metallic anisotropic nanoparticles and their dynamic interactions with synthetic lipid bilayers. Utilizing two illumination lasers with opposite polarization directions at wavelengths corresponding to the short and long axis surface plasmon resonance (SPR) of the nanoparticles, both the in-plane and out-of-plane movements of many particles could be tracked simultaneously. When combined with Gaussian point spread function (PSF) fitting for particle super-localization, the binding status and rotational movement could be resolved without degeneracy. TIRS microscopy was also used to find the 3D orientation of stationary metallic anisotropic nanoparticles utilizing only long-axis SPR enhancement. The polarization direction of the illuminating light was rotated causing the relative intensity of p-polarized and s-polarized light within the evanescent field to change. The interaction of the evanescent field with the particles is dependent on the orientation of the particle producing an intensity curve. This curve and the in-plane angle can be compared with simulations to accurately determine the 3D orientation. Differential interference contrast (DIC) microscopy is another non-invasive far-field technique based upon interferometry that does not rely on staining or other contrast enhancing techniques. In addition, high numerical aperture condensers and objectives can be used to give a very narrow depth of field allowing for the optical tomography of samples, which makes it an ideal candidate to study biological systems. DIC microscopy has also proven itself in determining the orientation of gold nanorods in both engineered environments and within cells. Many types of nanoparticles and nanostructures have been synthesized using lithographic techniques on silicon wafer substrates. Traditionally, reflective mode DIC microscopes have been developed and applied to the topographical study of reflective substrates and the imaging of chips on silicon wafers. Herein, a laser-illuminated reflected-mode DIC was developed for studying nanoparticles on reflective surfaces.

Marchuk, Kyle

2013-05-15

175

The development of optical microscopy techniques for the advancement of single-particle studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Single particle orientation and rotational tracking (SPORT) has recently become a powerful optical microscopy tool that can expose many molecular motions. Unfortunately, there is not yet a single microscopy technique that can decipher all particle motions in all environmental conditions, thus there are limitations to current technologies. Within, the two powerful microscopy tools of total internal reflection and interferometry are advanced to determine the position, orientation, and optical properties of metallic nanoparticles in a variety of environments. Total internal reflection is an optical phenomenon that has been applied to microscopy to produce either fluorescent or scattered light. The non-invasive far-field imaging technique is coupled with a near-field illumination scheme that allows for better axial resolution than confocal microscopy and epi-fluorescence microscopy. By controlling the incident illumination angle using total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy, a new type of imaging probe called "non-blinking" quantum dots (NBQDs) were super-localized in the axial direction to sub-10-nm precision. These particles were also used to study the rotational motion of microtubules being propelled by the motor protein kinesin across the substrate surface. The same instrument was modified to function under total internal reflection scattering (TIRS) microscopy to study metallic anisotropic nanoparticles and their dynamic interactions with synthetic lipid bilayers. Utilizing two illumination lasers with opposite polarization directions at wavelengths corresponding to the short and long axis surface plasmon resonance (SPR) of the nanoparticles, both the in-plane and out-of-plane movements of many particles could be tracked simultaneously. When combined with Gaussian point spread function (PSF) fitting for particle super-localization, the binding status and rotational movement could be resolved without degeneracy. TIRS microscopy was also used to find the 3D orientation of stationary metallic anisotropic nanoparticles utilizing only long-axis SPR enhancement. The polarization direction of the illuminating light was rotated causing the relative intensity of p-polarized and s-polarized light within the evanescent field to change. The interaction of the evanescent field with the particles is dependent on the orientation of the particle producing an intensity curve. This curve and the in-plane angle can be compared with simulations to accurately determine the 3D orientation. Differential interference contrast (DIC) microscopy is another non-invasive far-field technique based upon interferometry that does not rely on staining or other contrast enhancing techniques. In addition, high numerical aperture condensers and objectives can be used to give a very narrow depth of field allowing for the optical tomography of samples, which makes it an ideal candidate to study biological systems. DIC microscopy has also proven itself in determining the orientation of gold nanorods in both engineered environments and within cells. Many types of nanoparticles and nanostructures have been synthesized using lithographic techniques on silicon wafer substrates. Traditionally, reflective mode DIC microscopes have been developed and applied to the topographical study of reflective substrates and the imaging of chips on silicon wafers. Herein, a laser-illuminated reflected-mode DIC was developed for studying nanoparticles on reflective surfaces.

Marchuk, Kyle

176

Advances in molecular surveillance of Clostridium difficile in Bulgaria.  

PubMed

The increasing incidence of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) in Bulgaria has indicated the need to implement better surveillance approaches. The aim of the present work was to improve the current surveillance of CDI in Bulgaria by introducing innovative methods for identification and typing. One hundred and twenty stool samples obtained from 108 patients were studied over 4 years from which 32 C. difficile isolates were obtained. An innovative duplex EvaGreen real-time PCR assay based on simultaneous detection of the gluD and tcdB genes was developed for rapid C. difficile identification. Four toxigenic profiles were distinguished by PCR: A(+)B(+)CDT(-) (53.1 %, 17/32), A(-)B(+)CDT(-) (28.1 %, 9/32), A(+)B(+)CDT(+) (9.4?%, 3/32) and A(-)B(-)CDT(-) (9.4 %, 3/32). PCR ribotyping and multilocus variable number of tandem repeat analysis (MLVA7) were used for molecular characterization of the isolates. In total, nine distinct ribotypes were confirmed and the most prevalent for Bulgarian hospitals was 017 followed by 014/020, together accounting for 44 % of all isolates. Eighteen per cent of the isolates (6/32) did not match any of the 25 reference ribotypes available in this study. Twenty-four MLVA7 genotypes were detected among the clinical C. difficile isolates, distributed as follows: five for 017 ribotype, two for 014/020, 001, 002, 012 and 046 each, and one each for ribotypes 023, 070 and 078. The correlation between the typing methods was significant and allowed the identification of several clonal complexes. These results suggest that most C. difficile cases in the eight Bulgarian hospitals studied were associated with isolates belonging to the outbreak ribotypes 017 and 014/20, which are widely distributed in Europe. The real-time PCR protocol for simultaneous detection of gluD and tcdB proved to be very effective and improved C. difficile identification and confirmation of clinical C. difficile isolates. PMID:23598377

Dobreva, Elina G; Ivanov, Ivan N; Vathcheva-Dobrevska, Rossitza S; Ivanova, Katucha I; Asseva, Galina D; Petrov, Petar K; Kantardjiev, Todor V

2013-09-01

177

Molecular beam epitaxy for advanced gate stack materials and processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The material requirements for future CMOS generations - as given by the ITRS roadmap - are very challenging. This includes a high K dielectric without a low K interfacial layer, a high mobility channel and the appropriate metal gate. With the help of two projects INVEST and ET4US, we are building up a molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) infrastructure to grow this material set on large area wafers that can be further processed into small scale devices. In the INVEST project, we have developed an MBE system for the growth of complex oxides on semiconductors. The system follows the overall design of a production tool and is equipped with an RF atomic oxygen source, effusion cells, e-beam evaporators and a differential pumping stage. The oxide growth process starts with desorbing the initial surface oxide on the Si wafers in ultra-high vacuum and high temperature to create a clean reconstructed 2x1 surface. Using the atomic oxygen it is possible to oxidize the surface in a well controlled manner at low temperature and to grow very thin and dense SiOx layers, followed by the growth of 2-6 nm amorphous high K dielectrics. The process parameters permit to tune the interface layer from a SiOx rich to a silicide rich interface with a significant impact on the capacitance and the leakage. Initial focus is on developing an optimized growth recipe for high quality amorphous HfO2 and LaHfO3.5 films. This recipe was subsequently used to make wafers for a transistor batch that gave us the first N short channel MBE MOSFET's (100 nm) using an etched gate process flow. Some highlights of the first batch for 3nm HfO2 MOSFET are a high mobility (> 270 cm^2/Vs) with a corresponding low leakage current of 2 mA/cm^2). While there were some process issues for LaHfO3.5, the 3 nm MOSFET showed very low leakage currents below 10-6 A/cm^2. Interestingly all the LaHFO3.5 MOSFETs showed very low threshold voltage instabilities. In collaboration with C. Marchiori, M. Sousa, A.Guiller, H. Siegwart, D. Caimi, J. Fompeyrine, D. J Webb, C. Rossel, R. Germann of IBM Research GmbH Zurich Switzerland; L. Pantisano, M. Claes, T. Conard, M. Demand, W. Deweerd, S. DeGendt, M. Heyns, M. Houssa, M. Aoulaiche, G. Lujan, L. Ragnarsson, E. Rohr, T. Schram of IMEC Leuven Belgium; J. Hooker, Z.M Rittersma, Y. Furukawa of Philips Research Leuven Belgium and J. W. Seo of EPFL Lausanne Switzerland.

Locquet, Jean-Pierre

2005-03-01

178

Reflection mass spectrometry technique for monitoring and controlling composition during molecular beam epitaxy  

DOEpatents

A method for on-line accurate monitoring and precise control of molecular beam epitaxial growth of Groups III-III-V or Groups III-V-V layers in an advanced semiconductor device incorporates reflection mass spectrometry. The reflection mass spectrometry is responsive to intentional perturbations in molecular fluxes incident on a substrate by accurately measuring the molecular fluxes reflected from the substrate. The reflected flux is extremely sensitive to the state of the growing surface and the measurements obtained enable control of newly forming surfaces that are dynamically changing as a result of growth.

Brennan, Thomas M. (Albuquerque, NM); Hammons, B. Eugene (Tijeras, NM); Tsao, Jeffrey Y. (Albuquerque, NM)

1992-01-01

179

Reflection mass spectrometry technique for monitoring and controlling composition during molecular beam epitaxy  

DOEpatents

A method for on-line accurate monitoring and precise control of molecular beam epitaxial growth of Groups III-III-V or Groups III-V-V layers in an advanced semiconductor device incorporates reflection mass spectrometry. The reflection mass spectrometry is responsive to intentional perturbations in molecular fluxes incident on a substrate by accurately measuring the molecular fluxes reflected from the substrate. The reflected flux is extremely sensitive to the state of the growing surface and the measurements obtained enable control of newly forming surfaces that are dynamically changing as a result of growth. 3 figs.

Brennan, T.M.; Hammons, B.E.; Tsao, J.Y.

1992-12-15

180

Advanced analytical techniques for the extraction and characterization of plant-derived essential oils by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

In recent years, essential oils have received a growing interest because of the positive health effects of their novel characteristics like antibacterial, antifungal and antioxidant activities. For the extraction of plant-derived essential oils, there is the need of advanced analytical techniques and innovative methodologies. An exhaustive study of hydrodistillation, supercritical fluid extraction, ultrasound- and microwave-assisted extraction, solid-phase microextraction, pressurized liquid extraction, pressurized hot water extraction, liquid-liquid extraction, liquid-phase microextraction, matrix solid-phase dispersion and gas chromatography (one and two dimensional) hyphenated with mass spectrometry for the extraction through various plant species and analysis of essential oils have been provided in this review. Essential oils are composed of mainly terpenes and terpenoids with low-molecular-weight aromatic and aliphatic constituents which are particularly important for public health. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. PMID:25403494

Waseem, Rabia; Low, Kah Hin

2014-11-18

181

Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Techniques for Person Characterization  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using the traditional serological tests and the most novel techniques for DNA fingerprinting, forensic scientists scan different traits that vary from person to person and use the data to include or exclude suspects based on matching with the evidence obtained in a criminal case. Although the forensic application of these methods is well known,…

Herrero, Salvador; Ivorra, Jose Luis; Garcia-Sogo, Magdalena; Martinez-Cortina, Carmen

2008-01-01

182

Chronic phase advance alters circadian physiological rhythms and peripheral molecular clocks  

PubMed Central

Shifting the onset of light, acutely or chronically, can profoundly affect responses to infection, tumor progression, development of metabolic disease, and mortality in mammals. To date, the majority of phase-shifting studies have focused on acute exposure to a shift in the timing of the light cycle, whereas the consequences of chronic phase shifts alone on molecular rhythms in peripheral tissues such as skeletal muscle have not been studied. In this study, we tested the effect of chronic phase advance on the molecular clock mechanism in two phenotypically different skeletal muscles. The phase advance protocol (CPA) involved 6-h phase advances (earlier light onset) every 4 days for 8 wk. Analysis of the molecular clock, via bioluminescence recording, in the soleus and flexor digitorum brevis (FDB) muscles and lung demonstrated that CPA advanced the phase of the rhythm when studied immediately after CPA. However, if the mice were placed into free-running conditions (DD) for 2 wk after CPA, the molecular clock was not phase shifted in the two muscles but was still shifted in the lung. Wheel running behavior remained rhythmic in CPA mice; however, the endogenous period length of the free-running rhythm was significantly shorter than that of control mice. Core body temperature, cage activity, and heart rate remained rhythmic throughout the experiment, although the onset of the rhythms was significantly delayed with CPA. These results provide clues that lifestyles associated with chronic environmental desynchrony, such as shift work, can have disruptive effects on the molecular clock mechanism in peripheral tissues, including both types of skeletal muscle. Whether this can contribute, long term, to increased incidence of insulin resistance/metabolic disease requires further study. PMID:23703115

Wolff, Gretchen; Duncan, Marilyn J.

2013-01-01

183

Chronic phase advance alters circadian physiological rhythms and peripheral molecular clocks.  

PubMed

Shifting the onset of light, acutely or chronically, can profoundly affect responses to infection, tumor progression, development of metabolic disease, and mortality in mammals. To date, the majority of phase-shifting studies have focused on acute exposure to a shift in the timing of the light cycle, whereas the consequences of chronic phase shifts alone on molecular rhythms in peripheral tissues such as skeletal muscle have not been studied. In this study, we tested the effect of chronic phase advance on the molecular clock mechanism in two phenotypically different skeletal muscles. The phase advance protocol (CPA) involved 6-h phase advances (earlier light onset) every 4 days for 8 wk. Analysis of the molecular clock, via bioluminescence recording, in the soleus and flexor digitorum brevis (FDB) muscles and lung demonstrated that CPA advanced the phase of the rhythm when studied immediately after CPA. However, if the mice were placed into free-running conditions (DD) for 2 wk after CPA, the molecular clock was not phase shifted in the two muscles but was still shifted in the lung. Wheel running behavior remained rhythmic in CPA mice; however, the endogenous period length of the free-running rhythm was significantly shorter than that of control mice. Core body temperature, cage activity, and heart rate remained rhythmic throughout the experiment, although the onset of the rhythms was significantly delayed with CPA. These results provide clues that lifestyles associated with chronic environmental desynchrony, such as shift work, can have disruptive effects on the molecular clock mechanism in peripheral tissues, including both types of skeletal muscle. Whether this can contribute, long term, to increased incidence of insulin resistance/metabolic disease requires further study. PMID:23703115

Wolff, Gretchen; Duncan, Marilyn J; Esser, Karyn A

2013-08-01

184

Panel 4: Recent Advances in Otitis Media in Molecular Biology, Biochemistry, Genetics, and Animal Models  

PubMed Central

Background Otitis media (OM) is the most common childhood bacterial infection and also the leading cause of conductive hearing loss in children. Currently, there is an urgent need for developing novel therapeutic agents for treating OM based on full understanding of molecular pathogenesis in the areas of molecular biology, biochemistry, genetics, and animal model studies in OM. Objective To provide a state-of-the-art review concerning recent advances in OM in the areas of molecular biology, biochemistry, genetics, and animal model studies and to discuss the future directions of OM studies in these areas. Data Sources and Review Methods A structured search of the current literature (since June 2007). The authors searched PubMed for published literature in the areas of molecular biology, biochemistry, genetics, and animal model studies in OM. Results Over the past 4 years, significant progress has been made in the areas of molecular biology, biochemistry, genetics, and animal model studies in OM. These studies brought new insights into our understanding of the molecular and biochemical mechanisms underlying the molecular pathogenesis of OM and helped identify novel therapeutic targets for OM. Conclusions and Implications for Practice Our understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of OM has been significantly advanced, particularly in the areas of inflammation, innate immunity, mucus overproduction, mucosal hyperplasia, middle ear and inner ear interaction, genetics, genome sequencing, and animal model studies. Although these studies are still in their experimental stages, they help identify new potential therapeutic targets. Future preclinical and clinical studies will help to translate these exciting experimental research findings into clinical applications. PMID:23536532

Li, Jian-Dong; Hermansson, Ann; Ryan, Allen F.; Bakaletz, Lauren O.; Brown, Steve D.; Cheeseman, Michael T.; Juhn, Steven K.; Jung, Timothy T. K.; Lim, David J.; Lim, Jae Hyang; Lin, Jizhen; Moon, Sung-Kyun; Post, J. Christopher

2014-01-01

185

Advanced techniques for determining long term compatibility of materials with propellants  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The search for advanced measurement techniques for determining long term compatibility of materials with propellants was conducted in several parts. A comprehensive survey of the existing measurement and testing technology for determining material-propellant interactions was performed. Selections were made from those existing techniques which were determined could meet or be made to meet the requirements. Areas of refinement or changes were recommended for improvement of others. Investigations were also performed to determine the feasibility and advantages of developing and using new techniques to achieve significant improvements over existing ones. The most interesting demonstration was that of the new technique, the volatile metal chelate analysis. Rivaling the neutron activation analysis in terms of sensitivity and specificity, the volatile metal chelate technique was fully demonstrated.

Green, R. L.

1972-01-01

186

Advance of Molecular Imaging Technology and Targeted Imaging Agent in Imaging and Therapy  

PubMed Central

Molecular imaging is an emerging field that integrates advanced imaging technology with cellular and molecular biology. It can realize noninvasive and real time visualization, measurement of physiological or pathological process in the living organism at the cellular and molecular level, providing an effective method of information acquiring for diagnosis, therapy, and drug development and evaluating treatment of efficacy. Molecular imaging requires high resolution and high sensitive instruments and specific imaging agents that link the imaging signal with molecular event. Recently, the application of new emerging chemical technology and nanotechnology has stimulated the development of imaging agents. Nanoparticles modified with small molecule, peptide, antibody, and aptamer have been extensively applied for preclinical studies. Therapeutic drug or gene is incorporated into nanoparticles to construct multifunctional imaging agents which allow for theranostic applications. In this review, we will discuss the characteristics of molecular imaging, the novel imaging agent including targeted imaging agent and multifunctional imaging agent, as well as cite some examples of their application in molecular imaging and therapy. PMID:24689058

Chen, Zhi-Yi; Wang, Yi-Xiang; Lin, Yan; Zhang, Jin-Shan; Yang, Feng; Zhou, Qiu-Lan; Liao, Yang-Ying

2014-01-01

187

Recent advances in 3D computed tomography techniques for simulation and navigation in hepatobiliary pancreatic surgery.  

PubMed

A few years ago it could take several hours to complete a 3D image using a 3D workstation. Thanks to advances in computer science, obtaining results of interest now requires only a few minutes. Many recent 3D workstations or multimedia computers are equipped with onboard 3D virtual patient modeling software, which enables patient-specific preoperative assessment and virtual planning, navigation, and tool positioning. Although medical 3D imaging can now be conducted using various modalities, including computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), positron emission tomography (PET), and ultrasonography (US) among others, the highest quality images are obtained using CT data, and CT images are now the most commonly used source of data for 3D simulation and navigation image. If the 2D source image is bad, no amount of 3D image manipulation in software will provide a quality 3D image. In this exhibition, the recent advances in CT imaging technique and 3D visualization of the hepatobiliary and pancreatic abnormalities are featured, including scan and image reconstruction technique, contrast-enhanced techniques, new application of advanced CT scan techniques, and new virtual reality simulation and navigation imaging. PMID:24464989

Uchida, Masafumi

2014-04-01

188

Advanced Calculations and Visualization of Enzymatic Reactions with the Combined Quantum Classical Molecular Dynamics Code  

Microsoft Academic Search

The parallel version of the Quantum Classical Molecular Dynamics code is presented. The execution time scales almost linearly\\u000a with the number of processors. The measured overhead of the parallelization paradigm is extremely small which ensures the\\u000a high efficiency of the presented method. Tools based on the Advanced Visualization System (AVS) framework were developed for\\u000a visualization and analysis of the QCMD

Piotr Bala; Pawel Grochowski; Krzysztof Nowifiski; Terry W. Clark; Bogdan Lesyng; James Andrew Mccammon

1998-01-01

189

Recent advances in radar instrumentation and techniques for studies of the mesosphere, stratosphere, and troposphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The last few years have seen several significant advances in mesosphere-stratosphere-troposphere (MST) radar studies. This is true with respect to studies ranging from MF through VHF and up to UHF. These advances have been in each of the areas of equipment, techniques, and general radar theory. In this short paper we will highlight some of these advances and discuss their significance in the longer-term application of MST radar techniques. We will concentrate primarily on discussion about instrumentation and the raw products (powers, radial velocities, and spectral widths) produced by the systems, with some reference to the nature of the radio wave scattering entities. Quantities which are derived from the measurements of these raw quantities like gravity wave fluxes, tidal studies, and so forth will not generally be considered in any detail. Sample advances include new methods of data analysis (both on-line and post-collection), lightning detection, rainfall measurement, and temperature determination. Other interesting applications include simultaneous application of MST techniques with other procedures such as in radio acoustic sounding (RASS) and the artificial periodic inhomogeneity (API) method. Areas of advance in terms of understanding scattering mechanisms include new insights into the controversy about the nature of aspect-sensitive scattering (specular reflection compared with anisotropic turbulence) and improvements and refinements in our measurements of turbulence with these radars. Radars working at frequencies other than those mentioned, especially L and S band (1215-1710 and 1710-2700 MHz respectively), have also been used with good success, and these will be discussed where appropriate. The paper will concentrate on radars which can employ clear-air scattering; we will not consider in much detail systems which rely predominantly on precipitation and other scattering targets embedded in the air.

Hocking, W. K.

1997-11-01

190

Flaw Detection for Composite Materials Improved by Advanced Thermal Image Reconstruction Techniques  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development of advanced composite materials for use in space and propulsion components has seen considerable growth over the past few years. In addition to improvements that have been made in material properties and processing techniques, similar growth must be seen in the development of methods for the detection of flaws, either generated in service or during manufacturing. Thermal imaging techniques have proven to be successful for the nondestructive evaluation (NDE) of composite materials, but their detection capabilities decrease as flaw depth increases. The purpose of this research is to investigate advanced thermal imaging methods and thermal image processing technologies to increase the maximum depth below surface that a flaw can be detected and improve the contrast between flawed regions and sound regions.

Martin, Richard E.; Gyekenyesi, Andrew L.

2003-01-01

191

POC-Scale Testing of an Advanced Fine Coal Dewatering Equipment/Technique.  

SciTech Connect

Froth flotation technique is an effective and efficient process for recovering of ultra-fine (minus 74 mm) clean coal. Economical dewatering of an ultra-fine clean coal product to a 20% level moisture will be an important step in the successful implementation of the advanced cleaning processes. This project is a step in the Department of Energy`s program to show that ultra-clean coal could be effectively dewatered to 20% or lower moisture using either conventional or advanced dewatering techniques. The cost-sharing contract effort is for 36 months beginning September 30, 1994. This report discusses technical progress made during the quarter from April 1 - June 30, 1997.

Tao, D.; Groppo, J.G.; Parekh, B.K.

1997-12-31

192

POC-scale testing of an advanced fine coal dewatering equipment/technique  

SciTech Connect

Froth flotation technique is an effective and efficient process for recovering of ultra-fine (minus 74 pm) clean coal. Economical dewatering of an ultra-fine clean-coal product to a 20% level moisture will be an important step in successful implementation of the advanced cleaning processes. This project is a step in the Department of Energy`s program to show that ultra-clean coal could be effectively dewatered to 20% or lower moisture using either conventional or advanced dewatering techniques. The cost-sharing contract effort is for 36 months beginning September 30, 1994. This report discusses technical progress made during the quarter from July 1 - September 30, 1997.

NONE

1998-09-01

193

Development of low-cost test techniques for advancing film cooling technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A program for studying advanced film hole geometries that will provide improved film effectiveness levels relative to those reported in the literature is described. A planar wind tunnel was used to conduct flow visualization studies on different film hole shapes, followed by film effectiveness measurements. The most promising geometries were then tested in a two-dimensional cascade to define the film effectiveness distributions, while duplicating a turbine airfoil curvature, Mach number, and acceleration characteristics. The test techniques are assessed and typical results are presented. It was shown that smoke flow visualization is an excellent low-cost technique for observing film coolant-to-mainstream characteristics and that reusable liquid crystal sheets provide an accurate low-cost technique for measuring near-hole film effectiveness contours. Cascade airfoils constructed using specially developed precision fabrication techniques provided high-quality film effectiveness data.

Soechting, F. O.; Landis, K. K.; Dobrowolski, R.

1987-06-01

194

The investigation of advanced remote sensing techniques for the measurement of aerosol characteristics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Advanced remote sensing techniques and inversion methods for the measurement of characteristics of aerosol and gaseous species in the atmosphere were investigated. Of particular interest were the physical and chemical properties of aerosols, such as their size distribution, number concentration, and complex refractive index, and the vertical distribution of these properties on a local as well as global scale. Remote sensing techniques for monitoring of tropospheric aerosols were developed as well as satellite monitoring of upper tropospheric and stratospheric aerosols. Computer programs were developed for solving multiple scattering and radiative transfer problems, as well as inversion/retrieval problems. A necessary aspect of these efforts was to develop models of aerosol properties.

Deepak, A.; Becher, J.

1979-01-01

195

Combined preputial advancement and phallopexy as a revision technique for treating paraphimosis in a dog.  

PubMed

A 7-year-old neutered male Jack Russell terrier-cross was presented for signs of recurrent paraphimosis, despite previous surgical enlargement of the preputial ostium. Revision surgery was performed using a combination of preputial advancement and phallopexy, which resulted in complete and permanent coverage of the glans penis by the prepuce, and at 1 year postoperatively, no recurrence of paraphimosis had been observed. The combined techniques allow preservation of the normal penile anatomy, are relatively simple to perform and provide a cosmetic result. We recommend this combination for the treatment of paraphimosis in the dog, particularly when other techniques have failed. PMID:25348145

Wasik, S M; Wallace, A M

2014-11-01

196

An example of requirements for Advanced Subsonic Civil Transport (ASCT) flight control system using structured techniques  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The requirements are presented for an Advanced Subsonic Civil Transport (ASCT) flight control system generated using structured techniques. The requirements definition starts from initially performing a mission analysis to identify the high level control system requirements and functions necessary to satisfy the mission flight. The result of the study is an example set of control system requirements partially represented using a derivative of Yourdon's structured techniques. Also provided is a research focus for studying structured design methodologies and in particular design-for-validation philosophies.

Mclees, Robert E.; Cohen, Gerald C.

1991-01-01

197

Development of advanced electron holographic techniques and application to industrial materials and devices.  

PubMed

The development of a transmission electron microscope equipped with a field emission gun paved the way for electron holography to be put to practical use in various fields. In this paper, we review three advanced electron holography techniques: on-line real-time electron holography, three-dimensional (3D) tomographic holography and phase-shifting electron holography, which are becoming important techniques for materials science and device engineering. We also describe some applications of electron holography to the analysis of industrial materials and devices: GaAs compound semiconductors, solid oxide fuel cells and all-solid-state lithium ion batteries. PMID:23536696

Yamamoto, Kazuo; Hirayama, Tsukasa; Tanji, Takayoshi

2013-06-01

198

Evaluation of effluent organic matter fouling in ultrafiltration treatment using advanced organic characterisation techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

Membrane fouling remains an operational challenge in the ultrafiltration (UF) membrane treatment of wastewater effluent and research is on-going to improve understanding of the organic character of foulants. Two advanced organic characterisation techniques that have potential to lend insight into membrane fouling are size exclusion chromatography with organic carbon, UV254 and nitrogen detection (LC-OCD) and fluorescence excitation–emission matrix (EEM) spectroscopy.

Rita K. Henderson; Nashida Subhi; Alice Antony; Stuart J. Khan; Kathleen R. Murphy; Greg L. Leslie; Vicki Chen; Richard M. Stuetz; Pierre Le-Clech

2011-01-01

199

ADVANCING THE FUNDAMENTAL UNDERSTANDING AND SCALE-UP OF TRISO FUEL COATERS VIA ADVANCED MEASUREMENT AND COMPUTATIONAL TECHNIQUES  

SciTech Connect

Tri-isotropic (TRISO) fuel particle coating is critical for the future use of nuclear energy produced byadvanced gas reactors (AGRs). The fuel kernels are coated using chemical vapor deposition in a spouted fluidized bed. The challenges encountered in operating TRISO fuel coaters are due to the fact that in modern AGRs, such as High Temperature Gas Reactors (HTGRs), the acceptable level of defective/failed coated particles is essentially zero. This specification requires processes that produce coated spherical particles with even coatings having extremely low defect fractions. Unfortunately, the scale-up and design of the current processes and coaters have been based on empirical approaches and are operated as?black boxes. Hence, a voluminous amount of experimental development and trial and error work has been conducted. It has been clearly demonstrated that the quality of the coating applied to the fuel kernels is impacted by the hydrodynamics, solids flow field, and flow regime characteristics of the spouted bed coaters, which themselves are influenced by design parameters and operating variables. Further complicating the outlook for future fuel-coating technology and nuclear energy production is the fact that a variety of new concepts will involve fuel kernels of different sizes and with compositions of different densities. Therefore, without a fundamental understanding the underlying phenomena of the spouted bed TRISO coater, a significant amount of effort is required for production of each type of particle with a significant risk of not meeting the specifications. This difficulty will significantly and negatively impact the applications of AGRs for power generation and cause further challenges to them as an alternative source of commercial energy production. Accordingly, the proposed work seeks to overcome such hurdles and advance the scale-up, design, and performance of TRISO fuel particle spouted bed coaters. The overall objectives of the proposed work are to advance the fundamental understanding of the hydrodynamics by systematically investigating the effect of design and operating variables, to evaluate the reported dimensionless groups as scaling factors, and to establish a reliable scale-up methodology for the TRISO fuel particle spouted bed coaters based on hydrodynamic similarity via advanced measurement and computational techniques. An additional objective is to develop an on-line non-invasive measurement technique based on gamma ray densitometry (i.e. Nuclear Gauge Densitometry) that can be installed and used for coater process monitoring to ensure proper performance and operation and to facilitate the developed scale-up methodology. To achieve the objectives set for the project, the work will use optical probes and gamma ray computed tomography (CT) (for the measurements of solids/voidage holdup cross-sectional distribution and radial profiles along the bed height, spouted diameter, and fountain height) and radioactive particle tracking (RPT) (for the measurements of the 3D solids flow field, velocity, turbulent parameters, circulation time, solids lagrangian trajectories, and many other of spouted bed related hydrodynamic parameters). In addition, gas dynamic measurement techniques and pressure transducers will be utilized to complement the obtained information. The measurements obtained by these techniques will be used as benchmark data to evaluate and validate the computational fluid dynamic (CFD) models (two fluid model or discrete particle model) and their closures. The validated CFD models and closures will be used to facilitate the developed methodology for scale-up, design and hydrodynamic similarity. Successful execution of this work and the proposed tasks will advance the fundamental understanding of the coater flow field and quantify it for proper and safe design, scale-up, and performance. Such achievements will overcome the barriers to AGR applications and will help assure that the US maintains nuclear energy as a feasible option to meet the nationÃ?Â?Ã?Â?Ã

Biswas, Pratim; Al-Dahhan, Muthanna

2012-11-01

200

Integrating Organic Matter Structure with Ecosystem Function using Advanced Analytical Chemistry Techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Microorganisms are the primary transformers of organic matter in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. The structure of organic matter controls its bioavailability and researchers have long sought to link the chemical characteristics of the organic matter pool to its lability. To date this effort has been primarily attempted using low resolution descriptive characteristics (e.g. organic matter content, carbon to nitrogen ratio, aromaticity, etc .). However, recent progress in linking these two important ecosystem components has been advanced using advanced high resolution tools (e.g. nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, and mass spectroscopy (MS)-based techniques). A series of experiments will be presented that highlight the application of high resolution techniques in a variety of terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems with the focus on how these data explicitly provide the foundation for integrating organic matter structure into our concept of ecosystem function. The talk will highlight results from a series of experiments including: an MS-based metabolomics and fluorescence excitation emission matrix approach evaluating seasonal and vegetation based changes in dissolved organic matter (DOM) composition from arctic soils; Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FTICR) MS and MS metabolomics analysis of DOM from three lakes in an alpine watershed; and the transformation of 13C labeled glucose track with NMR during a rewetting experiment from Colorado grassland soils. These data will be synthesized to illustrate how the application of advanced analytical techniques provides novel insight into our understanding of organic matter processing in a wide range of ecosystems.

Boot, C. M.

2012-12-01

201

POC-scale testing of an advanced fine coal dewatering equipment/technique  

SciTech Connect

Froth flotation technique is an effective and efficient process for recovering of ultra-fine (minus 74 {mu}m) clean coal. Economical dewatering of an ultra-fine clean coal product to a 20 percent level moisture will be an important step in successful implementation of the advanced cleaning processes. This project is a step in the Department of Energy`s program to show that ultra-clean coal could be effectively dewatered to 20 percent or lower moisture using either conventional or advanced dewatering techniques. As the contract title suggests, the main focus of the program is on proof-of-concept testing of a dewatering technique for a fine clean coal product. The coal industry is reluctant to use the advanced fine coal recovery technology due to the non-availability of an economical dewatering process. in fact, in a recent survey conducted by U.S. DOE and Battelle, dewatering of fine clean coal was identified as the number one priority for the coal industry. This project will attempt to demonstrate an efficient and economic fine clean coal slurry dewatering process.

Groppo, J.G.; Parekh, B.K. [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States); Rawls, P. [Department of Energy, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

1995-11-01

202

Advances in HgCdTe-based infrared detector materials: the role of molecular-beam epitaxy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since its initial synthesis and investigation more than 40 years ago, the HgCdTe alloy semiconductor system has evolved into one of the primary infrared detector materials for high-performance infrared focal-plane arrays (FPA) designed to operate in the 3-5 mm and 8-12 mm spectral ranges of importance for thermal imaging systems. Over the course of the past decade, significant advances have been made in the development of thin-film epitaxial growth techniques, such as molecular-beam epitaxy (MBE), which have enabled the synthesis of IR detector device structures with complex doping and composition profiles. The central role played by in situ sensors for monitoring and control of the MBE growth process are reviewed. The development of MBE HgCdTe growth technology is discussed in three particular device applications: avalanche photodiodes for 1.55 +m photodetection, megapixel FPAs on Si substrates, and multispectral IR detectors.

de Lyon, Terence J.; Rajavel, Rajesh D.; Roth, John A.; Jensen, John E.; Olson, Greg L.; Brewer, Peter D.; Hunter, Andrew T.; Williamson, Tod S.; Bailey, Steven L.; Bangs, James W.; Buell, Aimee; Chapman, George; Childs, Alex C.; Gordon, Eli; Jack, Michael D.; Johnson, Scott M.; Kosai, Kim; Maranowski, Kevin D.; Patten, Elizabeth A.; Peterson, Jeff; Pham, Le T.; Radford, William A.; Randall, Valerie; Varesi, John B.; Wilson, Jerry A.

2001-11-01

203

Achieving molecular selectivity in imaging using multiphoton Raman spectroscopy techniques  

SciTech Connect

In the case of most imaging methods, contrast is generated either by physical properties of the sample (Differential Image Contrast, Phase Contrast), or by fluorescent labels that are localized to a particular protein or organelle. Standard Raman and infrared methods for obtaining images are based upon the intrinsic vibrational properties of molecules, and thus obviate the need for attached flurophores. Unfortunately, they have significant limitations for live-cell imaging. However, an active Raman method, called Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering (CARS), is well suited for microscopy, and provides a new means for imaging specific molecules. Vibrational imaging techniques, such as CARS, avoid problems associated with photobleaching and photo-induced toxicity often associated with the use of fluorescent labels with live cells. Because the laser configuration needed to implement CARS technology is similar to that used in other multiphoton microscopy methods, such as two -photon fluorescence and harmonic generation, it is possible to combine imaging modalities, thus generating simultaneous CARS and fluorescence images. A particularly powerful aspect of CARS microscopy is its ability to selectively image deuterated compounds, thus allowing the visualization of molecules, such as lipids, that are chemically indistinguishable from the native species.

Holtom, Gary R. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Thrall, Brian D. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Chin, Beek Yoke (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Wiley, H Steven (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Colson, Steven D. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB))

2000-12-01

204

Molecular weight fractionation of poly(methyl methacrylate) using Gas AntiSolvent techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

The solubility of poly(methyl methacrylate) in acetone, expanded by carbon dioxide, was studied at 20 °C for a variety of molecular weights and architectures. The suitability of the Gas Anti-Solvent method for fractionation of poly(methyl methacrylate) was investigated with positive results. The threshold pressure for precipitation of various monodisperse molecular weights was investigated, and the effectiveness of this technique to

Emma M. Coen; John F. Quinn; Fariba Dehghani; Neil R. Foster; Thomas P. Davis

2003-01-01

205

Molecular organization of polyene antibiotic amphotericin B studied by means of fluorescence technique.  

PubMed

Amphotericin B (AmB) is a polyene antibiotic used to treat deep-seated mycoses. Both the pharmaceutical and toxic activities of AmB depend on the molecular organization of the drug. The fluorescence of AmB has proven to be a powerful technique of studying the drug's association state. In particular, fluorescence lifetime appeared to be sensitive to the formation of AmB dimers and aggregated structures. This paper addresses the application of the fluorescence technique in the study of the molecular organization of AmB, and perspectives on future application of this approach are addressed briefly. PMID:22573435

Gruszecki, Wieslaw I; Luchowski, Rafal; Wasko, Piotr; Gryczynski, Zygmunt; Gryczynski, Ignacy

2012-01-01

206

Nanopositioning techniques development for synchrotron radiation instrumentation applications at the Advanced Photon Source  

SciTech Connect

At modern synchrotron radiation sources and beamlines, high-precision positioning techniques present a significant opportunity to support state-of-the-art synchrotron radiation research. Meanwhile, the required instrument positioning performance and capabilities, such as resolution, dynamic range, repeatability, speed, and multiple axes synchronization are exceeding the limit of commercial availability. This paper presents the current nanopositioning techniques developed for the Argonne Center for Nanoscale Materials (CNM)/Advanced Photon Source (APS) hard x-ray nanoprobe and high-resolution x-ray monochromators and analyzers for the APS X-ray Operations and Research (XOR) beamlines. Future nanopositioning techniques to be developed for the APS renewal project will also be discussed.

Shu Deming [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)

2010-06-23

207

Nanopositioning techniques development for synchrotron radiation instrumentation applications at the Advanced Photon Source  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At modern synchrotron radiation sources and beamlines, high-precision positioning techniques present a significant opportunity to support state-of-the-art synchrotron radiation research. Meanwhile, the required instrument positioning performance and capabilities, such as resolution, dynamic range, repeatability, speed, and multiple axes synchronization are exceeding the limit of commercial availability. This paper presents the current nanopositioning techniques developed for the Argonne Center for Nanoscale Materials (CNM)/Advanced Photon Source (APS) hard x-ray nanoprobe and high-resolution x-ray monochromators and analyzers for the APS X-ray Operations and Research (XOR) beamlines. Future nanopositioning techniques to be developed for the APS renewal project will also be discussed.

Shu, Deming

2010-06-01

208

Accelerated Testing Methodology in Constant Stress-Rate Testing for Advanced Structural Ceramics: A Preloading Technique  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Preloading technique was used as a means of an accelerated testing methodology in constant stress-rate (dynamic fatigue) testing for two different brittle materials. The theory developed previously for fatigue strength as a function of preload was further verified through extensive constant stress-rate testing for glass-ceramic and CRT glass in room temperature distilled water. The preloading technique was also used in this study to identify the prevailing failure mechanisms at elevated temperatures, particularly at lower test rates in which a series of mechanisms would be associated simultaneously with material failure, resulting in significant strength increase or decrease. Two different advanced ceramics including SiC whisker-reinforced composite silicon nitride and 96 wt% alumina were used at elevated temperatures. It was found that the preloading technique can be used as an additional tool to pinpoint the dominant failure mechanism that is associated with such a phenomenon of considerable strength increase or decrease.

Choi, Sung R.; Gyekenyesi, John P.; Huebert, Dean; Bartlett, Allen; Choi, Han-Ho

2001-01-01

209

Review of recent advances in analytical techniques for the determination of neurotransmitters  

PubMed Central

Methods and advances for monitoring neurotransmitters in vivo or for tissue analysis of neurotransmitters over the last five years are reviewed. The review is organized primarily by neurotransmitter type. Transmitter and related compounds may be monitored by either in vivo sampling coupled to analytical methods or implanted sensors. Sampling is primarily performed using microdialysis, but low-flow push-pull perfusion may offer advantages of spatial resolution while minimizing the tissue disruption associated with higher flow rates. Analytical techniques coupled to these sampling methods include liquid chromatography, capillary electrophoresis, enzyme assays, sensors, and mass spectrometry. Methods for the detection of amino acid, monoamine, neuropeptide, acetylcholine, nucleoside, and soluable gas neurotransmitters have been developed and improved upon. Advances in the speed and sensitivity of these methods have enabled improvements in temporal resolution and increased the number of compounds detectable. Similar advances have enabled improved detection at tissue samples, with a substantial emphasis on single cell and other small samples. Sensors provide excellent temporal and spatial resolution for in vivo monitoring. Advances in application to catecholamines, indoleamines, and amino acids have been prominent. Improvements in stability, sensitivity, and selectivity of the sensors have been of paramount interest. PMID:19800472

Perry, Maura; Li, Qiang; Kennedy, Robert T.

2009-01-01

210

Molecular and Therapeutic Advances in the Diagnosis and Management of Malignant Pheochromocytomas and Paragangliomas  

PubMed Central

Pheochromocytomas (PCCs) and paragangliomas (PGLs) are rare catecholamine-secreting tumors derived from chromaffin cells originating in the neural crest. These tumors represent a significant diagnostic and therapeutic challenge because the diagnosis of malignancy is frequently made in retrospect by the development of metastatic or recurrent disease. Complete surgical resection offers the only potential for cure; however, recurrence can occur even after apparently successful resection of the primary tumor. The prognosis for malignant disease is poor because traditional treatment modalities have been limited. The last decade has witnessed exciting discoveries in the study of PCCs and PGLs; advances in molecular genetics have uncovered hereditary and germline mutations of at least 10 genes that contribute to the development of these tumors, and increasing knowledge of genotype-phenotype interactions has facilitated more accurate determination of malignant potential. Elucidating the molecular mechanisms responsible for malignant transformation in these tumors has opened avenues of investigation into targeted therapeutics that show promising results. There have also been significant advances in functional and radiological imaging and in the surgical approach to adrenalectomy, which remains the mainstay of treatment for PCC. In this review, we discuss the currently available diagnostic and therapeutic options for patients with malignant PCCs and PGLs and detail the molecular rationale and clinical evidence for novel and emerging diagnostic and therapeutic strategies. PMID:23576482

Lowery, Aoife J.; Walsh, Siun; McDermott, Enda W.

2013-01-01

211

Novel Technique for Measuring Low Molecular Weight Chemicals in Indoor Dust  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new technique is described which can measure low molecular weight compounds adsorbed onto dust parti cles in a simple yet accurate way. The technique, gas chromatography-ultraviolet spectrometry (GC-UV), com prises a one-stage thermal desorption oven, a gas flow cell with a miniaturised GC column, and a nitrogen- flushed photo diode array (PDA) detector for fast UV spectra recording. The

Anders Nilsson; Ali Reza Nosratabadi; Verner Lagesson; Nicola Murgia; Per Leanderson; Christer Tagesson

2002-01-01

212

Millimeter-wave Velocity Modulation Spectroscopy as a Technique to Selectively Detect Molecular Ions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Molecular ions are usually very unstable and reactive species. As a result, their spectroscopic features can be difficult to identify and distinguish from those of neutral species, which tend to be more stable and thus have stronger signals. The technique of velocity modulation allows this disadvantage to be removed. This method uses the alternating plus and minus polarity of an electric field created by an AC discharge, which also produces the molecular ions, to selectively detect the molecular ions, while eliminating the neutral features. This technique has been applied at infrared and optical wavelengths for many years with much success. Recently, we designed and built a millimeter-wave velocity modulation spectrometer, the first ever constructed. This instrument has been used to create and study multiple molecular ions, including metal-bearing molecular ions. The rotational spectrum of these species, such as TiCl^+, VCl^+, TiF^+, FeO^+, FeCO^+, and SiCl^+, has been investigated with this new machine in our laboratory. Results of these studies along with a description of the velocity modulation technique and instrument will be presented.

Halfen, Dewayne; Ziurys, Lucy

2009-05-01

213

Protein NMR Techniques, 3rd Methods in Molecular Biology, Springer Verlag (Humana Press), 2011  

E-print Network

Protein NMR Techniques, 3rd ed. Methods in Molecular Biology, Springer Verlag (Humana Press), 2011, 518 pages. The field of protein NMR spectroscopy has rapidly expanded into new areas of biochemistry of the latest innovations in the field of protein NMR. It focuses on the application of NMR to biochemistry

Linsley, Braddock K.

214

Utilizing Dynamic Molecular Modelling Technique for Predicting Changes in Complex Social Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a method that utilises dynamic molecular modelling technique to track the changes within complex social network. The users forming a social network are interpreted as large sets of interacting particles. The data for the conducted research was obtained from e-mail communication within Enron company. The social network of employees was extracted and used to evaluate the methodology of

Krzysztof Juszczyszyn; Anna Musial; Katarzyna Musial; Piotr Bródka

2010-01-01

215

Molecular techniques in the biotechnological fight against halogenated compounds in anoxic environments  

PubMed Central

Summary Microbial treatment of environmental contamination by anthropogenic halogenated organic compounds has become popular in recent decades, especially in the subsurface environments. Molecular techniques such as polymerase chain reaction?based fingerprinting methods have been extensively used to closely monitor the presence and activities of dehalogenating microbes, which also lead to the discovery of new dehalogenating bacteria and novel functional genes. Nowadays, traditional molecular techniques are being further developed and optimized for higher sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy to better fit the contexts of dehalogenation. On the other hand, newly developed high throughput techniques, such as microarray and next?generation sequencing, provide unsurpassed detection ability, which has enabled large?scale comparative genomic and whole?genome transcriptomic analysis. The aim of this review is to summarize applications of various molecular tools in the field of microbially mediated dehalogenation of various halogenated organic compounds. It is expected that traditional molecular techniques and nucleic?acid?based biomarkers will still be favoured in the foreseeable future because of relative low costs and high flexibility. Collective analyses of metagenomic sequencing data are still in need of information from individual dehalogenating strains and functional reductive dehalogenase genes in order to draw reliable conclusions. PMID:22070763

Ding, Chang; He, Jianzhong

2012-01-01

216

Molecular Technique to Reduce PCR Bias for Deeper Understanding of Microbial Diversity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Current planetary protection policies require that spacecraft targeted to sensitive solar system bodies be assembled and readied for launch in controlled cleanroom environments. A better understanding of the distribution and frequency at which high-risk contaminant microbes are encountered on spacecraft surfaces would significantly aid in assessing the threat of forward contamination. However, despite a growing understanding of the diverse microbial populations present in cleanrooms, less abundant microbial populations are probably not adequately taken into account due to technological limitations. This novel approach encompasses a wide spectrum of microbial species and will represent the true picture of spacecraft cleanroom-associated microbial diversity. All of the current microbial diversity assessment techniques are based on an initial PCR amplification step. However, a number of factors are known to bias PCR amplification and jeopardize the true representation of bacterial diversity. PCR amplification of a minor template appears to be suppressed by the amplification of a more abundant template. It is widely acknowledged among environmental molecular microbiologists that genetic biosignatures identified from an environment only represent the most dominant populations. The technological bottleneck overlooks the presence of the less abundant minority population and may underestimate their role in the ecosystem maintenance. DNA intercalating agents such as propidium monoazide (PMA) covalently bind with DNA molecules upon photolysis using visible light, and make it unavailable for DNA polymerase enzyme during polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Environmental DNA samples will be treated with suboptimum PMA concentration, enough to intercalate with 90 99% of the total DNA. The probability of PMA binding with DNA from abundant bacterial species will be much higher than binding with DNA from less abundant species. This will increase the relative DNA concentration of previously "shadowed" less abundant species available for PCR amplification. These PCR products obtained with and without PMA treatment will then be subjected to downstream diversity analyses such as sequencing and DNA microarray. It is expected that PMA-coupled PCR will amplify the "minority population" and help in understanding microbial diversity spectrum of an environmental sample at a much deeper level. This new protocol aims to overcome the major potential biases faced when analyzing microbial 16S rRNA gene diversity. This study will lead to a technological advancement and a commercial product that will aid microbial ecologists in understanding microbial diversity from various environmental niches. Implementation of this technique may lead to discoveries of novel microbes and their functions in sustenance of the ecosystem.

Vaishampayan, Parag A.; Venkateswaran, Kasthuri J.

2012-01-01

217

Recent advances in discovery, heterologous expression, and molecular engineering of cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase for versatile applications.  

PubMed

Cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase (CGTase) is an important enzyme with multiple functions, in particular the production of cyclodextrins. It is also widely applied in baking and carbohydrate glycosylation because it participates in various types of catalytic reactions. New applications are being found with novel CGTases being isolated from various organisms. Heterologous expression is performed for the overproduction of CGTases to meet the requirements of these applications. In addition, various directed evolution techniques have been applied to modify the molecular structure of CGTase for improved performance in industrial applications. In recent years, substantial progress has been made in the heterologous expression and molecular engineering of CGTases. In this review, we systematically summarize the heterologous expression strategies used for enhancing the production of CGTases. We also outline and discuss the molecular engineering approaches used to improve the production, secretion, and properties (e.g., product and substrate specificity, catalytic efficiency, and thermal stability) of CGTase. PMID:24361954

Han, Ruizhi; Li, Jianghua; Shin, Hyun-Dong; Chen, Rachel R; Du, Guocheng; Liu, Long; Chen, Jian

2014-01-01

218

The Advanced Light Source: A new tool for research in atomic and molecular physics  

SciTech Connect

The Advanced Light Source at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory will be the world's brightest synchrotron radiation source in the extreme ultraviolet and soft x-ray regions of the spectrum when it begins operation in 1993. It will be available as a national user facility to researchers in a broad range of disciplines, including materials science, atomic and molecular physics, chemistry, biology, imaging, and technology. The high brightness of the ALS will be particularly well suited to high-resolution studies of tenuous targets, such as excited atoms, ions, and clusters. 13 figs., 4 tabs.

Schlachter, F.; Robinson, A.

1991-04-01

219

Advanced 3D-Sonographic Imaging as a Precise Technique to Evaluate Tumor Volume.  

PubMed

Determination of tumor volume in subcutaneously inoculated xenograft models is a standard procedure for clinical and preclinical evaluation of tumor response to treatment. Practitioners frequently use a hands-on caliper method in conjunction with a simplified formula to assess tumor volume. Non-invasive and more precise techniques as investigation by MR or (?)CT exist but come with various adverse effects in terms of radiation, complex setup or elevated cost of investigations. Therefore, we propose an advanced three-dimensional sonographic imaging technique to determine small tumor volumes in xenografts with high precision and minimized observer variability. We present a study on xenograft carcinoma tumors from which volumes and shapes were calculated with the standard caliper method as well as with a clinically available three-dimensional ultrasound scanner and subsequent processing software. Statistical analysis reveals the suitability of this non-invasive approach for the purpose of a quick and precise calculation of tumor volume in small rodents. PMID:25500076

Pflanzer, R; Hofmann, M; Shelke, A; Habib, A; Derwich, W; Schmitz-Rixen, T; Bernd, A; Kaufmann, R; Bereiter-Hahn, J

2014-12-01

220

Advanced 3D-Sonographic Imaging as a Precise Technique to Evaluate Tumor Volume  

PubMed Central

Determination of tumor volume in subcutaneously inoculated xenograft models is a standard procedure for clinical and preclinical evaluation of tumor response to treatment. Practitioners frequently use a hands-on caliper method in conjunction with a simplified formula to assess tumor volume. Non-invasive and more precise techniques as investigation by MR or (?)CT exist but come with various adverse effects in terms of radiation, complex setup or elevated cost of investigations. Therefore, we propose an advanced three-dimensional sonographic imaging technique to determine small tumor volumes in xenografts with high precision and minimized observer variability. We present a study on xenograft carcinoma tumors from which volumes and shapes were calculated with the standard caliper method as well as with a clinically available three-dimensional ultrasound scanner and subsequent processing software. Statistical analysis reveals the suitability of this non-invasive approach for the purpose of a quick and precise calculation of tumor volume in small rodents. PMID:25500076

Pflanzer, R.; Hofmann, M.; Shelke, A.; Habib, A.; Derwich, W.; Schmitz-Rixen, T.; Bernd, A.; Kaufmann, R.; Bereiter-Hahn, J.

2014-01-01

221

Individual Particle Analysis of Ambient PM 2.5 Using Advanced Electron Microscopy Techniques  

SciTech Connect

The overall goal of this project was to demonstrate a combination of advanced electron microscopy techniques that can be effectively used to identify and characterize individual particles and their sources. Specific techniques to be used include high-angle annular dark field scanning transmission electron microscopy (HAADF-STEM), STEM energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDX), and energy-filtered TEM (EFTEM). A series of ambient PM{sub 2.5} samples were collected in communities in southwestern Detroit, MI (close to multiple combustion sources) and Steubenville, OH (close to several coal fired utility boilers). High-resolution TEM (HRTEM) -imaging showed a series of nano-metal particles including transition metals and elemental composition of individual particles in detail. Submicron and nano-particles with Al, Fe, Ti, Ca, U, V, Cr, Si, Ba, Mn, Ni, K and S were observed and characterized from the samples. Among the identified nano-particles, combinations of Al, Fe, Si, Ca and Ti nano-particles embedded in carbonaceous particles were observed most frequently. These particles showed very similar characteristics of ultrafine coal fly ash particles that were previously reported. By utilizing HAADF-STEM, STEM-EDX, and EF-TEM, this investigation was able to gain information on the size, morphology, structure, and elemental composition of individual nano-particles collected in Detroit and Steubenville. The results showed that the contributions of local combustion sources - including coal fired utilities - to ultrafine particle levels were significant. Although this combination of advanced electron microscopy techniques by itself can not identify source categories, these techniques can be utilized as complementary analytical tools that are capable of providing detailed information on individual particles.

Gerald J. Keeler; Masako Morishita

2006-12-31

222

Advanced grazing-incidence techniques for modern soft-matter materials analysis  

PubMed Central

The complex nano-morphology of modern soft-matter materials is successfully probed with advanced grazing-incidence techniques. Based on grazing-incidence small- and wide-angle X-ray and neutron scattering (GISAXS, GIWAXS, GISANS and GIWANS), new possibilities arise which are discussed with selected examples. Due to instrumental progress, highly interesting possibilities for local structure analysis in this material class arise from the use of micro- and nanometer-sized X-ray beams in micro- or nanofocused GISAXS and GIWAXS experiments. The feasibility of very short data acquisition times down to milliseconds creates exciting possibilities for in situ and in operando GISAXS and GIWAXS studies. Tuning the energy of GISAXS and GIWAXS in the soft X-ray regime and in time-of flight GISANS allows the tailoring of contrast conditions and thereby the probing of more complex morphologies. In addition, recent progress in software packages, useful for data analysis for advanced grazing-incidence techniques, is discussed. PMID:25610632

Hexemer, Alexander; Müller-Buschbaum, Peter

2015-01-01

223

Development of Advanced Nuclide Separation and Recovery Methods using Ion-Exchanhge Techniques in Nuclear Backend  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development of compact separation and recovery methods using selective ion-exchange techniques is very important for the reprocessing and high-level liquid wastes (HLLWs) treatment in the nuclear backend field. The selective nuclide separation techniques are effective for the volume reduction of wastes and the utilization of valuable nuclides, and expected for the construction of advanced nuclear fuel cycle system and the rationalization of waste treatment. In order to accomplish the selective nuclide separation, the design and synthesis of novel adsorbents are essential for the development of compact and precise separation processes. The present paper deals with the preparation of highly functional and selective hybrid microcapsules enclosing nano-adsorbents in the alginate gel polymer matrices by sol-gel methods, their characterization and the clarification of selective adsorption properties by batch and column methods. The selective separation of Cs, Pd and Re in real HLLW was further accomplished by using novel microcapsules, and an advanced nuclide separation system was proposed by the combination of selective processes using microcapsules.

Miura, Hitoshi

224

Advanced grazing-incidence techniques for modern soft-matter materials analysis.  

PubMed

The complex nano-morphology of modern soft-matter materials is successfully probed with advanced grazing-incidence techniques. Based on grazing-incidence small- and wide-angle X-ray and neutron scattering (GISAXS, GIWAXS, GISANS and GIWANS), new possibilities arise which are discussed with selected examples. Due to instrumental progress, highly interesting possibilities for local structure analysis in this material class arise from the use of micro- and nanometer-sized X-ray beams in micro- or nanofocused GISAXS and GIWAXS experiments. The feasibility of very short data acquisition times down to milliseconds creates exciting possibilities for in situ and in operando GISAXS and GIWAXS studies. Tuning the energy of GISAXS and GIWAXS in the soft X-ray regime and in time-of flight GISANS allows the tailoring of contrast conditions and thereby the probing of more complex morphologies. In addition, recent progress in software packages, useful for data analysis for advanced grazing-incidence techniques, is discussed. PMID:25610632

Hexemer, Alexander; Müller-Buschbaum, Peter

2015-01-01

225

Advanced techniques for array processing. Final report, 1 Mar 89-30 Apr 91  

SciTech Connect

Array processing technology is expected to be a key element in communication systems designed for the crowded and hostile environment of the future battlefield. While advanced array processing techniques have been under development for some time, their practical use has been very limited. This project addressed some of the issues which need to be resolved for a successful transition of these promising techniques from theory into practice. The main problem which was studied was that of finding the directions of multiple co-channel transmitters from measurements collected by an antenna array. Two key issues related to high-resolution direction finding were addressed: effects of system calibration errors, and effects of correlation between the received signals due to multipath propagation. A number of useful theoretical performance analysis results were derived, and computationally efficient direction estimation algorithms were developed. These results include: self-calibration techniques for antenna arrays, sensitivity analysis for high-resolution direction finding, extensions of the root-MUSIC algorithm to arbitrary arrays and to arrays with polarization diversity, and new techniques for direction finding in the presence of multipath based on array interpolation. (Author)

Friedlander, B.

1991-05-30

226

Biotechnology Apprenticeship for Secondary-Level Students: Teaching Advanced Cell Culture Techniques for Research  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this article is to discuss small-group apprenticeships (SGAs) as a method to instruct cell culture techniques to high school participants. The study aimed to teach cell culture practices and to introduce advanced imaging techniques to solve various biomedical engineering problems. Participants designed and completed experiments using both flow cytometry and laser scanning cytometry during the 1-month summer apprenticeship. In addition to effectively and efficiently teaching cell biology laboratory techniques, this course design provided an opportunity for research training, career exploration, and mentoring. Students participated in active research projects, working with a skilled interdisciplinary team of researchers in a large research institution with access to state-of-the-art instrumentation. The instructors, composed of graduate students, laboratory managers, and principal investigators, worked well together to present a real and worthwhile research experience. The students enjoyed learning cell culture techniques while contributing to active research projects. The institution's researchers were equally enthusiastic to instruct and serve as mentors. In this article, we clarify and illuminate the value of small-group laboratory apprenticeships to the institution and the students by presenting the results and experiences of seven middle and high school participants and their instructors. PMID:12587031

Lewis, Jennifer R.; Kotur, Mark S.; Butt, Omar; Kulcarni, Sumant; Riley, Alyssa A.; Ferrell, Nick; Sullivan, Kathryn D.; Ferrari, Mauro

2002-01-01

227

System Design Techniques for Reducing the Power Requirements of Advanced life Support Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The high power requirement associated with overall operation of regenerative life support systems is a critical Z:p technological challenge. Optimization of individual processors alone will not be sufficient to produce an optimized system. System studies must be used in order to improve the overall efficiency of life support systems. Current research efforts at NASA Ames Research Center are aimed at developing approaches for reducing system power and energy usage in advanced life support systems. System energy integration and energy reuse techniques are being applied to advanced life support, in addition to advanced control methods for efficient distribution of power and thermal resources. An overview of current results of this work will be presented. The development of integrated system designs that reuse waste heat from sources such as crop lighting and solid waste processing systems will reduce overall power and cooling requirements. Using an energy integration technique known as Pinch analysis, system heat exchange designs are being developed that match hot and cold streams according to specific design principles. For various designs, the potential savings for power, heating and cooling are being identified and quantified. The use of state-of-the-art control methods for distribution of resources, such as system cooling water or electrical power, will also reduce overall power and cooling requirements. Control algorithms are being developed which dynamically adjust the use of system resources by the various subsystems and components in order to achieve an overall goal, such as smoothing of power usage and/or heat rejection profiles, while maintaining adequate reserves of food, water, oxygen, and other consumables, and preventing excessive build-up of waste materials. Reductions in the peak loading of the power and thermal systems will lead to lower overall requirements. Computer simulation models are being used to test various control system designs.

Finn, Cory; Levri, Julie; Pawlowski, Chris; Crawford, Sekou; Luna, Bernadette (Technical Monitor)

2000-01-01

228

Molecular Techniques for HIV and STDs : Implications for Research and Disease Control in the New Millennium.  

PubMed

Molecular techniques have gradually shifted the paradigm in the laboratory diagnosis of sexually transmitted infections from biological to molecular amplification. It is now possible to combine the sensitivity and specificity of culture with all the convenience of nonculture tests, such as ambient specimen transport, automation, and fast turnaround time. Pathogens that cannot be cultivated in vitro, such as the human papillomavirus (HPV), can now be detected and typed to determine if they have oncogenic potential. These powerful tools have improved and will continue to have a significant impact on our ability to design strategies and programs for the control and prevention of sexually transmitted infections worldwide. PMID:21390738

Peeling, R W; Mabey, D C; Holmes, K K

1999-01-01

229

Molecular Techniques for Detection, Species Differentiation, and Phylogenetic Analysis of Microsporidia  

PubMed Central

Microsporidia are obligate intracellular protozoan parasites that infect a broad range of vertebrates and invertebrates. These parasites are now recognized as one of the most common pathogens in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients. For most patients with infectious diseases, microbiological isolation and identification techniques offer the most rapid and specific determination of the etiologic agent. This is not a suitable procedure for microsporidia, which are obligate intracellular parasites requiring cell culture systems for growth. Therefore, the diagnosis of microsporidiosis currently depends on morphological demonstration of the organisms themselves. Although the diagnosis of microsporidiosis and identification of microsporidia by light microscopy have greatly improved during the last few years, species differentiation by these techniques is usually impossible and transmission electron microscopy may be necessary. Immunfluorescent-staining techniques have been developed for species differentiation of microsporidia, but the antibodies used in these procedures are available only at research laboratories at present. During the last 10 years, the detection of infectious disease agents has begun to include the use of nucleic acid-based technologies. Diagnosis of infection caused by parasitic organisms is the last field of clinical microbiology to incorporate these techniques and molecular techniques (e.g., PCR and hybridization assays) have recently been developed for the detection, species differentiation, and phylogenetic analysis of microsporidia. In this paper we review human microsporidial infections and describe and discuss these newly developed molecular techniques. PMID:10194459

Franzen, Caspar; Müller, Andreas

1999-01-01

230

Molecular entomology and prospects for malaria control  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the past decade, the techniques of molecular and cell biology have been embraced by many scientists doing research on anopheline vectors of malaria parasites. Some of the most important research advances in molecular entomology have concerned the development of sophisticated molecular tools for procedures such as genetic and physical mapping and germ line transformation. Major advances have also been

Frank H. Collins; Luna Kamau; Hilary A. Ranson; John M. Vulule

2000-01-01

231

Choroid plexus papillomas: advances in molecular biology and understanding of tumorigenesis  

PubMed Central

Choroid plexus papillomas are rare, benign tumors originating from the choroid plexus. Although generally found within the ventricular system, they can arise ectopically in the brain parenchyma or disseminate throughout the neuraxis. We sought to review recent advances in our understanding of the molecular biology and oncogenic pathways associated with this disease. A comprehensive PubMed literature review was conducted to identify manuscripts discussing the clinical, molecular, and genetic features of choroid plexus papillomas. Articles concerning diagnosis, treatment, and long-term patient outcomes were also reviewed. The introduction of atypical choroid plexus papilloma as a distinct entity has increased the need for accurate histopathologic diagnosis. Advances in immunohistochemical staining have improved our ability to differentiate choroid plexus papillomas from other intracranial tumors or metastatic lesions using combinations of key markers and mitotic indices. Recent findings have implicated Notch3 signaling, the transcription factor TWIST1, platelet-derived growth factor receptor, and the tumor necrosis factor–related apoptosis-inducing ligand pathway in choroid plexus papilloma tumorigenesis. A combination of commonly occurring chromosomal duplications and deletions has also been identified. Surgical resection remains the standard of care, although chemotherapy and radiotherapy may be considered for recurrent or metastatic lesions. While generally considered benign, these tumors possess a complex biology that sheds insight into other choroid plexus tumors, particularly malignant choroid plexus carcinomas. Improving our understanding of the molecular biology, genetics, and oncogenic pathways associated with this tumor will allow for the development of targeted therapies and improved outcomes for patients with this disease. PMID:23172371

Safaee, Michael; Oh, Michael C.; Bloch, Orin; Sun, Matthew Z.; Kaur, Gurvinder; Auguste, Kurtis I.; Tihan, Tarik; Parsa, Andrew T.

2013-01-01

232

Molecular subtype analysis determines the association of advanced breast cancer in Egypt with favorable biology  

PubMed Central

Background Prognostic markers and molecular breast cancer subtypes reflect underlying biological tumor behavior and are important for patient management. Compared to Western countries, women in North Africa are less likely to be prognosticated and treated based on well-characterized markers such as the estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR) and Her2. We conducted this study to determine the prevalence of breast cancer molecular subtypes in the North African country of Egypt as a measure of underlying biological characteristics driving tumor manifestations. Methods To determine molecular subtypes we characterized over 200 tumor specimens obtained from Egypt by performing ER, PR, Her2, CK5/6, EGFR and Ki67 immunohistochemistry. Results Our study demonstrated that the Luminal A subtype, associated with favorable prognosis, was found in nearly 45% of cases examined. However, the basal-like subtype, associated with poor prognosis, was found in 11% of cases. These findings are in sharp contrast to other parts of Africa in which the basal-like subtype is over-represented. Conclusions Egyptians appear to have favorable underlying biology, albeit having advanced disease at diagnosis. These data suggest that Egyptians would largely profit from early detection of their disease. Intervention at the public health level, including education on the benefits of early detection is necessary and would likely have tremendous impact on breast cancer outcome in Egypt. PMID:21961708

2011-01-01

233

Workshop on Magnetotactic Bacteria 9-11 June 2008, Balatonfred, Hungary Advanced electron microscopy techniques for studying  

E-print Network

Workshop on Magnetotactic Bacteria 9-11 June 2008, Balatonfüred, Hungary Advanced electron microscopy techniques for studying magnetosomes in magnetotactic bacteria Rafal E. Dunin-Borkowski1 , Takeshi) in air-dried cells of magnetotactic bacteria. These techniques have provided a wealth of information

Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E.

234

The role of molecular techniques in the understanding of emerging infections.  

PubMed

Emerging infections are defined as infections that are newly identified or recognized, or those whose incidence in humans has significantly increased over the past 20 years. The interaction of several factors contributes to the emergence of infectious disease, including changes in human behavior, technological advances, economic development, increased international travel, microbial adaptation and lapses in public health measures. Biomedical research has allowed us to identify and classify previously uncultured pathogens, characterize microbial virulence factors, create new diagnostic tests and develop vaccines. Here, we highlight a few emerging infections and illustrate the role that molecular medicine has played in furthering our understanding of these diseases. PMID:8796869

Sable, C A; Mandell, G L

1996-03-01

235

New advanced surface modification technique: titanium oxide ceramic surface implants: long-term clinical results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this paper is to discuss the background to advanced surface modification technologies and to present a new technique, involving the formation of a titanium oxide ceramic coating, with relatively long-term results of its clinical utilization. Three general techniques are used to modify surfaces: the addition or removal of material and the change of material already present. Surface properties can also be changed without the addition or removal of material, through the laser or electron beam thermal treatment. The new technique outlined in this paper relates to the production of a corrosion-resistant 2000-2500 A thick, ceramic oxide layer with a coherent crystalline structure on the surface of titanium implants. The layer is grown electrochemically from the bulk of the metal and is modified by heat treatment. Such oxide ceramic-coated implants have a number of advantageous properties relative to implants covered with various other coatings: a higher external hardness, a greater force of adherence between the titanium and the oxide ceramic coating, a virtually perfect insulation between the organism and the metal (no possibility of metal allergy), etc. The coated implants were subjected to various physical, chemical, electronmicroscopic, etc. tests for a qualitative characterization. Finally, these implants (plates, screws for maxillofacial osteosynthesis and dental root implants) were applied in surgical practice for a period of 10 years. Tests and the experience acquired demonstrated the good properties of the titanium oxide ceramic-coated implants.

Szabo, Gyorgy; Kovacs, Lajos; Barabas, Jozsef; Nemeth, Zsolt; Maironna, Carlo

2001-11-01

236

Measurements of the subcriticality using advanced technique of shooting source during operation of NPP reactors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

According to the rules of nuclear safety, the measurements of the subcriticality of reactors should be carried out in the process of performing nuclear hazardous operations. An advanced technique of shooting source of neutrons is proposed to meet this requirement. As such a source, a pulsed neutron source (PNS) is used. In order to realize this technique, it is recommended to enable a PNS with a frequency of 1-20 Hz. The PNS is stopped after achieving a steady-state (on average) number of neutrons in the reactor volume. The change in the number of neutrons in the reactor volume is measured in time with an interval of discreteness of ˜0.1 s. The results of these measurements with the application of a system of point-kinetics equations are used in order to calculate the sought subcriticality. The basic idea of the proposed technique used to measure the subcriticality is elaborated in a series of experiments on the Kvant assembly. The conditions which should be implemented in order to obtain a positive result of measurements are formulated. A block diagram of the basic version of the experimental setup is presented, whose main element is a pulsed neutron generator.

Lebedev, G. V.; Petrov, V. V.; Bobylyov, V. T.; Butov, R. I.; Zhukov, A. M.; Sladkov, A. A.

2014-12-01

237

Nonlinear Raman Techniques in Femtosecond Time Resolved Spectroscopy for the Analysis and Control of Molecular Dynamics  

SciTech Connect

The use of four-wave mixing techniques in femtosecond time-resolved spectroscopy has considerable advantages. Due to the many degrees of freedom offered e.g. by coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS), the dynamics even of complex systems can be analyzed in detail. Using pulse shaping techniques in combination with a self-learning loop approach, molecular mode excitation can be controlled very efficiently in a multi-photon excitation process. Results obtained from the optimal control of CARS on {beta}-carotene are discussed.

Materny, Arnulf; Konradi, Jakow; Namboodiri, Vinu; Namboodiri, Mahesh; Scaria, Abraham [Jacobs University Bremen, School of Science and Engineering Campus Ring 1, 28759 Bremen (Germany)

2008-11-14

238

Combination of various analytical techniques for speciation of low molecular weight aluminium complexes in plant sap  

Microsoft Academic Search

The possibilities for speciation of low molecular weight aluminium organic acid complexes (LMW-Al) in plant sap were investigated\\u000a by applying a combination of various chromatographic and spectroscopic techniques. The behavior of different LMW-Al complexes\\u000a was investigated in synthetic aqueous solutions on anion and cation exchange fast protein liquid chromatography (FPLC) columns\\u000a with inductively coupled plasma – atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES)

Tjaöa Bantan; R. Mila?i?; B. Mitrovi?; Boris Pihlar

1999-01-01

239

Application of Molecular Techniques to the Elucidation of the Microbial Community Structure of Antique Paintings  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper uses molecular techniques to describe the microstructure and microbiological communities of sixteenth century artwork\\u000a and their relationships. The microbiological populations, analysed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), were\\u000a highly influenced by the chemical composition of the pictorial layers detected by energy-dispersive X-ray analysis. DGGE revealed\\u000a that the diversity of microbial communities was lower in pictorial layers composed of

Antonio Santos; Alejandro Cerrada; Silvia García; Margarita San Andrés; Concepción Abrusci; Domingo Marquina

2009-01-01

240

SPECT and PET serve as molecular imaging techniques and in vivo biomarkers for brain metastases.  

PubMed

Nuclear medicine techniques (single photon emission computerized tomography, SPECT, and positron emission tomography, PET) represent molecular imaging tools, able to provide in vivo biomarkers of different diseases. To investigate brain tumours and metastases many different radiopharmaceuticals imaged by SPECT and PET can be used. In this review the main and most promising radiopharmaceuticals available to detect brain metastases are reported. Furthermore the diagnostic contribution of the combination of SPECT and PET data with radiological findings (magnetic resonance imaging, MRI) is discussed. PMID:24897023

Palumbo, Barbara; Buresta, Tommaso; Nuvoli, Susanna; Spanu, Angela; Schillaci, Orazio; Fravolini, Mario Luca; Palumbo, Isabella

2014-01-01

241

SPECT and PET Serve as Molecular Imaging Techniques and in Vivo Biomarkers for Brain Metastases  

PubMed Central

Nuclear medicine techniques (single photon emission computerized tomography, SPECT, and positron emission tomography, PET) represent molecular imaging tools, able to provide in vivo biomarkers of different diseases. To investigate brain tumours and metastases many different radiopharmaceuticals imaged by SPECT and PET can be used. In this review the main and most promising radiopharmaceuticals available to detect brain metastases are reported. Furthermore the diagnostic contribution of the combination of SPECT and PET data with radiological findings (magnetic resonance imaging, MRI) is discussed. PMID:24897023

Palumbo, Barbara; Buresta, Tommaso; Nuvoli, Susanna; Spanu, Angela; Schillaci, Orazio; Fravolini, Mario Luca; Palumbo, Isabella

2014-01-01

242

Advancing the education in molecular diagnostics: the IFCC-Initiative "Clinical Molecular Biology Curriculum" (C-CMBC); a ten-year experience.  

PubMed

Molecular techniques are becoming commonplace in the diagnostic laboratory. Their applications influence all major phases of laboratory medicine including predisposition/genetic risk, primary diagnosis, therapy stratification and prognosis. Readily available laboratory hardware and wetware (i.e. consumables and reagents) foster rapid dissemination to countries that are just establishing molecular testing programs. Appropriate skill levels extending beyond the technical procedure are required for analytical and diagnostic proficiency that is mandatory in molecular genetic testing. An international committee (C-CMBC) of the International Federation for Clinical Chemistry (IFCC) was established to disseminate skills in molecular genetic testing in member countries embarking on the respective techniques. We report the ten-year experience with different teaching and workshop formats for beginners in molecular diagnostics. PMID:24815033

Lianidou, Evi; Ahmad-Nejad, Parviz; Ferreira-Gonzalez, Andrea; Izuhara, Kenji; Cremonesi, Laura; Schroeder, Maria-Eugenia; Richter, Karin; Ferrari, Maurizio; Neumaier, Michael

2014-09-25

243

Advanced Processing Techniques Used for the Development of Dual-Junction Monolithic Interconnected Modules  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Monolithic interconnected modules (MIMs) are large area, high voltage photovoltaic devices, realized through solar cell segments which are series-connected via interconnection trenches during wafer processing. In the presented research MIM technology is combined with the concept of multi-junction solar cells in order to increase efficiency. A lattice-matched and a metamorphic dual-junction (2J-) MIM structure are introduced. Furthermore, photovoltaic area losses due to segment interconnection are reduced due to optimized processing and the usage of advanced processing techniques. As a combined result of the research, a metamorphic 2J-MIM with a maximum efficiency of ? = 26.0% at a concentration of 500 suns is presented.

Helmers, H.; Oliva, E.; Bronner, W.; Dimroth, F.; Bett, A. W.

2010-10-01

244

STAR-LITE (Safe Techniques Advance Research - Laboratory Interactive Training Environment)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The National Institutes of Health, Division of Occupational Health and Safety (DOHS) developed a laboratory safety training program called STAR-LITE (Safe Techniques Advance Research – Laboratory Interactive Training Environment.) STAR-LITE is an interactive computer-based laboratory safety training program for high school students and undergraduate university students. The program incorporates common features seen in today’s video games, i.e., selection of an individualized character; first-person views; and three-dimensional graphics. The method of instruction integrates visualization of consequences, e.g., slips/trips/falls, inhalation of chemical hazards, spills of biohazardous liquids, development of critical-thinking proficiencies, and application of problem-solving skills.

Janus Research Group

245

Advances in functional X-ray imaging techniques and contrast agents  

PubMed Central

X-rays have been used for non-invasive high-resolution imaging of thick biological specimens since their discovery in 1895. They are widely used for structural imaging of bone, metal implants, and cavities in soft tissue. Recently, a number of new contrast methodologies have emerged which are expanding X-ray’s biomedical applications to functional as well as structural imaging. These techniques are promising to dramatically improve our ability to study in situ biochemistry and disease pathology. In this review, we discuss how X-ray absorption, X-ray fluorescence, and X-ray excited optical luminescence can be used for physiological, elemental, and molecular imaging of vasculature, tumours, pharmaceutical distribution, and the surface of implants. Imaging of endogenous elements, exogenous labels, and analytes detected with optical indicators will be discussed. PMID:22962667

Chen, Hongyu; Rogalski, Melissa M.

2012-01-01

246

Advancement of polarizable force field and its use for molecular modeling and design.  

PubMed

The most important requirement of biomolecular modeling is to deal with electrostatic energies. The electrostatic polarizability is an important part of electrostatic interaction for simulation systems. However, AMBER, CHARMM, OPLS, GROMOS, MMFF force fields etc. used in the past mostly apply fixed atomic center point charge to describe electrostatic energies, and are not sufficient for considering the influence of the electrostatic polarization. The emergence of polarizable force fields has solved this problem. In recent years, quickly developed polarizable force fields have involved a lot of fields. The chapter relating to polarizable force fields spread over several aspects. Firstly, we reviewed the history of the classical force fields and compared with polarizable force fields to elucidate the advancements of polarizable force fields. Secondly, it is introduced that the application of polarizable force fields to small molecules and biological macromolecules simulation, including molecular design. Finally, a brief development trend and perspective is given on rapidly growing polarizable force fields. PMID:25387957

Xu, Peijun; Wang, Jinguang; Xu, Yong; Chu, Huiying; Liu, Jiahui; Zhao, Meixia; Zhang, Depeng; Mao, Yingchen; Li, Beibei; Ding, Yang; Li, Guohui

2015-01-01

247

Molecularly targeted therapies for advanced or metastatic non-small-cell lung carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) remains the leading cause of cancer-related death in both men and women in the United States. Platinum-based doublet chemotherapy has been a standard for patients with advanced stage disease. Improvements in overall survival and quality of life have been modest. Improved knowledge of the aberrant molecular signaling pathways found in NSCLC has led to the development of biomarkers with associated targeted therapeutics, thus changing the treatment paradigm for many NSCLC patients. In this review, we present a summary of many of the currently investigated biologic targets in NSCLC, discuss their current clinical trial status, and also discuss the potential for development of other targeted agents. PMID:23696960

Bayraktar, Soley; Rocha-Lima, Caio M

2013-01-01

248

Advancements in sensing and perception using structured lighting techniques :an LDRD final report.  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the analytical and experimental efforts for the Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project entitled ''Advancements in Sensing and Perception using Structured Lighting Techniques''. There is an ever-increasing need for robust, autonomous ground vehicles for counterterrorism and defense missions. Although there has been nearly 30 years of government-sponsored research, it is undisputed that significant advancements in sensing and perception are necessary. We developed an innovative, advanced sensing technology for national security missions serving the Department of Energy, the Department of Defense, and other government agencies. The principal goal of this project was to develop an eye-safe, robust, low-cost, lightweight, 3D structured lighting sensor for use in broad daylight outdoor applications. The market for this technology is wide open due to the unavailability of such a sensor. Currently available laser scanners are slow, bulky and heavy, expensive, fragile, short-range, sensitive to vibration (highly problematic for moving platforms), and unreliable for outdoor use in bright sunlight conditions. Eye-safety issues are a primary concern for currently available laser-based sensors. Passive, stereo-imaging sensors are available for 3D sensing but suffer from several limitations : computationally intensive, require a lighted environment (natural or man-made light source), and don't work for many scenes or regions lacking texture or with ambiguous texture. Our approach leveraged from the advanced capabilities of modern CCD camera technology and Center 6600's expertise in 3D world modeling, mapping, and analysis, using structured lighting. We have a diverse customer base for indoor mapping applications and this research extends our current technology's lifecycle and opens a new market base for outdoor 3D mapping. Applications include precision mapping, autonomous navigation, dexterous manipulation, surveillance and reconnaissance, part inspection, geometric modeling, laser-based 3D volumetric imaging, simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM), aiding first responders, and supporting soldiers with helmet-mounted LADAR for 3D mapping in urban-environment scenarios. The technology developed in this LDRD overcomes the limitations of current laser-based 3D sensors and contributes to the realization of intelligent machine systems reducing manpower need.

Novick, David Keith; Padilla, Denise D.; Davidson, Patrick A. Jr. (.; .); Carlson, Jeffrey J.

2005-09-01

249

Advanced Modeling Techniques to Study Anthropogenic Influences on Atmospheric Chemical Budgets  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This research work is a collaborative effort between research groups at MCNC and the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. The overall objective of this research is to improve the level of understanding of the processes that determine the budgets of chemically and radiatively active compounds in the atmosphere through development and application of advanced methods for calculating the chemical change in atmospheric models. The research performed during the second year of this project focused on four major aspects: (1) The continued development and refinement of multiscale modeling techniques to address the issue of the disparate scales of the physico-chemical processes that govern the fate of atmospheric pollutants; (2) Development and application of analysis methods utilizing process and mass balance techniques to increase the interpretive powers of atmospheric models and to aid in complementary analysis of model predictions and observations; (3) Development of meteorological and emission inputs for initial application of the chemistry/transport model over the north Atlantic region; and, (4) The continued development and implementation of a totally new adaptive chemistry representation that changes the details of what is represented as the underlying conditions change.

Mathur, Rohit

1997-01-01

250

Investigation to advance prediction techniques of the low-speed aerodynamics of V/STOL aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A computer program, VSAERO, has been applied to a number of V/STOL configurations with a view to advancing prediction techniques for the low-speed aerodynamic characteristics. The program couples a low-order panel method with surface streamline calculation and integral boundary layer procedures. The panel method--which uses piecewise constant source and doublet panels-includes an iterative procedure for wake shape and models boundary layer displacement effect using the source transpiration technique. Certain improvements to a basic vortex tube jet model were installed in the code prior to evaluation. Very promising results were obtained for surface pressures near a jet issuing at 90 deg from a flat plate. A solid core model was used in the initial part of the jet with a simple entrainment model. Preliminary representation of the downstream separation zone significantly improve the correlation. The program accurately predicted the pressure distribution inside the inlet on the Grumman 698-411 design at a range of flight conditions. Furthermore, coupled viscous/potential flow calculations gave very close correlation with experimentally determined operational boundaries dictated by the onset of separation inside the inlet. Experimentally observed degradation of these operational boundaries between nacelle-alone tests and tests on the full configuration were also indicated by the calculation. Application of the program to the General Dynamics STOL fighter design were equally encouraging. Very close agreement was observed between experiment and calculation for the effects of power on pressure distribution, lift and lift curve slope.

Maskew, B.; Strash, D.; Nathman, J.; Dvorak, F. A.

1985-01-01

251

Recoil separators for radiative capture using radioactive ion beams. Recent advances and detection techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radiative capture reactions involving the fusion of hydrogen or helium are ubiquitous in the stellar history of the universe, and are some of the most important reactions in the processes that govern nucleosynthesis and energy generation in both static and explosive scenarios. However, radiative capture reactions pose some of the most difficult experimental challenges due to extremely small cross sections. With the advent of recoil separators and techniques in inverse kinematics, it is now possible to measure radiative capture reactions on very short-lived radioactive nuclei, and in the presence of high experimental backgrounds. In this paper we review the experimental needs for making measurements of astrophysical importance on radiative capture reactions. We also review some of the important historical advances in the field of recoil separators as well as describe current techniques and performance milestones, including descriptions of some of the separators most recently working at radioactive ion beam facilities, such as DRAGON at TRIUMF and the DRS at the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility. We will also summarize some of the scientific highlight measurements at the RIB facilities.

Ruiz, Chris; Greife, Uwe; Hager, Ulrike

2014-06-01

252

Comments on advanced, time-resolved imaging techniques for free-electron laser (FEL) experiments  

SciTech Connect

An extensive set of time-resolved imaging experiments has been performed on rf-linac driven free-electron lasers (FELs) over the past few years. These experiments have addressed both micropulse and macropulse timescales on both the charged-particle beam and the wiggler/undulator outputs (spontaneous emission and lasing). A brief review of first measurements on photoinjecter micropulse elongation, submacropulse phase slew in drive lasers, submacropulse wavelength shifts in lasers, etc. is presented. This is followed by discussions of new measurements of 35-MeV electron beam micropulse bunch length (<10 ps) using optical transition radiation, some of the first single bend synchrotron radiation beam profile measurements at gamma <80, and comments on the low-jitter synchroscan streak camera tuner. These techniques will be further developed on the 200-650 MeV linac test stand at the Advanced Photon Source (APS) in the next few years. Such techniques should be adaptable to many of the present FEL designs and to some aspects of the next generation of light sources.

Lumpkin, A.H.

1992-11-01

253

Comments on advanced, time-resolved imaging techniques for free-electron laser (FEL) experiments  

SciTech Connect

An extensive set of time-resolved imaging experiments has been performed on rf-linac driven free-electron lasers (FELs) over the past few years. These experiments have addressed both micropulse and macropulse timescales on both the charged-particle beam and the wiggler/undulator outputs (spontaneous emission and lasing). A brief review of first measurements on photoinjecter micropulse elongation, submacropulse phase slew in drive lasers, submacropulse wavelength shifts in lasers, etc. is presented. This is followed by discussions of new measurements of 35-MeV electron beam micropulse bunch length (<10 ps) using optical transition radiation, some of the first single bend synchrotron radiation beam profile measurements at gamma <80, and comments on the low-jitter synchroscan streak camera tuner. These techniques will be further developed on the 200-650 MeV linac test stand at the Advanced Photon Source (APS) in the next few years. Such techniques should be adaptable to many of the present FEL designs and to some aspects of the next generation of light sources.

Lumpkin, A.H.

1992-01-01

254

Pilot-scale investigation of drinking water ultrafiltration membrane fouling rates using advanced data analysis techniques.  

PubMed

A pilot-scale investigation of the performance of biofiltration as a pre-treatment to ultrafiltration for drinking water treatment was conducted between 2008 and 2010. The objective of this study was to further understand the fouling behaviour of ultrafiltration at pilot scale and assess the utility of different foulant monitoring tools. Various fractions of natural organic matter (NOM) and colloidal/particulate matter of raw water, biofilter effluents, and membrane permeate were characterized by employing two advanced NOM characterization techniques: liquid chromatography - organic carbon detection (LC-OCD) and fluorescence excitation-emission matrices (FEEM) combined with principal component analysis (PCA). A framework of fouling rate quantification and classification was also developed and utilized in this study. In cases such as the present one where raw water quality and therefore fouling potential vary substantially, such classification can be considered essential for proper data interpretation. The individual and combined contributions of various NOM fractions and colloidal/particulate matter to hydraulically reversible and irreversible fouling were investigated using various multivariate statistical analysis techniques. Protein-like substances and biopolymers were identified as major contributors to both reversible and irreversible fouling, whereas colloidal/particulate matter can alleviate the extent of irreversible fouling. Humic-like substances contributed little to either reversible or irreversible fouling at low level fouling rates. The complementary nature of FEEM-PCA and LC-OCD for assessing the fouling potential of complex water matrices was also illustrated by this pilot-scale study. PMID:24188578

Chen, Fei; Peldszus, Sigrid; Peiris, Ramila H; Ruhl, Aki S; Mehrez, Renata; Jekel, Martin; Legge, Raymond L; Huck, Peter M

2014-01-01

255

Advances in Resistive Pulse Sensors: Devices bridging the void between molecular and microscopic detection  

PubMed Central

Since the first reported use of a biological ion channel to detect differences in single stranded genomic base pairs in 1996, a renaissance in nanoscale resistive pulse sensors has ensued. This resurgence of a technique originally outlined and commercialized over fifty years ago has largely been driven by advances in nanoscaled fabrication, and ultimately, the prospect of a rapid and inexpensive means for genomic sequencing as well as other macromolecular characterization. In this pursuit, the potential application of these devices to characterize additional properties such as the size, shape, charge, and concentration of nanoscaled materials (10 – 900 nm) has been largely overlooked. Advances in nanotechnology and biotechnology are driving the need for simple yet sensitive individual object readout devices such as resistive pulse sensors. This review will examine the recent progress in pore-based sensing in the nanoscale range. A detailed analysis of three new types of pore sensors – in-series, parallel, and size-tunable pores – has been included. These pores offer improved measurement sensitivity over a wider particle size range. The fundamental physical chemistry of these techniques, which is still evolving, will be reviewed. PMID:22034585

Kozak, Darby; Anderson, Will; Vogel, Robert; Trau, Matt

2011-01-01

256

The Synergy Between Total Scattering and Advanced Simulation Techniques: Quantifying Geopolymer Gel Evolution  

SciTech Connect

With the ever increasing demands for technologically advanced structural materials, together with emerging environmental consciousness due to climate change, geopolymer cement is fast becoming a viable alternative to traditional cements due to proven mechanical engineering characteristics and the reduction in CO2 emitted (approximately 80% less CO2 emitted compared to ordinary Portland cement). Nevertheless, much remains unknown regarding the kinetics of the molecular changes responsible for nanostructural evolution during the geopolymerization process. Here, in-situ total scattering measurements in the form of X-ray pair distribution function (PDF) analysis are used to quantify the extent of reaction of metakaolin/slag alkali-activated geopolymer binders, including the effects of various activators (alkali hydroxide/silicate) on the kinetics of the geopolymerization reaction. Restricting quantification of the kinetics to the initial ten hours of reaction does not enable elucidation of the true extent of the reaction, but using X-ray PDF data obtained after 128 days of reaction enables more accurate determination of the initial extent of reaction. The synergies between the in-situ X-ray PDF data and simulations conducted by multiscale density functional theory-based coarse-grained Monte Carlo analysis are outlined, particularly with regard to the potential for the X-ray data to provide a time scale for kinetic analysis of the extent of reaction obtained from the multiscale simulation methodology.

White, Claire [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bloomer, Breaunnah E. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Provis, John L. [The University of Melbourne; Henson, Neil J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Page, Katharine L. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-05-16

257

Advanced contrast nanoagents for photoacoustic molecular imaging, cytometry, blood test and photothermal theranostics†  

PubMed Central

Various nanoparticles have raised significant interest over the past decades for their unique physical and optical properties and biological utilities. Here we summarize the vast applications of advanced nanoparticles with a focus on carbon nanotube (CNT)-based or CNT-catalyzed contrast agents for photoacoustic (PA) imaging, cytometry and theranostics applications based on the photothermal (PT) effect. We briefly review the safety and potential toxicity of the PA/PT contrast nanoagents, while showing how the physical properties as well as multiple biological coatings change their toxicity profiles and contrasts. We provide general guidelines needed for the validation of a new molecular imaging agent in living subjects, and exemplify these guidelines with single-walled CNTs targeted to ?v?3, an integrin associated with tumor angiogenesis, and golden carbon nanotubes targeted to LYVE-1, endothelial lymphatic receptors. An extensive review of the potential applications of advanced contrast agents is provided, including imaging of static targets such as tumor angiogenesis receptors, in vivo cytometry of dynamic targets such as circulating tumor cells and nanoparticles in blood, lymph, bones and plants, methods to enhance the PA and PT effects with transient and stationary bubble conjugates, PT/PA Raman imaging and multispectral histology. Finally, theranostic applications are reviewed, including the nanophotothermolysis of individual tumor cells and bacteria with clustered nanoparticles, nanothrombolysis of blood clots, detection and purging metastasis in sentinel lymph nodes, spectral hole burning and multiplex therapy with ultrasharp rainbow nanoparticles. PMID:22025336

de la Zerda, Adam; Kim, Jin-Woo; Galanzha, Ekaterina I.; Gambhir, Sanjiv S.; Zharov, Vladimir P.

2013-01-01

258

Advanced contrast nanoagents for photoacoustic molecular imaging, cytometry, blood test and photothermal theranostics.  

PubMed

Various nanoparticles have raised significant interest over the past decades for their unique physical and optical properties and biological utilities. Here we summarize the vast applications of advanced nanoparticles with a focus on carbon nanotube (CNT)-based or CNT-catalyzed contrast agents for photoacoustic (PA) imaging, cytometry and theranostics applications based on the photothermal (PT) effect. We briefly review the safety and potential toxicity of the PA/PT contrast nanoagents, while showing how the physical properties as well as multiple biological coatings change their toxicity profiles and contrasts. We provide general guidelines needed for the validation of a new molecular imaging agent in living subjects, and exemplify these guidelines with single-walled CNTs targeted to ?(v) ?(3) , an integrin associated with tumor angiogenesis, and golden carbon nanotubes targeted to LYVE-1, endothelial lymphatic receptors. An extensive review of the potential applications of advanced contrast agents is provided, including imaging of static targets such as tumor angiogenesis receptors, in vivo cytometry of dynamic targets such as circulating tumor cells and nanoparticles in blood, lymph, bones and plants, methods to enhance the PA and PT effects with transient and stationary bubble conjugates, PT/PA Raman imaging and multispectral histology. Finally, theranostic applications are reviewed, including the nanophotothermolysis of individual tumor cells and bacteria with clustered nanoparticles, nanothrombolysis of blood clots, detection and purging metastasis in sentinel lymph nodes, spectral hole burning and multiplex therapy with ultrasharp rainbow nanoparticles. PMID:22025336

de la Zerda, Adam; Kim, Jin-Woo; Galanzha, Ekaterina I; Gambhir, Sanjiv S; Zharov, Vladimir P

2011-01-01

259

EPS in Environmental Microbial Biofilms as Examined by Advanced Imaging Techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biofilm communities are highly structured associations of cellular and polymeric components which are involved in biogenic and geogenic environmental processes. Furthermore, biofilms are also important in medical (infection), industrial (biofouling) and technological (biofilm engineering) processes. The interfacial microbial communities in a specific habitat are highly dynamic and change according to the environmental parameters affecting not only the cellular but also the polymeric constituents of the system. Through their EPS biofilms interact with dissolved, colloidal and particulate compounds from the bulk water phase. For a long time the focus in biofilm research was on the cellular constituents in biofilms and the polymer matrix in biofilms has been rather neglected. The polymer matrix is produced not only by different bacteria and archaea but also by eukaryotic micro-organisms such as algae and fungi. The mostly unidentified mixture of EPS compounds is responsible for many biofilm properties and is involved in biofilm functionality. The chemistry of the EPS matrix represents a mixture of polymers including polysaccharides, proteins, nucleic acids, neutral polymers, charged polymers, amphiphilic polymers and refractory microbial polymers. The analysis of the EPS may be done destructively by means of extraction and subsequent chemical analysis or in situ by means of specific probes in combination with advanced imaging. In the last 15 years laser scanning microscopy (LSM) has been established as an indispensable technique for studying microbial communities. LSM with 1-photon and 2-photon excitation in combination with fluorescence techniques allows 3-dimensional investigation of fully hydrated, living biofilm systems. This approach is able to reveal data on biofilm structural features as well as biofilm processes and interactions. The fluorescent probes available allow the quantitative assessment of cellular as well as polymer distribution. For this purpose lectin-binding- analysis has been suggested as a suitable approach to image glycoconjugates within the polymer matrix of biofilm communities. More recently synchrotron radiation is increasingly recognized as a powerful tool for studying biological samples. Hard X-ray excitation can be used to map elemental composition whereas IR imaging allows examination of biological macromolecules. A further technique called soft X-ray scanning transmission microscopy (STXM) has the advantage of both techniques and may be employed to detect elements as well as biomolecules. Using the appropriate spectra, near edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) microscopy allows quantitative chemical mapping at 50 nm resolution. In this presentation the applicability of LSM and STXM will be demonstrated using several examples of different environmental biofilm systems. The techniques in combination provide a new view of complex microbial communities and their interaction with the environment. These advanced imaging techniques offer the possibility to study the spatial structure of cellular and polymeric compounds in biofilms as well as biofilm microhabitats, biofilm functionality and biofilm processes.

Neu, T. R.; Lawrence, J. R.

2006-12-01

260

BLAP-Tags, TUBEs and DUB-Chips: Combined Novel Technologies will Advance Molecular Epithelial Physiology  

PubMed Central

The field of ubiquitylation and deubiquitylation of proteins in molecular physiology is growing at a rapid rate. Our understanding of molecular physiology of these processes may become limited by the advancement of technologies that scientists can employ. Therefore, it is important to approach physiological questions of ubiquitylation and deubiquitylation of proteins from a multiple methodological direction. Indeed, the role of ubiquitylation and deubiquitylation of proteins in cellular function has been implicated in the pathophysiology of human diseases including cancer, viral diseases, and neurodegenerative disorders. There are many modulators (activators and inhibitors) of ubiquitylation and deubiquitylation. Therefore, the link is being able to rapidly assess potential modulators of ubiquitylation and deubiquitylation and determine which specific modulators play a role(s) within a particular physiological setting. After the specific modulators have been identified, further experimentation is required to assess the downstream use as potential clinical targets for a particular disease. The first step is to identify the specific modulators. This perspective highlights a multi-prong technologies approach that uses three novel technologies (BLAP-tagged proteins, TUBES, and DUB-Chips) that can rapidly identify a number of potential candidates that modulate ubiquitylation and deubiquitylation of cellular proteins. PMID:22615701

Hamilton, Kirk L.

2012-01-01

261

Diagnostic procedures in tularaemia with special focus on molecular and immunological techniques.  

PubMed

Tularaemia is a severe bacterial zoonosis caused by the highly infectious agent Francisella tularensis. It is endemic in countries of the northern hemisphere ranging from North America to Europe, Asia and Japan. Very recently, Francisella-like strains causing disease in humans were described from tropical northern Australia. In the last decade, efforts have been made to develop sensitive and specific immunological and molecular techniques for the laboratory diagnosis of tularaemia and also for the definite identification of members of the species F. tularensis and its four subspecies. Screening for the keyword 'Francisella' a Medline search over the last decade was performed and articles describing diagnostic methods for tularaemia and its causative agent were selected. Besides classical microbiological techniques (cultivation, biochemical profiling, susceptibility testing) several new immunological and molecular approaches to identify F. tularensis have been introduced employing highly specific antibodies and various polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based methods. Whereas direct antigen detection by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) or immunofluorescence might allow early presumptive diagnosis of tularaemia, these methods--like all PCR techniques--still await further evaluation. Therefore, diagnosis of tularaemia still relies mainly on the demonstration of specific antibodies in the host. ELISA and immunoblot methods started to replace the standard tube or micro-agglutination assays. However, the diagnostic value of antibody detection in the very early clinical phase of tularaemia is limited. Francisella tularensis is regarded as a 'highest priority' biological agent (category 'A' according to the CDC, Atlanta, GA, USA), thus rapid and reliable diagnosis of tularaemia is required not only for a timely onset of therapy, the handling of outbreak investigations but also for the surveillance of endemic foci. Only very recently, evaluated test kits for serological diagnosis of human tularaemia became available, while the introduction of standardized molecular techniques for detection and typing is still missing. PMID:16219088

Splettstoesser, W D; Tomaso, H; Al Dahouk, S; Neubauer, H; Schuff-Werner, P

2005-08-01

262

PREFACE: 15th International Workshop on Advanced Computing and Analysis Techniques in Physics Research (ACAT2013)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series is dedicated to scientific contributions presented at the 15th International Workshop on Advanced Computing and Analysis Techniques in Physics Research (ACAT 2013) which took place on 16-21 May 2013 at the Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China. The workshop series brings together computer science researchers and practitioners, and researchers from particle physics and related fields to explore and confront the boundaries of computing and of automatic data analysis and theoretical calculation techniques. This year's edition of the workshop brought together over 120 participants from all over the world. 18 invited speakers presented key topics on the universe in computer, Computing in Earth Sciences, multivariate data analysis, automated computation in Quantum Field Theory as well as computing and data analysis challenges in many fields. Over 70 other talks and posters presented state-of-the-art developments in the areas of the workshop's three tracks: Computing Technologies, Data Analysis Algorithms and Tools, and Computational Techniques in Theoretical Physics. The round table discussions on open-source, knowledge sharing and scientific collaboration stimulate us to think over the issue in the respective areas. ACAT 2013 was generously sponsored by the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), National Natural Science Foundation of China (NFSC), Brookhaven National Laboratory in the USA (BNL), Peking University (PKU), Theoretical Physics Cernter for Science facilities of CAS (TPCSF-CAS) and Sugon. We would like to thank all the participants for their scientific contributions and for the en- thusiastic participation in all its activities of the workshop. Further information on ACAT 2013 can be found at http://acat2013.ihep.ac.cn. Professor Jianxiong Wang Institute of High Energy Physics Chinese Academy of Science Details of committees and sponsors are available in the PDF

Wang, Jianxiong

2014-06-01

263

Tracking down sulphate-reducing microorganisms by molecular and isotope-labelling techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sulphate-reducing microorganisms (SRM) are of great ecological importance for carbon compound degradation and sulphur cycling in many anoxic ecosystems, including marine sediments, peatlands, and oil reservoirs. However, the activity of SRM can result in oil souring and pipeline corrosion and thus is also an economic burden for the oil industry. Molecular diversity surveys based on rRNA genes and dsrAB, genes that encode major subunits of the dissimilatory sulfite reductase, indicate that our view of the natural diversity of SRM (as we know it from cultivation) is far from being complete. This enormous phylogenetic diversity complicates unbiased identification and quantification of SRM by molecular methods such as fluorescence in situ hybridization, real-time PCR or DNA microarrays. Combining these 16S rRNA and dsrAB-based molecular methods with substrate-mediated isotope labelling techniques is a potential solution for identification and functional characterization of yet uncultivated SRM. Using SRM in peatlands as an example, the problems and opportunities of these techniques for diagnosing and monitoring SRM in the environment will be discussed in this talk.

Loy, Alexander

2010-05-01

264

Genetics of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: advances and pitfalls in molecular diagnosis and therapy  

PubMed Central

Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is a primary disease of the cardiac muscle that occurs mainly due to mutations (>1,400 variants) in genes encoding for the cardiac sarcomere. HCM, the most common familial form of cardiomyopathy, affecting one in every 500 people in the general population, is typically inherited in an autosomal dominant pattern, and presents variable expressivity and age-related penetrance. Due to the morphological and pathological heterogeneity of the disease, the appearance and progression of symptoms is not straightforward. Most HCM patients are asymptomatic, but up to 25% develop significant symptoms, including chest pain and sudden cardiac death. Sudden cardiac death is a dramatic event, since it occurs without warning and mainly in younger people, including trained athletes. Molecular diagnosis of HCM is of the outmost importance, since it may allow detection of subjects carrying mutations on HCM-associated genes before development of clinical symptoms of HCM. However, due to the genetic heterogeneity of HCM, molecular diagnosis is difficult. Currently, there are mainly four techniques used for molecular diagnosis of HCM, including Sanger sequencing, high resolution melting, mutation detection using DNA arrays, and next-generation sequencing techniques. Application of these methods has proven successful for identification of mutations on HCM-related genes. This review summarizes the features of these technologies, highlighting their strengths and weaknesses. Furthermore, current therapeutics for HCM patients are correlated with clinically observed phenotypes and are based on the alleviation of symptoms. This is mainly due to insufficient knowledge on the mechanisms involved in the onset of HCM. Tissue engineering alongside regenerative medicine coupled with nanotherapeutics may allow fulfillment of those gaps, together with screening of novel therapeutic drugs and target delivery systems. PMID:25328416

Roma-Rodrigues, Catarina; Fernandes, Alexandra R

2014-01-01

265

Mass spectrometric techniques for characterizing low-molecular-weight resins used as paint varnishes.  

PubMed

The molecular structure of three low-molecular-weight resins used as paint varnishes has been characterized by use of an approach based on three different mass spectrometric techniques. We investigated the ketone resin MS2A, the aldehyde resin Laropal A81, and the hydrocarbon resin Regalrez 1094, now commonly used in restoration. To date, the molecular structures of these resins have not been completely elucidated. To improve current knowledge of the chemical composition of these materials, information obtained by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS), pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (Py/GC/MS), and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-Q-ToF) was combined. Analysis, in solution, of the whole polymeric fraction of the resins by flow-injection ESI-Q-ToF, and of the non-polymeric fraction by GC-MS, enabled us to identify previously unreported features of the polymer structures. In addition, the Py-GC/MS profiles that we obtained will help to enhance the databases currently available in the literature. The proposed approach can be extended to other low-molecular-weight resins used as varnishes in conservation. PMID:23151653

Bonaduce, I; Colombini, M P; Degano, I; Di Girolamo, F; La Nasa, J; Modugno, F; Orsini, S

2013-01-01

266

Technique for Elimination of Excited States from Atomic and Molecular Ion Beams  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fundamental interactions of atomic and molecular ions with electrons, neutral atoms and molecules, surfaces, and photons play major roles in many important plasma and chemical environments. Achieving a detailed understanding of these interactions is often complicated by the presence of uncharacterized populations of electronic or vibrational excited states, especially in making direct comparisons with theoretical predictions problematic. We are developing experimental techniques for reducing or eliminating ion source-generated excited states in atomic and molecular ion beams using a gas-filled RF quadrupole (RFQ) ion cooler, through natural radiative cooling during ion transit, and by preferential quenching in charge transfer collisions with selected buffer gases. Technical details and progress toward these goals will be presented. Research sponsored by the Laboratory Directed Research and Development Program of Oak Ridge National Laboratory, managed by UT-Battelle, LLC, for the U. S. Department of Energy.

Vane, C. R.; Bannister, M. E.; Havener, C. C.; Liu, Yuan

2012-06-01

267

Strategies for improved accuracy and efficiency with advanced intensity modulated radiation therapy techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development of advanced intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) techniques has led to significant improvements in our ability to treat complicated target volumes with minimal collateral damage to the surrounding healthy tissue. These techniques however, come at the cost of increased complexity; which translates into increased sensitivity of the optimized treatment plans to inaccuracies in the planning and delivery processes, and can also result in longer treatment times. The aim of this work is investigate various strategies designed to improve the accuracy and efficiency of two advanced forms of IMRT: helical tomotherapy and intensity modulated proton therapy (IMPT). Helical tomotherapy is form of X-ray IMRT that uses a compact linear accelerator mounted on a CT ring gantry to rotationally deliver intensity modulated fan-beams of radiation to a patient for treatment. Failure to select judicious values for certain planning parameters can result in plans with long treatment times that are difficult for the machine to accurately deliver. This situation was observed for a series of patients scheduled for treatment at the University of Wisconsin. Treatment planning methods designed to avoid these difficulties have been investigated and are discussed. While the vast majority of IMRT treatments are performed using mega-voltage X-rays, there has recently been a great deal of interest in the use of IMPT for a variety of clinical indications. Current methods of IMPT are limited in their applicability however, due to restrictions imposed by the current delivery paradigm. An alternative method for IMPT delivery using a fan-beam geometry has been examined. Another challenge with IMPT pertains to the accuracy of proton dose calculations in the presence of complex tissue heterogeneities. Monte Carlo methods provide the most accurate means of dose calculation; however, the computational requirements of current radiation transport codes makes Monte Carlo methods unsuitable for routine treatment planning. As an alternative, analytical pencil beam algorithms are used to calculate dose. For this work, an analytical proton dose calculator was developed. Two heterogeneity correction schemes have been incorporated into the algorithm and the accuracy of these methods compared with Monte Carlo is examined in a variety of heterogeneous phantom geometries.

Westerly, David C.

2009-11-01

268

75 FR 81643 - In the Matter of Certain Semiconductor Products Made by Advanced Lithography Techniques and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...337-TA-729] In the Matter of Certain Semiconductor Products Made by Advanced Lithography...States after importation of certain semiconductor products made by advanced lithography...complaint named two respondents: Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing, Co., Ltd....

2010-12-28

269

Advanced real-time dynamic scene generation techniques for improved performance and fidelity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent advances in real-time synthetic scene generation for Hardware-in-the-loop (HWIL) testing at the U.S. Army Aviation and Missile Command (AMCOM) Aviation and Missile Research, Development, and Engineering Center (AMRDEC) improve both performance and fidelity. Modeling ground target scenarios requires tradeoffs because of limited texture memory for imagery and limited main memory for elevation data. High- resolution insets have been used in the past to provide better fidelity in specific areas, such as in the neighborhood of a target. Improvements for ground scenarios include smooth transitions for high-resolution insets to reduce high spatial frequency artifacts at the borders of the inset regions and dynamic terrain paging to support large area databases. Transport lag through the scene generation system, including sensor emulation and interface components, has been dealt with in the past through the use of sub-window extraction from oversize scenes. This compensates for spatial effects of transport lag but not temporal effects. A new system has been developed and used successfully to compensate for a flashing coded beacon in the scene. Other techniques have been developed to synchronize the scene generator with the seeker under test (SUT) and to model atmospheric effects, sensor optic and electronics, and angular emissivity attenuation.

Bowden, Mark H.; Buford, James A.; Mayhall, Anthony J.

2000-07-01

270

Classification of human colonic tissues using FTIR spectra and advanced statistical techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the major public health hazards is colon cancer. There is a great necessity to develop new methods for early detection of cancer. If colon cancer is detected and treated early, cure rate of more than 90% can be achieved. In this study we used FTIR microscopy (MSP), which has shown a good potential in the last 20 years in the fields of medical diagnostic and early detection of abnormal tissues. Large database of FTIR microscopic spectra was acquired from 230 human colonic biopsies. Five different subgroups were included in our database, normal and cancer tissues as well as three stages of benign colonic polyps, namely, mild, moderate and severe polyps which are precursors of carcinoma. In this study we applied advanced mathematical and statistical techniques including principal component analysis (PCA) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA), on human colonic FTIR spectra in order to differentiate among the mentioned subgroups' tissues. Good classification accuracy between normal, polyps and cancer groups was achieved with approximately 85% success rate. Our results showed that there is a great potential of developing FTIR-micro spectroscopy as a simple, reagent-free viable tool for early detection of colon cancer in particular the early stages of premalignancy among the benign colonic polyps.

Zwielly, A.; Argov, S.; Salman, A.; Bogomolny, E.; Mordechai, S.

2010-04-01

271

Gender identification of Grasshopper Sparrows comparing behavioral, morphological, and molecular techniques  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Correct gender identification in monomorphic species is often difficult especially if males and females do not display obvious behavioral and breeding differences. We compared gender specific morphology and behavior with recently developed DNA techniques for gender identification in the monomorphic Grasshopper Sparrow (Ammodramus savannarum). Gender was ascertained with DNA in 213 individuals using the 2550F/2718R primer set and 3% agarose gel electrophoresis. Field observations using behavior and breeding characteristics to identify gender matched DNA analyses with 100% accuracy for adult males and females. Gender was identified with DNA for all captured juveniles that did not display gender specific traits or behaviors in the field. The molecular techniques used offered a high level of accuracy and may be useful in studies of dispersal mechanisms and winter assemblage composition in monomorphic species.

Ammer, F.K.; Wood, P.B.; McPherson, R.J.

2008-01-01

272

Advanced Digital Image Processing Technique for the samples processed in microgravity environment Maneel Bharadwaj, University of Idaho, SURF 2009 Fellow  

E-print Network

Advanced Digital Image Processing Technique for the samples processed in microgravity environment. The objective of this project is to understand the effect of microgravity on various quantitative measurements were liquid phase sintered at 1500o C in a microgravity environment of NASA's space shuttle Columbia

Li, Mo

273

APPLICATION OF ADVANCED IN VITRO TECHNIQUES TO MEASURE, UNDERSTAND AND PREDICT THE KINETICS AND MECHANISMS OF XENOBIOTIC METABOLISM  

EPA Science Inventory

We have developed a research program in metabolism that involves numerous collaborators across EPA as well as other federal and academic labs. A primary goal is to develop and apply advanced in vitro techniques to measure, understand and predict the kinetics and mechanisms of xen...

274

Strategic steps for advanced molecular imaging with magnetic resonance-based diagnostic modalities.  

PubMed

With the rapidly-expanding sophistication in our understanding of cancer cell biology, molecular imaging offers a critical bridge to oncology. Molecular imaging through magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) can provide information about many metabolites at the same time. Since MRS entails no ionizing radiation, repeated monitoring, including screening can be performed. However, MRS via the fast Fourier transform (FFT) has poor resolution and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). Moreover, subjective and non-unique (ambiguous) fittings of FFT spectra cannot provide reliable quantification of clinical usefulness. In sharp contrast, objective and unique (unambiguous) signal processing by the fast Padé transform (FPT) can increase resolution and retrieve the true quantitative metabolic information. To illustrate, we apply the FPT to in vitro MRS data as encoded from malignant ovarian cyst fluid and perform detailed analysis. This problem area is particularly in need of timely diagnostics by more advanced modalities, such as high-resolution MRS, since conventional methods usually detect ovarian cancers at late stages with poor prognosis, whereas at an early stage the prognosis is excellent. The reliability and robustness of the FPT is assessed for time signals contaminated with varying noise levels. In the presence of higher background noise, all physical metabolites were unequivocally identified and their concentrations precisely extracted, using small fractions of the total signal length. Via the "signal-noise separation" concept alongside the "stability test", all non-physical information was binned, such that fully denoised spectra were generated. These results imply that a reformulation of data acquisition is needed, as guided by the FPT in MRS, since a small number of short transient time signals can provide high resolution and good SNR. This would enhance the diagnostic accuracy of MRS and shorten examination times, thereby improving efficiency and cost-effectiveness of this high throughput cancer diagnostic modality. Such advantages could be particularly important for more effective ovarian cancer detection, as well as more broadly for improved diagnostics and treatment within oncology. PMID:24354757

Belkic, Dž; Belkic, K

2015-02-01

275

Recent applications of boxed molecular dynamics: a simple multiscale technique for atomistic simulations  

PubMed Central

In this paper, we briefly review the boxed molecular dynamics (BXD) method which allows analysis of thermodynamics and kinetics in complicated molecular systems. BXD is a multiscale technique, in which thermodynamics and long-time dynamics are recovered from a set of short-time simulations. In this paper, we review previous applications of BXD to peptide cyclization, solution phase organic reaction dynamics and desorption of ions from self-assembled monolayers (SAMs). We also report preliminary results of simulations of diamond etching mechanisms and protein unfolding in atomic force microscopy experiments. The latter demonstrate a correlation between the protein's structural motifs and its potential of mean force. Simulations of these processes by standard molecular dynamics (MD) is typically not possible, because the experimental time scales are very long. However, BXD yields well-converged and physically meaningful results. Compared with other methods of accelerated MD, our BXD approach is very simple; it is easy to implement, and it provides an integrated approach for simultaneously obtaining both thermodynamics and kinetics. It also provides a strategy for obtaining statistically meaningful dynamical results in regions of configuration space that standard MD approaches would visit only very rarely. PMID:24982247

Booth, Jonathan; Vazquez, Saulo; Martinez-Nunez, Emilio; Marks, Alison; Rodgers, Jeff; Glowacki, David R.; Shalashilin, Dmitrii V.

2014-01-01

276

An intensive hands-on course designed to teach molecular biology techniques to physiology graduate students.  

PubMed

To address a growing need to make research trainees in physiology comfortable with the tools of molecular biology, we have developed a laboratory-intensive course designed for graduate students. This course is offered to a small group of students over a three-week period and is organized such that comprehensive background lectures are coupled with extensive hands-on experience. The course is divided into seven modules, each organized by a faculty member who has particular expertise in the area covered by that module. The modules focus on basic methods such as cDNA subcloning, sequencing, gene transfer, polymerase chain reaction, and protein and RNA expression analysis. Each module begins with a lecture that introduces the technique in detail by providing a historical perspective, describing both the uses and limitations of that technique, and comparing the method with others that yield similar information. Most of the lectures are followed by a laboratory session during which students follow protocols that were carefully designed to avoid pitfalls. Throughout these laboratory sessions, students are given an appreciation of the importance of proper technique and accuracy. Communication among the students, faculty, and the assistant coordinator is focused on when and why each procedure would be used, the importance of each step in the procedure, and approaches to troubleshooting. The course ends with an exam that is designed to test the students' general understanding of each module and their ability to apply the various techniques to physiological questions. PMID:11850327

Weston, Andrea D; Stasko, Sasha; Kidder, Gerald M

2002-12-01

277

An efficient and accurate molecular alignment and docking technique using ab initio quality scoring  

PubMed Central

An accurate and efficient molecular alignment technique is presented based on first principle electronic structure calculations. This new scheme maximizes quantum similarity matrices in the relative orientation of the molecules and uses Fourier transform techniques for two purposes. First, building up the numerical representation of true ab initio electronic densities and their Coulomb potentials is accelerated by the previously described Fourier transform Coulomb method. Second, the Fourier convolution technique is applied for accelerating optimizations in the translational coordinates. In order to avoid any interpolation error, the necessary analytical formulas are derived for the transformation of the ab initio wavefunctions in rotational coordinates. The results of our first implementation for a small test set are analyzed in detail and compared with published results of the literature. A new way of refinement of existing shape based alignments is also proposed by using Fourier convolutions of ab initio or other approximate electron densities. This new alignment technique is generally applicable for overlap, Coulomb, kinetic energy, etc., quantum similarity measures and can be extended to a genuine docking solution with ab initio scoring. PMID:18624561

Füsti-Molnár, László; Merz, Kenneth M.

2008-01-01

278

An Intensive Hands-on Course Designed to Teach Molecular Biology Techniques to Physiology Graduate Students  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

To address a growing need to make research trainees in physiology comfortable with the tools of molecular biology, we have developed a laboratory-intensive course designed for graduate students. This course is offered to a small group of students over a three-week period and is organized such that comprehensive background lectures are coupled with extensive hands-on experience. The course is divided into seven modules, each organized by a faculty member who has particular expertise in the area covered by that module. The modules focus on basic methods such as cDNA subcloning, sequencing, gene transfer, polymerase chain reaction, and protein and RNA expression analysis. Each module begins with a lecture that introduces the technique in detail by providing a historical perspective, describing both the uses and limitations of that technique, and comparing the method with others that yield similar information. Most of the lectures are followed by a laboratory session during which students follow protocols that were carefully designed to avoid pitfalls. Throughout these laboratory sessions, students are given an appreciation of the importance of proper technique and accuracy. Communication among the students, faculty, and the assistant coordinator is focused on when and why each procedure would be used, the importance of each step in the procedure, and approaches to troubleshooting. The course ends with an exam that is designed to test the studentsÂ? general understanding of each module and their ability to apply the various techniques to physiological questions.

Dr. Andrea D. Weston (University of Western Ontario Department of Physiology)

2002-03-01

279

Inherited pancreatic endocrine tumor syndromes: advances in molecular pathogenesis, diagnosis, management and controversies  

PubMed Central

Pancreatic endocrine tumors (PETs) can occur in as part of four inherited disorders including: Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia type 1 (MEN1), von Hippel-Lindau disease (VHL), neurofibromatosis 1(NF-1) [von Recklinghausen’s disease] and the tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC). The relative frequency with which patients with these disorders develop PETs is MEN1>VHL>NF-1>TSC. Over the last few years there have been major advances in the understanding of the genetics and molecular pathogenesis of these disorders as well in the localization, medical and surgical treatment of the PETs in these patients. The study of the PETs in these disorders has not only provided insights into the possible pathogenesis of sporadic PETs, but have also presented a number of unique management and treatment issues, some of which are applicable to patients with sporadic PETs. Therefore the study of PETs in these uncommon disorders has provided valuable insights that in many cases are applicable to the general group of patients with sporadic PETs. In this article these areas are briefly reviewed as well as the current state of knowledge of the PETs in these disorders and the controversies that exist in their management are briefly summarized and discussed. PMID:18798544

Jensen, Robert T.; Berna, Marc J.; Bingham, David B; Norton, Jeffrey A.

2008-01-01

280

Molecular Advances Leading to Treatment Implications for Fragile X Premutation Carriers  

PubMed Central

Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is the most common single gene cause of intellectual disability and it is characterized by a CGG expansion of more than 200 repeats in the FMR1 gene, leading to methylation of the promoter and gene silencing. The fragile X premutation, characterized by a 55 to 200 CGG repeat expansion, causes health problems and developmental difficulties in some, but not all, carriers. The premutation causes primary ovarian insufficiency in approximately 20% of females, psychiatric problems (including depression and/or anxiety) in approximately 50% of carriers and a neurodegenerative disorder, the fragile X-associated tremor ataxia syndrome (FXTAS), in approximately 40% of males and 16% of females later in life. Recent clinical studies in premutation carriers have expanded the health problems that may be seen. Advances in the molecular pathogenesis of the premutation have shown significant mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress in neurons which may be amenable to treatment. Here we review the clinical problems of carriers and treatment recommendations. PMID:25436181

Polussa, Jonathan; Schneider, Andrea; Hagerman, Randi

2014-01-01

281

Recent advances in understanding endometrial receptivity: molecular basis and clinical applications.  

PubMed

Advancement in the field of ART has lead to the possibility of achieving good quality embryos. However, the success rate in ART needs further improvement. This is largely dependent on identifying the receptive endometrium for the successful implantation of embryos as well as modulating the endometrium to the receptive stage. In the last half-a-decade, focus has been shifting toward identifying the receptive endometrium. Here, we summarize different tools explored to identify receptive endometrium from the literature, mainly focusing on the past decade, with the help of PubMed. The quest to identify endometrial receptivity markers has lead to the exploration of morphological features at micro and macro scale levels. A large number of studies at molecular levels have focused on genomic, proteomic and lipidomic targets. Recent development of endometrial receptivity array is a promising diagnostic instrument. However, a noninvasive possibility for the diagnosis of endometrial receptivity would be an ideal tool, which could be used in the clinic to improve the success rate of ART. Improved knowledge on endometrial receptivity will not only help to improve the diagnosis and treatment of infertility but will also give possibilities to develop new contraceptive methods targeting the endometrium. PMID:24635108

von Grothusen, Carolina; Lalitkumar, Sujata; Boggavarapu, Nageswara Rao; Gemzell-Danielsson, Kristina; Lalitkumar, Parameswaran G

2014-08-01

282

Molecular typing techniques to characterize the development of a lactic acid bacteria community on vacuum-packaged beef  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of a community of lactic acid bacteria from vacuum-packaged beef was investigated during a 6-week storage trial at 2 °C. The lactic acid bacteria population was monitored by using molecular techniques to identify a random sample of isolates at biweekly intervals during the storage trial. The polymerase chain reaction and a randomly amplified polymorphic DNA technique were used

Chris K Yost; Frances M Nattress

2002-01-01

283

A Research Project-Based and Self-Determined Teaching System of Molecular Biology Techniques for Undergraduates  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Molecular biology techniques play a very important role in understanding the biological activity. Students who major in biology should know not only how to perform experiments, but also the reasons for performing them. Having the concept of conducting research by integrating various techniques is especially important. This paper introduces a…

Zhang, Shuping

2008-01-01

284

Landslide detection and long-term monitoring in urban area by means of advanced interferometric techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work aims at illustrating the potential of advanced interferometric techniques for detection and long-term monitoring of landslide ground deformations at local scale. Space-born InSAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry) has been successfully exploited in recent years to measure ground deformations associated to processes with slow kinematics, such as landslides, tectonic motions, subsidence or volcanic activity, thanks to both the standard single-interferogram approach (centimeter accuracy) and advanced time-series analyses of long temporal radar satellite data stacks (millimeter accuracy), such as Persistent Scatterers Interferometry (PSI) techniques. In order to get a complete overview and an in-depth knowledge of an investigated landslide, InSAR satellite measures can support conventional in situ data. This methodology allows studying the spatial pattern and the temporal evolution of ground deformations, improving the spatial coverage and overcoming issues related to installation of ground-based instrumentation and data acquisition in unstable areas. Here we describe the application of the above-mentioned methodology on the test area of Agrigento, Sicily (Italy), affected by hydrogeological risk. The town is located in Southern Sicily, at edge of the Apennine-Maghrebian thrust belt, on the Plio-Pleistocene and Miocene sediments of the Gela Nappe. Ground instabilities affect the urban area and involve the infrastructures of its NW side, such as the Cathedral, the Seminary and many private buildings. An integration between InSAR analyses and conventional field investigations (e.g. structural damages and fractures surveys) was therefore carried out, to support Regional Civil Protection authorities for emergency management and risk mitigation. The results of InSAR analysis highlighted a general stability of the whole urban area between 1992 and 2007. However, very high deformation rates (up to 10-12 mm/y) were identified in 1992-2000 in the W slope of the town, within the crown and the main scarp area of the Addolorata landslide (occurred in July 1966), and thus was highlighted that the phenomenon was still active. The time-series analysis performed in the NW area of the town, also allowed measuring acceleration (up to 13 mm/y) of the deformation rates near the main Cathedral, starting from August 2006 and persisting until the end of the monitoring period (2007). The new information about the state of activity of these landslides were discussed with the Civil Protection authorities to plan further field investigations and structural surveys to be carried out in the areas at higher risk. The analysis on Agrigento confirmed the capabilities of this integrated approach for detection of ground deformations, long-term monitoring of landslides and, finally, management and mitigation of hydrogeological risk in urban area at local scale.

Cigna, Francesca; Del Ventisette, Chiara; Liguori, Vincenzo; Casagli, Nicola

2010-05-01

285

MicroRNA changes in advanced radiotherapy techniques and its effect to secondary cancers.  

PubMed

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a kind of RNA, produced copies of endogenous hairpin-shaped, are 21-25 nucleotide length, small, and single chain. Recent studies have revealed that hundreds of miRNAs are found in the human genome and are responsible for diverse cellular processes including the control of developmental timing, cell proliferation, apoptosis and tumorigenesis. miRNAs can activate the initiation of apoptosis, cessation of the cell cycle and aging in case of DNA damage by stimulating the tumor suppressor target gene p53 directly and indirectly. DNA damage is composed by multiple stress factors including ionizing radiation, reactive oxygen species, UV exposure and drugs like doxorubicin and camptothecin. Radiation is used widely in health, academic area, and industry for producing electricity. As a result of using radiation widely in different fields, environmental radiation exposure is increasing as well. Whereas high dose radiation exposure causes DNA damage and gives rise to ionization to molecules of living cells by accelerating malignant tumor formation. Fields receiving high dose radiation are evaluated in terms of adverse effects, therapeutic efficacy and secondary malignancies in radiotherapy applications. Dose distributions are re-created when it is required. On the other hand, fields received low dose and the doses that the patient is exposure in simulation and/or portal imaging are often overlooked. The changes in miRNA levels arising in low dose radiation field and its effect to neoplastic process in cell will be pathfinder in terms of secondary cancers or second primary cancers. It is shown that there are differences between the level changes of miRNA in low dose fields which are overlooked in daily practical applications because of not resulting with acute or chronic side effect and the level changes of miRNA in high dose fields. With the help of verifying so-called differences in low dose fields which are seen in advanced radiation techniques, radiation oncologists must be careful when using these techniques in childhood cancers and the patient group which have long overall survival period. Additionally, demonstrating the pathway which is influenced by miRNA changes can provide us the opportunity to focus on the exact cancer type which has to be followed. So that we can detect the secondary cancers earlier and can treat them with long expected survival period. PMID:22658362

Sert, Fatma

2012-09-01

286

Comparison of molecular and microscopic technique for detection of Theileria spp. in carrier cattle.  

PubMed

In Iran, theileriosis is normally diagnosed with traditional Giemsa staining method. This is not applicable for identification of the carrier animals. The aim of this study was to compare conventional Giemsa staining method with the PCR technique in the detection of Theileria organisms. In this study, examinations were performed on 150 blood samples from cattle without clinical signs. Sensitivity and specificity of 50 microscopic fields were compared with Theileria specific PCR. The degree of agreement between PCR and microscopic test was determined by Kappa (?) values with 95 % confidence intervals. PCR showed that 42 samples were Theileria spp. positive, while routine microscopy showed erythrocytes harboring Theileria like structures in 11 blood samples. Examination of 50 microscopic fields showed 57 % sensitivity and 99 % specificity compared to 100 % sensitivity and specificity for PCR. The ? coefficient between PCR and Microscopy (50 fields) techniques indicated no level of agreement. Our results showed that the microscopic examination remains the convenient technique for day-to-day diagnosis of clinical cases in the laboratory but for the detection of carrier animal containing low parasitemia. Therefore, molecular methods such as PCR can be used as a safe method for identifying cattle persistently infected with Theileria spp. PMID:24505180

Noaman, Vahid

2014-03-01

287

Characterisation of pathogenic bacteria in a UASB-polishing pond system using molecular techniques.  

PubMed

Molecular techniques have been commonly used to detect and quantify pathogenic bacteria in food, clinical and environmental samples, but in wastewater treatment plants few studies have been carried out. This work applied PCR with a specific set of primers to investigate pathogenic bacteria in a wastewater plant comprised of a UASB reactor followed by polishing ponds. In addition, in-situ hybridisation technique (FISH) was used to estimate the abundance of Escherichia coli in the system. According to the PCR results it was observed that Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica were not completely removed in the system, since they were detected either in the raw sewage or UASB and pond effluents. Shigella dysenteriae and Enterococcus spp. were detected in raw sewage and UASB, but not in the pond effluent. In contrast Staphylococcus aureus and Helicobacter pylori were not detected in any samples. The quantification of E. coli using FISH revealed values in the range of 10(7) cells/100 mL for raw sewage and 10(6) cells/100 mL for pond effluent, slightly higher than values obtained by traditional techniques. Finally the results show the applicability of PCR method for monitoring pathogenic bacteria in wastewater systems; however, more samples need to be analysed in order to certify the applicability of FISH to estimate pathogenic bacteria in WWT effluents. PMID:20150719

Godinho, V M; Nascimento, F M S; Silva, S Q; von Sperling, M

2010-01-01

288

Advanced Sensing and Control Techniques to Facilitate Semi-Autonomous Decommissioning  

SciTech Connect

This research is intended to advance the technology of semi-autonomous teleoperated robotics as applied to Decontamination and Decommissioning (D&D) tasks. Specifically, research leading to a prototype dual-manipulator mobile work cell is underway. This cell is supported and enhanced by computer vision, virtual reality and advanced robotics technology.

Schalkoff, Robert J.

1999-06-01

289

Molecular Marker For Predicting Treatment Response in Advanced Renal Cell Carcinoma: Does the Promise Fulfill Clinical Need?  

PubMed Central

Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is largely diagnosed incidentally on imaging taken for unrelated reasons. The management of localized lesions is primarily extirpative with excellent results. Treatment of advanced RCC has evolved over recent years with the use of targeted therapies such as tyrosine kinase inhibitors, mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors, and antibody-mediated therapies. The treatment response to these targeted therapies is highly variable, with no clear clinical method of identifying patients who will benefit from or not tolerate therapy. The field of molecular markers has evolved significantly in the last decade, with a multitude of markers identified that predict treatment response and drug toxicity. The following review critically evaluates those molecular markers that have been assessed for their utility in predicting treatment response in patients with advanced/metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC). Identifying the ideal treatment for these patients will improve responses to therapy, minimize morbidity, and save significant healthcare dollars. PMID:24337833

Garcia-Roig, Michael; Ortiz, Nicolas; Lokeshwar, Vinata

2014-01-01

290

Advances in quantum and molecular mechanical (QM/MM) simulations for organic and enzymatic reactions.  

PubMed

Application of combined quantum and molecular mechanical (QM/MM) methods focuses on predicting activation barriers and the structures of stationary points for organic and enzymatic reactions. Characterization of the factors that stabilize transition structures in solution and in enzyme active sites provides a basis for design and optimization of catalysts. Continued technological advances allowed for expansion from prototypical cases to mechanistic studies featuring detailed enzyme and condensed-phase environments with full integration of the QM calculations and configurational sampling. This required improved algorithms featuring fast QM methods, advances in computing changes in free energies including free-energy perturbation (FEP) calculations, and enhanced configurational sampling. In particular, the present Account highlights development of the PDDG/PM3 semi-empirical QM method, computation of multi-dimensional potentials of mean force (PMF), incorporation of on-the-fly QM in Monte Carlo (MC) simulations, and a polynomial quadrature method for efficient modeling of proton-transfer reactions. The utility of this QM/MM/MC/FEP methodology is illustrated for a variety of organic reactions including substitution, decarboxylation, elimination, and pericyclic reactions. A comparison to experimental kinetic results on medium effects has verified the accuracy of the QM/MM approach in the full range of solvents from hydrocarbons to water to ionic liquids. Corresponding results from ab initio and density functional theory (DFT) methods with continuum-based treatments of solvation reveal deficiencies, particularly for protic solvents. Also summarized in this Account are three specific QM/MM applications to biomolecular systems: (1) a recent study that clarified the mechanism for the reaction of 2-pyrone derivatives catalyzed by macrophomate synthase as a tandem Michael-aldol sequence rather than a Diels-Alder reaction, (2) elucidation of the mechanism of action of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), an unusual Ser-Ser-Lys proteolytic enzyme, and (3) the construction of enzymes for Kemp elimination of 5-nitrobenzisoxazole that highlights the utility of QM/MM in the design of artificial enzymes. PMID:19728702

Acevedo, Orlando; Jorgensen, William L

2010-01-19

291

The application of molecular techniques to the study of wastewater treatment systems.  

PubMed

Wastewater treatment systems tend to be engineered to select for a few functional microbial groups that may be organized in various spatial structures such as activated sludge flocs, biofilm or granules and represented by single coherent phylogenic groups such as ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and polyphosphate-accumulating organisms (PAO). In order to monitor and control engineered microbial structure in wastewater treatment systems, it is necessary to understand the relationships between the microbial community structure and the process performance. This review focuses on bacterial communities in wastewater treatment processes, the quantity of microorganisms and structure of microbial consortia in wastewater treatment bioreactors. The review shows that the application of molecular techniques in studies of engineered environmental systems has increased our insight into the vast diversity and interaction of microorganisms present in wastewater treatment systems. PMID:19882286

Wojnowska-Bary?a, Irena; Cydzik-Kwiatkowska, Agnieszka; Zieli?ska, Magdalena

2010-01-01

292

The Application of Molecular Techniques to the Study of Wastewater Treatment Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wastewater treatment systems tend to be engineered to select for a few functional microbial groups that may be organized in various spatial structures such as activated sludge flocs, biofilm or granules and represented by single coherent phylogenic groups such as ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and polyphosphate-accumulating organisms (PAO). In order to monitor and control engineered microbial structure in wastewater treatment systems, it is necessary to understand the relationships between the microbial community structure and the process performance. This review focuses on bacterial communities in wastewater treatment processes, the quantity of microorganisms and structure of microbial consortia in wastewater treatment bioreactors. The review shows that the application of molecular techniques in studies of engineered environmental systems has increased our insight into the vast diversity and interaction of microorganisms present in wastewater treatment systems.

Wojnowska-Bary?a, Irena; Cydzik-Kwiatkowska, Agnieszka; Zieli?ska, Magdalena

293

Operation mechanism of rotary molecular motor F1 probed by single-molecule techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

F1 is a rotary motor protein. Three catalytic ?-subunits in the stator ?3?3 ring are torque generators, and rotate the rotor ?-subunit by sequential and cooperative conformational changes coupled with adenosine triphosphate (ATP) hydrolysis reaction. F1 shows remarkable performances such as rotation rate faster than 10,000 rpm, high reversibility and efficiency in chemo-mechanical energy conversion. I will introduce basic characteristics of F1 revealed by single-molecule imaging and manipulation techniques based on optical microscopy and high-speed atomic force microscopy. I will also discuss the possible operation mechanism behind the F1, along with structurally-related hexameric ATPases, also mentioning the possibility of generating hybrid molecular motors.

Iino, Ryota

2013-03-01

294

Electrical characterization of ensemble of GaN nanowires grown by the molecular beam epitaxy technique  

SciTech Connect

High quality Schottky contacts are formed on GaN nanowires (NWs) structures grown by the molecular beam epitaxy technique on Si(111) substrate. The current-voltage characteristics show the rectification ratio of about 10{sup 3} and the leakage current of about 10{sup ?4} A/cm{sup 2} at room temperature. From the capacitance-voltage measurements the free carrier concentration in GaN NWs is determined as about 10{sup 16} cm{sup ?3}. Two deep levels (H200 and E280) are found in the structures containing GaN NWs. H200 is attributed to an extended defect located at the interface between the substrate and SiN{sub x} or near the sidewalls at the bottom of the NWs whereas E280 is tentatively assigned to a gallium-vacancy- or nitrogen interstitials-related defect.

Kolkovsky, Vl. [Technische Universität Dresden, 01062 Dresden (Germany)] [Technische Universität Dresden, 01062 Dresden (Germany); Zytkiewicz, Z. R.; Sobanska, M.; Klosek, K. [Institute of Physics Polish Academy of Sciences, Al. Lotnikow 32-46, 02-668 Warsaw (Poland)] [Institute of Physics Polish Academy of Sciences, Al. Lotnikow 32-46, 02-668 Warsaw (Poland)

2013-08-26

295

Electrical characterization of ensemble of GaN nanowires grown by the molecular beam epitaxy technique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High quality Schottky contacts are formed on GaN nanowires (NWs) structures grown by the molecular beam epitaxy technique on Si(111) substrate. The current-voltage characteristics show the rectification ratio of about 103 and the leakage current of about 10-4 A/cm2 at room temperature. From the capacitance-voltage measurements the free carrier concentration in GaN NWs is determined as about 1016 cm-3. Two deep levels (H200 and E280) are found in the structures containing GaN NWs. H200 is attributed to an extended defect located at the interface between the substrate and SiNx or near the sidewalls at the bottom of the NWs whereas E280 is tentatively assigned to a gallium-vacancy- or nitrogen interstitials-related defect.

Kolkovsky, Vl.; Zytkiewicz, Z. R.; Sobanska, M.; Klosek, K.

2013-08-01

296

Inquiry-based learning: inflammation as a model to teach molecular techniques for assessing gene expression.  

PubMed

This laboratory module simulates the process used by working scientists to ask and answer a question of biological interest. Instructors facilitate acquisition of knowledge using a comprehensive, inquiry-based approach in which students learn theory, hypothesis development, experimental design, and data interpretation and presentation. Using inflammation in macrophages as a model system, students perform a series of molecular biology techniques to address the biological question: "Does stimulus 'X' induce inflammation?" To ask this question, macrophage cells are treated with putative inflammatory mediators and then assayed for evidence of inflammatory response. Students become familiar with their assigned mediator and the relationship between their mediator and inflammation by conducting literature searches, then using this information to generate hypotheses which address the effect of their mediator on induction of inflammation. The cellular and molecular approaches used to test their hypotheses include transfection and luciferase reporter assay, immunoblot, fluorescence microscopy, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and quantitative PCR. Quantitative and qualitative reasoning skills are developed through data analysis and demonstrated by successful completion of post-lab worksheets and the generation and oral presentation of a scientific poster. Learning objective assessment relies on four instruments: pre-lab quizzes, post-lab worksheets, poster presentation, and posttest. Within three cohorts (n = 85) more than 95% of our students successfully achieved the learning objectives. PMID:24358382

Gunn, Kathryn E; McCauslin, Christine Seitz; Staiger, Jennifer; Pirone, Dana M

2013-01-01

297

First prokaryotic biodiversity assessment using molecular techniques of an acidic river in Neuquén, Argentina.  

PubMed

Two acidic hot springs close to the crater of Copahue Volcano (Neuquén, Argentina) are the source of the Río Agrio. The river runs several kilometres before flowing into Caviahue Lake. Along the river, temperature, iron, other metal and proton concentrations decrease gradually with distance downstream. From the source to the lake and depending on the season, pH can rise from 1.0 (or even less) to about 4.0, while temperature values decrease from 70°C to 15°C. Water samples were taken from different stations on the river selected according to their physicochemical parameters. In order to assess prokaryotic biodiversity throughout the water column, different and complementary molecular biology techniques were used, mainly in situ hybridisation and 16S rRNA gene cloning and sequencing. All microorganisms found are typical of acidic environments. Sulphur-oxidizing bacteria like Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans and Acidithiobacillus albertensis were detected in every station. Moderately thermophile iron- and sulphur-oxidizing bacteria like members of Alicyclobacillus and Sulfobacillus genera were also ubiquitous. Strict iron-oxidizing bacteria like Leptospirillum and Ferrimicrobium were present at the source of the river, but disappeared downstream where iron concentrations were much lower. Iron-oxidizing, mesophilic Ferroplasma spp. were the main archaea found. The data presented in this work represent the first molecular assessment of this rare natural acidic environment. PMID:22214994

Urbieta, M Sofía; González Toril, E; Aguilera, A; Giaveno, M Alejandra; Donati, E

2012-07-01

298

Multiparticle 3D imaging technique to study the structure of molecular ions  

SciTech Connect

When energetic molecular ions (E/sub ion/ = 0.1 to 0.5 MeV/amu) pass through thin solid targets a Coulomb explosion ensues due to the rapid (approx. 10/sup -17/s) stripping of the valence electrons. This process has been successfully used to derive stereochemical information on diatomic and on selected triatomic ions. In order to investigate more complex molecular ions as well as to obtain more accurate and detailed structure information, a large area, multiparticle, position- and time-sensitive detector has been developed to detect all atomic fragments in coincidence. The requirement of multiparticle detection independent of the relative particle positions leads to a rather complex data-readout and -reduction system containing approx. 650 analog-to-digital conversions per event. The system relies heavily on techniques developed for high energy physics experiments during recent years. The single event resolution of the apparatus with respect to bond-lengths and -angles has been studied by Monte Carlo simulations and is typically a few percent.

Koenig, W.; Faibis, A.; Kanter, E.P.; Vager, Z.; Zabransky, B.J.

1984-01-01

299

Sex determination of Pohnpei Micronesian kingfishers using morphological and molecular genetic techniques  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Conservation-oriented studies of Micronesian Kingfishers (Todiramphus cinnamominus) have been hindered by a lack of basic natural history information, despite the status of the Guam subspecies (T. c. cinnamominus) as one of the most endangered species in the world. We used tissue samples and morphometric measures from museum specimens and wild-captured Pohnpei Micronesian Kingfishers (T. c. reichenbachii) to develop methods for sex determination. We present a modified molecular protocol and a discriminant function that yields the probability that a particular individual is male or female. Our results revealed that females were significantly larger than males, and the discriminant function correctly predicted sex in 73% (30/41) of the individuals. The sex of 86% (18/21) of individuals was correctly assigned when a moderate reliability threshold was set. Sex determination using molecular genetic techniques was more reliable than methods based on morphology. Our results will facilitate recovery efforts for the critically endangered Guam Micronesian Kingfisher and provide a basis for sex determination in the 11 other endangered congeners in the Pacific Basin.

Kesler, Dylan C.; Lopes, I.F.; Haig, Susan M.

2006-01-01

300

Inquiry-Based Learning: Inflammation as a Model to Teach Molecular Techniques for Assessing Gene Expression†  

PubMed Central

This laboratory module simulates the process used by working scientists to ask and answer a question of biological interest. Instructors facilitate acquisition of knowledge using a comprehensive, inquiry-based approach in which students learn theory, hypothesis development, experimental design, and data interpretation and presentation. Using inflammation in macrophages as a model system, students perform a series of molecular biology techniques to address the biological question: “Does stimulus ‘X’ induce inflammation?” To ask this question, macrophage cells are treated with putative inflammatory mediators and then assayed for evidence of inflammatory response. Students become familiar with their assigned mediator and the relationship between their mediator and inflammation by conducting literature searches, then using this information to generate hypotheses which address the effect of their mediator on induction of inflammation. The cellular and molecular approaches used to test their hypotheses include transfection and luciferase reporter assay, immunoblot, fluorescence microscopy, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and quantitative PCR. Quantitative and qualitative reasoning skills are developed through data analysis and demonstrated by successful completion of post-lab worksheets and the generation and oral presentation of a scientific poster. Learning objective assessment relies on four instruments: pre-lab quizzes, post-lab worksheets, poster presentation, and posttest. Within three cohorts (n = 85) more than 95% of our students successfully achieved the learning objectives. PMID:24358382

Gunn, Kathryn E.; McCauslin, Christine Seitz; Staiger, Jennifer; Pirone, Dana M.

2013-01-01

301

An advanced technique for speciation of organic nitrogen in atmospheric aerosols  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The chemical composition of organic nitrogen (ON) in the environment is a research topic of broad significance. The topic intersects the branches of atmospheric, aquatic, and ecological science; thus, a variety of instrumentation, analytical methods, and data interpretation tools have evolved for determination of ON. Recent studies that focus on atmospheric particulate nitrogen (N) suggest a significant fraction (20-80%) of total N is bound in organic compounds. The sources, bioavailability and transport mechanisms of these N-containing compounds can differ, producing a variety of environmental consequences. Amino acids (AA) are a key class of atmospheric ON compounds that can contribute to secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation and potentially influence water cycles, air pollutant scavenging, and the radiation balance. AA are water-soluble organic compounds (WSOC) that can significantly alter the acid-base chemistry of aerosols, and may explain the buffering capacity that impacts heterogeneous atmospheric chemistry. The chemical transformations that N-containing organic compounds (including AA) undergo can increase the light-absorbing capacity of atmospheric carbon via formation of 'brown carbon'. Suggested sources of atmospheric AA include: marine surface layer transport from bursting sea bubbles, the suspension of bacteria, fungi, algae, pollen, spores, or biomass burning. Methodology for detection of native (underivatized) amino acids (AA) in atmospheric aerosols has been developed and validated (Samy et al., 2011). This presentation describes the use of LC-MS (Q-TOF) and microwave-assisted gas phase hydrolysis for detection of free and combined amino acids in aerosols collected in a Southeastern U.S. forest environment. Accurate mass detection and the addition of isotopically labeled surrogates prior to sample preparation allows for sensitive quantitation of target AA in a complex aerosol matrix. A total of 16 native AA were detected above the reporting threshold as water-soluble free AA, with an average concentration of 22 ± 9 ng m-3 (N=13). Following microwave-assisted gas phase hydrolysis, the total AA concentration in the forest environment increased significantly (70 ± 35 ng m-3) and additional compounds (methionine, isoleucine) were detected above the reporting threshold. The ability to quantify AA in aerosol samples without derivatization reduces time consuming preparation procedures while providing the advancement of selective mass determination that eliminates potential interferences associated with traditional fluorescence detection. This step forward in precise mass determination with the use of internal standardization, improves the confidence of compound identification. With the increasing focus on WSOC (including ON) characterization in the atmospheric science community, native detection by LC-MS (Q-TOF) will play a central role in determining the most direct approach to quantify an increasing fraction of the co-extracted polar organic compounds. Method application for further characterization of atmospheric ON will be discussed. Reference: Samy, S., Robinson, J., and M.D. Hays. "An Advanced LC-MS (Q-TOF) Technique for the Detection of Amino Acids in Atmospheric Aerosols", Analytical Bioanalytical Chemistry, 2011, DOI: 10.1007/s00216-011-5238-2

Samy, S.; Robinson, J.; Hays, M. D.

2011-12-01

302

Investigation of Advanced Dose Verification Techniques for External Beam Radiation Treatment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) have been introduced in radiation therapy to achieve highly conformal dose distributions around the tumour while minimizing dose to surrounding normal tissues. These techniques have increased the need for comprehensive quality assurance tests, to verify that customized patient treatment plans are accurately delivered during treatment. in vivo dose verification, performed during treatment delivery, confirms that the actual dose delivered is the same as the prescribed dose, helping to reduce treatment delivery errors. in vivo measurements may be accomplished using entrance or exit detectors. The objective of this project is to investigate a novel entrance detector designed for in vivo dose verification. This thesis is separated into three main investigations, focusing on a prototype entrance transmission detector (TRD) developed by IBA Dosimetry, Germany. First contaminant electrons generated by the TRD in a 6 MV photon beam were investigated using Monte Carlo (MC) simulation. This study demonstrates that modification of the contaminant electron model in the treatment planning system is required for accurate patient dose calculation in buildup regions when using the device. Second, the ability of the TRD to accurately measure dose from IMRT and VMAT was investigated by characterising the spatial resolution of the device. This was accomplished by measuring the point spread function with further validation provided by MC simulation. Comparisons of measured and calculated doses show that the spatial resolution of the TRD allows for measurement of clinical IMRT fields within acceptable tolerance. Finally, a new general research tool was developed to perform MC simulations for VMAT and IMRT treatments, simultaneously tracking dose deposition in both the patient CT geometry and an arbitrary planar detector system, generalized to handle either entrance or exit orientations. It was demonstrated that the tool accurately simulates dose to the patient CT and planar detector geometries. The tool has been made freely available to the medical physics research community to help advance the development of in vivo planar detectors. In conclusion, this thesis presents several investigations that improve the understanding of a novel entrance detector designed for patient in vivo dosimetry.

Asuni, Ganiyu Adeniyi

303

The investigation of advanced remote sensing, radiative transfer and inversion techniques for the measurement of atmospheric constituents  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The research program is documented for developing space and ground-based remote sensing techniques performed during the period from December 15, 1977 to March 15, 1985. The program involved the application of sophisticated radiative transfer codes and inversion methods to various advanced remote sensing concepts for determining atmospheric constituents, particularly aerosols. It covers detailed discussions of the solar aureole technique for monitoring columnar aerosol size distribution, and the multispectral limb scattered radiance and limb attenuated radiance (solar occultation) techniques, as well as the upwelling scattered solar radiance method for determining the aerosol and gaseous characteristics. In addition, analytical models of aerosol size distribution and simulation studies of the limb solar aureole radiance technique and the variability of ozone at high altitudes during satellite sunrise/sunset events are also described in detail.

Deepak, Adarsh; Wang, Pi-Huan

1985-01-01

304

Removal of Lattice Imperfections that Impact the Optical Quality of Ti:Sapphire using Advanced Magnetorheological Finishing Techniques  

SciTech Connect

Advanced magnetorheological finishing (MRF) techniques have been applied to Ti:sapphire crystals to compensate for sub-millimeter lattice distortions that occur during the crystal growing process. Precise optical corrections are made by imprinting topographical structure onto the crystal surfaces to cancel out the effects of the lattice distortion in the transmitted wavefront. This novel technique significantly improves the optical quality for crystals of this type and sets the stage for increasing the availability of high-quality large-aperture sapphire and Ti:sapphire optics in critical applications.

Menapace, J A; Schaffers, K I; Bayramian, A J; Davis, P J; Ebbers, C A; Wolfe, J E; Caird, J A; Barty, C J

2008-02-26

305

Visceral Leishmaniasis: Advancements in Vaccine Development via Classical and Molecular Approaches  

PubMed Central

Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) or kala-azar, a vector-borne protozoan disease, shows endemicity in larger areas of the tropical, subtropical and the Mediterranean countries. WHO report suggested that an annual incidence of VL is nearly 200,000 to 400,000 cases, resulting in 20,000 to 30,000 deaths per year. Treatment with available anti-leishmanial drugs are not cost effective, with varied efficacies and higher relapse rate, which poses a major challenge to current kala-azar control program in Indian subcontinent. Therefore, a vaccine against VL is imperative and knowing the fact that recovered individuals developed lifelong immunity against re-infection, it is feasible. Vaccine development program, though time taking, has recently gained momentum with the emergence of omic era, i.e., from genomics to immunomics. Classical as well as molecular methodologies have been overtaken with alternative strategies wherein proteomics based knowledge combined with computational techniques (immunoinformatics) speed up the identification and detailed characterization of new antigens for potential vaccine candidates. This may eventually help in the designing of polyvalent synthetic and recombinant chimeric vaccines as an effective intervention measures to control the disease in endemic areas. This review focuses on such newer approaches being utilized for vaccine development against VL. PMID:25202307

Joshi, Sumit; Rawat, Keerti; Yadav, Narendra Kumar; Kumar, Vikash; Siddiqi, Mohammad Imran; Dube, Anuradha

2014-01-01

306

Visceral Leishmaniasis: Advancements in Vaccine Development via Classical and Molecular Approaches.  

PubMed

Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) or kala-azar, a vector-borne protozoan disease, shows endemicity in larger areas of the tropical, subtropical and the Mediterranean countries. WHO report suggested that an annual incidence of VL is nearly 200,000 to 400,000 cases, resulting in 20,000 to 30,000 deaths per year. Treatment with available anti-leishmanial drugs are not cost effective, with varied efficacies and higher relapse rate, which poses a major challenge to current kala-azar control program in Indian subcontinent. Therefore, a vaccine against VL is imperative and knowing the fact that recovered individuals developed lifelong immunity against re-infection, it is feasible. Vaccine development program, though time taking, has recently gained momentum with the emergence of omic era, i.e., from genomics to immunomics. Classical as well as molecular methodologies have been overtaken with alternative strategies wherein proteomics based knowledge combined with computational techniques (immunoinformatics) speed up the identification and detailed characterization of new antigens for potential vaccine candidates. This may eventually help in the designing of polyvalent synthetic and recombinant chimeric vaccines as an effective intervention measures to control the disease in endemic areas. This review focuses on such newer approaches being utilized for vaccine development against VL. PMID:25202307

Joshi, Sumit; Rawat, Keerti; Yadav, Narendra Kumar; Kumar, Vikash; Siddiqi, Mohammad Imran; Dube, Anuradha

2014-01-01

307

The challenge of advanced model-based fdir techniques for aerospace systems: the 2011 situation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For aerospace systems, advanced model-based Fault Detection, Identification, and Recovery (FDIR) challenges range from predesign and design stages for upcoming and new programs up to the improvement of the performance of in-service flying systems. However, today, their application to real aerospace world has remained extremely limited. The paper underlines the reasons for a widening gap between the advanced scientific FDIR methods being developed by the academic community and technological solutions demanded by the aerospace industry.

Zolghadri, A.

2013-12-01

308

Occurrence and distribution of nitrogen fixing bacterial community associated with oat ( Avena sativa) assessed by molecular and microbiological techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

Molecular and microbiological techniques were used to evaluate the nitrogen fixing bacterial community associated with oat (Avena sativa) in different soil management systems of Rio Grande do Sul State. The conventional microbiological approach made use of semi-solid nitrogen-free and solid selective media to isolate some of these nitrogen fixing bacteria. For the molecular approach, a PCR-RFLP strategy was adopted to

René A. Soares; Luiz Fernando W. Roesch; Geancarlo Zanatta; Flávio A. de Oliveira Camargo; Luciane Maria P. Passaglia

2006-01-01

309

Advanced imaging techniques II: using a compound microscope for photographing point-mount specimens  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Digital imaging technology has revolutionized the practice photographing insects for scientific study. Herein described are lighting and mounting techniques designed for imaging micro Hymenoptera. Techniques described here are applicable to all small insects, as well as other invertebrates. The ke...

310

Pulmonary adenocarcinoma: implications of the recent advances in molecular biology, treatment and the IASLC/ATS/ERS classification  

PubMed Central

A decade ago, lung cancer could conveniently be classified into two broad categories—either the small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC), or the non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC), mainly to assist in further treatment related decision making. However, the understanding regarding the eligibility of adenocarcinoma histology for treatments with agents such as pemetrexed and bevacizumab made it a necessity for NSCLC to be classified into more specific sub-groups. Then, the availability of molecular targeted therapy with oral tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) such as gefitinib and erlotinib not only further emphasized the need for accurate sub-classification of lung cancer, but also heralded the important role of molecular profiling of lung adenocarcinomas. Given the remarkable advances in molecular biology, oncology and radiology, a need for felt for a revised classification for lung adenocarcinoma, since the existing World Health Organization (WHO) classification of lung cancer, published in the year 2004 was mainly a pathological system of classification. Thus, there was a combined effort by the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer (IASLC), the American Thoracic Society (ATS) and the European Respiratory Society (ERS) with an effort to inculcate newly established perspectives from clinical, molecular and radiological aspects in evolving a modern classification for lung adenocarcinomas. This review provides a summary of the recent advances in molecular biology and molecular targeted therapy with respect to lung adenocarcinoma. Also, a brief summation of the salient recommendations provided in the IASLC/ATS/ERS classification of lung adenocarcinomas is provided. Lastly, a discussion regarding the future prospects with lung adenocarcinoma is included. PMID:25349702

Thakur, Priyanka; Bhardwaj, Bhaskar; Susheela, Sridhar Papaiah; Madabhavi, Irappa

2014-01-01

311

Chloride Molecular Doping Technique on 2D Materials: WS2and MoS2  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Low-resistivity metal-semiconductor (M-S) contact is one of the urgent challenges in the research of 2D transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs). Here, we report a chloride molecular doping technique which greatly reduces the contact resistance (Rc) in the few-layer WS2 and MoS2. After doping, the Rc of WS2 and MoS2 have been decreased to 0.7 kohm*um and 0.5 kohm*um, respectively. The significant reduction of the Rc is attributed to the achieved high electron doping density thus significant reduction of Schottky barrier width. As a proof-ofconcept, high-performance few-layer WS2 field-effect transistors (FETs) are demonstrated, exhibiting a high drain current of 380 uA/um, an on/off ratio of 4*106, and a peak field-effect mobility of 60 cm2/V*s. This doping technique provides a highly viable route to diminish the Rc in TMDs, paving the way for high-performance 2D nano-electronic devices.

Yang, Lingming; Majumdar, Kausik; Liu, Han; Du, Yuchen; Wu, Heng; Hatzistergos, Michael; Hung, P. Y.; Tieckelmann, Robert; Tsai, Wilman; Hobbs, Chris; Ye, Peide D.

2014-11-01

312

Advanced in situ Spectroscopic Techniques And Their Applications In Environmental Biogeochemistry: Introduction To The Special Section  

EPA Science Inventory

Understanding the molecular-scale complexities and interplay of chemical and biological processes of contaminants at solid, liquid, and gas interfaces is a fundamental and crucial element to enhance our understanding of anthropogenic environmental impacts. The ability to describ...

313

Molecular contrast optical coherence tomography: SNR comparison of techniques and introduction of ground state recovery pump-probe OCT  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Molecular contrast OCT (MCOCT) is an extension of OCT in which specific molecular species are imaged based on their spectroscopic characteristics. In order to improve the sensitivity and specificity of MCOCT, several techniques have recently been introduced which depend upon coherent detection of inelastically scattered light from molecules of interest in a sample. These techniques include harmonic generation, coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering, and several different forms of pump-probe spectroscopy. We have developed a theoretical framework to facilitate the comparison of different inelastic scattering-based contrast mechanisms for molecular contrast OCT. This framework is based upon the observation that since the noise floor is defined by the reference arm power in a shot-noise limited heterodyne detection system, the relevant comparison among the techniques is isolated to the available molecular-specific signal power. We have derived the value of the molecular contrast signal power for second harmonic generation OCT (SHOCT) and three different pump-probe OCT (PPOCT) techniques. Motivated by this analysis, we have constructed a preliminary ground state recovery pump-probe OCT system, and demonstrated its performance using rhodamine 6G as the MCOCT contrast agent.

Applegate, Brian E.; Sarunic, Marinko V.; Yang, Changhuei; Izatt, Joseph A.

2005-04-01

314

[The use of molecular cytogenetic and cytogenetic techniques for the diagnosis of Prader-Willi and Angelman syndrome].  

PubMed

We examined 30 patients with a presumptive diagnosis of Prader-Willi and Angelman syndromes. In four patients, 15q11.2-q13 deletions were identified by cytogenetic techniques. The FISH method was used to study eight patients, in five of them microdeletions were also confirmed. High-resolution comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) and comparative genomic hybridization using DNA microarrays (array CGH) allowed to find 15q11.2-q13 deletions in five patients. These cases demonstrate the need for high-resolution post-genomic technologies (array CGH - molecular karyotyping) in the combination with classical cytogenetic and molecular cytogenetic techniques. PMID:24637817

Iourov, I Y; Vorsanova, S G; Kurinnaaya, O S; Kolotii, A D; Demidova, I A; Kravets, V S; Yurov, Yu B

2014-01-01

315

Beyond Whole-Body Imaging: Advanced Imaging Techniques of PET/MRI.  

PubMed

PET/MRI is a hybrid imaging modality that is gaining clinical interest with the first Food and Drug Administration-approved simultaneous imaging system recently added to the clinical armamentarium. Several advanced PET/MRI applications, such as high-resolution anatomic imaging, diffusion-weighted imaging, motion correction, and cardiac imaging, show great potential for clinical use. The purpose of this article is to highlight several advanced PET/MRI applications through case examples and review of the current literature. PMID:25188648

Barnwell, James; Raptis, Constantine A; McConathy, Jonathan E; Laforest, Richard; Siegel, Barry A; Woodard, Pamela K; Fowler, Kathryn

2014-09-01

316

Adaptations of advanced safety and reliability techniques to petroleum and other industries  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The underlying philosophy of the general approach to failure reduction and control is presented. Safety and reliability management techniques developed in the industries which have participated in the U.S. space and defense programs are described along with adaptations to nonaerospace activities. The examples given illustrate the scope of applicability of these techniques. It is indicated that any activity treated as a 'system' is a potential user of aerospace safety and reliability management techniques.

Purser, P. E.

1974-01-01

317

Experimental and molecular docking studies on DNA binding interaction of adefovir dipivoxil: Advances toward treatment of hepatitis B virus infections  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The toxic interaction of adefovir dipivoxil with calf thymus DNA (CT-DNA) was investigated in vitro under simulated physiological conditions by multi-spectroscopic techniques and molecular modeling study. The fluorescence spectroscopy and UV absorption spectroscopy indicated drug interacted with CT-DNA in a groove binding mode. The binding constant of UV-visible and the number of binding sites were 3.33 ± 0.2 × 104 L mol-1and 0.99, respectively. The fluorimetric studies showed that the reaction between the drug and CT-DNA is exothermic (?H = 34.4 kJ mol-1; ?S = 184.32 J mol-1 K-1). Circular dichroism spectroscopy (CD) was employed to measure the conformational change of CT-DNA in the presence of adefovir dipivoxil, which verified the groove binding mode. Furthermore, the drug induces detectable changes in its viscosity. The molecular modeling results illustrated that adefovir strongly binds to groove of DNA by relative binding energy of docked structure -16.83 kJ mol-1. This combination of multiple spectroscopic techniques and molecular modeling methods can be widely used in the investigation on the toxic interaction of small molecular pollutants and drugs with bio macromolecules, which contributes to clarify the molecular mechanism of toxicity or side effect in vivo.

Shahabadi, Nahid; Falsafi, Monireh

318

Precision bone and muscle loss measurements by advanced, multiple projection dexa (AMPDXA) techniques for spaceflight applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

An advanced, multiple projection, dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (AMPDXA) scanner system is under development. The AMPDXA is designed to make precision bone and muscle loss measurements necessary to determine the deleterious effects of microgravity on astronauts as well as develop countermeasures to stem their bone and muscle loss. To date, a full size test system has been developed to verify

Harry K. Charles; Thomas J. Beck; Howard S. Feldmesser; Thomas C. Magee; Thomas S. Spisz; Vincent L. Pisacane

2001-01-01

319

The Synergy Between Total Scattering and Advanced Simulation Techniques: Quantifying Geopolymer Gel Evolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the ever increasing demands for technologically advanced structural materials, together with emerging environmental consciousness due to climate change, geopolymer cement is fast becoming a viable alternative to traditional cements due to proven mechanical engineering characteristics and the reduction in CO2 emitted (approximately 80% less CO2 emitted compared to ordinary Portland cement). Nevertheless, much remains unknown regarding the kinetics of

Claire White; Breaunnah E. Bloomer; John L. Provis; Neil J. Henson; Katharine L. Page

2012-01-01

320

FINAL REPORT. ADVANCED SENSING AND CONTROL TECHNIQUES TO FACILITATE SEMI-AUTONOMOUS DECOMMISSIONING  

EPA Science Inventory

This research is intended to advance the technology of semi-autonomous teleoperated robotics as applied to Decontamination and Decommissioning (D&D) tasks. Specifically, research leading to a prototype dual-manipulator mobile work cell is underway. This cell is supported and enha...

321

ADVANCED SENSING AND CONTROL TECHNIQUES TO FACILITATE SEMI-AUTONOMOUS DECOMMISSIONING  

EPA Science Inventory

This research is intended to advance the technology of semiautonomous teleoperated robotics as applied to Decontamination and Decommissioning (D&D) tasks. Specifically, research leading to a prototype dual-manipulator mobile work cell is proposed. This cell is supported and enhan...

322

Recent Developments of Aircraft Nondestructive Evaluation Based on Advanced Sensor Techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

The safety and structural integrity are of great importa nce to military and commercial aircraft, and the developments of effective nondestruct ive evaluation (NDE) methods are receiving much attention in recent years. The objective o f this paper was to provide the recent developments of aircraft NDE based on advanced sensor t echniques: (a) Ultrasonic testing with piezoceramic sensor arrays,

Gongjin QI; Hong LEI; Rongsheng GENG; Peng JING

323

Advancement in OCT and image-processing techniques for automated ophthalmic diagnosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) is a recently developed, non-invasive, biomedical imaging modality. It is progressively gaining popularity in ophthalmologic diagnostics. Compared to any other imaging modality, OCT enables clinicians to obtain retinal images with much higher resolution. This paper discusses the basic functioning principle of OCT and various advancements that it has gone through starting from its invention by Huang

Rupsa Datta; S. Aditya; D. N. Tibrewala

2010-01-01

324

INTRODUCTIONS TO MOLECULAR TECHNIQUES IN PEDIATRIC RESEARCH TRAINING: BASIC PRINCIPLES OF GENE REGULATION AND EXPRESSION ANALYSES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Cell and molecular biology have revolutionized our understanding of the aberrant physiology underlying the mechanisms of human disease. Subspecialty training in pediatrics requires a comprehensive understanding of the molecular methodologies involved in the current diagnosis and treatment of human d...

325

Planetary and Space Science 55 (2007) 19591963 A technique to determine the mean molecular mass of a planetary  

E-print Network

descending at terminal velocity. The descent trajectory of an entry probe can be determined from pressure descending at terminal velocity. Related techniques have been used to determine the mean molecular mass a protective aeroshell, a typical entry probe descends at terminal velocity beneath a parachute and its speed

Mendillo, Michael

326

Molecular mobility in fixed-bed reactors investigated by multiscale NMR techniques.  

PubMed

The complex problem of a fixed-bed reactor consisting of catalytically active particles provides an exceptional opportunity of combining a wide range of NMR methods which have become available over time as tools to probe porous media. This work demonstrates the feasibility of different NMR techniques for the investigation of the intra- and interparticle pore space over length scales from nanometers up to centimeters. Many industrially relevant cracking reactions leave a coke residue on the inner surface of the porous catalyst particles so that the active sites become inaccessible to the reactants. Moreover, the pore space shrinks due to the formation of coke, thereby hindering molecular transport. The presence of the coke residue and its influence on the mobility of adsorbed fluid molecules are probed by 129Xe spectroscopy, NMR cryoporometry, relaxation dispersion measurements, and investigations of the reduced diffusivity in the intraporous space. The voids surrounding the random arrangement of catalyst pellets represent another pore space of much larger dimensions, the properties of which can be more directly investigated by mapping the fluid density and the velocity distribution from velocity-encoded imaging. Propagator representations averaged over large sample volumes are discussed and compared to velocity images obtained in selected axial slices of the reactor. PMID:12850717

Ren, Xiaohong; Stapf, Siegfried; Kühn, Holger; Demco, Dan E; Blümich, Bernhard

2003-01-01

327

Detection of human filarial parasite Brugia malayi in dogs by histochemical staining and molecular techniques.  

PubMed

Human filariasis caused by Brugia malayi is still a public health problem in many countries of Asia including India, Indonesia, Malaysia and Thailand. The World Health Organization (WHO) has targeted to eliminate filariasis by the year 2020 by Mass annual single dose Diethylcarbamazine Administration (MDA). Results of the MDA programme after the first phase was less satisfactory than expected. Malayan filariasis caused by B. malayi is endemic in the south of Thailand where domestic cat serves as the major reservoir host. There is no report about the occurrence of B. malayi in dogs. The present work was carried out to find out the incidence of microfilariasis in dogs and also to detect the presence of human filarial infection in dogs, if any. One hundred dogs above 6 months of age presented to the veterinary college Hospital, Mannuthy, Kerala, with clinical signs suggestive of microfilariasis - fever, anorexia, conjunctivitis, limb and scrotal oedema - were screened for microfilariae by wet film examination. Positive cases were subjected to Giemsa staining, histochemical staining and molecular techniques. Results of the study showed that 80% of dogs had microfilariasis; out of which 20% had sheathed microfilaria. Giemsa and histochemical staining character, PCR and sequencing confirmed it as B. malayi. High prevalence of B. malayi in dogs in this study emphasized the possible role of dogs in transmission of human filariasis. PMID:21620569

Ambily, V R; Pillai, Usha Narayana; Arun, R; Pramod, S; Jayakumar, K M

2011-09-27

328

Analysis of nitrifying bacterial communities in aerobic biofilm reactors with different DO conditions using molecular techniques.  

PubMed

In order to assess the relationship between the dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration and the characteristics of nitrifying bacterial communities in an aerobic biofilm reactor, molecular techniques including denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE)/cloning based on PCR targeting 16S rRNA and the amoA gene and fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) were conducted. The D-1, D-2, D-3 and D-4 reactors with different DO concentrations (1, 3, 5 and 7 mg/L, respectively) were set up in the thermostat and acclimated. The optimal DO concentration with stable nitrification efficiency was above 5.0 mg/L. As was shown by the results of DGGE and cloning, the community of ammonia-oxidising bacteria (AOB) and the ratio of Nitrosomonas sp. changed only slightly despite their differing nitrification efficiencies. The results of FISH indicated that higher DO concentrations resulted in an increase in AOB and nitrite-oxidising bacteria (NOB), and a reduction in heterotrophic microorganisms. The INT-dehydrogenase activity (DHA) test demonstrated that the activity of AOB decreased with reductions in the DO concentration. This means that the DO concentration does not influence the community of AOB, but rather the activity of AOB. In the relationship between the attached biomass and the nitrification efficiency, only the active biomass affected the nitrification efficiencies. PMID:18587175

Park, J J; Byun, I G; Yu, J C; Park, S R; Ju, D J; Hur, S H; Park, T J

2008-01-01

329

Debridement arthroplasty for advanced primary osteoarthritis of the elbow. Results of a new technique used for 29 elbows.  

PubMed

We report the technique and results of a new method of debridement arthroplasty for advanced primary osteoarthritis of the elbow. Triceps and the periosteum of the olecranon are reflected towards the ulnar side and the joint is opened by dividing the radial collateral ligament. Osteophytes are removed, the olecranon and coronoid fossae are deepened and the fibrosed anterior joint capsule is excised. The degenerative changes are always more advanced on the radial side, with erosion of the capitellum, and it is usually necessary to remodel the head of the radius. In 29 elbows reviewed at a mean of 64 months, the average gain of range of motion was 34 degrees, with good pain relief and improved grip in most patients. Two elbows required reoperation but there were no other serious complications. PMID:8027156

Tsuge, K; Mizuseki, T

1994-07-01

330

A numerical technique for calculation of the noise of high-speed propellers with advanced blade geometry  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A numerical technique and computer program were developed for the prediction of the noise of propellers with advanced geometry. The blade upper and lower surfaces are described by a curvilinear coordinate system, which was also used to divide the blade surfaces into panels. Two different acoustic formulations in the time domain were used to improve the speed and efficiency of the noise calculations: an acoustic formualtion with the Doppler factor singularity for panels moving at subsonic speeds and the collapsing sphere formulation for panels moving at transonic or supersonic speeds. This second formulation involves a sphere which is centered at the observer position and whose radius decreases at the speed of sound. The acoustic equation consisted of integrals over the curve of intersection for both the sphere and the panels on the blade. Algorithms used in some parts of the computer program are discussed. Comparisons with measured acoustic data for two model high speed propellers with advanced geometry are also presented.

Nystrom, P. A.; Farassat, F.

1980-01-01

331

Molecular imaging in the eye  

Microsoft Academic Search

Molecular imaging plays an increasingly powerful role in elucidating pathophysiological pathways, in advancing drug discovery and in deciphering developmental processes. Multiple modalities, including optical imaging, ultrasound, nuclear imaging, computed tomography and various techniques of MRI are now being used to obtain fundamental new insights at the cellular and molecular level, both in basic research, using animal models and in clinical

Nicole Eter

2010-01-01

332

Fundamentals of quality assessment of molecular amplification methods in clinical diagnostics. International Federation of Clinical Chemistry Scientific Division Committee on Molecular Biology Techniques.  

PubMed

The increasing interest in molecular biology diagnostics is a result of the tremendous gain of scientific knowledge in genetics, made possible especially since the introduction of amplification techniques. High expectations have been placed on genetic testing, and the number of laboratories now using the relevant technology is rapidly increasing--resulting in an obvious need for standardization and definition of laboratory organization. This communication is an effort towards that end. We address aspects that should be considered when structuring a new molecular diagnostic laboratory, and we discuss individual preanalytical and analytical procedures, from sampling to evaluation of assay results. In addition, different means of controlling contamination are discussed. Because the methodology is in constant change, no general standards can be defined. Accordingly, this publication is intended to serve as a recommendation for good laboratory practice and internal quality control and as a guide to troubleshooting, primarily in amplification techniques. PMID:9550553

Neumaier, M; Braun, A; Wagener, C

1998-01-01

333

Irradiation with X-rays phase-advances the molecular clockwork in liver, adrenal gland and pancreas.  

PubMed

The circadian clock of man and mammals shows a hierarchic organization. The master clock, located in the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN), controls peripheral oscillators distributed throughout the body. Rhythm generation depends on molecular clockworks based on transcriptional/translational interaction of clock genes. Numerous studies have shown that the clockwork in peripheral oscillators is capable to maintain circadian rhythms for several cycles in vitro, i.e. in the absence of signals from the SCN. The aim of the present study is to analyze the effects of irradiation with X-rays on the clockwork of liver, adrenal and pancreas. To this end organotypic slice cultures of liver (OLSC) and organotypic explant cultures of adrenal glands (OAEC) and pancreas (OPEC) were prepared from transgenic mPer2(luc) mice which express luciferase under the control of the promoter of an important clock gene, Per2, and allow to study the dynamics of the molecular clockwork by bioluminometry. The preparations were cultured in a membrane-based liquid-air interface culturing system and irradiated with X-rays at doses of 10?Gy and 50?Gy or left untreated. Bioluminometric real-time recordings show a stable oscillation of all OLSC, OAEC and OPEC for up to 12 days in vitro. Oscillations persist after irradiation with X-rays. However, a dose of 50?Gy caused a phase advance in the rhythm of the OLSC by 5?h, in the OPEC by 7?h and in the OAEC by 6?h. Our study shows that X-rays affect the molecular clockwork in liver, pancreas and adrenal leading to phase advances. Our results confirm and extend previous studies showing a phase-advancing effect of X-rays at the level of the whole animal and single cells. PMID:25140390

Müller, Mareike Hildegard; Rödel, Franz; Rüb, Udo; Korf, Horst-Werner

2015-02-01

334

A hybrid broadband millimeter-wave diode ring mixer with advanced IF extraction technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report on a hybrid octave-bandwidth millimeter-wave diode mixer with advanced IF extraction. The design uses a reproducible, low cost hybrid technology including thin- film circuit and flip-chip mounted diode chips. Side coupled Marchand baluns with IF tap provide balanced RF and LO signals as well as serve for extracting the IF signal. Measurement results for fixed, low IF frequency

Dirk Schneiderbanger; Alexander Cichy; Robert Rehner; Michael Sterns; Siegfried Martius; Lorenz-Peter Schmidt

2007-01-01

335

Advanced techniques for the storage and use of very large, heterogeneous spatial databases  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Progress is reported in the development of a prototype knowledge-based geographic information system. The overall purpose of this project is to investigate and demonstrate the use of advanced methods in order to greatly improve the capabilities of geographic information system technology in the handling of large, multi-source collections of spatial data in an efficient manner, and to make these collections of data more accessible and usable for the Earth scientist.

Peuquet, Donna J.

1987-01-01

336

Recent advances in freeze-fracture electron microscopy: the replica immunolabeling technique  

PubMed Central

Freeze-fracture electron microscopy is a technique for examining the ultrastructure of rapidly frozen biological samples by transmission electron microscopy. Of a range of approaches to freeze-fracture cytochemistry that have been developed and tried, the most successful is the technique termed freeze-fracture replica immunogold labeling (FRIL). In this technique, samples are frozen, fractured and replicated with platinum-carbon as in standard freeze fracture, and then carefully treated with sodium dodecylsulphate to remove all the biological material except a fine layer of molecules attached to the replica itself. Immunogold labeling of these molecules permits their distribution to be seen superimposed upon high resolution planar views of membrane structure. Examples of how this technique has contributed to our understanding of lipid droplet biogenesis and function are discussed. PMID:18385807

2008-01-01

337

Advanced techniques and new high resolution SAR sensors for monitoring urban areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the last years MultiDimensional (3D and 4D) Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) techniques, also known as SAR tomography and differential SAR tomography, are emerging in the field of coherent combination of multibaseline\\/multitemporal SAR data. With respect to the classical differential interferometric processing, these techniques improve the capability of detection and monitoring of the ground targets. Moreover they were proven to

Diego Reale; Gianfranco Fornaro; Gianfranco Pauciullo; Xiaoxiang Zhu; Nico Adam; Richard Bamler

2010-01-01

338

Advancements in subsea intervention and construction techniques for dropped object protection, pipeline stabilization and grouting related activities  

SciTech Connect

This paper is a state of the art review of Subsea Intervention and Construction Techniques using ROVs for pipeline protection, stabilization and grouting-related activities. It identifies the important stages involved in the various processes and reviews the problems experienced. Technical advances and improvements over the years have, in certain instances, produced new problems, these are highlighted and discussed. Common problem areas are investigated and the remedial measures used to overcome these are discussed, together with their effect on the final integrity of the particular product or service affected.

Hudson, J.W.

1998-12-31

339

POC-SCALE TESTING OF AN ADVANCED FINE COAL DEWATERING EQUIPMENT/TECHNIQUE  

SciTech Connect

Dewatering of ultra-fine (minus 150 {micro}m) coal slurry to less than 20% moisture is difficult using the conventional dewatering techniques. The main objective of the project was to evaluate a novel surface modification technique, which utilizes the synergistic effect of metal ions and surfactants in combination for the dewatering of ultra-fine clean-coal slurries using various dewatering techniques on a proof-of-concept (POC) scale of 0.5 to 2 tons per hour. The addition of conventional reagents and the application of coal surface modification technique were evaluated using vacuum filtration, hyperbaric (pressure) filtration, ceramic plate filtration and screen-bowl centrifuge techniques. The laboratory and pilot-scale dewatering studies were conducted using the fine-size, clean-coal slurry produced in the column flotation circuit at the Powell Mountain Coal Company, St. Charles, VA. The pilot-scale studies were conducted at the Mayflower preparation plant in St. Charles, VA. The program consisted of nine tasks, namely, Task 1--Project Work Planning, Task 2--Laboratory Testing, Task 3--Engineering Design, Task 4--Procurement and Fabrication, Task 5--Installation and Shakedown, Task 6--System Operation, Task 7--Process Evaluation, Task 8--Equipment Removal, and Task 9--Reporting.

X.H. Wang; J. Wiseman; D.J. Sung; D. McLean; William Peters; Jim Mullins; John Hugh; G. Evans; Vince Hamilton; Kenneth Robinette; Tim Krim; Michael Fleet

1999-08-01

340

Development of a real-time aeroperformance analysis technique for the X-29A advanced technology demonstrator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The X-29A advanced technology demonstrator has shown the practicality and advantages of the capability to compute and display, in real time, aeroperformance flight results. This capability includes the calculation of the in-flight measured drag polar, lift curve, and aircraft specific excess power. From these elements many other types of aeroperformance measurements can be computed and analyzed. The technique can be used to give an immediate postmaneuver assessment of data quality and maneuver technique, thus increasing the productivity of a flight program. A key element of this new method was the concurrent development of a real-time in-flight net thrust algorithm, based on the simplified gross thrust method. This net thrust algorithm allows for the direct calculation of total aircraft drag.

Ray, R. J.; Hicks, J. W.; Alexander, R. I.

1988-01-01

341

Development of a real-time aeroperformance analysis technique for the X-29A advanced technology demonstrator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The X-29A advanced technology demonstrator has shown the practicality and advantages of the capability to compute and display, in real time, aeroperformance flight results. This capability includes the calculation of the in flight measured drag polar, lift curve, and aircraft specific excess power. From these elements, many other types of aeroperformance measurements can be computed and analyzed. The technique can be used to give an immediate postmaneuver assessment of data quality and maneuver technique, thus increasing the productivity of a flight program. A key element of this new method was the concurrent development of a real-time in flight net thrust algorithm, based on the simplified gross thrust method. This net thrust algorithm allows for the direct calculation of total aircraft drag.

Ray, R. J.; Hicks, J. W.; Alexander, R. I.

1988-01-01

342

Advanced analysis technique for the evaluation of linear alternators and linear motors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method for the mathematical analysis of linear alternator and linear motor devices and designs is described, and an example of its use is included. The technique seeks to surpass other methods of analysis by including more rigorous treatment of phenomena normally omitted or coarsely approximated such as eddy braking, non-linear material properties, and power losses generated within structures surrounding the device. The technique is broadly applicable to linear alternators and linear motors involving iron yoke structures and moving permanent magnets. The technique involves the application of Amperian current equivalents to the modeling of the moving permanent magnet components within a finite element formulation. The resulting steady state and transient mode field solutions can simultaneously account for the moving and static field sources within and around the device.

Holliday, Jeffrey C.

1995-01-01

343

Advanced Analytical Techniques for the Measurement of Nanomaterials in Food and Agricultural Samples: A Review  

PubMed Central

Abstract Nanotechnology offers substantial prospects for the development of state-of-the-art products and applications for agriculture, water treatment, and food industry. Profuse use of nanoproducts will bring potential benefits to farmers, the food industry, and consumers, equally. However, after end-user applications, these products and residues will find their way into the environment. Therefore, discharged nanomaterials (NMs) need to be identified and quantified to determine their ecotoxicity and the levels of exposure. Detection and characterization of NMs and their residues in the environment, particularly in food and agricultural products, have been limited, as no single technique or method is suitable to identify and quantify NMs. In this review, we have discussed the available literature concerning detection, characterization, and measurement techniques for NMs in food and agricultural matrices, which include chromatography, flow field fractionation, electron microscopy, light scattering, and autofluorescence techniques, among others. PMID:23483065

Bandyopadhyay, Susmita; Peralta-Videa, Jose R.; Gardea-Torresdey, Jorge L.

2013-01-01

344

Precision bone and muscle loss measurements by advanced, multiple projection DEXA (AMPDXA) techniques for spaceflight applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An advanced, multiple projection, dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (AMPDXA) scanner system is under development. The AMPDXA is designed to make precision bone and muscle loss measurements necessary to determine the deleterious effects of microgravity on astronauts as well as develop countermeasures to stem their bone and muscle loss. To date, a full size test system has been developed to verify principles and the results of computer simulations. Results indicate that accurate predictions of bone mechanical properties can be determined from as few as three projections, while more projections are needed for a complete, three-dimensional reconstruction. c 2001. Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

Charles, H. K. Jr; Beck, T. J.; Feldmesser, H. S.; Magee, T. C.; Spisz, T. S.; Pisacane, V. L.

2001-01-01

345

Advanced computer techniques for inverse modeling of electric current in cardiac tissue  

SciTech Connect

For many years, ECG`s and vector cardiograms have been the tools of choice for non-invasive diagnosis of cardiac conduction problems, such as found in reentrant tachycardia or Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome. Through skillful analysis of these skin-surface measurements of cardiac generated electric currents, a physician can deduce the general location of heart conduction irregularities. Using a combination of high-fidelity geometry modeling, advanced mathematical algorithms and massively parallel computing, Sandia`s approach would provide much more accurate information and thus allow the physician to pinpoint the source of an arrhythmia or abnormal conduction pathway.

Hutchinson, S.A.; Romero, L.A.; Diegert, C.F.

1996-08-01

346

Advanced microprocessor based power protection system using artificial neural network techniques  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes an intelligent embedded microprocessor based system for fault classification in power system protection system using advanced 32-bit microprocessor technology. The paper demonstrates the development of protective relay to provide overcurrent protection schemes for fault detection. It also describes a method for power fault classification in three-phase system based on the use of neural network technology. The proposed design is implemented and tested on a single line three phase power system in power laboratory. Both the hardware and software development are described in detail.

Chen, Z.; Kalam, A.; Zayegh, A. [Victoria Univ. of Technology, Melbourne , Victoria (Australia). Save Energy Research Group

1995-12-31

347

Use of advanced SAR monitoring techniques for the assessment of the behaviour of old embankment dams  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The need of reliable monitoring of old embankment dams is rapidly increasing since a large number of these structures are still equipped with old monitoring devices, usually installed some decades ago, which are generally capable to provide only localized information on specific areas of the embankment. This work discusses the use of Ground-Based Synthetic Aperture Radar (GBSAR) interferometry technique to observe and control the structural behavior of earthfill or rockfill embankments for dam impoundments. This non-invasive technique provides displacements patterns measured with sub-millimeter precision. Monitoring strategies of earthfill dam embankment in Southern Italy are presented.

Mascolo, Luigi; Nico, Giovanni; Di Pasquale, Andrea; Pitullo, Alfredo

2014-10-01

348

Image enhancement and advanced information extraction techniques for ERTS-1 data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The author has identified the following significant results. It was demonstrated and concluded that: (1) the atmosphere has significant effects on ERTS MSS data which can seriously degrade recognition performance; (2) the application of selected signature extension techniques serve to reduce the deleterious effects of both the atmosphere and changing ground conditions on recognition performance; and (3) a proportion estimation algorithm for overcoming problems in acreage estimation accuracy resulting from the coarse spatial resolution of the ERTS MSS, was able to significantly improve acreage estimation accuracy over that achievable by conventional techniques, especially for high contrast targets such as lakes and ponds.

Malila, W. A. (principal investigator); Nalepka, R. F.; Sarno, J. E.

1975-01-01

349

POC-scale testing of an advanced fine coal dewatering equipment/technique. Quarterly progress report, July - September 1996  

SciTech Connect

The advanced fine-coal cleaning techniques such as column flotation, recovers a low-ash ultra-fine size clean-coal product. However, economical dewatering of the clean coal product to less than 20 percent moisture using conventional technology is difficult. This research program objective is to evaluate a novel coal surface modification technique developed at the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research in conjunction with conventional and advanced dewatering technique at a pilot scale. The study which is in progress is being conducted at the Powell Mountain Coal Company`s Mayflower preparation plant located in St. Charles, VA. During this quarter laboratory dewatering studies were conducted using a 4-in diameter laboratory chemical centrifuge. The baseline data provided a filter cake with about 32% moisture. Addition of 0.3 kg/t of a cationic surfactant lowered the moisture to 29%. Addition of anionic and non-ionic surfactant was not effective in reducing the filter cake moisture content. In the pilot scale studies, a comparison was conducted between the high pressure and vacuum dewatering techniques. The base line data with high pressure and vacuum filtration provided filter cakes with 23.6% and 27.8% moisture, respectively. Addition of 20 g/t of cationic flocculent provided 21% filter cake moisture using the high pressure filter. A 15% moisture filter cake was obtained using 1.5 kg/t of non-ionic surfactant. Vacuum filter provided about 23% to 25% moisture product with additional reagents. The high pressure filter processed about 3 to 4 times more solids compared to vacuum filter.

Tao, D.; Groppo, J.G.; Parekh, B.K.

1996-10-01

350

Midstromal isolated Bowman layer graft for reduction of advanced keratoconus: a technique to postpone penetrating or deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty.  

PubMed

Midstromal implant of an isolated Bowman layer graft is a new approach to reduce ectasia in eyes with advanced keratoconus. The procedure should postpone penetrating or deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty. Ten eyes of 9 patients with progressive, advanced keratoconus and contact lens intolerance underwent the procedure with no intraoperative adverse events. Throughout the study period, we observed no complications related to stromal dissection and/or the Bowman layer graft. Maximum corneal power decreased from a mean (SD) of 74.5 (7.1) diopters (D) before to 68.3 (5.6) D after surgery (P?=?.002). Hence, implant of an isolated Bowman layer graft may offer a safe and effective new technique to reduce ectasia in eyes with advanced keratoconus, potentially allowing continued long-term contact lens wear. The low risk of complications may render the procedure suitable as a treatment to postpone penetrating or deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty in cases with impending contact lens intolerance and/or corneal scarring (clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT01686906). PMID:24557359

van Dijk, Korine; Parker, Jack; Tong, C Maya; Ham, Lisanne; Lie, Jessica T; Groeneveld-van Beek, Esther A; Melles, Gerrit R J

2014-04-01

351

Advanced SuperDARN meteor wind observations based on raw time series analysis technique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The meteor observation technique based on SuperDARN raw time series analysis has been upgraded. This technique extracts meteor information as biproducts and does not degrade the quality of normal SuperDARN operations. In the upgrade the radar operating system (RADOPS) has been modified so that it can oversample every 15 km during the normal operations, which have a range resolution of 45 km. As an alternative method for better range determination a frequency domain interferometry (FDI) capability was also coded in RADOPS, where the operating radio frequency can be changed every pulse sequence. Test observations were conducted using the CUTLASS Iceland East and Finland radars, where oversampling and FDI operation (two frequencies separated by 3 kHz) were simultaneously carried out. Meteor ranges obtained in both ranging techniques agreed very well. The ranges were then combined with the interferometer data to estimate meteor echo reflection heights. Although there were still some ambiguities in the arrival angles of echoes because of the rather long antenna spacing of the interferometers, the heights and arrival angles of most of meteor echoes were more accurately determined than previously. Wind velocities were successfully estimated over the height range of 84 to 110 km. The FDI technique developed here can be further applied to the common SuperDARN operation, and study of fine horizontal structures of F region plasma irregularities is expected in the future.

Tsutsumi, M.; Yukimatu, A. S.; Holdsworth, D. A.; Lester, M.

2009-04-01

352

Advances in Diagnosis and Monitoring of the human quantum informational field with GDV technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent applications of the GDV Technique - Evoked Bioelectrography Responses of biological subjects - is under consideration. Overview of the results in the following areas are presented: examination of the bronchial patients of various course of disease; estimation of readiness for the competitive activity among elite athletes; Frontier Science Study; study of water and liquids. The data presented demonstrate high

Konstantin G. Korotkov

353

Advanced Techniques for Reservoir Simulation and Modeling of Non-Conventional Wells  

SciTech Connect

Research results for the second year of this project on the development of improved modeling techniques for non-conventional (e.g., horizontal, deviated or multilateral) wells were presented. The overall program entails the development of enhanced well modeling and general simulation capabilities. A general formulation for black-oil and compositional reservoir simulation was presented.

Durlofsky, Louis J.; Aziz, Khalid

2001-08-23

354

Using Essential Oils to Teach Advanced-Level Organic Chemistry Separation Techniques and Spectroscopy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students sometimes have difficulty grasping the importance of when and how basic distillation techniques, column chromatography, TLC, and basic spectroscopy (IR and NMR) can be used to identify unknown compounds within a mixture. This two-part experiment uses mixtures of pleasant-smelling, readily available terpenoid compounds as unknowns to…

Bott, Tina M.; Wan, Hayley

2013-01-01

355

Carbon dioxide capture and separation techniques for advanced power generation point sources  

SciTech Connect

The capture/separation step for carbon dioxide (CO2) from large-point sources is a critical one with respect to the technical feasibility and cost of the overall carbon sequestration scenario. For large-point sources, such as those found in power generation, the carbon dioxide capture techniques being investigated by the in-house research area of the National Energy Technology Laboratory possess the potential for improved efficiency and costs as compared to more conventional technologies. The investigated techniques can have wide applications, but the research has focused on capture/separation of carbon dioxide from flue gas (postcombustion from fossil fuel-fired combustors) and from fuel gas (precombustion, such as integrated gasification combined cycle – IGCC). With respect to fuel gas applications, novel concepts are being developed in wet scrubbing with physical absorption; chemical absorption with solid sorbents; and separation by membranes. In one concept, a wet scrubbing technique is being investigated that uses a physical solvent process to remove CO2 from fuel gas of an IGCC system at elevated temperature and pressure. The need to define an ideal solvent has led to the study of the solubility and mass transfer properties of various solvents. Fabrication techniques and mechanistic studies for hybrid membranes separating CO2 from the fuel gas produced by coal gasification are also being performed. Membranes that consist of CO2-philic silanes incorporated into an alumina support or ionic liquids encapsulated into a polymeric substrate have been investigated for permeability and selectivity. An overview of two novel techniques is presented along with a research progress status of each technology.

Pennline, H.W.; Luebke, D.R.; Morsi, B.I.; Heintz, Y.J.; Jones, K.L.; Ilconich, J.B.

2006-09-01

356

Development of nanomaterial-enabled advanced oxidation techniques for treatment of organic micropollutants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Increasing demand for limited fresh water resources necessitates that alternative water sources be developed. Nonpotable reuse of treated wastewater represents one such alternative. However, the ubiquitous presence of organic micropollutants such as pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in wastewater effluents limits use of this resource. Numerous investigations have examined PPCP fate during wastewater treatment, focusing on their removal during conventional and advanced treatment processes. Analysis of influent and effluent data from published studies reveals that at best 1-log10 concentration unit of PPCP removal can generally be achieved with conventional treatment. In contrast, plants employing advanced treatment methods, particularly ozonation and/or membranes, remove most PPCPs often to levels below analytical detection limits. However, membrane treatment is cost prohibitive for many facilities, and ozone treatment can be very selective. Ozone-recalcitrant compounds require the use of Advanced Oxidation Processes (AOPs), which utilize highly reactive hydroxyl radicals (*OH) to target resistant pollutants. Due to cost and energy use concerns associated with current AOPs, alternatives such as catalytic ozonation are under investigation. Catalytic ozonation uses substrates such as activated carbon to promote *OH formation during ozonation. Here, we show that multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) represent another viable substrate, promoting *OH formation during ozonation to levels exceeding activated carbon and equivalent to conventional ozone-based AOPs. Via a series of batch reactions, we observ a strong correlation between *OH formation and MWCNT surface oxygen concentrations. Results suggest that deprotonated carboxyl groups on the CNT surface are integral to their reactivity toward ozone and corresponding *OH formation. From a practical standpoint, we show that industrial grade MWCNTs exhibit similar *OH production as their research-grade counterparts. Accelerated aging studies indicate that MWCNTs maintain surface reactivity for an extended period during ozonation treatment. Further, *OH generation is essentially unaffected in complex water matrices containing known radical scavengers, and is effective for degradation of the ozone-recalcitrant herbicide atrazine. A proof-of-concept study verified that results from batch systems can be replicated in a flow-through reactor utilizing MWCNTs immobilized on a ceramic membrane support. Collective, results suggest that CNT-enhanced ozonation may provide a viable treatment alternative for emerging organic micropollutants.

Oulton, Rebekah Lynn

357

Structural changes of humic acids from sinking organic matter and surface sediments investigated by advanced solid-state NMR: Insights into sources, preservation and molecularly uncharacterized components  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Knowledge of the structural changes that particulate organic matter (POM) undergoes in natural systems is essential for determining its reactivity and fate. In the present study, we used advanced solid-state NMR techniques to investigate the chemical structures of sinking particulate matter collected at different depths as well as humic acids (HAs) extracted from these samples and underlying sediments from the Saguenay Fjord and the St. Lawrence Lower Estuary (Canada). Compared to bulk POM, HAs contain more non-polar alkyls, aromatics, and aromatic C-O, but less carbohydrates (or carbohydrate-like structures). In the two locations studied, the C and N contents of the samples (POM and HAs) decreased with depth and after deposition onto sediments, leaving N-poor but O-enriched HAs and suggesting the involvement of partial oxidation reactions during POM microbial degradation. Advanced NMR techniques revealed that, compared to the water-column HAs, sedimentary HAs contained more protonated aromatics, non-protonated aromatics, aromatic C-O, carbohydrates (excluding anomerics), anomerics, OC q, O-C q-O, OCH, and OCH 3 groups, but less non-polar alkyls, NCH, and mobile CH 2 groups. These results are consistent with the relatively high reactivity of lipids and proteins or peptides. In contrast, carbohydrate-like structures were selectively preserved and appeared to be involved in substitution and copolymerization reactions. Some of these trends support the selective degradation (or selective preservation) theory. The results provide insights into mechanisms that likely contribute to the preservation of POM and the formation of molecules that escape characterization by traditional methods. Despite the depletion of non-polar alkyls with depth in HAs, a significant portion of their general structure survived and can be assigned to a model phospholipid. In addition, little changes in the connectivities of different functional groups were observed. Substituted and copolymerized carbohydrates and fused-ring aromatics detected in the present study likely represented an important part of molecularly uncharacterized components (MUC).

Mao, Jingdong; Tremblay, Luc; Gagné, Jean-Pierre

2011-12-01

358

Microprobing the Molecular Spatial Distribution and Structural Architecture of Feed-type Sorghum Seed Tissue (Sorghum Bicolor L.) using the Synchrotron Radiation Infrared Microspectroscopy Technique  

SciTech Connect

Sorghum seed (Sorghum bicolor L.) has unique degradation and fermentation behaviours compared with other cereal grains such as wheat, barley and corn. This may be related to its cell and cell-wall architecture. The advanced synchrotron radiation infrared microspectroscopy (SR-IMS) technique enables the study of cell or living cell biochemistry within cellular dimensions. The objective of this study was to use the SR-IMS imaging technique to microprobe molecular spatial distribution and cell architecture of the sorghum seed tissue comprehensively. High-density mapping was carried out using SR-IMS on beamline U2B at the National Synchrotron Light Source (Brookhaven National Laboratory, NY, USA). Molecular images were systematically recorded from the outside to the inside of the seed tissue under various chemical functional groups and their ratios [peaks at {approx}1725 (carbonyl C=O ester), 1650 (amide I), 1657 (protein secondary structure {alpha}-helix), 1628 (protein secondary structure {beta}-sheet), 1550 (amide II), 1515 (aromatic compounds of lignin), 1428, 1371, 1245 (cellulosic compounds in plant seed tissue), 1025 (non-structural CHO, starch granules), 1246 (cellulosic material), 1160 (CHO), 1150 (CHO), 1080 (CHO), 930 (CHO), 860 (CHO), 3350 (OH and NH stretching), 2960 (CH{sub 3} anti-symmetric), 2929 (CH{sub 2} anti-symmetric), 2877 (CH{sub 3} symmetric) and 2848 cm{sup -1} (CH{sub 2} asymmetric)]. The relative protein secondary structure {alpha}-helix to {beta}-sheet ratio image, protein amide I to starch granule ratio image, and anti-symmetric CH{sub 3} to CH{sub 2} ratio image were also investigated within the intact sorghum seed tissue. The results showed unique cell architecture, and the molecular spatial distribution and intensity in the sorghum seed tissue (which were analyzed through microprobe molecular imaging) were generated using SR-IMS. This imaging technique and methodology has high potential and could be used for scientists to develop specific cereal grain varieties with targeted food and feed quality, and can also be used to monitor the degree of grain maturity, grain damage, the fate of organic contaminants and the effect of chemical treatment on plant and grain seeds.

P Yu

2011-12-31

359

Advanced space power requirements and techniques. Task 1: Mission projections and requirements. Volume 1: Technical report  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objectives of this study were to: (1) develop projections of the NASA, DoD, and civil space power requirements for the 1980-1995 time period; (2) identify specific areas of application and space power subsystem type needs for each prospective user; (3) document the supporting and historical base, including relevant cost related measures of performance; and (4) quantify the benefits of specific technology projection advancements. The initial scope of the study included: (1) construction of likely models for NASA, DoD, and civil space systems; (2) generation of a number of future scenarios; (3) extraction of time phased technology requirements based on the scenarios; and (4) cost/benefit analyses of some of the technologies identified.

Wolfe, M. G.

1978-01-01

360

Advanced data visualization and sensor fusion: Conversion of techniques from medical imaging to Earth science  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Hughes Aircraft Company and the University of Chicago propose to transfer existing medical imaging registration algorithms to the area of multi-sensor data fusion. The University of Chicago's algorithms have been successfully demonstrated to provide pixel by pixel comparison capability for medical sensors with different characteristics. The research will attempt to fuse GOES (Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite), AVHRR (Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer), and SSM/I (Special Sensor Microwave Imager) sensor data which will benefit a wide range of researchers. The algorithms will utilize data visualization and algorithm development tools created by Hughes in its EOSDIS (Earth Observation SystemData/Information System) prototyping. This will maximize the work on the fusion algorithms since support software (e.g. input/output routines) will already exist. The research will produce a portable software library with documentation for use by other researchers.

Savage, Richard C.; Chen, Chin-Tu; Pelizzari, Charles; Ramanathan, Veerabhadran

1993-01-01

361

Acceleration of molecular mechanic simulation by parallelization and fast multipole techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

Simulations of classical molecular dynamic (MD) systems can be sped up considerably by parallelizing the existing codes for distributed memory machines. In classical MD the CPU time is typically a function of the square of the number of atoms. The size of the molecular system which can be solved is therefore often limited by the CPU available. There are different

Horst Schwichtenberg; G. Winter; H. Wallmeier

1999-01-01

362

Epidemiology of Pediatric Tuberculosis Using Traditional and Molecular Techniques: Houston, Texas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. To investigate the transmis- sion dynamics of pediatric tuberculosis (TB) by analyz- ing the clinical characteristics with the molecular profiles of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates during a 5-year period. Methods. A retrospective review of a prospective population-based active surveillance and molecular epi- demiology project was conducted in private and public pediatric clinics within Houston and Harris County, Texas. The study

Susan H. Wootton; Blanca E. Gonzalez; Rebecca Pawlak; Larry D. Teeter; Kim Connelly Smith; James M. Musser; Jeffrey R. Starke; Edward A. Graviss

2010-01-01

363

Advances on molecular mechanism of the adaptive evolution of Chiroptera (bats).  

PubMed

As the second biggest animal group in mammals, Chiroptera (bats) demonstrates many unique adaptive features in terms of flight, echolocation, auditory acuity, feeding habit, hibernation and immune defense, providing an excellent system for understanding the molecular basis of how organisms adapt to the living environments encountered. In this review, we summarize the researches on the molecular mechanism of the adaptive evolution of Chiroptera, especially the recent researches at the genome levels, suggesting a far more complex evolutionary pattern and functional diversity than previously thought. In the future, along with the increasing numbers of Chiroptera species genomes available, new evolutionary patterns and functional divergence will be revealed, which can promote the further understanding of this animal group and the molecular mechanism of adaptive evolution. PMID:25608810

Yunpeng, Liang; Li, Yu

2015-01-20

364

Advanced sensing and control techniques to facilitate semi-autonomous decommissioning. 1998 annual progress report  

SciTech Connect

'This research is intended to advance the technology of semi-autonomous teleoperated robotics as applied to Decontamination and Decommissioning (D and D) tasks. Specifically, research leading to a prototype dual-manipulator mobile work cell is underway. This cell is supported and enhanced by computer vision, virtual reality and advanced robotics technology. This report summarizes work after approximately 1.5 years of a 3-year project. The autonomous, non-contact creation of a virtual environment from an existing, real environment (virtualization) is an integral part of the workcell functionality. This requires that the virtual world be geometrically correct. To this end, the authors have encountered severe sensitivity in quadric estimation. As a result, alternative procedures for geometric rendering, iterative correction approaches, new calibration methods and associated hardware, and calibration quality examination software have been developed. Following geometric rendering, the authors have focused on improving the color and texture recognition components of the system. In particular, the authors have moved beyond first-order illumination modeling to include higher order diffuse effects. This allows us to combine the surface geometric information, obtained from the laser projection and surface recognition components of the system, with a stereo camera image. Low-level controllers for Puma 560 robotic arms were designed and implemented using QNX. The resulting QNX/PC based low-level robot control system is called QRobot. A high-level trajectory generator and application programming interface (API) as well as a new, flexible robot control API was required. Force/torque sensors and interface hardware have been identified and ordered. A simple 3-D OpenGL-based graphical Puma 560 robot simulator was developed and interfaced with ARCL and RCCL to assist in the development of robot motion programs.'

Schalkoff, R.J.; Geist, R.M.; Dawson, D.M.

1998-06-01

365

Integration of Advanced Probabilistic Analysis Techniques with Multi-Physics Models  

SciTech Connect

An integrated simulation platform that couples probabilistic analysis-based tools with model-based simulation tools can provide valuable insights for reactive and proactive responses to plant operating conditions. The objective of this work is to demonstrate the benefits of a partial implementation of the Small Modular Reactor (SMR) Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) Detailed Framework Specification through the coupling of advanced PRA capabilities and accurate multi-physics plant models. Coupling a probabilistic model with a multi-physics model will aid in design, operations, and safety by providing a more accurate understanding of plant behavior. This represents the first attempt at actually integrating these two types of analyses for a control system used for operations, on a faster than real-time basis. This report documents the development of the basic communication capability to exchange data with the probabilistic model using Reliability Workbench (RWB) and the multi-physics model using Dymola. The communication pathways from injecting a fault (i.e., failing a component) to the probabilistic and multi-physics models were successfully completed. This first version was tested with prototypic models represented in both RWB and Modelica. First, a simple event tree/fault tree (ET/FT) model was created to develop the software code to implement the communication capabilities between the dynamic-link library (dll) and RWB. A program, written in C#, successfully communicates faults to the probabilistic model through the dll. A systems model of the Advanced Liquid-Metal Reactor–Power Reactor Inherently Safe Module (ALMR-PRISM) design developed under another DOE project was upgraded using Dymola to include proper interfaces to allow data exchange with the control application (ConApp). A program, written in C+, successfully communicates faults to the multi-physics model. The results of the example simulation were successfully plotted.

Cetiner, Mustafa Sacit; none,; Flanagan, George F. [ORNL] [ORNL; Poore III, Willis P. [ORNL] [ORNL; Muhlheim, Michael David [ORNL] [ORNL

2014-07-30

366

Cervical brachytherapy technique for locally advanced carcinoma of the cervix in a patient with septate uterus  

PubMed Central

Purpose To describe an approach to cervical brachytherapy in a patient with congenital septate uterus and locally advanced cervical carcinoma. Material and methods The patient is a 34-year-old female with septate uterus presenting with pelvic pain. Workup demonstrated a stage IIB cervical adenocarcinoma with imaging evidence of an involved right external iliac lymph node. The patient received whole pelvic radiation, with concurrent weekly cisplatin (40 mg/m2), to a dose of 45 Gy in 25 fractions followed by a parametrial boost of 5.4 Gy and an additional nodal boost of 9 Gy. Results The patient was initiated on cervical brachytherapy following fraction 23 of pelvic radiation. To conform to her septated uterus, a Rotte-Y tandem was used. Additionally, 2 CT-compatible ovoids were placed in the vaginal apex to enhance dose distribution and coverage of the target volume. Each fraction of brachytherapy was performed with CT-based planning. A high-risk clinical target volume (HR-CTV) and normal structures were defined and constrained per American Brachytherapy Society (ABS) and Groupe Européen de Curiethérapie/European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology (GEC-ESTRO) guidelines. The brachytherapy dose was 27.5 Gy in 5 fractions of 5.5 Gy each, prescribed to the HR-CTV. Conclusions Herein, we report the first documented case of cervical brachytherapy in a patient with septate uterus and locally advanced cervical carcinoma. Using CT-guided planning, in conjunction with the ABS and GEC-ESTRO guidelines, the patient was effectively treated with adapted cervical brachytherapy, meeting criteria for HR-CTV coverage and normal tissue tolerances. PMID:24790625

Wallace, Charlie; Gondi, Vinai; Das, Rupak; Straub, Margaret; Al-Niaimi, Ahmed; Applegate, Glenn; Bradley, Kristin A.

2014-01-01

367

Advanced Time-domain Calibrations and Data-reductionTechniques with HST/COS.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Hubble Space Telescope/Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (HST/COS) detectors have a time-tag mode of observation in which the arrival time of each photon is recorded individually. Although the COS calibration pipeline (CalCOS) makes use of this capability in many aspects of routine processing, there remains a number other ways that this information can be used to improve the calibration for specific science cases. This has led to the development of tools and techniques to perform additional calibrations that are not part of the standard data products output by CalCOS, but have been made available to the user. Here we demonstrate a few of these techniques including day/night filtering, extracting spectra on sub-exposure timescales, producing photometric light-curves, and performing additional dark-count screening.

Ely, Justin; Bostroem, K. Azalee; Debes, John H.; Hernandez, Svea; Hodge, Philip; Jedrzejewski, Robert I.; Lindsay, Kevin; Massa, Derck; Oliveira, Cristina M.; Penton, Steven V.; Proffitt, Charles R.; Roman-Duval, Julia; Sahnow, David J.; Sana, Hugues; Sonnentrucker, Paule; Taylor, Joanna M.

2014-06-01

368

POC-SCALE TESTING OF AN ADVANCED FINE COAL DEWATERING EQUIPMENT/TECHNIQUE  

SciTech Connect

The main objective of the proposed program is to evaluate a novel surface modification technique, which utilizes the synergistic effect of metal ions-surfactant combination, for dewatering of ultra-fine clean coal on a proof-of-concept scale of 1 to 2 tph. The novel surface modification technique developed at the UKCAER will be evaluated using vacuum, centrifuge, and hyperbaric filtration equipment. Dewatering tests will be conducted using the fine clean-coal froth produced by the column flotation units at the Powell Mountain Coal Company, Mayflower Preparation Plant in St. Charles, Virginia. The POC-scale studies will be conducted on two different types of clean coal, namely, high-sulfur and low-sulfur clean coal. The Mayflower Plant processes coals from five different seams, thus the dewatering studies results could be generalized for most of the bituminous coals.

B.K. PAREKH; D. TAO; J.G. GROPPO

1998-02-03

369

Advanced fabrication techniques for hydrogen-cooled engine structures. Final report, October 1975June 1982  

Microsoft Academic Search

Described is a program for development of coolant passage geometries, material systems, and joining processes that will produce long-life hydrogen-cooled structures for scramjet applications. Tests were performed to establish basic material properties, and samples constructed and evaluated to substantiate fabrication processes and inspection techniques. Results of the study show that the basic goal of increasing the life of hydrogen-cooled structures

O. A. Buchmann; V. V. Arefian; H. A. Warren; A. A. Vuigner; M. J. Pohlman

1985-01-01

370

Advanced techniques for integrating geographic data for energy research and technology  

SciTech Connect

Maps are used by scientists and decision makers in almost every field of study. In fact, with the advent of digital data processing techniques and with the increased availability of electronic devices for digitally coding spatial data and for translating digital information into images, digital cartography has itself become a field of study. Digital cartography enables quick and accurate merging of data from a variety of sources and provides high quality output in several formats. The Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) has developed a Geographic Data Integration and Display (GINDIS) system, which consists of a series of computer programs developed during the last few years. The GINDIS system was developed to enhance the usefulness of spatial data sets by increasing the accuracy and content of the maps presenting the data. The computer is used to help produce these maps, which are often derived from several independent data sets. However, the high quality of the map products is credited to the careful and creative application of the computer to specific problems. Although the GINDIS system is used as a research tool and should not be thought of as a turn key or production system, many of the techniques used may be adopted for such a system. The GINDIS system is described through a discussion of several of the techniques used in processing map data, along with a presentation of some sample maps that illustrate the application of these techniques. In addition, we describe the computer facility at PNL, formats used for handling map data, methods for dealing with problems of scale and registration, and procedures for merging and overlaying data sets to enhance the final output.

Blair, S.C.; Foote, H.P.; Wulkelic, G.E.

1982-06-01

371

Analysis of liquid penetration in paper structures by advanced imaging techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ink penetration in paper is influenced by the structure of the interfiber and intrafiber void spaces and the surface characteristics of the fibers. This dissertation describes new techniques to determine the influence of the fiber surfaces and the cell wall internal structure on ink spreading and penetration. The location and penetration of ink is demonstrated by optical, scanning electron, confocal laser scanning, and transmission electron (TEM) microscopy methods. Ink penetration, as determined by each of these methods, is compared. The hemicelluloses of the fiber's internal void surfaces can be determined by immunochemical labeling in conjunction with TEM imaging. It is demonstrated through the use of primary monoclonal antibodies with specificity for hemicelluloses with a secondary colloidal gold marker. This technique provides a way to visualize the location of hemicelluloses inside the cell wall and on the surfaces of nanopores. Combining paper structure with fluid spreading and wicking models can identify the influence of fiber surfaces and the cell wall on drop absorption. Ink spreading coefficients for such modeling are determined through a series of designed experiments (DoE) and comparisons to a theoretical sessile drop. Application: Microscopic techniques used to determine biological and physical locations in plants on a fibrous level also can be used to study ink diffusion, water uptake, and other characteristics of fibrous material. Key Words: Immunolableing of hemicelluloses, DoE, drop spread modeling, ink diffusion.

Arthur, Beth Ann

372

Multispectral indices and advanced classification techniques to detect percent residue cover over agricultural crops using Landsat data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Detecting and quantifying crop residue cover on agricultural fields is essential in identifying conservation tillage practices and estimating carbon sequestration, both of which are important goals within the Agricultural Policy Framework of Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada. Crop residue is traditionally measured using ground survey techniques such as the line-transect method or visual (drive-by) assessment but these techniques are tedious, time-consuming and subjective. With the increased number of advanced earth observation satellites, remote sensing has now become a viable option for mapping agricultural land management practices and percent crop residue cover. A wide variety of indices such as the Normalized Difference Index (NDI) and the Modified Soil Adjusted Crop Residue Index (MSACRI) were developed using multispectral data for this purpose but results have been mixed. Advanced classification techniques including linear spectral mixture analysis (SMA) and spectral angle mapper (SAM) provide an alternative to derive percent crop residue cover. Landsat-7 SLC-Off data were acquired over an agricultural study site in Eastern Ontario on May 25 2005. Simultaneous ground data were collected to characterize residue type, position, direction and percent cover. NDI, MSACRI, SMA and SAM were all computed and used to derive percent crop residue cover information. Preliminary results indicate that the SMA model predicts percent crop residue cover over agricultural fields with the most success, especially over fields of corn residue with an R2 value of 0.85 (RMSE of 12.46 and D of 0.99). However, further investigation is needed where residue models are validated against a larger dataset with greater variability in percent crop residue cover.

Pacheco, Anna; McNairn, Heather; Smith, Anne M.

2006-08-01

373

Sedimentation Coefficient, Frictional Coefficient, and Molecular Weight: A Preparative Ultracentrifuge Experiment for the Advanced Undergraduate Laboratory.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an experiment using a high-speed preparative centrifuge and calculator to demonstrate effects of the frictional coefficient of a macromolecule on its rate of transport in a force field and to estimate molecular weight of the macromolecule using an empirical relationship. Background information, procedures, and discussion of results are…

Halsall, H. B.; Wermeling, J. R.

1982-01-01

374

Advanced Technologies for the Improvement of Spray Application Techniques in Spanish Viticulture: An Overview  

PubMed Central

Spraying techniques have been undergoing continuous evolution in recent decades. This paper presents part of the research work carried out in Spain in the field of sensors for characterizing vineyard canopies and monitoring spray drift in order to improve vineyard spraying and make it more sustainable. Some methods and geostatistical procedures for mapping vineyard parameters are proposed, and the development of a variable rate sprayer is described. All these technologies are interesting in terms of adjusting the amount of pesticides applied to the target canopy. PMID:24451462

Gil, Emilio; Arnó, Jaume; Llorens, Jordi; Sanz, Ricardo; Llop, Jordi; Rosell-Polo, Joan R.; Gallart, Montserrat; Escolà, Alexandre

2014-01-01

375

Advances in fatigue lifetime predictive techniques; Proceedings of the Symposium, San Francisco, CA, Apr. 24, 1990  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent progress in the development of methods to predict fatigue performance of materials and structures is reviewed. Attention is given to general approaches to fatigue mechanics, elevated temperature phenomena, spectrum loading, the multiaxial behavior, and applications. Particular attention is given to a fracture-mechanics-based model for cumulative damage assessment, thermo-mechanical fatigue life prediction methods, a probabilistic fracture mechanics approach for structural reliability assessment of space flight systems, a multiaxial fatigue life estimation technique, plasticity and fatigue damage modeling of severely loaded tubing, damage evaluation in composite materials using thermographic stress analysis, and fatigue lifetime monitoring in power plants.

Mitchell, M. R.; Landgraf, R. W.

376

Advanced combination of laser and synchrotron techniques to study minerals at extreme conditions in the time-domain mode (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the past two decades, high pressure research has made breakthrough progress in many fields of science mainly due to significant advances in development of both high pressure vessels (diamond anvil cell and large volume press) and high brilliance synchrotron based techniques, including high resolution x-ray micro-diffraction, x-ray spectroscopy (absorption, emission, resonance), micro-imaging, inelastic and nuclear resonance scattering. Combination of double-sided laser heating with synchrotron x-ray radiation has stimulated synthesis and investigation of new materials with unique composition and properties in-situ at high temperatures and high pressures in the diamond anvil cell. Equation of state, structure, phase transformations, element partitioning, electronic and optical properties of various minerals (single crystal, powder, nano-crystalline, amorphous solid and fluids) have been successfully studied at extreme conditions with help of the lasers and x-ray beams. Recent developments in pulse laser heating technique, including application of fiber lasers and flat top laser beam shaping optics, result in significant improvement in synthesis of new metastable materials with tuneable composition and properties controlled in-situ with high resolution x-ray and optical techniques in time-domain mode. To study elastic properties of opaque minerals in situ at high pressure and temperature we have combined laser ultrasonic with laser heating techniques. The shear and longitudinal wave velocities were measured for iron at pressures up to 60 GPa in the diamond anvil cell. The details and application of the synchrotron and optical techniques for studies unique physical and chemical properties of minerals in-situ at extreme conditions will be discussed on example of iron-bearing materials.

Prakapenka, V.; Zinin, P.; Goncharov, A.; Zhuravlev, K. K.; Tkachev, S. N.

2013-12-01

377

Noninvasive determination of the location and distribution of DNAPL using advanced seismic reflection techniques.  

PubMed

Recent advances in seismic reflection amplitude analysis (e.g., amplitude versus offset-AVO, bright spot mapping) technology to directly detect the presence of subsurface DNAPL (e.g., CCl4) were applied to 216-Z-9 crib, 200 West Area, DOE Hanford Site, Washington. Modeling to determine what type of anomaly might be present was performed. Model results were incorporated in the interpretation of the seismic data to determine the location of any seismic amplitude anomalies associated with the presence of high concentrations of CCl4. Seismic reflection profiles were collected and analyzed for the presence of DNAPL. Structure contour maps of the contact between the Hanford fine unit and the Plio/Pleistocene unit and between the Plio/Pleistocene unit and the caliche layer were interpreted to determine potential DNAPL flow direction. Models indicate that the contact between the Plio/Pleistocene unit and the caliche should have a positive reflection coefficient. When high concentrations of CCl4 are present, the reflection coefficient of this interface displays a noticeable positive increase in the seismic amplitude (i.e., bright spot). Amplitude data contoured on the Plio/Pleistocene-caliche boundary display high values indicating the presence of DNAPL to the north and east of the crib area. The seismic data agree well with the well control in areas of high concentrations of CCl4. PMID:11341013

Temples, T J; Waddell, M G; Domoracki, W J; Eyer, J

2001-01-01

378

QA procedures needed for advanced RT techniques and its impact on treatment outcome  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The radiotherapy process is reviewed briefly and potential risks or pitfalls are identified. The focus is on modern advanced modalities in radiation therapy such as IMRT, VMAT, gating and tracking and also for the unknown to come. Existing methods, or quality controls (QC), or with better word barriers, are introduced at important steps of process with the purpose of prohibiting errors to continue through the process and thus avoiding an unwanted erroneous irradiation of the patient. The soft branch of quality assurance (QA) such as peer-review is also a major component of today's process and its safety. The importance of knowing your QCs is pointed out. The role of dosimetry method i.e. 3D-dosimetry is reviewed. Staff have to be working with awareness and alertness that can reduce most of the risks. Having comprehensive protocols known by all involved together with well-trained staff at the department with dedicated functions and responsibilities will further reduce the risk for unintended irradiations of patient. Having a well-designed QA system with the appropriate barriers have the possibility of producing high quality radiotherapy, which will also result in better outcome for the patients. The international head and neck trial illustrates very well the importance of accurate radiotherapy.

Knöös, T.

2015-01-01

379

Advanced numerical techniques for accurate unsteady simulations of a wingtip vortex  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A numerical technique is developed to simulate the vortices associated with stationary and flapping wings. The Unsteady Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (URANS) equations are used over an unstructured grid. The present work assesses the locations of the origins of vortex generation, models those locations and develops a systematic mesh refinement strategy to simulate vortices more accurately using the URANS model. The vortex center plays a key role in the analysis of the simulation data. A novel approach to locating a vortex center is also developed referred to as the Max-Max criterion. Experimental validation of the simulated vortex from a stationary NACA0012 wing is achieved. The tangential velocity along the core of the vortex falls within five percent of the experimental data in the case of the stationary NACA0012 simulation. The wing surface pressure coefficient also matches with the experimental data. The refinement techniques are then focused on unsteady simulations of pitching and dual-mode wing flapping. Tip vortex strength, location, and wing surface pressure are analyzed. Links to vortex behavior and wing motion are inferred. Key words: vortex, tangential velocity, Cp, vortical flow, unsteady vortices, URANS, Max-Max, Vortex center

Ahmad, Shakeel

380

Recent advances in soybean transformation and their application to molecular breeding and genomic analysis  

PubMed Central

Herbicide-resistant transgenic soybean plants hold a leading market share in the USA and other countries, but soybean has been regarded as recalcitrant to transformation for many years. The cumulative and, at times, exponential advances in genetic manipulation have made possible further choices for soybean transformation. The most widely and routinely used transformation systems are cotyledonary node–Agrobacterium-mediated transformation and somatic embryo–particle-bombardment-mediated transformation. These ready systems enable us to improve seed qualities and agronomic characteristics by transgenic approaches. In addition, with the accumulation of soybean genomic resources, convenient or promising approaches will be requisite for the determination and use of gene function in soybean. In this article, we describe recent advances in and problems of soybean transformation, and survey the current transgenic approaches for applied and basic research in Japan. PMID:23136488

Yamada, Tetsuya; Takagi, Kyoko; Ishimoto, Masao

2012-01-01

381

Recent advances in mycotoxin determination in food and feed by hyphenated chromatographic techniques/mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Mycotoxins are fungal toxins produced by molds, which occur universally in food and feed derivatives, and are produced under certain environmental conditions in the field before harvest, post-harvest, during storage, processing, and feeding. Mycotoxin contamination is one of the most relevant and worrisome problem concerning food and feed safety because it can cause a variety of toxic acute and chronic effects in human and animals. In this review we report the use of mass spectrometry in connection with chromatographic techniques for mycotoxin determination by considering separately the most diffuse class of mycotoxins: patulin, aflatoxins, ochratoxin A, zearalenone, trichothecenes, and fumonisins. Although the selectivity of mass spectrometry is unchallenged if compared to common GC and LC detection methods, accuracy, precision, and sensitivity may be extremely variable concerning the different mycotoxins, matrices, and instruments. The sensitivity issue may be a real problem in the case of LC/MS, where the response can be very different for the different ionization techniques (ESI, APCI, APPI). Therefore, when other detection methods (such as fluorescence or UV absorbance) can be used for the quantitative determination, LC/MS appears to be only an outstanding confirmatory technique. In contrast, when the toxins are not volatile and do not bear suitable chromophores or fluorophores, LC/MS appears to be the unique method to perform quantitative and qualitative analyses without requiring any derivatization procedure. The problem of exact quantitative determination in GC/MS and LC/MS methods is particularly important for mycotoxin determination in food, given the high variability of the matrices, and can be solved only by the use of isotopically labeled internal standards or by the use of ionization interfaces able to lower matrix effects and ion suppressions. When the problems linked to inconstant ionization and matrix effects will be solved, only MS detectors will allow to simplify more and more the sample preparation procedures and to avoid clean-up procedures, making feasible low-cost, high-throughput determination of mycotoxins in many different food matrices. PMID:15892148

Sforza, Stefano; Dall'asta, Chiara; Marchelli, Rosangela

2006-01-01

382

Application and development of advanced Lorentz microscopy techniques for the study of magnetic nanostructures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This PhD project presents an investigation into the development of magnetic imaging methods in the TEM and their application in imaging narrow domain walls in multilayer magnetic structures. Lorentz microscopy techniques are limited in quantitative magnetic imaging as this generally requires using scanning imaging modes which limits the capability of imaging dynamic processes. The first imaging method developed in this study is a phase gradient technique with the aim of producing quantitative magnetic contrast proportional to the magnetic induction of the sample whilst maintaining a live imaging mode. This method uses a specifically engineered, semi-electron-transparent graded wedge aperture to controllably perturb intensity in the back focal plane. The results of this study found that this method could produce magnetic contrast proportional to the sample induction, however the required gradient of the wedge aperture made this contrast close to the noise level with large associated errors. In the second part of this study we investigated the development of a technique aimed at gaining sub-microsecond temporal resolution within TEMs based on streak imaging. We are using ramped pulsed magnetic fields, applied across nanowire samples to both induce magnetic behaviour and detect the electron beam across the detector with respect to time. We are coupling this with a novel pixelated detector on the TEM in the form of a Medipix/Timepix chip capable of microsecond exposure times without adding noise. Running this detector in integral mode and allowing for practical limitations such as experiment time and aperture stability, the resultant streak images were taken in Fresnel, Foucault and low angle diffraction imaging modes. We found that while this method is theoretically viable, the limiting factor was the contrast of the magnetic signal in the streak and therefore the total image counts. Domain walls (DWs) in synthetic antiferromagnetically (SAF) coupled films patterned as nanowires offer exciting possibilities; the domain walls in these multilayers have narrower widths and reduced magnetostatic energy compared to those in single layer nanowires. In this study Co90Fe10/Ru/Co90Fe10 films were used to investigate the existence and structure of these walls. Nanowires were fabricated in these films and the DW structure was studied with respect to both wire width and varying magnetic layer thickness. It was found that while the DW structure does not appear to vary with the range of wire widths used, it changed significantly with varying thickness.

Beacham, Robert J.

383

Advanced numerical modeling and hybridization techniques for third-generation infrared detector pixel arrays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Infrared (IR) detectors are well established as a vital sensor technology for military, defense and commercial applications. Due to the expense and effort required to fabricate pixel arrays, it is imperative to develop numerical simulation models to perform predictive device simulations which assess device characteristics and design considerations. Towards this end, we have developed a robust three-dimensional (3D) numerical simulation model for IR detector pixel arrays. We used the finite-difference time-domain technique to compute the optical characteristics including the reflectance and the carrier generation rate in the device. Subsequently, we employ the finite element method to solve the drift-diffusion equations to compute the electrical characteristics including the I(V) characteristics, quantum efficiency, crosstalk and modulation transfer function. We use our 3D numerical model to study a new class of detector based on the nBn-architecture. This detector is a unipolar unity-gain barrier device consisting of a narrow-gap absorber layer, a wide-gap barrier layer, and a narrow-gap collector layer. We use our model to study the underlying physics of these devices and to explain the anomalously long lateral collection lengths for photocarriers measured experimentally. Next, we investigate the crosstalk in HgCdTe photovoltaic pixel arrays employing a photon-trapping (PT) structure realized with a periodic array of pillars intended to provide broadband operation. The PT region drastically reduces the crosstalk; making the use of the PT structures not only useful to obtain broadband operation, but also desirable for reducing crosstalk, especially in small pitch detector arrays. Then, the power and flexibility of the nBn architecture is coupled with a PT structure to engineer spectrally filtering detectors. Last, we developed a technique to reduce the cost of large-format, high performance HgCdTe detectors by nondestructively screen-testing detector arrays prior to their final hybridization onto expensive silicon read-out integrated circuit (ROIC) chips. The approach is to temporarily hybridize each candidate HgCdTe detector array to a standard reusable ROIC for complete screen testing. We tested the technique by temporarily hybridizing LPE grown HgCdTe test chips to fan-out boards and characterizing their performance.

Schuster, Jonathan

384

Individual classification of ADHD patients by integrating multiscale neuroimaging markers and advanced pattern recognition techniques  

PubMed Central

Accurate classification or prediction of the brain state across individual subject, i.e., healthy, or with brain disorders, is generally a more difficult task than merely finding group differences. The former must be approached with highly informative and sensitive biomarkers as well as effective pattern classification/feature selection approaches. In this paper, we propose a systematic methodology to discriminate attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) patients from healthy controls on the individual level. Multiple neuroimaging markers that are proved to be sensitive features are identified, which include multiscale characteristics extracted from blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) signals, such as regional homogeneity (ReHo) and amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations. Functional connectivity derived from Pearson, partial, and spatial correlation is also utilized to reflect the abnormal patterns of functional integration, or, dysconnectivity syndromes in the brain. These neuroimaging markers are calculated on either voxel or regional level. Advanced feature selection approach is then designed, including a brain-wise association study (BWAS). Using identified features and proper feature integration, a support vector machine (SVM) classifier can achieve a cross-validated classification accuracy of 76.15% across individuals from a large dataset consisting of 141 healthy controls and 98 ADHD patients, with the sensitivity being 63.27% and the specificity being 85.11%. Our results show that the most discriminative features for classification are primarily associated with the frontal and cerebellar regions. The proposed methodology is expected to improve clinical diagnosis and evaluation of treatment for ADHD patient, and to have wider applications in diagnosis of general neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID:22888314

Cheng, Wei; Ji, Xiaoxi; Zhang, Jie; Feng, Jianfeng

2012-01-01

385

Advanced Imaging Techniques in the Diagnosis of Nonlesional Epilepsy: MRI, MRS, PET, and SPECT  

PubMed Central

Once patients have a diagnosis of localization related epilepsy (LRE), it is critical to further classify those patients into lesional or nonlesional for treatment and prognostic reasons. An individual with LRE may be classified as nonlesional for two reasons: 1) a lesion may not exist; that is, the structural abnormality that gives rise to seizures may be at the channel level or be spatially distributed in such a way that it would not be accurately termed a lesion, or 2) a lesion exists but is so subtle that standard clinical imaging is not sensitive enough to discriminate between the lesion and surrounding healthy brain tissue. As with any technology and disease process, this definition is dynamic, as we know that future imaging techniques will be developed and new disease mechanisms will be discovered, making detection of the epileptogenic underlying abnormality an ever-changing target. PMID:24940151

Pardoe, Heath; Kuzniecky, Ruben

2014-01-01

386

Beam profile measurements on the advanced test accelerator using optical techniques  

SciTech Connect

Beam current density profiles of ATA have been measured both spatially and temporally using a number of diagnostics. An extremely important technique involves measuring optical emissions from either a target foil inserted into the beam path or gas atoms and molecules excited by beam electrons. This paper describes the detection of the optical emission. A 2-D gated television camera with a single or dual micro-channel-plate (MCP) detector for high gain provides excellent spatial and temporal resolution. Measurements are routinely made with resolutions of 1 mm and 5 ns respectively. The optical line of sight allows splitting part of the signal to a streak camera or photometer for even higher time resolution.

Chong, Y.P.; Kalibjian, R.; Cornish, J.P.; Kallman, J.S.; Donnelly, D.

1986-01-01

387

Recent advances in understanding the molecular mechanisms of the development and function of Th17 cells  

PubMed Central

IL-17-producing T helper (Th17) cells comprise a distinct Th subset involved in epithelial cell- and neutrophil-mediated immune responses against extracellular microbes. At the same time, Th17 cells play significant roles in the development of autoimmune diseases including rheumatoid arthritis and multiple sclerosis. Since the identification of Th17 cells approximately a decade ago, the molecular mechanisms of their differentiation have been intensively studied and a number of signaling cascades and transcription factors have been shown to be involved. Here, we review the current knowledge regarding the function of Th17 cells in vivo as well as several key concepts for the molecular mechanisms of Th17 differentiation. We also discuss the emerging roles of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) and hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) in the differentiation of Th17 cells. PMID:23383714

Kurebayashi, Yutaka; Nagai, Shigenori; Ikejiri, Ai; Koyasu, Shigeo

2013-01-01

388

Fluorescence imaging with near-infrared light: new technological advances that enable in vivo molecular imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   A recent development in biomedical imaging is the non-invasive mapping of molecular events in intact tissues using fluorescence.\\u000a Underpinning to this development is the discovery of bio-compatible, specific fluorescent probes and proteins and the development\\u000a of highly sensitive imaging technologies for in vivo fluorescent detection. Of particular interest are fluorochromes that\\u000a emit in the near infrared (NIR), a spectral

Vasilis Ntziachristos; Christoph Bremer; Ralph Weissleder

2003-01-01

389

Recent Advances And Future Prospective in Molecular Breeding of Cotton For Drought and Salinity Stress Tolerance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fiber from cotton (Gossypium hirsutum and G. barbadense) is a major product in the world economy. It is a botanically unique plant as it is a perennial allotetraploid derived from\\u000a diploid Gossypium species, one of which does not produce lint, which is grown as an annual row crop. Cotton is an especially appropriate system\\u000a for research into the molecular basis

Edward L. Lubbers; Peng W. Chee; Yehoshua Saranga; Andrew H. Paterson

390

Recent advances in developing molecular tools for targeted genome engineering of mammalian cells.  

PubMed

Various biological molecules naturally existing in diversified species including fungi, bacteria, and bacteriophage have functionalities for DNA binding and processing. The biological molecules have been recently actively engineered for use in customized genome editing of mammalian cells as the molecule-encoding DNA sequence information and the underlying mechanisms how the molecules work are unveiled. Excitingly, multiple novel methods based on the newly constructed artificial molecular tools have enabled modifications of specific endogenous genetic elements in the genome context at efficiencies that are much higher than that of the conventional homologous recombination based methods. This minireview introduces the most recently spotlighted molecular genome engineering tools with their key features and ongoing modifications for better performance. Such ongoing efforts have mainly focused on the removal of the inherent DNA sequence recognition rigidity from the original molecular platforms, the addition of newly tailored targeting functions into the engineered molecules, and the enhancement of their targeting specificity. Effective targeted genome engineering of mammalian cells will enable not only sophisticated genetic studies in the context of the genome, but also widely-applicable universal therapeutics based on the pinpointing and correction of the disease-causing genetic elements within the genome in the near future. [BMB Reports 2015; 48(1): 006-012]. PMID:25104401

Lim, Kwang-Il

2015-01-01

391

Multiple time step molecular dynamics in the optimized isokinetic ensemble steered with the molecular theory of solvation: Accelerating with advanced extrapolation of effective solvation forces  

SciTech Connect

We develop efficient handling of solvation forces in the multiscale method of multiple time step molecular dynamics (MTS-MD) of a biomolecule steered by the solvation free energy (effective solvation forces) obtained from the 3D-RISM-KH molecular theory of solvation (three-dimensional reference interaction site model complemented with the Kovalenko-Hirata closure approximation). To reduce the computational expenses, we calculate the effective solvation forces acting on the biomolecule by using advanced solvation force extrapolation (ASFE) at inner time steps while converging the 3D-RISM-KH integral equations only at large outer time steps. The idea of ASFE consists in developing a discrete non-Eckart rotational transformation of atomic coordinates that minimizes the distances between the atomic positions of the biomolecule at different time moments. The effective solvation forces for the biomolecule in a current conformation at an inner time step are then extrapolated in the transformed subspace of those at outer time steps by using a modified least square fit approach applied to a relatively small number of the best force-coordinate pairs. The latter are selected from an extended set collecting the effective solvation forces obtained from 3D-RISM-KH at outer time steps over a broad time interval. The MTS-MD integration with effective solvation forces obtained by converging 3D-RISM-KH at outer time steps and applying ASFE at inner time steps is stabilized by employing the optimized isokinetic Nosé-Hoover chain (OIN) ensemble. Compared to the previous extrapolation schemes used in combination with the Langevin thermostat, the ASFE approach substantially improves the accuracy of evaluation of effective solvation forces and in combination with the OIN thermostat enables a dramatic increase of outer time steps. We demonstrate on a fully flexible model of alanine dipeptide in aqueous solution that the MTS-MD/OIN/ASFE/3D-RISM-KH multiscale method of molecular dynamics steered by effective solvation forces allows huge outer time steps up to tens of picoseconds without affecting the equilibrium and conformational properties, and thus provides a 100- to 500-fold effective speedup in comparison to conventional MD with explicit solvent. With the statistical-mechanical 3D-RISM-KH account for effective solvation forces, the method provides efficient sampling of biomolecular processes with slow and/or rare solvation events such as conformational transitions of hydrated alanine dipeptide with the mean life times ranging from 30 ps up to 10 ns for “flip-flop” conformations, and is particularly beneficial for biomolecular systems with exchange and localization of solvent and ions, ligand binding, and molecular recognition.

Omelyan, Igor, E-mail: omelyan@ualberta.ca, E-mail: omelyan@icmp.lviv.ua [National Institute for Nanotechnology, 11421 Saskatchewan Drive, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2M9 (Canada) [National Institute for Nanotechnology, 11421 Saskatchewan Drive, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2M9 (Canada); Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2G8 (Canada); Institute for Condensed Matter Physics, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 1 Svientsitskii Street, Lviv 79011 (Ukraine); Kovalenko, Andriy, E-mail: andriy.kovalenko@nrc-cnrc.gc.ca [National Institute for Nanotechnology, 11421 Saskatchewan Drive, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2M9 (Canada) [National Institute for Nanotechnology, 11421 Saskatchewan Drive, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2M9 (Canada); Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2G8 (Canada)

2013-12-28

392

Microsensor and microdialysis technology. Advanced techniques in the management of severe head injury.  

PubMed

Neuroscientists continue the search for the "magic bullet" that will prevent the deleterious effects of primary and secondary brain injury. Indirect measurement of the effects of primary and secondary brain injury through the study of ICP- or CPP-directed management, CBF monitoring, Sjo2 monitoring, and TCD monitoring has led to improved care of persons with brain injury. Although the findings from brain injury research using microsensor and microdialysis technology are only preliminary and extensive research is still needed, these technologies have dramatically expanded knowledge about brain injury at the cellular level. Extended neuromonitoring is poised to enter a new and exciting phase because of the growth in knowledge regarding the cellular events associated with brain injury. The recent approval of NeuroTrend by the FDA will further promote this growth. Applications of the technology have already expanded to include uses beyond the management of traumatic brain injury. Microsensor and microdialysis technology is being used intraoperatively to determine "safe" temporary clipping times for aneurysm surgery and is also being used within the critical care setting to improve the monitoring and management of subarachnoid hemorrhage patients who are experiencing vasospasm. The ultimate application of this new technology is to improve long-term outcomes for patients with brain injury through the reduction of secondary brain injury. If that goal is to be accomplished, then it will be important for nurses caring for patients with brain injury to become immersed in this exciting new phase in brain injury monitoring. Nurses must obtain a comprehensive knowledge base of brain injury pathophysiology and how extended neuromonitoring can lead to improved outcomes. Technical proficiency will also be important to ensure that treatment and research conclusions are based on accurate data. Finally and perhaps most importantly, it will be critical for nurses to participate in and develop research studies that explore the impact of interventions, especially nursing care activities, on the injured brain if these exciting new advances are to be translated into tangible benefits for brain-injured patients. PMID:11855247

Haselman, M; Fox, S

2000-12-01

393

Advanced InSAR techniques for the management and characterization of geothermal resources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

InSAR is a remote sensing tool that has applications in both geothermal exploitation and in the management of producing fields. The technique has developed rapidly in recent years and the most evolved algorithms, now capable of providing precise ground movement measurements with unprecedented spatial density over large areas, allow the monitoring of the effects of fluid injection and extraction on surface deformation and the detection of active faults. Multi-interferogram approaches have been used at several geothermal sites in different stages of development. SqueeSAR™, which represents the latest breakthrough in InSAR technology, provides a significant increase in the spatial density of measurement points by exploiting signal returns from both point-like and distributed scatterers. Furthermore, recent satellite radar sensors have a higher spatial resolution (down to 1 m), as well as a higher temporal frequency of image acquisitions (down to a few days). The coupling of the new algorithm with this new generation of satellites provides a valuable tool for monitoring the different phases of geothermal production and in support of the decision making process. Some examples from the US are presented here: the first case study involves the use of InSAR within a suite of tools for exploration of the San Emidio geothermal field in Nevada. This project aimed to develop geophysical techniques to identify and map large aperture fractures for the placement of new production/exploration wells. The second and third examples examine two zones in California: the Salton Sea area, where multi-interferogram InSAR provided an overview of surface deformation at a producing geothermal reservoir. Surface deformation in this area was complex, and the added detail provided insight into the interplay of tectonics and production activities. Additional InSAR studies have also been carried out at the Geysers field in order to evaluate the behavior of an Enhanced Geothermal System (EGS) in response to high rates of water injection, with a strong interest in researching induced seismicity and ground deformation. These studies, along with the continuing developments in radar satellite technology and in the field of InSAR, show considerable promise for the future monitoring of geothermal production facilities.

Bellotti, F.; Falorni, G.; Morgan, J.; Rucci, A.; Ferretti, A.

2012-04-01

394

Origin and early evolution of the vertebrates: new insights from advances in molecular biology, anatomy, and palaeontology.  

PubMed

Recent advances in molecular biology and microanatomy have supported homologies of body parts between vertebrates and extant invertebrate chordates, thus providing insights into the body plan of the proximate ancestor of the vertebrates. For example, this ancestor probably had a relatively complex brain and a precursor of definitive neural crest. Additional insights into early vertebrate evolution have come from recent discoveries of Lower Cambrian soft body fossils of Haikouichthys and Myllokunmingia (almost certainly vertebrates, possibly related to modern lampreys) and Yunnanozoon and Haikouella (evidently stem-group vertebrates). The earliest vertebrates had an unequivocally marine origin, probably evolved mineralised pharyngeal denticles before the dermal skeleton, and evidently utilised elastic recoil of the visceral arch skeleton for suction feeding. Moreover, the new data emphasise that the advent of definitive neural crest was supremely important for the evolutionary origin of the vertebrates. PMID:11169587

Holland, N D; Chen, J

2001-02-01

395

Recent advances in controlled synthesis of two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides via vapour deposition techniques.  

PubMed

In recent years there have been many breakthroughs in two-dimensional (2D) nanomaterials, among which the transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) attract significant attention owing to their unusual properties associated with their strictly defined dimensionalities. TMD materials with a generalized formula of MX2, where M is a transition metal and X is a chalcogen, represent a diverse and largely untapped source of 2D systems. Semiconducting TMD monolayers such as MoS2, MoSe2, WSe2 and WS2 have been demonstrated to be feasible for future electronics and optoelectronics. The exotic electronic properties and high specific surface areas of 2D TMDs offer unlimited potential in various fields including sensing, catalysis, and energy storage applications. Very recently, the chemical vapour deposition technique (CVD) has shown great promise to generate high-quality TMD layers with a scalable size, controllable thickness and excellent electronic properties. Wafer-scale deposition of mono to few layer TMD films has been obtained. Despite the initial success in the CVD synthesis of TMDs, substantial research studies on extending the methodology open up a new way for substitution doping, formation of monolayer alloys and producing TMD stacking structures or superlattices. In this tutorial review, we will introduce the latest development of the synthesis of monolayer TMDs by CVD approaches. PMID:25327436

Shi, Yumeng; Li, Henan; Li, Lain-Jong

2014-10-20

396

Advanced Techniques for Seismic Protection of Historical Buildings: Experimental and Numerical Approach  

SciTech Connect

The seismic protection of historical and monumental buildings, namely dating back from the ancient age up to the 20th Century, is being looked at with greater and greater interest, above all in the Euro-Mediterranean area, its cultural heritage being strongly susceptible to undergo severe damage or even collapse due to earthquake. The cultural importance of historical and monumental constructions limits, in many cases, the possibility to upgrade them from the seismic point of view, due to the fear of using intervention techniques which could have detrimental effects on their cultural value. Consequently, a great interest is growing in the development of sustainable methodologies for the use of Reversible Mixed Technologies (RMTs) in the seismic protection of the existing constructions. RMTs, in fact, are conceived for exploiting the peculiarities of innovative materials and special devices, and they allow ease of removal when necessary. This paper deals with the experimental and numerical studies, framed within the EC PROHITECH research project, on the application of RMTs to the historical and monumental constructions mainly belonging to the cultural heritage of the Euro-Mediterranean area. The experimental tests and the numerical analyses are carried out at five different levels, namely full scale models, large scale models, sub-systems, devices, materials and elements.

Mazzolani, Federico M. [Department of Structural Engineering, University of Naples 'Federico II' Piazzale Tecchio, 80, 80125, Naples (Italy)

2008-07-08

397

Development of Advanced Coating Techniques for Highly-durable Casting Dies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to improve the durability of aluminum die-casting molds, we applied microstructure-controlled PVD coating techniques. Single-layer and multilayer films consisting of chromium nitride (CrN) or titanium aluminum nitride (TiAlN) were prepared using an ion plating process. Structures of multilayer films were observed using transmission electron microscopy. Pin-shaped mold steel specimens coated with each of the films were soaked in the molten aluminum alloy at 953 K different periods of time, and the amount of weight loss due to erosion was evaluated. The weight losses for the multilayer CrN and TiAlN specimens were found to be less than those for the single-layer specimens. As a practical test, five specimens of core pins used in aluminum die casting of automobile parts were coated with multilayer films, and the number of maintenance operations required to remove aluminum alloy remaining on the specimen surfaces after several thousand castings was counted and compared with six control specimens (core pins treated using a commercial salt bath diffusion process). The number of maintenance operations for CrN- and TiAlN-based multilayer-coated core pins was found to be lower than for the control specimens.

Tanaka, S.; Takagi, M.; Mano, T.

2013-03-01

398

Sub-22 nm silicon template nanofabrication by advanced spacer patterning technique for NIL applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A spacer patterning technique using a poly-Si micro-feature and a SiO2 spacer has been demonstrated to achieve sub-22 nm structures with conventional semiconductor equipments. The sub-22 nm structures have been fabricated by a plasma etching of Si substrate with a spacer oxide mask of which dimension is accurately controlled by the deposited film thickness. The profile of the Si nano-feature was influenced by an O2 flow rate during Si etching in inductively coupled plasma (ICP). As the O2 flow rate was decreased, the etch profile was improved vertically even though the etch rate of Si was slightly decreased. We obtained a 6-inch Si template with both nano- and micro-features of positive shape used for a master mold in nanoimprint lithography (NIL). The nano-sized Si features showed 22-nm width and 145-nm height with the slope of 87°. Further size reduction by anisotropic wet etching with KOH solution was also investigated.

Park, Jong-Moon; Park, Kun-Sik; Kim, Dong-Pyo; Yoo, Seong-Ook; Lee, Jin-Ho

2013-03-01

399

First Implementation of Novel Multiplexing Techniques for Advanced Instruments at Pulsed Neutron Sources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Novel multiplexing techniques, such as Repetition Rate Multiplication and Wavelength Frame Multiplication imply the use of a set of monochromatic wavelengths or a set of wavelength bands coming from the same source pulse by using novel combinations of standard mechanical neutron choppers. In this case the instrumental parameters, such as wavelength resolution, wavelength band, repetition rate are not any more determined by the source parameters, but can be flexibly defined by the chopper frequencies, speeds and slits. Here we report about the first experimental implementation of Repetition Rate Multiplication (RRM) and Wavelength Frame Multiplication (WFM). For this purpose the TOF spectrometer NEAT at HZB, Berlin and TOF diffractometer at BNC, Budapest have been used in non-standard modes of operation. Our results provide full proof-of-principle of the RRM and WFM methods and clearly show the extensive capability of these methods to achieve multiply enhanced data collection rates by individually tuning for each experiment the pulse length and/or pulse repetition rate within broad limits and independently from the actual source pulse parameters.

Russina, M.; Mezei, F.; Kali, G.

2012-02-01

400

Application of the laser capture microdissection technique for molecular definition of skeletal cell differentiation in vivo.  

PubMed

Laser capture microdissection (LCM) method allows selection of individual or clustered cells from intact tissues. This technology enables one to pick cells from tissues that are difficult to study individually, sort the anatomical complexity of these tissues, and make the cells available for molecular analyses. Following the cells' extraction, the nucleic acids and proteins can be isolated and used for multiple applications that provide an opportunity to uncover the molecular control of cellular fate in the natural microenvironment. Utilization of LCM for the molecular analysis of cells from skeletal tissues will enable one to study differential patterns of gene expression in the native intact skeletal tissue with reliable interpretation of function for known genes as well as to discover novel genes. Variability between samples may be caused either by differences in the tissue samples (different areas isolated from the same section) or some variances in sample handling. LCM is a multi-task technology that combines histology, microscopy work, and dedicated molecular biology. The LCM application will provide results that will pave the way toward high throughput profiling of tissue-specific gene expression using Gene Chip arrays. Detailed description of in vivo molecular pathways will make it possible to elaborate on control systems to apply for the repair of genetic or metabolic diseases of skeletal tissues. PMID:18463821

Benayahu, Dafna; Socher, Rina; Shur, Irena

2008-01-01

401

Characterization of 26 isolates of Staphylococcus aureus, predominantly from dairy sheep, using four different techniques of molecular epidemiology.  

PubMed

Little information is available regarding the molecular epidemiology of Staphylococcus aureus-induced mastitis in dairy sheep. In this study, 4 different typing techniques were compared in typing 26 S. aureus isolates, predominantly from cases of subclinical mastitis in dairy ewes. The 4 techniques were pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) on 2 genes (coagulase and clumping factor B), randomly amplified polymorphic DNA-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) (RAPD-PCR), and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). On the basis of discriminatory power as the key parameter of typing systems, MLST and PFGE were found to be the most powerful techniques. The MLST and PFGE could contribute to epidemiological surveillance and evaluation of mastitis control programs, by documenting prevalence and dissemination of endemic clones in infected populations. The results of this study show that a single clone of S. aureus is widely distributed in infected ewe mammary glands. PMID:16130996

Vautor, Eric; Jay, Corinne; Chevalier, Nicolas; Visomblin, Nathalie; Vernet, Guy; Pépin, Michel

2005-07-01

402

Morphological Study of Organic Molecular Layers using a Differential Optical Technique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years, considerable interest in the study of molecular material has been aroused due to their large potential impact on nanotechnology. For example, Porphyrin layers can be used as the sensing elements in technical applications as the electron nose and the electronic tongue. The characterization of electronic states in the fabricated molecular structures is essential in view of most efficient devices. Recently, reflectance anisotropy spectroscopy (RAS) has been applied to organic layers, showing that the spectra are reliably connected to the electronic properties of the molecule and to the morphological characteristics of the layer. In this work, we present a brief summary of a theoretical model for the calculation of the reflectance anisotropy (RA) spectra of ordered organic molecular layers. We compare our theoretical spectra with some experimental data and find good agreement between them.

Vázquez-Nava, R. A.; Mejía, J. E.; Mendoza, B. S.

2006-09-01

403

Moving from histological subtyping to molecular characterization: new treatment opportunities in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer.  

PubMed

Over the last 10 years, the systemic treatment of advanced non-small-cell lung cancer has progressively moved away from the 'one-size-fits-all' approach to histological subtyping. Currently, there is a progressive implementation of targeted therapies based on specific molecular characteristics such as the EGF receptor sensitizing mutations and the anaplastic lymphoma kinase rearrangements. Despite the availability of effective agents against these abnormalities, acquired resistance is still a major issue. A new generation of tyrosine kinase inhibitors for EGF receptor and anaplastic lymphoma kinase targeting acquired resistance mechanisms have been recently investigated. Several promising tyrosine kinase inhibitors that hit other targets are also in clinical development, including: rat sarcoma gene/MEK, BRAF1, PIK3A, c-mesenchymal-epithelial transition, c-ros oncogene 1, rearranged during transfection, human EGFR 2, FGFR, VEGFR, PDGFR and discoidin death receptor 2. Furthermore, new advances in immunology have been achieved through the discovery of vaccines and immune checkpoint pathways such as the cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen-4, programmed cell death protein 1 and its ligands. PMID:25183305

Carnio, Simona; Novello, Silvia; Bironzo, Paolo; Scagliotti, Giorgio Vittorio

2014-12-01

404

Impact of UV/H?O? advanced oxidation treatment on molecular weight distribution of NOM and biostability of water.  

PubMed

The presence of natural organic matter (NOM) poses several challenges to the commercial practice of UV/H(2)O(2) process for micropollutant removal. During the commercial application of UV/H(2)O(2) advanced oxidation treatment, NOM is broken down into smaller species potentially affecting biostability by increasing Assimilable Organic Carbon (AOC) and Biodegradable Organic Carbon (BDOC) of water. This work investigated the potential impact of UV/H(2)O(2) treatment on the molecular weight distribution of NOM and biostability of different water sources. A recently developed flow cytometric method for enumeration of bacteria was utilized to assess biological stability of the treated water at various stages through measurement of AOC. BDOC was also assessed for comparison and to better study the biostability of water. Both AOC and BDOC increased by about 3-4 times over the course of treatment, indicating the reduction of biological stability. Initial TOC and the source of NOM were found to be influencing the biostability profile of the treated water. Using high performance size exclusion chromatography, a wide range of organic molecule weights were found responsible for AOC increase; however, low molecular weight organics seemed to contribute more. Positive and meaningful correlations were observed between BDOC and AOC of different waters that underwent different treatments. PMID:22882956

Bazri, Mohammad Mahdi; Barbeau, Benoit; Mohseni, Madjid

2012-10-15

405

13th International Workshop on Advanced Computing and Analysis Techniques in Physics Research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

"Beyond the Cutting edge in Computing" Fundamental research is dealing, by definition, with the two extremes: the extremely small and the extremely large. The LHC and Astroparticle physics experiments will soon offer new glimpses beyond the current frontiers. And the computing infrastructure to support such physics research needs to look beyond the cutting edge. Once more it seems that we are on the edge of a computing revolution. But perhaps what we are seeing now is a even more epochal change where not only the pace of the revolution is changing, but also its very nature. Change is not any more an "event" meant to open new possibilities that have to be understood first and exploited then to prepare the ground for a new leap. Change is becoming the very essence of the computing reality, sustained by a continuous flow of technical and paradigmatic innovation. The hardware is definitely moving toward more massive parallelism, in a breathtaking synthesis of all the past techniques of concurrent computation. New many-core machines offer opportunities for all sorts of Single/Multiple Instructions, Single/Multiple Data and Vector computations that in the past required specialised hardware. At the same time, all levels of virtualisation imagined till now seem to be possible via Clouds, and possibly many more. Information Technology has been the working backbone of the Global Village, and now, in more than one sense, it is becoming itself the Global Village. Between these two, the gap between the need for adapting applications to exploit the new hardware possibilities and the push toward virtualisation of resources is widening, creating more challenges as technical and intellectual progress continues. ACAT 2010 proposes to explore and confront the different boundaries of the evolution of computing, and its possible consequences on our scientific activity. What do these new technologies entail for physics research? How will physics research benefit from this revolution in data taking and analysis, experiment monitoring and complex simulations? What physics research seizing these new technologies may bring forward innovations that would benefit the society at large? Editorial board: T. Speer (chairman), F. Boudjema, J. Lauret, A. Naumann, L. Teodorescu, P. Uwer

Speer, T.; Boudjema, F.; Lauret, J.; Naumann, A.; Teodorescu, L.; Uwer, P.

406

Advanced Techniques for Assessment of Postural and Locomotor Ataxia, Spatial Orientation, and Gaze Stability  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In addition to adapting to microgravity, major neurovestibular problems of space flight include postflight difficulties with standing, walking, turning corners, and other activities that require stable upright posture and gaze stability. These difficulties inhibit astronauts' ability to stand or escape from their vehicle during emergencies. The long-ter7n goal of the NSBRI is the development of countermeasures to ameliorate the effects of long duration space flight. These countermeasures must be tested with valid and reliable tools. This project aims to develop quantitative, parametric approaches for assessing gaze stability and spatial orientation during normal gait and when gait is perturbed. Two of this year's most important findings concern head fixation distance and ideal trajectory analysis. During a normal cycle of walking the head moves up and down linearly. A simultaneous angular pitching motion of the head keeps it aligned toward an imaginary point in space at a distance of about one meter in front of a subject and along the line of march. This distance is called the head fixation distance. Head fixation distance provides the fundamental framework necessary for understanding the functional significance of the vestibular reflexes that couple head motion to eye motion. This framework facilitates the intelligent design of counter-measures for the effects of exposure to microgravity upon the vestibular ocular reflexes. Ideal trajectory analysis is a simple candidate countermeasure based upon quantifying body sway during repeated up and down stair stepping. It provides one number that estimates the body sway deviation from an ideal sinusoidal body sway trajectory normalized on the subject's height. This concept has been developed with NSBRI funding in less than one year. These findings are explained in more detail below. Compared to assessments of the vestibuo-ocular reflex, analysis of vestibular effects on locomotor function is relatively less well developed and quantified. We are improving this situation by applying methodologies such as nonlinear orbital stability to quantify responses and by using multivariate statistical approaches to link together the responses across separate tests. In this way we can exploit the information available and increase the ability to discriminate between normal and pathological responses. Measures of stability and orientation are compared to measures such as dynamic visual acuity and with balance function tests. The responses of normal human subjects and of patients having well documented pathophysiologies are being characterized. When these studies are completed, we should have a clearer idea about normal and abnormal patterns of eye, head, and body movements during locomotion and their stability in a wide range of environments. We plan eventually to use this information to validate the efficacy of candidate neurovestibular and neuromuscular rehabilitative techniques. Some representative studies made during this year are summarized.

Wall, Conrad., III

1999-01-01

407

Characterization of optical components using contact and non-contact interferometry techniques: advanced metrology for optical components  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Advanced metrology plays an important role in the research, production and quality control of optical components. With surface finish, form error and other parameter specifications becoming more stringent, precision measurements are increasingly demanded by optics manufacturers and users. The modern metrologist now has both contact and noncontact measurement solutions available and a combination of these techniques now provides a more detailed understanding of optical components. Phase Grating Interferometry (PGI) with sub-nanometre vertical resolution and sub-micron lateral resolution can provide detailed characterization of a wide range of components including shallow and steep-sided optics. PGI is ideal for precision form measurement of a comprehensive range of lenses, moulds and other spherical or aspheric products. Because of the complex nature of these components, especially precision aspheric and asphero-diffractive optics, control of the form is vital to ensure they perform correctly. Recent hardware and software developments now make it possible to gain a better understanding and control of the form and function of this optics. Another change is the use of high speed 3D non-contact measurement of optics which is becoming more popular. Often scanning interferometric techniques such as coherence correlation interferometry (CCI) can be used to study components not suited to 2D contact analysis, including fragile surfaces and structured surfaces. Scanning interferometry can also be used to measure film thickness and uniformity of any coating present. In this paper the use of both PGI and CCI to measure optical lenses and coatings is discussed.

Yu, Yang; Conroy, Mike; Smith, Richard

2012-10-01

408

PREFACE: Exploring surfaces and buried interfaces of functional materials by advanced x-ray and neutron techniques Exploring surfaces and buried interfaces of functional materials by advanced x-ray and neutron techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This special issue is devoted to describing recent applications of x-ray and neutron scattering techniques to the exploration of surfaces and buried interfaces of various functional materials. Unlike many other surface-sensitive methods, these techniques do not require ultra high vacuum, and therefore, a variety of real and complicated surfaces fall within the scope of analysis. It must be particularly emphasized that the techniques are capable of seeing even buried function interfaces as well as the surface. Furthermore, the information, which ranges from the atomic to mesoscopic scale, is highly quantitative and reproducible. The non-destructive nature of the techniques is another important advantage of using x-rays and neutrons, when compared with other atomic-scale analyses. This ensures that the same specimen can be measured by other techniques. Such features are fairly attractive when exploring multilayered materials with nanostructures (dots, tubes, wires, etc), which are finding applications in electronic, magnetic, optical and other devices. The Japan Applied Physics Society has established a group to develop the research field of studying buried function interfaces with x-rays and neutrons. As the methods can be applied to almost all types of materials, from semiconductor and electronic devices to soft materials, participants have fairly different backgrounds but share a common interest in state-of-the-art x-ray and neutron techniques and sophisticated applications. A series of workshops has been organized almost every year since 2001. Some international interactions have been continued intensively, although the community is part of a Japanese society. This special issue does not report the proceedings of the recent workshop, although all the authors are in some way involved in the activities of the above society. Initially, we intended to collect quite long overview papers, including the authors' latest and most important original results, as well as updates on recent progress and global trends in the field. We planned to cover quite a wide area of surface and buried interface science with x-rays and neutrons. Following a great deal of discussion during the editing process, we have decided to change direction. As we intend to publish similar special issues on a frequent basis, we will not insist on editing this issue as systematic and complete collections of research. Many authors decided to write an ordinary research paper rather than an article including systematic accounts. Due to this change in policy, some authors declined to contribute, and the number of papers is now just 12. However, readers will find that the special issue gives an interesting collection of new original research in surface and buried interface studies with x-rays and neutrons. The 12 papers cover the following research topics: (1) polymer analysis by diffuse scattering; (2) discussion of the electrochemical solid--liquid interface by synchrotron x-ray diffraction; (3) analysis of capped nanodots by grazing incidence small-angle x-ray scattering (GISAXS); (4) discussion of the strain distribution in silicon by high-resolution x-ray diffraction; (5) study of mesoporous structures by a combination of x-ray reflectivity and GISAXS; (6) discussion of energy-dispersive x-ray reflectometry and its applications; (7) neutron reflectivity studies on hydrogen terminated silicon interface; (8) the fabrication and performance of a special mirror for water windows; (9) depth selective analysis by total-reflection x-ray diffraction; (10) nanoparticle thin films prepared by a gas deposition technique; (11) discussion of crystal truncation rod (CTR) scattering of semiconductor nanostructures; (12) magnetic structure analysis of thin films by polarized neutron reflectivity. While not discussed in the present special issue, x-ray and neutron techniques have made great progress. The most important steps forward have been in 2D/3D real-space imaging, and realtime measurement. Advances in such technologies are bringing with them new opportunities in surfac

Sakurai, Kenji

2010-12-01

409

Marine molecular biology: An emerging field of biological sciences  

Microsoft Academic Search

An appreciation of the potential applications of molecular biology is of growing importance in many areas of life sciences, including marine biology. During the past two decades, the development of sophisticated molecular technologies and instruments for biomedical research has resulted in significant advances in the biological sciences. However, the value of molecular techniques for addressing problems in marine biology has

Narsinh L. Thakur; Roopesh Jain; Filipe Natalio; Bojan Hamer; Archana N. Thakur; Werner E. G. Müller

2008-01-01

410

Molecular confocal laser endomicroscopy: A novel technique for in vivo cellular characterization of gastrointestinal lesions  

PubMed Central

While flexible endoscopy is essential for macroscopic evaluation, confocal laser endomicroscopy (CLE) has recently emerged as an endoscopic method enabling visualization at a cellular level. Two systems are currently available, one based on miniprobes that can be inserted via a conventional endoscope or via a needle guided by endoscopic ultrasound. The second system has a confocal microscope integrated into the distal part of an endoscope. By adding molecular probes like fluorescein conjugated antibodies or fluorescent peptides to this procedure (either topically or systemically administered during on-going endoscopy), a novel world of molecular evaluation opens up. The method of molecular CLE could potentially be used for estimating the expression of important receptors in carcinomas, subsequently resulting in immediate individualization of treatment regimens, but also for improving the diagnostic accuracy of endoscopic procedures by identifying otherwise invisible mucosal lesions. Furthermore, studies have shown that fluorescein labelled drugs can be used to estimate the affinity of the drug to a target organ, which probably can be correlated to the efficacy of the drug. However, several of the studies in this research field have been conducted in animal facilities or in vitro, while only a limited number of trials have actually been carried out in vivo. Therefore, safety issues still needs further evaluations. This review will present an overview of the implications and pitfalls, as well as future challenges of molecular CLE in gastrointestinal diseases. PMID:24976717

Karstensen, John Gásdal; Klausen, Pia Helene; Saftoiu, Adrian; Vilmann, Peter

2014-01-01

411

Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE) Technique and its use in Molecular Biology  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, the use of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) in the molecular biology area has been subject to much research. PFGE is a powerful tool for characterizing various strains at the DNA level, obtaining relevant information on genome size and constructing the physical and genetic map of the chromosome of bacteria that are poorly understood at the genetic level

Hüseyin BASIM

2001-01-01

412

SCIENCE RESULTS INTEGRATION. BRINGING MOLECULAR BIOLOGY TECHNIQUES TO REGIONAL WATER MONITORING PROGRAMS  

EPA Science Inventory

EPA's Office of Research and Development (ORD) develops innovative methods for use in environmental monitoring and assessment by scientists in Regions, states, and Tribes. Molecular-biology-based methods are not yet established in the environmental monitoring "tool box". SRI (Sci...