Sample records for advanced safety vehicle

  1. Advanced Range Safety System for High Energy Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Claxton, Jeffrey S.; Linton, Donald F.

    2002-01-01

    The advanced range safety system project is a collaboration between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and the United States Air Force to develop systems that would reduce costs and schedule for safety approval for new classes of unmanned high-energy vehicles. The mission-planning feature for this system would yield flight profiles that satisfy the mission requirements for the user while providing an increased quality of risk assessment, enhancing public safety. By improving the speed and accuracy of predicting risks to the public, mission planners would be able to expand flight envelopes significantly. Once in place, this system is expected to offer the flexibility of handling real-time risk management for the high-energy capabilities of hypersonic vehicles including autonomous return-from-orbit vehicles and extended flight profiles over land. Users of this system would include mission planners of Space Launch Initiative vehicles, space planes, and other high-energy vehicles. The real-time features of the system could make extended flight of a malfunctioning vehicle possible, in lieu of an immediate terminate decision. With this improved capability, the user would have more time for anomaly resolution and potential recovery of a malfunctioning vehicle.

  2. Advanced Chassis Control Systems for Vehicle Handling and Active Safety

    Microsoft Academic Search

    YOSHIMI FURUKAWA; MASATO ABE

    1997-01-01

    In this paper chassis controls for vehicle handling and active safety have been reviewed. In particular, we have observed the effectiveness and limit of 4WS and DYC. It is pointed out that DYC is more effective in vehicle motion with larger side-slip and\\/or higher lateral acceleration and taking the nonlinearity of tire and vehicle dynamics into consideration is essential for

  3. Fire safety design considerations for advanced space vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The desire to understand and explore space has driven man to overcome the confines of the Earth's atmosphere and accept the challenge of spaceflight. With our increasing ability to travel, work, and explore in space comes a need for a better understanding of the hazards in this relatively new endeavor. One of the most important and immediate needs is to be able to predict the ignition, spread, and growth of fire on board spacecraft. Fire safety aboard spacecraft has always been a concern; however, with the increasing number and duration of proposed missions, it is imperative that the spacecraft be designed with a solid understanding of fire hazards, insuring that all risks have been minimized and extinguishment systems are available.

  4. Introduction to LNG vehicle safety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bratvold, Delma; Friedman, David; Chernoff, Harry; Farkhondehpay, Dariush; Comay, Claudia

    1994-03-01

    Basic information on the characteristics of liquefied natural gas (LNG) is assembled to provide an overview of safety issues and practices for the use of LNG vehicles. This document is intended for those planning or considering the use of LNG vehicles, including vehicle fleet owners and operators, public transit officials and boards, local fire and safety officials, manufacturers and distributors, and gas industry officials. Safety issues and mitigation measures that should be considered for candidate LNG vehicle projects are addressed.

  5. Vehicle Management Driver Safety Program

    E-print Network

    Machel, Hans

    enforcement, or otherwise used to provide information relative to compliance investigations. Driver NameVehicle Management and Driver Safety Program Manual Facilities & Operations / Finance & Administration Version 2 April 2012 #12;© 2012 University of Alberta. #12;The Vehicle Management and Driver

  6. Advanced electric vehicle

    SciTech Connect

    O'Connell, L.G.

    1980-07-01

    The Advanced Electric Vehicle is defined as an automobile which can fulfill the general-purpose role of today's internal-combustion-engine-powered car without utilizing petroleum fuels directly. it relies principally on the utilization of electricity. A number of candidate systems are described. The present status of each is discussed as are the problems to be overcome before implementation can proceed.

  7. Advanced electric vehicle

    SciTech Connect

    O'Connell, L.G.

    1980-07-01

    The Advanced Electric Vehicle is defined as an automobile which can fulfill the general-purpose role of today's internal-combustion-engine-powered car without utilizing petroleum fuels directly. It relies principally on the utilization of electricity. A number of candidate systems are described. The present status of each is discussed as are the problems to be overcome before implementation can proceed.

  8. Review and recent advances in battery health monitoring and prognostics technologies for electric vehicle (EV) safety and mobility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rezvanizaniani, Seyed Mohammad; Liu, Zongchang; Chen, Yan; Lee, Jay

    2014-06-01

    As hybrid and electric vehicle technologies continue to advance, car manufacturers have begun to employ lithium ion batteries as the electrical energy storage device of choice for use in existing and future vehicles. However, to ensure batteries are reliable, efficient, and capable of delivering power and energy when required, an accurate determination of battery performance, health, and life prediction is necessary. This paper provides a review of battery prognostics and health management (PHM) techniques, with a focus on major unmet needs in this area for battery manufacturers, car designers, and electric vehicle drivers. A number of approaches are presented that have been developed to monitor battery health status and performance, as well as the evolution of prognostics modeling methods. The goal of this review is to render feasible and cost effective solutions for dealing with battery life issues under dynamic operating conditions.

  9. Vehicle Battery Safety Roadmap Guidance

    SciTech Connect

    Doughty, D. H.

    2012-10-01

    The safety of electrified vehicles with high capacity energy storage devices creates challenges that must be met to assure commercial acceptance of EVs and HEVs. High performance vehicular traction energy storage systems must be intrinsically tolerant of abusive conditions: overcharge, short circuit, crush, fire exposure, overdischarge, and mechanical shock and vibration. Fail-safe responses to these conditions must be designed into the system, at the materials and the system level, through selection of materials and safety devices that will further reduce the probability of single cell failure and preclude propagation of failure to adjacent cells. One of the most important objectives of DOE's Office of Vehicle Technologies is to support the development of lithium ion batteries that are safe and abuse tolerant in electric drive vehicles. This Roadmap analyzes battery safety and failure modes of state-of-the-art cells and batteries and makes recommendations on future investments that would further DOE's mission.

  10. Advanced law enforcement vehicle electronics and associated power

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. A. Ochoa; J. Witz; M. Eshani; J. Morgan

    1999-01-01

    An ever-increasing role of technology in law enforcement has led to the integration of numerous electronic devices into the advanced law enforcement vehicle. Along with improved safety and efficiency of law enforcement personnel, the addition of these electronics has resulted in significant vehicle power management challenges. The Texas Transportation Institute has developed the Advanced Law Enforcement and Response Technology (ALERT(R))

  11. Advanced Vehicle Testing and Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Garetson, Thomas

    2013-03-31

    The objective of the United States (U.S.) Department of Energy?s (DOEs) Advanced Vehicle Testing and Evaluation (AVTE) project was to provide test and evaluation services for advanced technology vehicles, to establish a performance baseline, to determine vehicle reliability, and to evaluate vehicle operating costs in fleet operations. Vehicles tested include light and medium-duty vehicles in conventional, hybrid, and all-electric configurations using conventional and alternative fuels, including hydrogen in internal combustion engines. Vehicles were tested on closed tracks and chassis dynamometers, as well as operated on public roads, in fleet operations, and over prescribed routes. All testing was controlled by procedures developed specifically to support such testing. Testing and evaluations were conducted in the following phases: ? Development of test procedures, which established testing procedures; ? Baseline performance testing, which established a performance baseline; ? Accelerated reliability testing, which determined vehicle reliability; ? Fleet testing, used to evaluate vehicle economics in fleet operation, and ? End of test performance evaluation. Test results are reported by two means and posted by Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to their website: quarterly progress reports, used to document work in progress; and final test reports. This final report documents work conducted for the entirety of the contract by the Clarity Group, Inc., doing business as ECOtality North America (ECOtality). The contract was performed from 1 October 2005 through 31 March 2013. There were 113 light-duty on-road (95), off-road (3) and low speed (15) vehicles tested.

  12. Advanced Technology and Alternative Fuel Vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Tuttle, J.

    2001-08-20

    This fact sheet provides a basic overview of today's alternative fuel choices--including biofuels, biodiesel, electricity, and hydrogen--alternative fuel vehicles, and advanced vehicle technology, such as hybrid electric vehicles, fuel cells and advanced drive trains.

  13. How important is vehicle safety in the new vehicle purchase process?

    PubMed

    Koppel, Sjaanie; Charlton, Judith; Fildes, Brian; Fitzharris, Michael

    2008-05-01

    Whilst there has been a significant increase in the amount of consumer interest in the safety performance of privately owned vehicles, the role that it plays in consumers' purchase decisions is poorly understood. The aims of the current study were to determine: how important vehicle safety is in the new vehicle purchase process; what importance consumers place on safety options/features relative to other convenience and comfort features, and how consumers conceptualise vehicle safety. In addition, the study aimed to investigate the key parameters associated with ranking 'vehicle safety' as the most important consideration in the new vehicle purchase. Participants recruited in Sweden and Spain completed a questionnaire about their new vehicle purchase. The findings from the questionnaire indicated that participants ranked safety-related factors (e.g., EuroNCAP (or other) safety ratings) as more important in the new vehicle purchase process than other vehicle factors (e.g., price, reliability etc.). Similarly, participants ranked safety-related features (e.g., advanced braking systems, front passenger airbags etc.) as more important than non-safety-related features (e.g., route navigation systems, air-conditioning etc.). Consistent with previous research, most participants equated vehicle safety with the presence of specific vehicle safety features or technologies rather than vehicle crash safety/test results or crashworthiness. The key parameters associated with ranking 'vehicle safety' as the most important consideration in the new vehicle purchase were: use of EuroNCAP, gender and education level, age, drivers' concern about crash involvement, first vehicle purchase, annual driving distance, person for whom the vehicle was purchased, and traffic infringement history. The findings from this study are important for policy makers, manufacturers and other stakeholders to assist in setting priorities with regard to the promotion and publicity of vehicle safety features for particular consumer groups (such as younger consumers) in order to increase their knowledge regarding vehicle safety and to encourage them to place highest priority on safety in the new vehicle purchase process. PMID:18460367

  14. Improve vehicle's function safety with an approach investigating vehicle's electromagnetic interference with its function safety

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shuo Wang

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, an approach to improve vehicle's function safety by integrating the analysis of electromagnetic interference with the analysis of safety function is proposed. It is proposed that vehicle's EMI analysis should be carried out with vehicle's function safety analysis. These two analyses should be carried out together from the beginning of the design of vehicle's electrical and electronic

  15. How Important is Vehicle Safety in the New Vehicle Purchase\\/Lease Process for Fleet Vehicles?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sjaanie Koppel; Judith Charlton; Brian Fildes

    2007-01-01

    Objective. Despite the potential benefits that fleet vehicle purchase decisions could have on road safety, the role that vehicle safety plays in fleet managers' purchase decisions is poorly understood.Methods. In this study, fleet managers from Sweden and Spain completed a questionnaire regarding the importance of vehicle safety in the new vehicle purchase\\/lease process and the importance that is placed on

  16. Ron Medford Senior Associate Administrator, Vehicle Safety

    E-print Network

    Minnesota, University of

    1 Ron Medford Senior Associate Administrator, Vehicle Safety The Future of Vehicle Safety Presented Opposite Direction 2% Animal 4% Backing 2% Lane Change 9% Rear-End 28% Pedalcyclist 1% Pedestrian 1% Off REDUCTION MEDICAL ATTENTION ENVIROMENT / POST EVENT #12;15 Lives Saved by Belts and Combined Safety

  17. Vehicle-to-vehicle safety messaging in DSRC

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Qing Xu; Tony K. Mak; Jeff Ko; Raja Sengupta

    2004-01-01

    This paper studies the design of layer-2 protocols for a vehicle to send safety messages to other vehicles. The target is to send vehicle safety messages with high reliability and low delay. The communication is one-to-many, local, and geo-significant. The vehicular communication network is ad-hoc, highly mobile, and with large numbers of contending nodes. The messages are very short, have

  18. 29 CFR 500.100 - Vehicle safety obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 false Vehicle safety obligations. 500.100 Section 500.100 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued...Health for Migrant Workers Motor Vehicle Safety § 500.100 Vehicle safety obligations. (a)...

  19. 29 CFR 500.102 - Applicability of vehicle safety standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...false Applicability of vehicle safety standards. 500.102 Section 500.102 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued...Health for Migrant Workers Motor Vehicle Safety § 500.102 Applicability of vehicle safety...

  20. Carlsbad Area Office vehicle safety program

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1996-12-01

    The Carlsbad Area Office (CAO) Vehicle Safety Program (VSP) establishes the minimum requirements for CAO personnel to safely operate government vehicles and provides direction to effectively reduce the number of vehicle accidents, reduce the severity of vehicle accidents, and minimize vehicular property damage. This Program covers the operations of Government Services Administration (GSA) vehicles, rental or leased vehicles, and special purpose vehicles used at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in the performance of work. Additionally, this Program encourages CAO employees to use safe driving habits while operating their privately owned vehicles, motorcycles, or bicycles, or, as pedestrians, to be aware of the hazards associated with traffic in and around CAO facilities. Vehicle safety is a shared responsibility in this organization. At anytime a CAO employee witnesses an unsafe act relating to the operation of a motor vehicle, it is their responsibility to notify their Team Leader (TL) or Assistant Manager (AM), or contact the CAO Safety and Occupational Health Manager (SOHM). Employees are encouraged to participate in the Carlsbad Area Office Federal Employees Safety Committee (FESC) activities and goals in order to address vehicle safety concerns. The FESC is designed to be a forum for all federal employees to improve the health and safety of the organization. The VSP is an effective method of ensuring the health and safety of CAO employees during the operation of government vehicles. The human resources of the CAO are the most valuable assets of this organization and any lost manhours are difficult to replace. Safe driving habits and defensive driving methods should always be practiced to preserve the health and safety of all employees.

  1. All-Terrain Vehicle (ATV) Safety (For Parents)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Sports: Keeping Kids Safe Concussions: What to Know All-Terrain Vehicle (ATV) Safety KidsHealth > Parents > First Aid & Safety > Safety Away From Home > All-Terrain Vehicle (ATV) Safety Print A A A ...

  2. Recycling readiness of advanced batteries for electric vehicles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jungst

    1997-01-01

    Maximizing the reclamation\\/recycle of electric-vehicle (EV) batteries is considered to be essential for the successful commercialization of this technology. Since the early 1990s, the US Department of Energy has sponsored the ad hoc advanced battery readiness working group to review this and other possible barriers to the widespread use of EVs, such as battery shipping and in-vehicle safety. Regulation is

  3. Teaching Technology by Assessing Vehicle Safety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lazaros, Edward J.

    2012-01-01

    According to the National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, motor vehicle crashes are the leading cause of death among Americans aged 2-34. Many states have adopted periodic motor vehicle inspection (PMVI) to ensure the safety of the highways, and states that have adopted PMVI report a reduction in highway fatalities. Deaths and injuries…

  4. 49 CFR 554.4 - Office of Vehicle Safety Compliance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...Vehicle Safety Compliance. 554.4 Section 554.4 Transportation Other Regulations...AND DEFECTS INVESTIGATION § 554.4 Office of Vehicle Safety Compliance...new vehicles and equipment at any stage of the manufacturing,...

  5. 49 CFR 554.4 - Office of Vehicle Safety Compliance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...Vehicle Safety Compliance. 554.4 Section 554.4 Transportation Other Regulations...AND DEFECTS INVESTIGATION § 554.4 Office of Vehicle Safety Compliance...new vehicles and equipment at any stage of the manufacturing,...

  6. 49 CFR 554.4 - Office of Vehicle Safety Compliance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...Vehicle Safety Compliance. 554.4 Section 554.4 Transportation Other Regulations...AND DEFECTS INVESTIGATION § 554.4 Office of Vehicle Safety Compliance...new vehicles and equipment at any stage of the manufacturing,...

  7. 49 CFR 554.4 - Office of Vehicle Safety Compliance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...Vehicle Safety Compliance. 554.4 Section 554.4 Transportation Other Regulations...AND DEFECTS INVESTIGATION § 554.4 Office of Vehicle Safety Compliance...new vehicles and equipment at any stage of the manufacturing,...

  8. 49 CFR 554.4 - Office of Vehicle Safety Compliance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...Vehicle Safety Compliance. 554.4 Section 554.4 Transportation Other Regulations...AND DEFECTS INVESTIGATION § 554.4 Office of Vehicle Safety Compliance...new vehicles and equipment at any stage of the manufacturing,...

  9. 29 CFR 500.100 - Vehicle safety obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...100 Vehicle safety obligations...obligations. Each farm labor contractor...conforms to vehicle safety standards prescribed...the Secretary of Labor under the Act and...Federal and State safety standards. Each farm labor...

  10. 29 CFR 500.100 - Vehicle safety obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...100 Vehicle safety obligations...obligations. Each farm labor contractor...conforms to vehicle safety standards prescribed...the Secretary of Labor under the Act and...Federal and State safety standards. Each farm labor...

  11. Performance measurements towards improved manufacturing vehicle safety

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roger Bostelman; Will Shackleford

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we describe the current 2D (two dimensional) sensor used for industrial vehicles and ideal sensor configurations for mounting 3D imagers on manufacturing vehicles in an attempt to make them safer. In a search for the ideal sensor configuration, three experiments were performed using an advanced 3D imager and a color camera. The experiments are intended to be

  12. 10 CFR 611.3 - Advanced technology vehicle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 false Advanced technology vehicle. 611.3 Section...ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY VEHICLES MANUFACTURER ASSISTANCE...General § 611.3 Advanced technology vehicle. In order to...

  13. 10 CFR 611.3 - Advanced technology vehicle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 false Advanced technology vehicle. 611.3 Section...ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY VEHICLES MANUFACTURER ASSISTANCE...General § 611.3 Advanced technology vehicle. In order to...

  14. 10 CFR 611.3 - Advanced technology vehicle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 false Advanced technology vehicle. 611.3 Section...ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY VEHICLES MANUFACTURER ASSISTANCE...General § 611.3 Advanced technology vehicle. In order to...

  15. 10 CFR 611.3 - Advanced technology vehicle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 false Advanced technology vehicle. 611.3 Section...ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY VEHICLES MANUFACTURER ASSISTANCE...General § 611.3 Advanced technology vehicle. In order to...

  16. 10 CFR 611.3 - Advanced technology vehicle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 false Advanced technology vehicle. 611.3 Section...ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY VEHICLES MANUFACTURER ASSISTANCE...General § 611.3 Advanced technology vehicle. In order to...

  17. Advanced Clean Cars Zero Emission Vehicle Regulation

    E-print Network

    California at Davis, University of

    Advanced Clean Cars Zero Emission Vehicle Regulation ZEV #12;Advanced Clean Cars ZEV Program.4% of Annual Sales in 2025 Projected: ZEVs #12;Advanced Clean Cars Hydrogen Infrastructure · Without infrastructure, the cars won't come · Complementary Policies to support ZEV regulation ­ Clean Fuels Outlet

  18. Hybrid and Electric Advanced Vehicle Systems Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beach, R. F.; Hammond, R. A.; Mcgehee, R. K.

    1985-01-01

    Predefined components connected to represent wide variety of propulsion systems. Hybrid and Electric Advanced Vehicle System (HEAVY) computer program is flexible tool for evaluating performance and cost of electric and hybrid vehicle propulsion systems. Allows designer to quickly, conveniently, and economically predict performance of proposed drive train.

  19. 29 CFR 500.102 - Applicability of vehicle safety standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    29 Labor 3 2011-07-01...Applicability of vehicle safety standards. 500.102 Section 500.102 Labor Regulations Relating...DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS MIGRANT...PROTECTION Motor Vehicle Safety and Insurance...

  20. 29 CFR 500.102 - Applicability of vehicle safety standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    29 Labor 3 2010-07-01...Applicability of vehicle safety standards. 500.102 Section 500.102 Labor Regulations Relating...DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS MIGRANT...PROTECTION Motor Vehicle Safety and Insurance...

  1. 77 FR 48105 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Motorcycle Helmets

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-13

    ...Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Motorcycle Helmets AGENCY: National Highway Traffic...Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard for motorcycle helmets. Specifically, the final rule...test procedures of FMVSS No. 218, Motorcycle helmets, in order to make it more...

  2. Advanced orbit transfer vehicle propulsion system study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cathcart, J. A.; Cooper, T. W.; Corringrato, R. M.; Cronau, S. T.; Forgie, S. C.; Harder, M. J.; Mcallister, J. G.; Rudman, T. J.; Stoneback, V. W.

    1985-01-01

    A reuseable orbit transfer vehicle concept was defined and subsequent recommendations for the design criteria of an advanced LO2/LH2 engine were presented. The major characteristics of the vehicle preliminary design include a low lift to drag aerocapture capability, main propulsion system failure criteria of fail operational/fail safe, and either two main engines with an attitude control system for backup or three main engines to meet the failure criteria. A maintenance and servicing approach was also established for the advanced vehicle and engine concepts. Design tradeoff study conclusions were based on the consideration of reliability, performance, life cycle costs, and mission flexibility.

  3. Advanced composite structures for launch vehicles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael J. Robinson; Raymond O. Charette; Bruce G. Leonard

    1991-01-01

    An account is given of the tradeoff optimization results obtained to date in a developmental study concerned with the application of advanced composite structures to advanced launch vehicles in such components as the payload fairing and intertank cylinders. Initial results for comparative studies encompassing GFRP and CFRP structures of both monocoque and sandwich type, as well as composite skin\\/stringer and

  4. Advanced Vehicle Concepts and Implications for NextGen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blake, Matt; Smith, Jim; Wright, Ken; Mediavilla Ricky; Kirby, Michelle; Pfaender, Holger; Clarke, John-Paul; Volovoi, Vitali; Dorbian, Christopher; Ashok, Akshay; Reynolds, Tom; Waitz, Ian; Hileman, James; Arunachalam, Sarav; Hedrick, Matt; Vempati, Lakshmi; Laroza, Ryan; denBraven, Wim; Henderson, Jeff

    2010-01-01

    This report presents the results of a major NASA study of advanced vehicle concepts and their implications for the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen). Comprising the efforts of dozens of researchers at multiple institutions, the analyses presented here cover a broad range of topics including business-case development, vehicle design, avionics, procedure design, delay, safety, environmental impacts, and metrics. The study focuses on the following five new vehicle types: Cruise-efficient short takeoff and landing (CESTOL) vehicles Large commercial tiltrotor aircraft (LCTRs) Unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) Very light jets (VLJs) Supersonic transports (SST). The timeframe of the study spans the years 2025-2040, although some analyses are also presented for a 3X scenario that has roughly three times the number of flights as today. Full implementation of NextGen is assumed.

  5. Advanced vehicle systems assessment. Volume III. Systems assessment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. S. Hardy; M. A. Gyamfi

    1985-01-01

    This volume documents the advanced vehicle systems analyses based on the subsystems technology assessment of Volume II. The systems analyses integrate the advanced component and vehicle characteristics into conceptual vehicles with identical performance (for a given application) and evaluate the vehicles in typical use patterns. Initial and life-cycle costs are estimated and compared to conventional reference vehicle with comparable technological

  6. How important is vehicle safety in the new vehicle purchase process?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sjaanie Koppel; Judith Charlton; Brian Fildes; Michael Fitzharris

    2008-01-01

    Whilst there has been a significant increase in the amount of consumer interest in the safety performance of privately owned vehicles, the role that it plays in consumers’ purchase decisions is poorly understood. The aims of the current study were to determine: how important vehicle safety is in the new vehicle purchase process; what importance consumers place on safety options\\/features

  7. 76 FR 11418 - Rear Visibility; Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard, Rearview Mirrors; Federal Motor Vehicle...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-02

    ...Federal motor vehicle safety standard on rearview...vehicle to detect pedestrians in the area immediately...elderly, and other pedestrians. This proposal...Kids Transportation Safety Act of 2007, which...Federal motor vehicle safety standard on rearview...driver to detect pedestrians in the area...

  8. Advanced wiring technique and hardware application: Airplane and space vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ernst, H. L.; Eichman, C. D.

    1972-01-01

    An advanced wiring system is described which achieves the safety/reliability required for present and future airplane and space vehicle applications. Also, present wiring installation techniques and hardware are analyzed to establish existing problem areas. An advanced wiring system employing matrix interconnecting unit, plug to plug trunk bundles (FCC or ribbon cable) is outlined, and an installation study presented. A planned program to develop, lab test and flight test key features of these techniques and hardware as a part of the SST technology follow-on activities is discussed.

  9. Advances in fuel cell vehicle design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauman, Jennifer

    Factors such as global warming, dwindling fossil fuel reserves, and energy security concerns combine to indicate that a replacement for the internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicle is needed. Fuel cell vehicles have the potential to address the problems surrounding the ICE vehicle without imposing any significant restrictions on vehicle performance, driving range, or refuelling time. Though there are currently some obstacles to overcome before attaining the widespread commercialization of fuel cell vehicles, such as improvements in fuel cell and battery durability, development of a hydrogen infrastructure, and reduction of high costs, the fundamental concept of the fuel cell vehicle is strong: it is efficient, emits zero harmful emissions, and the hydrogen fuel can be produced from various renewable sources. Therefore, research on fuel cell vehicle design is imperative in order to improve vehicle performance and durability, increase efficiency, and reduce costs. This thesis makes a number of key contributions to the advancement of fuel cell vehicle design within two main research areas: powertrain design and DC/DC converters. With regards to powertrain design, this research first analyzes various powertrain topologies and energy storage system types. Then, a novel fuel cell-battery-ultracapacitor topology is presented which shows reduced mass and cost, and increased efficiency, over other promising topologies found in the literature. A detailed vehicle simulator is created in MATLAB/Simulink in order to simulate and compare the novel topology with other fuel cell vehicle powertrain options. A parametric study is performed to optimize each powertrain and general conclusions for optimal topologies, as well as component types and sizes, for fuel cell vehicles are presented. Next, an analytical method to optimize the novel battery-ultracapacitor energy storage system based on maximizing efficiency, and minimizing cost and mass, is developed. This method can be applied to any system utilizing the novel battery-ultracapacitor energy storage system and is not limited in application to only fuel cell vehicles. With regards to DC/DC converters, it is important to design efficient and light-weight converters for use in fuel cell and other electric vehicles to improve overall vehicle fuel economy. Thus, this research presents a novel soft-switching method, the capacitor-switched regenerative snubber, for the high-power DC/DC boost converters commonly used in fuel cell vehicles. This circuit is shown to increase the efficiency and reduce the overall mass of the DC/DC boost converter.

  10. The design of infrared laser radar for vehicle initiative safety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Ping; Xu, Xi-ping; Li, Xiao-yu; Li, Tian-zhi; Liu, Yu-long; Wu, Jia-hui

    2013-09-01

    Laser radar for vehicle is mainly used in advanced vehicle on-board active safety systems, such as forward anti-collision systems, active collision warning systems and adaptive cruise control systems, etc. Laser radar for vehicle plays an important role in the improvement of vehicle active safety and the reduction of traffic accidents. The stability of vehicle active anti-collision system in dynamic environment is still one of the most difficult problems to break through nowadays. According to people's driving habit and the existed detecting technique of sensor, combining the infrared laser range and galvanometer scanning technique , design a 3-D infrared laser radar which can be used to assist navigation, obstacle avoidance and the vehicle's speed control for the vehicle initiative safety. The device is fixed to the head of vehicle. Then if an accident happened, the device could give an alarm to remind the driver timely to decelerate or brake down, by which way can people get the purpose of preventing the collision accidents effectively. To accomplish the design, first of all, select the core components. Then apply Zemax to design the transmitting and receiving optical system. Adopt 1550 nm infrared laser transmitter as emission unit in the device, a galvanometer scanning as laser scanning unit and an InGaAs-APD detector as laser echo signal receiving unit. Perform the construction of experimental system using FPGA and ARM as the core controller. The system designed in this paper can not only detect obstacle in front of the vehicle and make the control subsystem to execute command, but also transfer laser data to PC in real time. Lots of experiments using the infrared laser radar prototype are made, and main performance of it is under tested. The results of these experiments show that the imaging speed of the laser radar can reach up to 25 frames per second, the frame resolution of each image can reach 30×30 pixels, the horizontal angle resolution is about 6. 98mrad, the vertical angle resolution is about 3. 49mrad, the maximum value of range error is 0. 5m, minimum value is 0. 07m at the detectable distance range 10-200m and the detection probability is more than 99. 9%.

  11. Electromechanical flight actuators for advanced flight vehicles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    SERGEY EDWARD LYSHEVSKI

    1999-01-01

    The aircraft flight quantities and success of the mission depend to a great extent upon the actuator performance, and flight actuators must be designed to achieve the specified criteria. Electromechanical flight actuators driven by electric motors have begun to displace hydraulic technology in advanced flight vehicles. In aerospace application, permanent-magnet stepper motors are perfectly suited due to their efficiency and

  12. Advanced vehicle systems assessment. Volume V. Appendices

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-03-01

    This report, which is divided into five volumes, documents the evaluation of advanced electric and hybrid vehicles for potential development by the early 1990s. The primary objective of the assessment is to recommend subsystem research priorities based on a comparison of alternatives as part of complete vehicle systems with equivalent performance. The assessment includes evaluations of candidate technologies as well as technical and economic comparisons of vehicle systems for specified missions. The availability of nonpetroleum fuel is also addressed, and preference analyses are used to assist in the evaluation of the relative merits of competing systems. Volume V, the Appendices, includes reports on battery design, battery cost, aluminum vehicle construction, IBM PC computer programs, and battery discharge models.

  13. Safety Issues with Hydrogen as a Vehicle Fuel

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. C. Cadwallader; J. S. Herring

    1999-01-01

    This report is an initial effort to identify and evaluate safety issues associated with the use of hydrogen as a vehicle fuel in automobiles. Several forms of hydrogen have been considered: gas, liquid, slush, and hydrides. The safety issues have been discussed, beginning with properties of hydrogen and the phenomenology of hydrogen combustion. Safety-related operating experiences with hydrogen vehicles have

  14. Vehicle safety telemetry for automated highways

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, G. R.

    1977-01-01

    The emphasis in current, automatic vehicle testing and diagnosis is primarily centered on the proper operation of the engine. Lateral and longitudinal guidance technologies, including speed control and headway sensing for collision avoidance, are reviewed. The principal guidance technique remains the buried wire. Speed control and headway sensing, even though they show the same basic elements in braking and fuel systems, are proceeding independently. The applications of on-board electronic and microprocessor techniques were investigated; each application (emission control, spark advance, or anti-slip braking) is being treated as an independent problem is proposed. A unified bus system of distributed processors for accomplishing the various functions and testing required for vehicles equipped to use automated highways.

  15. Launch vehicle flight control augmentation using smart materials and advanced composites (CDDF Project 93-05)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barret, C.

    1995-01-01

    The Marshall Space Flight Center has a rich heritage of launch vehicles that have used aerodynamic surfaces for flight stability such as the Saturn vehicles and flight control such as on the Redstone. Recently, due to aft center-of-gravity locations on launch vehicles currently being studied, the need has arisen for the vehicle control augmentation that is provided by these flight controls. Aerodynamic flight control can also reduce engine gimbaling requirements, provide actuator failure protection, enhance crew safety, and increase vehicle reliability, and payload capability. In the Saturn era, NASA went to the Moon with 300 sq ft of aerodynamic surfaces on the Saturn V. Since those days, the wealth of smart materials and advanced composites that have been developed allow for the design of very lightweight, strong, and innovative launch vehicle flight control surfaces. This paper presents an overview of the advanced composites and smart materials that are directly applicable to launch vehicle control surfaces.

  16. 77 FR 51731 - All-Terrain Vehicle Safety Summit

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-27

    ...CPSC-2012-0048] 16 CFR Chapter II All-Terrain Vehicle Safety Summit AGENCY...announcing its intent to hold a Summit on all-terrain vehicle (ATV) safety. The Summit...should register by September 14, 2012; all other individuals who wish to attend...

  17. Highway Safety Program Manual: Volume 1: Periodic Motor Vehicle Inspection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    Volume 1 of the 19-volume Highway Safety Program Manual (which provides guidance to State and local governments on preferred highway safety practices)focuses on periodic motor vehicle inspection by: (1) outlining the purpose and objectives of vehicle inspection, (2) establishing Federal authority for the program, and (3) citing general and…

  18. 29 CFR 500.103 - Activities not subject to vehicle safety standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Activities not subject to vehicle safety standards. 500.103 Section 500.103 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued...Health for Migrant Workers Motor Vehicle Safety § 500.103 Activities not subject to vehicle safety...

  19. 49 CFR 663.41 - Certification of compliance with Federal motor vehicle safety standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...of compliance with Federal motor vehicle safety standards. If a vehicle purchased under...part is subject to the Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards issued by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration in part 571 of this...

  20. 49 CFR 663.41 - Certification of compliance with Federal motor vehicle safety standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...of compliance with Federal motor vehicle safety standards. If a vehicle purchased under...part is subject to the Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards issued by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration in part 571 of this...

  1. 49 CFR 663.41 - Certification of compliance with Federal motor vehicle safety standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...of compliance with Federal motor vehicle safety standards. If a vehicle purchased under...part is subject to the Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards issued by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration in part 571 of this...

  2. 49 CFR 663.41 - Certification of compliance with Federal motor vehicle safety standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...of compliance with Federal motor vehicle safety standards. If a vehicle purchased under...part is subject to the Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards issued by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration in part 571 of this...

  3. 49 CFR 663.41 - Certification of compliance with Federal motor vehicle safety standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...of compliance with Federal motor vehicle safety standards. If a vehicle purchased under...part is subject to the Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards issued by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration in part 571 of this...

  4. 14 CFR 437.51 - Rest rules for vehicle safety operations personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...ensure that all vehicle safety operations personnel adhere to the work and rest standards... (a) No vehicle safety operations personnel may work more than: (1...after 12 hours of work. (c) All vehicle safety operations...

  5. Advancing Transportation through Vehicle Electrification - PHEV

    SciTech Connect

    Bazzi, Abdullah; Barnhart, Steven

    2014-12-31

    FCA US LLC viewed the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) as an historic opportunity to learn about and develop PHEV technologies and create the FCA US LLC engineering center for Electrified Powertrains. The ARRA funding supported FCA US LLC’s light-duty electric drive vehicle and charging infrastructure-testing activities and enabled FCA US LLC to utilize the funding on advancing Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV) technologies for production on future programs. FCA US LLC intended to develop the next-generations of electric drive and energy batteries through a properly paced convergence of standards, technology, components and common modules. To support the development of a strong, commercially viable supplier base, FCA US LLC also utilized this opportunity to evaluate various designated component and sub-system suppliers. The original proposal of this project was submitted in May 2009 and selected in August 2009. The project ended in December 2014.

  6. Advanced APS impacts on vehicle payloads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, Steven J.; Reed, Brian D.

    1989-01-01

    Advanced auxiliary propulsion system (APS) technology has the potential to both, increase the payload capability of earth-to-orbit (ETO) vehicles by reducing APS propellant mass, and simplify ground operations and logistics by reducing the number of fluids on the vehicle and eliminating toxic, corrosive propellants. The impact of integrated cryogenic APS on vehicle payloads is addressed. In this system, launch propulsion system residuals are scavenged from integral launch propulsion tanks for use in the APS. Sufficient propellant is preloaded into the APS to return to earth with margin and noncomplete scavenging assumed. No propellant conditioning is required by the APS, but ambient heat soak is accommodated. High temperature rocket materials enable the use of the unconditioned hydrogen/oxygen in the APS and are estimated to give APS rockets specific impulse of up to about 444 sec. The payload benefits are quantified and compared with an uprated monomethylhydrazine/nitrogen tetroxide system in a conservative fashion, by assuming a 25.5 percent weight growth for the hydrogen/oxygen system and a 0 percent weight growth for the uprated system. The combination of scavenging and high performance gives payload impacts which are highly mission specific. A payload benefit of 861 kg (1898 lbm) was estimated for a Space Station Freedom rendezvous mission and 2099 kg (4626 lbm) for a sortie mission, with payload impacts varying with the amount of launch propulsion residual propellants. Missions without liquid propellant scavenging were estimated to have payload penalties, however, operational benefits were still possible.

  7. Advanced APS impacts on vehicle payloads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Steven J.; Reed, Brian D.

    1989-04-01

    Advanced auxiliary propulsion system (APS) technology has the potential to both, increase the payload capability of earth-to-orbit (ETO) vehicles by reducing APS propellant mass, and simplify ground operations and logistics by reducing the number of fluids on the vehicle and eliminating toxic, corrosive propellants. The impact of integrated cryogenic APS on vehicle payloads is addressed. In this system, launch propulsion system residuals are scavenged from integral launch propulsion tanks for use in the APS. Sufficient propellant is preloaded into the APS to return to earth with margin and noncomplete scavenging assumed. No propellant conditioning is required by the APS, but ambient heat soak is accommodated. High temperature rocket materials enable the use of the unconditioned hydrogen/oxygen in the APS and are estimated to give APS rockets specific impulse of up to about 444 sec. The payload benefits are quantified and compared with an uprated monomethylhydrazine/nitrogen tetroxide system in a conservative fashion, by assuming a 25.5 percent weight growth for the hydrogen/oxygen system and a 0 percent weight growth for the uprated system. The combination of scavenging and high performance gives payload impacts which are highly mission specific. A payload benefit of 861 kg (1898 lbm) was estimated for a Space Station Freedom rendezvous mission and 2099 kg (4626 lbm) for a sortie mission, with payload impacts varying with the amount of launch propulsion residual propellants. Missions without liquid propellant scavenging were estimated to have payload penalties, however, operational benefits were still possible.

  8. A road safety performance indicator for vehicle fleet compatibility.

    PubMed

    Christoph, Michiel; Vis, Martijn Alexander; Rackliff, Lucy; Stipdonk, Henk

    2013-11-01

    This paper discusses the development and the application of a safety performance indicator which measures the intrinsic safety of a country's vehicle fleet related to fleet composition. The indicator takes into account both the 'relative severity' of individual collisions between different vehicle types, and the share of those vehicle types within a country's fleet. The relative severity is a measure for the personal damage that can be expected from a collision between two vehicles of any type, relative to that of a collision between passenger cars. It is shown how this number can be calculated using vehicle mass only. A sensitivity analysis is performed to study the dependence of the indicator on parameter values and basic assumptions made. The indicator is easy to apply and satisfies the requirements for appropriate safety performance indicators. It was developed in such a way that it specifically scores the intrinsic safety of a fleet due to its composition, without being influenced by other factors, like helmet wearing. For the sake of simplicity, and since the required data is available throughout Europe, the indicator was applied to the relative share of three of the main vehicle types: passenger cars, heavy goods vehicles and motorcycles. Using the vehicle fleet data from 13EU Member States and Norway, the indicator was used to rank the countries' safety performance. The UK was found to perform best in terms of its fleet composition (value is 1.07), while Greece has the worst performance with the highest indicator value (1.41). PMID:23953768

  9. 80 FR 29457 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Motorcycle Helmets

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2015-05-21

    ...the Vehicle Safety Act and is subject to a FMVSS. Since they do not...new definition will expand the universe of helmets subject to NHTSA testing to include...sold for highway use and not subject to NHTSA's...

  10. In-vehicle vibration study of child safety seats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Giacomin; S. Gallo

    2003-01-01

    This paper reports experimental measurements of the in-vehicle vibrational behaviour of stage 0&1 child safety seats. Road tests were performed for eight combinations of child, child seat and automobile. Four accelerometers were installed in the vehicles and orientated to measure as closely as possible in the vertical direction; two were attached to the floor and two located at the human

  11. Advanced launch vehicle propulsion at the NASA Lewis Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palaszewski, Bryan A.

    1990-01-01

    Several programs are investigating the benefits of advanced propellant and propulsion systems for future launch vehicles and upper stages. The two major research areas are the Metallized Propellants Program and the Advanced Concepts Program. Both of these programs have theoretical and experimental studies underway to determine the system-level performance effects of these propellants on future NASA vehicles.

  12. Advances in fuel cell vehicle design

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jennifer Bauman

    2008-01-01

    Factors such as global warming, dwindling fossil fuel reserves, and energy security concerns combine to indicate that a replacement for the internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicle is needed. Fuel cell vehicles have the potential to address the problems surrounding the ICE vehicle without imposing any significant restrictions on vehicle performance, driving range, or refuelling time. Though there are currently some

  13. Profiling contextual factors which influence safety in heavy vehicle industries.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Jason R D; Davey, Jeremy; Armstrong, Kerry A

    2014-12-01

    A significant proportion of worker fatalities within Australia result from truck-related incidents. Truck drivers face a number of health and safety concerns. Safety culture, viewed here as the beliefs, attitudes and values shared by an organisation's workers, which interact with their surrounding context to influence behaviour, may provide a valuable lens for exploring safety-related behaviours in heavy vehicle operations. To date no major research has examined safety culture within heavy vehicle industries. As safety culture provides a means to interpret experiences and generate behaviour, safety culture research should be conducted with an awareness of the context surrounding safety. The current research sought to examine previous health and safety research regarding heavy vehicle operations to profile contextual factors which influence health and safety. A review of 104 peer-reviewed papers was conducted. Findings of these papers were then thematically analysed. A number of behaviours and scenarios linked with crashes and non-crash injuries were identified, along with a selection of health outcomes. Contextual factors which were found to influence these outcomes were explored. These factors were found to originate from government departments, transport organisations, customers and the road and work environment. The identified factors may provide points of interaction, whereby culture may influence health and safety outcomes. PMID:25269101

  14. NASA's advanced space transportation system launch vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Branscome, Darrell R.

    1991-01-01

    Some insight is provided into the advanced transportation planning and systems that will evolve to support long term mission requirements. The general requirements include: launch and lift capacity to low earth orbit (LEO); space based transfer systems for orbital operations between LEO and geosynchronous equatorial orbit (GEO), the Moon, and Mars; and Transfer vehicle systems for long duration deep space probes. These mission requirements are incorporated in the NASA Civil Needs Data Base. To accomplish these mission goals, adequate lift capacity to LEO must be available: to support science and application missions; to provide for construction of the Space Station Freedom; and to support resupply of personnel and supplies for its operations. Growth in lift capacity must be time phased to support an expanding mission model that includes Freedom Station, the Mission to Planet Earth, and an expanded robotic planetary program. The near term increase in cargo lift capacity associated with development of the Shuttle-C is addressed. The joint DOD/NASA Advanced Launch System studies are focused on a longer term new cargo capability that will significantly reduce costs of placing payloads in space.

  15. 10 CFR 611.202 - Advanced Technology Vehicle Manufacturing Facility Award Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 2014-01-01 false Advanced Technology Vehicle Manufacturing Facility Award... ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY VEHICLES MANUFACTURER ASSISTANCE PROGRAM...Funding Awards § 611.202 Advanced Technology Vehicle Manufacturing Facility...

  16. 10 CFR 611.202 - Advanced Technology Vehicle Manufacturing Facility Award Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 2010-01-01 false Advanced Technology Vehicle Manufacturing Facility Award... ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY VEHICLES MANUFACTURER ASSISTANCE PROGRAM...Funding Awards § 611.202 Advanced Technology Vehicle Manufacturing Facility...

  17. 10 CFR 611.202 - Advanced Technology Vehicle Manufacturing Facility Award Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 2012-01-01 false Advanced Technology Vehicle Manufacturing Facility Award... ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY VEHICLES MANUFACTURER ASSISTANCE PROGRAM...Funding Awards § 611.202 Advanced Technology Vehicle Manufacturing Facility...

  18. 10 CFR 611.202 - Advanced Technology Vehicle Manufacturing Facility Award Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 2013-01-01 false Advanced Technology Vehicle Manufacturing Facility Award... ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY VEHICLES MANUFACTURER ASSISTANCE PROGRAM...Funding Awards § 611.202 Advanced Technology Vehicle Manufacturing Facility...

  19. 10 CFR 611.202 - Advanced Technology Vehicle Manufacturing Facility Award Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 2011-01-01 false Advanced Technology Vehicle Manufacturing Facility Award... ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY VEHICLES MANUFACTURER ASSISTANCE PROGRAM...Funding Awards § 611.202 Advanced Technology Vehicle Manufacturing Facility...

  20. Advanced concepts in electric vehicle design

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hiroshi Shimizu; Junji Harada; Colby Bland; Kiyomoto Kawakami; Lam Chan

    1997-01-01

    In 1994, the Eco-Vehicle Project was begun to develop an electric vehicle (EV) using a ground-up design approach that incorporates unique designs specific to an EV. The Eco-Vehicle will be a high-performance, but ultrasmall, battery-powered vehicle. New designs for the Eco-Vehicle include an in-wheel motor drive system, a hollow load floor which will house the batteries, and a new battery

  1. The Relationship between Vehicle Weight/Size and Safety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wenzel, Tom; Ross, Marc

    2008-09-01

    Light-duty vehicles account for about 20% of US CO2 emissions. However, new vehicle fuel economy standards have not been significantly tightened since they were first enacted three decades ago. A historical impediment to imposing tougher fuel economy standards has been the long-standing perception that reducing the mass of a car or truck would make it more dangerous to its occupants in a crash. One often hears that this perception is dictated by "simple physics:" that, all else being equal, you are at greater risk in a lighter vehicle than in a heavier one. Our research on driver fatality risk has found that, when it comes to vehicle safety, all else is never equal. Vehicle mass is not the most important variable in determining occupant safety, not even in frontal crashes between two vehicles. You are at no greater risk driving an average car than you are driving a much heavier (and less fuel efficient) truck-based SUV. And larger and heavier truck-based SUVs and pickups impose enormous risks on car occupants. We summarize the most recent research on the interplay between vehicle weight, size and safety, and what the implications are for new state and federal standards to reduce vehicle CO2 emissions.

  2. Safety Issues with Hydrogen as a Vehicle Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Cadwallader, Lee Charles; Herring, James Stephen

    1999-10-01

    This report is an initial effort to identify and evaluate safety issues associated with the use of hydrogen as a vehicle fuel in automobiles. Several forms of hydrogen have been considered: gas, liquid, slush, and hydrides. The safety issues have been discussed, beginning with properties of hydrogen and the phenomenology of hydrogen combustion. Safety-related operating experiences with hydrogen vehicles have been summarized to identify concerns that must be addressed in future design activities and to support probabilistic risk assessment. Also, applicable codes, standards, and regulations pertaining to hydrogen usage and refueling have been identified and are briefly discussed. This report serves as a safety foundation for any future hydrogen safety work, such as a safety analysis or a probabilistic risk assessment.

  3. Safety Issues with Hydrogen as a Vehicle Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    L. C. Cadwallader; J. S. Herring

    1999-09-01

    This report is an initial effort to identify and evaluate safety issues associated with the use of hydrogen as a vehicle fuel in automobiles. Several forms of hydrogen have been considered: gas, liquid, slush, and hydrides. The safety issues have been discussed, beginning with properties of hydrogen and the phenomenology of hydrogen combustion. Safety-related operating experiences with hydrogen vehicles have been summarized to identify concerns that must be addressed in future design activities and to support probabilistic risk assessment. Also, applicable codes, standards, and regulations pertaining to hydrogen usage and refueling have been identified and are briefly discussed. This report serves as a safety foundation for any future hydrogen safety work, such as a safety analysis or a probabilistic risk assessment.

  4. Vehicle-to-Vehicle Communication: Fair Transmit Power Control for Safety-Critical Information

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marc Torrent-Moreno; Jens Mittag; Paolo Santi; Hannes Hartenstein

    2009-01-01

    Direct radio-based vehicle-to-vehicle communication can help prevent accidents by providing accurate and up-to-date local status and hazard information to the driver. In this paper, we assume that two types of messages are used for traffic safety-related communication: 1) Periodic messages (ldquobeaconsrdquo) that are sent by all vehicles to inform their neighbors about their current status (i.e., position) and 2) event-driven

  5. Advanced vehicle systems assessment. Volume 5: Appendices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hardy, K.

    1985-01-01

    An appendix to the systems assessment for the electric hybrid vehicle project is presented. Included are battery design, battery cost, aluminum vehicle construction, IBM PC computer programs and battery discharge models.

  6. Advanced Wireless Power Transfer Vehicle and Infrastructure Analysis (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Gonder, J.; Brooker, A.; Burton, E.; Wang, J.; Konan, A.

    2014-06-01

    This presentation discusses current research at NREL on advanced wireless power transfer vehicle and infrastructure analysis. The potential benefits of E-roadway include more electrified driving miles from battery electric vehicles, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, or even properly equipped hybrid electric vehicles (i.e., more electrified miles could be obtained from a given battery size, or electrified driving miles could be maintained while using smaller and less expensive batteries, thereby increasing cost competitiveness and potential market penetration). The system optimization aspect is key given the potential impact of this technology on the vehicles, the power grid and the road infrastructure.

  7. Advanced structures technology and aircraft safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccomb, H. G., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    NASA research and development on advanced aeronautical structures technology related to flight safety is reviewed. The effort is categorized as research in the technology base and projects sponsored by the Aircraft Energy Efficiency (ACEE) Project Office. Base technology research includes mechanics of composite structures, crash dynamics, and landing dynamics. The ACEE projects involve development and fabrication of selected composite structural components for existing commercial transport aircraft. Technology emanating from this research is intended to result in airframe structures with improved efficiency and safety.

  8. Simulated evaluation of pedestrian safety for flat-front vehicles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Shen; X.-L. Jin; X.-Y. Zhang

    2008-01-01

    This study evaluates the effect of front shape on pedestrian safety by simulation test on the basis of a flat-front car. In this simulation, the multi-body models of full-scale dummy and vehicle are used. The contact stiffness is derived from the finite-element simulations of the European Experimental Vehicles Committee sub-system tests, which is validated by the application to a real-world

  9. Alternative Fuel and Advanced Vehicle Tools (AFAVT), AFDC (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2010-01-01

    The Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Web site offers a collection of calculators, interactive maps, and informational tools to assist fleets, fuel providers, and others looking to reduce petroleum consumption in the transportation sector.

  10. Future of electricity for automobiles: advanced electric vehicle concepts

    SciTech Connect

    O'Connell, L.G.

    1981-07-29

    A large and growing effort involving both the federal government and industry is underway to develop and commercialize highway vehicles that utilize electricity. The electricity they use can be generated from nonpetroleum fuels. The Department of Energy, through its Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Program, is the principal federal agency involved in this work. The goal is to replace petroleum-consuming vehicles now operating on our roadway system with ones that utilize electricity as a primary fuel. However, commercially available electric vehicles (EV) do not compete on a performance (acceleration and range) or cost basis with comparably sized internal combustion engine vehicles. Although today's electric vehicles will certainly find some commerical acceptance, we need an automobile with general-purpose capability if we are to appeal to the larger market. I have labeled such an automobile the Advanced Electric Vehicle. Thus by definition, the Advanced Electric Vehicle is an automobile capable of filling the general-purpose role of today's gasoline-powered car and uses electricity as its principle fuel. It is either an EV, hybrid vehicle (HV), or some other nonpetroleum electricity-based system, such as a fuel cell vehicle (FCV). Is this Advanced Electric Vehicle in our future. To determine this we need to have an understanding of what may be possible. Performance criteria for such a vehicle are presented and, in addition, various concepts that may be suitable for this vehicle are identified--their likely capabilities are discussed as well as the difficulties that must be overcome prior to commercialization in each case.

  11. Using advanced technologies to reduce motor vehicle greenhouse gas emissions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carmen Difiglio

    1997-01-01

    This paper quantifies the potential reduction in US greenhouse gas emissions that could be achieved by using advanced-technology motor vehicles and low-emission bio-fuels. These two approaches are compared to a variety of other approaches to reduce transportation sector emissions. It is concluded that only strong fiscal measures can produce emission reductions as large as are available from advanced-technology vehicles and

  12. A single-subject approach to evaluating vehicle safety belt reminders: Back to basics

    PubMed Central

    Berry, Thomas D.; Geller, E. Scott

    1991-01-01

    A single-subject ABA reversal design was applied to evaluate the effectiveness of a limited 8-s safety belt reminder system and two modified reminder systems (a delayed and second reminder) to increase the safety belt use of 13 drivers. The research was conducted with a specially equipped research vehicle that permitted the manipulation of different safety belt reminder stimuli and the unobtrusive recording of a driver's belt use. For 2 subjects, the limited 8-s reminder increased safety belt use. For another 2 subjects, the second reminder markedly increased belt use. Some subjects were uninfluenced by the reminder systems presented; others always buckled up during both baseline and intervention conditions. The approach and results are discussed with regard to the application of behavior analysis methodologies (e.g., cumulative records) and principles (e.g., schedules of reinforcement) to advance the utility and investigation of safety belt reminder systems. PMID:16795740

  13. RESEARCH NEEDS FOR ADVANCED SAFETY CONCEPTS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. MAYINGER

    SUMMARY In spite of momentarily stagnating construction of new nuclear power plants research with respect to a still more improvement of safety features must go on. Advanced designs of nuclear plants promise a big step forward in minimising the risk. Research activities in the fields of thermal hydraulics neutron physics and severe accident mitigation are presented. Public acceptance of nuclear

  14. Utility vehicle safety Operator training program

    E-print Network

    Minnesota, University of

    with the following: · Operable brakes · Departmental identification displayed horizontally on each side and rear, strange sounds or behavior · Lighting: headlamps, tail lamps, brake lights and turn signals · Brakes: work smoothly without noise or pulling · Slow moving vehicle sign: in place and visible · Equipment and supplies

  15. MOTOR VEHICLE USE PROGRAM DRIVER SAFETY TIPS

    E-print Network

    or improper driving habits of other drivers. Potentially dangerous acts include speeding, improper turn - Employees who drive Institute or privately owned vehicles on Institute business must possess and carry employees driving on Institute business have a copy of the state's General Liability Insurance

  16. Ergonomics, spinal injury, and industrial vehicle safety

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. W. McLay; D. G. Wilder; M. K. Molloy

    1996-01-01

    Explores the mechanisms of spinal injury in industrial vehicle accidents. The biomechanics of balance, response to sudden loads, and impact and vibration are shown to influence the nature of trauma. A simulation of the occupant motion in a sit-down forklift shows the loads in a tipover. The packaging of the driver is discussed to reduce the probability of spinal injury

  17. Advanced propulsion system for hybrid vehicles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. V. Norrup; A. T. Lintz

    1980-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate a number of hybrid propulsion systems for application in several different vehicle sizes. A conceptual design was prepared for the most promising configuration. The program was divided into several tasks during which the various system configurations were parametrically evaluated and compared, design tradeoffs performed, and a conceptual design produced. Fifteen vehicle\\/propulsion system

  18. Advanced control design for hybrid turboelectric vehicle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joseph Abban; Johnesta Norvell; James A. Momoh

    1995-01-01

    The new environment standards are a challenge and opportunity for industry and government who manufacture and operate urban mass transient vehicles. A research investigation to provide control scheme for efficient power management of the vehicle is in progress. Different design requirements using functional analysis and trade studies of alternate power sources and controls have been performed. The design issues include

  19. Advanced protection technology for ground combat vehicles.

    PubMed

    Bosse, Timothy G

    2012-01-01

    Just as highway drivers use radar detectors to attempt to stay ahead of police armed with the latest radar technology, the Armed Forces are locked in a spiral to protect combat vehicles and their crews against the latest threats in both the contemporary operating environment and the anticipated operating environment (ie, beyond 2020). In response to bigger, heavier, or better-protected vehicles, adversaries build and deploy larger explosive devices or bombs. However, making improvements to combat vehicles is much more expensive than deploying larger explosives. In addition, demand is increasing for lighter-weight vehicles capable of rapid deployment. Together, these two facts give the threat a clear advantage in the future. To protect vehicles and crews, technologies focusing on detection and hit avoidance, denial of penetration, and crew survivability must be combined synergistically to provide the best chance of survival on the modern battlefield. PMID:22865132

  20. 29 CFR 500.103 - Activities not subject to vehicle safety standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    29 Labor 3 2010-07-01...not subject to vehicle safety standards. 500.103 Section 500.103 Labor Regulations Relating...DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS MIGRANT...PROTECTION Motor Vehicle Safety and Insurance...

  1. 29 CFR 500.103 - Activities not subject to vehicle safety standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    29 Labor 3 2011-07-01...not subject to vehicle safety standards. 500.103 Section 500.103 Labor Regulations Relating...DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS MIGRANT...PROTECTION Motor Vehicle Safety and Insurance...

  2. Vehicle-to-vehicle wireless communication protocols for enhancing highway traffic safety

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Subir Biswas; R. Tatchikou; F. Dion

    2006-01-01

    This article presents an overview of highway cooperative collision avoidance (CCA), which is an emerging vehicular safety application using the IEEE- and ASTM-adopted Dedicated Short Range Communication (DSRC) standard. Along with a description of the DSRC architecture, we introduce the concept of CCA and its implementation requirements in the context of a vehicle-to-vehicle wireless network, primarily at the Medium Access

  3. Safety Issues with Hydrogen as a Vehicle Fuel

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mårten Niklasson; David Gårsjö; Anders Folkesson; Per Alvfors; Eva Sunnerstedt; Joakim Hägvall

    Hydrogen is considered to be one of the most promising, and by far the most environmentally friendly, fuels to replace diesel and petrol in the future. However, public knowledge about hydrogen must increase if hydrogen is going to be accepted as a common vehicle fuel. The safety aspects must be thoroughly and objectively addressed as a single accident very well

  4. 75 FR 22532 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Cargo Carrying Capacity

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-29

    ...Vehicle Safety Standards; Cargo Carrying Capacity AGENCY: National Highway Traffic...consumers about the vehicle's load carrying capacity. DATES: The December 4, 2007...recreation vehicle trailer load carrying capacity information for motor...

  5. Gaseous fuel safety assessment for light-duty automotive vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Krupka, M.C.; Peaslee, A.T.; Laquer, H.L.

    1983-11-01

    The relative safety of gaseous and liquid fuels utilized for light-duty automotive transportation was assessed. The specific fuels considered were compressed natural gas (CNG), liquefied natural gas (LNG), liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), and as reference, gasoline and diesel fuel. The assessment methodology describes and develops the relative hazards of these fuels from an integrated generic physicochemical property and accident scenario point of view. Fuel-relative safety rankings were established by eliciting expert judgment and combining that judgment with a comparative scoring methodology. Selected accident scenarios included fuel leakage in both residential and public garages; fueling line rupture at a refueling station in the presence of user vehicles or delivery vehicles; and vehicle collisions under rural, urban, and vehicular tunnel conditions. Results permit the generation of selected safe handling criteria.

  6. 76 FR 11417 - Public Workshop and Hearing for Rear Visibility; Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard, Rearview...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-02

    ...National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA...Federal motor vehicle safety standard on rearview...a vehicle to detect pedestrians in the area immediately...Kids Transportation Safety Act of 2007 (75 FR...a vehicle striking a pedestrian while performing a...

  7. Establishing Safety for Heavy Duty Vehicle Platooning

    E-print Network

    Johansson, Karl Henrik

    in terms of accuracy, reliability and delays amongst others. The adaptive cruise control (ACC in commercial applications today can be reduced significantly with a suitable advanced cruise control system on what minimum relative distance can be obtained. In this paper, we utilize optimal control and game

  8. Advanced ac powertrain for electric vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Slicker, J.M.; Kalns, L.

    1985-01-01

    The design of an ac propulsion system for an electric vehicle includes a three-phase induction motor, transistorized PWM inverter/battery charger, microprocessor-based controller, and two-speed automatic transaxle. This system was built and installed in a Mercury Lynx test bed vehicle as part of a Department of Energy propulsion system development program. An integral part of the inverter is a 4-kw battery charger which utilizes one of the bridge transistors. The overall inverter strategy for this configuration is discussed. The function of the microprocessor-based controller is described. Typical test results of the total vehicle and each of its major components are given, including system efficiencies and test track performance results.

  9. Communication Information Structures and Contents for Enhanced Safety of Highway Vehicle

    E-print Network

    Zhang, Hongwei

    in developing intelligent transporta- tion systems. By autonomous or semi-autonomous vehicle con- trol and inter-vehicle, autonomous vehicles. I. INTRODUCTION Highway platooning of vehicles has been identified as a promising1 Communication Information Structures and Contents for Enhanced Safety of Highway Vehicle Platoons

  10. Continuously variable transmission: Assessment of applicability to advance electric vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loewenthal, S. H.; Parker, R. J.

    1981-01-01

    A brief historical account of the evolution of continuously variable transmissions (CVT) for automotive use is given. The CVT concepts which are potentially suitable for application with electric and hybrid vehicles are discussed. The arrangement and function of several CVT concepts are cited along with their current developmental status. The results of preliminary design studies conducted on four CVT concepts for use in advanced electric vehicles are discussed.

  11. 75 FR 37343 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Occupant Crash Protection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-29

    ...National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 49 CFR Part...applied toward a vehicle's Safety Assist rating, which in...Child Occupant Protection, Pedestrian Protection and a new area of assessment: Safety...

  12. Fuel Properties Database from the Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (AFDC)

    DOE Data Explorer

    This database contains information on advanced petroleum and non-petroleum based fuels, as well as key data on advanced compression ignition fuels. Included are data on physical, chemical, operational, environmental, safety, and health properties. These data result from tests conducted according to standard methods (mostly American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM). The source and test methods for each fuel data set are provided with the information. The database can be searched in various ways and can output numbers or explanatory text. Heavy vehicle chassis emission data are also available for some fuels.

  13. Advanced control concepts. [for shuttle ascent vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharp, J. B.; Coppey, J. M.

    1973-01-01

    The problems of excess control devices and insufficient trim control capability on shuttle ascent vehicles were investigated. The trim problem is solved at all time points of interest using Lagrangian multipliers and a Simplex based iterative algorithm developed as a result of the study. This algorithm has the capability to solve any bounded linear problem with physically realizable constraints, and to minimize any piecewise differentiable cost function. Both solution methods also automatically distribute the command torques to the control devices. It is shown that trim requirements are unrealizable if only the orbiter engines and the aerodynamic surfaces are used.

  14. Advanced electromagnetic methods for aerospace vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balanis, Constantine A.; Choi, Jachoon; El-Sharawy, El-Budawy; Hashemi-Yeganeh, Shahrokh; Birtcher, Craig R.

    1990-01-01

    High- and low-frequency methods to analyze various radiation elements located on aerospace vehicles with combinations of conducting, nonconducting, and energy absorbing surfaces and interfaces. The focus was on developing fundamental concepts, techniques, and algorithms which would remove some of the present limitations in predicting radiation characteristics of antennas on complex aerospace vehicles. In order to accomplish this, the following subjects were examined: (1) the development of techniques for rigorous analysis of surface discontinuities of metallic and nonmetallic surfaces using the equivalent surface impedance concept and Green's function; (2) the effects of anisotropic material on antenna radiation patterns through the use of an equivalent surface impedance concept which is incorporated into the existing numerical electromagnetics computer codes; and (3) the fundamental concepts of precipitation static (P-Static), such as formulations and analytical models. A computer code was used to model the P-Static process on a simple structure. Measurement techniques were also developed to characterized the electrical properties at microwave frequencies. Samples of typical materials used in airframes were tested and the results are included.

  15. Auxiliary propulsion technology for advanced Earth-to-orbit vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, Steven J.

    1987-01-01

    The payload which can be delivered to orbit by advanced Earth-to-Orbit vehicles is significantly increased by advanced subsystem technology. Any weight which can be saved by advanced subsystem design can be converted to payload at Main Engine Cut Off (MECO) given the same launch vehicle performance. The auxiliary propulsion subsystem and the impetus for the current hydrogen/oxygen technology program is examined. A review of the auxiliary propulsion requirements of advanced Earth-to-Orbit (ETO) vehicles and their proposed missions is given first. Then the performance benefits of hydrogen/oxygen auxiliary propulsion are illustrated using current shuttle data. The proposed auxiliary propulsion subsystem implementation includes liquid hydrogen/liquid oxygen (LH2/LO2) primary Reaction Control System (RCS) engines and gaseous hydrogen/gaseous oxygen (GH2/GO2) vernier RCS engines. A distribution system for the liquid cryogens to the engines is outlined. The possibility of providing one dual-phase engine that can operate on either liquid or gaseous propellants is being explored, as well as the simultaneous firing of redundant primary RCS thrusters to provide Orbital Maneuvering System (OMS) level impulse. Scavenging of propellants from integral main engine tankage is proposed to utilize main engine tank residuals and to combine launch vehicle and subsystem reserves.

  16. Advanced Underground Vehicle Power and Control Fuelcell Mine Locomotive

    E-print Network

    Advanced Underground Vehicle Power and Control Fuelcell Mine Locomotive U.S. Department of Energy Street, Suite 2131 Denver, CO 80293 #12;FOUR-TON MINE LOCOMOTIVE Reno, Nevada ­ November 2002 #12 management #12;MINE-LOCOMOTIVE PROJECT OBJECTIVES · Develop a zero-emissions, fuelcell-powered metal-mining

  17. Automated Mixed Traffic Vehicle (AMTV) technology and safety study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, A. R.; Peng, T. K. C.; Vivian, H. C.; Wang, P. K.

    1978-01-01

    Technology and safety related to the implementation of an Automated Mixed Traffic Vehicle (AMTV) system are discussed. System concepts and technology status were reviewed and areas where further development is needed are identified. Failure and hazard modes were also analyzed and methods for prevention were suggested. The results presented are intended as a guide for further efforts in AMTV system design and technology development for both near term and long term applications. The AMTV systems discussed include a low speed system, and a hybrid system consisting of low speed sections and high speed sections operating in a semi-guideway. The safety analysis identified hazards that may arise in a properly functioning AMTV system, as well as hardware failure modes. Safety related failure modes were emphasized. A risk assessment was performed in order to create a priority order and significant hazards and failure modes were summarized. Corrective measures were proposed for each hazard.

  18. A Plan for Advanced Guidance and Control Technology for 2nd Generation Reusable Launch Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanson, John M.; Fogle, Frank (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Advanced guidance and control (AG&C) technologies are critical for meeting safety/reliability and cost requirements for the next generation of reusable launch vehicle (RLV). This becomes clear upon examining the number of expendable launch vehicle failures in the recent past where AG&C technologies would have saved a RLV with the same failure mode, the additional vehicle problems where this technology applies, and the costs associated with mission design with or without all these failure issues. The state-of-the-art in guidance and control technology, as well as in computing technology, is at the point where we can took to the possibility of being able to safely return a RLV in any situation where it can physically be recovered. This paper outlines reasons for AG&C, current technology efforts, and the additional work needed for making this goal a reality.

  19. Advanced launch vehicle systems and technology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. W. J. Bell

    1978-01-01

    With limited exceptions the commercial feasibility of large space utilization concepts, such as the development of space solar power stations and the conduct of extensive manufacturing operations beyond the earth's atmosphere is dependent upon the development of advanced space transportation systems providing an order of magnitude reduction in payload delivery cost. Much of the interim orbital development and scaled system

  20. Research and Development at the Center for Advanced Public Safety

    E-print Network

    Carver, Jeffrey C.

    center at UA with the mission of developing software primarily in support of public safety, traffic. CAPS has developed a research and software systems portfolio in public safety, traffic safety, homelandResearch and Development at the Center for Advanced Public Safety Dr. Allen Parrish, University

  1. Advanced electromagnetic methods for aerospace vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balanis, Constantine A.; Sun, Weimin; El-Sharawy, El-Budawy; Aberle, James T.; Birtcher, Craig R.; Peng, Jian; Tirkas, Panayiotis A.

    1992-01-01

    The Advanced Helicopter Electromagnetics (AHE) Industrial Associates Program continues its research on variety of main topics identified and recommended by the Advisory Task Force of the program. The research activities center on issues that advance technology related to helicopter electromagnetics. While most of the topics are a continuation of previous works, special effort has been focused on some of the areas due to recommendations from the last annual conference. The main topics addressed in this report are: composite materials, and antenna technology. The area of composite materials continues getting special attention in this period. The research has focused on: (1) measurements of the electrical properties of low-conductivity materials; (2) modeling of material discontinuity and their effects on the scattering patterns; (3) preliminary analysis on interaction of electromagnetic fields with multi-layered graphite fiberglass plates; and (4) finite difference time domain (FDTD) modeling of fields penetration through composite panels of a helicopter.

  2. Developing SAE Safety Standards for Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Vehicles (FCVs)

    E-print Network

    Developing SAE Safety Standards for Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Vehicles (FCVs) Polymer and Composite and fuel cell vehicles. 5 #12; SAE J2579 Vehicle Storage Systems Typical Hydrogen Storage System or Engine PRD Service Defuel Shufoff vent Compressed Hydrogen Storage System 6 #12;SAE J2579 Vehicle

  3. Rules of the Road for Transporting Children--Guidelines for Developing a Motor Vehicle Safety Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hooker, Bruce; Gearhart, Kentin

    1999-01-01

    Discusses safety issues for child care centers that provide transportation for children. Notes the importance of vehicle usage and control, driver qualifications, vehicle maintenance, child securement, accident procedures, and driver education and training. (JPB)

  4. Advanced electromagnetic methods for aerospace vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balanis, Constantine A.; El-Sharawy, El-Budawy; Hashemi-Yeganeh, Shahrokh; Aberle, James T.; Birtcher, Craig R.

    1991-01-01

    The Advanced Helicopter Electromagnetics is centered on issues that advance technology related to helicopter electromagnetics. Progress was made on three major topics: composite materials; precipitation static corona discharge; and antenna technology. In composite materials, the research has focused on the measurements of their electrical properties, and the modeling of material discontinuities and their effect on the radiation pattern of antennas mounted on or near material surfaces. The electrical properties were used to model antenna performance when mounted on composite materials. Since helicopter platforms include several antenna systems at VHF and UHF bands, measuring techniques are being explored that can be used to measure the properties at these bands. The effort on corona discharge and precipitation static was directed toward the development of a new two dimensional Voltage Finite Difference Time Domain computer program. Results indicate the feasibility of using potentials for simulating electromagnetic problems in the cases where potentials become primary sources. In antenna technology the focus was on Polarization Diverse Conformal Microstrip Antennas, Cavity Backed Slot Antennas, and Varactor Tuned Circular Patch Antennas. Numerical codes were developed for the analysis of two probe fed rectangular and circular microstrip patch antennas fed by resistive and reactive power divider networks.

  5. Adaptive Modeling, Engineering Analysis and Design of Advanced Aerospace Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mukhopadhyay, Vivek; Hsu, Su-Yuen; Mason, Brian H.; Hicks, Mike D.; Jones, William T.; Sleight, David W.; Chun, Julio; Spangler, Jan L.; Kamhawi, Hilmi; Dahl, Jorgen L.

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes initial progress towards the development and enhancement of a set of software tools for rapid adaptive modeling, and conceptual design of advanced aerospace vehicle concepts. With demanding structural and aerodynamic performance requirements, these high fidelity geometry based modeling tools are essential for rapid and accurate engineering analysis at the early concept development stage. This adaptive modeling tool was used for generating vehicle parametric geometry, outer mold line and detailed internal structural layout of wing, fuselage, skin, spars, ribs, control surfaces, frames, bulkheads, floors, etc., that facilitated rapid finite element analysis, sizing study and weight optimization. The high quality outer mold line enabled rapid aerodynamic analysis in order to provide reliable design data at critical flight conditions. Example application for structural design of a conventional aircraft and a high altitude long endurance vehicle configuration are presented. This work was performed under the Conceptual Design Shop sub-project within the Efficient Aerodynamic Shape and Integration project, under the former Vehicle Systems Program. The project objective was to design and assess unconventional atmospheric vehicle concepts efficiently and confidently. The implementation may also dramatically facilitate physics-based systems analysis for the NASA Fundamental Aeronautics Mission. In addition to providing technology for design and development of unconventional aircraft, the techniques for generation of accurate geometry and internal sub-structure and the automated interface with the high fidelity analysis codes could also be applied towards the design of vehicles for the NASA Exploration and Space Science Mission projects.

  6. An advanced unmanned vehicle for remote applications

    SciTech Connect

    Pletta, J.B.; Sackos, J.

    1998-03-01

    An autonomous mobile robotic capability is critical to developing remote work applications for hazardous environments. A few potential applications include humanitarian demining and ordnance neutralization, extraterrestrial science exploration, and hazardous waste cleanup. The ability of the remote platform to sense and maneuver within its environment is a basic technology requirement which is currently lacking. This enabling technology will open the door for force multiplication and cost effective solutions to remote operations. The ultimate goal of this work is to develop a mobile robotic platform that can identify and avoid local obstacles as it traverses from its current location to a specified destination. This goal directed autonomous navigation scheme uses the Global Positioning System (GPS) to identify the robot`s current coordinates in space and neural network processing of LADAR range images for local obstacle detection and avoidance. The initial year funding provided by this LDRD project has developed a small exterior mobile robotic development platform and a fieldable version of Sandia`s Scannerless Range Imager (SRI) system. The robotic testbed platform is based on the Surveillance And Reconnaissance ground Equipment (SARGE) robotic vehicle design recently developed for the US DoD. Contingent upon follow-on funding, future enhancements will develop neural network processing of the range map data to traverse unstructured exterior terrain while avoiding obstacles. The SRI will provide real-time range images to a neural network for autonomous guidance. Neural network processing of the range map data will allow real-time operation on a Pentium based embedded processor board.

  7. Control definition study for advanced vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lapins, M.; Martorella, R. P.; Klein, R. W.; Meyer, R. C.; Sturm, M. J.

    1983-01-01

    The low speed, high angle of attack flight mechanics of an advanced, canard-configured, supersonic tactical aircraft designed with moderate longitudinal relaxed static stability (Static Margin, SM = 16% C sub W at M = 0.4) was investigated. Control laws were developed for the longitudinal axis (""G'' or maneuver and angle of attack command systems) and for the lateral/directional axes. The performance of these control laws was examined in engineering simulation. A canard deflection/rate requirement study was performed as part of the ""G'' command law evaluation at low angles of attack. Simulated coupled maneuvers revealed the need for command limiters in all three aircraft axes to prevent departure from controlled flight. When modified with command/maneuver limiters, the control laws were shown to be adequate to prevent aircraft departure during aggressive air combat maneuvering.

  8. Advanced electromagnetic methods for aerospace vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balanis, Constantine A.; Sun, Weimin; El-Sharawy, El-Budawy; Aberle, James T.; Birtcher, Craig R.; Peng, Jian; Tirkas, Panayiotis A.; Andrew, William V.; Kokotoff, David; Zavosh, Frank

    1993-01-01

    The Advanced Helicopter Electromagnetics (AHE) Industrial Associates Program has fruitfully completed its fourth year. Under the support of the AHE members and the joint effort of the research team, new and significant progress has been achieved in the year. Following the recommendations by the Advisory Task Force, the research effort is placed on more practical helicopter electromagnetic problems, such as HF antennas, composite materials, and antenna efficiencies. In this annual report, the main topics to be addressed include composite materials and antenna technology. The research work on each topic has been driven by the AHE consortium members' interests and needs. The remarkable achievements and progresses in each subject is reported respectively in individual sections of the report. The work in the area of composite materials includes: modeling of low conductivity composite materials by using Green's function approach; guidelines for composite material modeling by using the Green's function approach in the NEC code; development of 3-D volume mesh generator for modeling thick and volumetric dielectrics by using FD-TD method; modeling antenna elements mounted on a composite Comanche tail stabilizer; and antenna pattern control and efficiency estimate for a horn antenna loaded with composite dielectric materials.

  9. Advanced electromagnetic methods for aerospace vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balanis, Constantine A.; Sun, Weimin; El-Sharawy, El-Budawy; Aberle, James T.; Birtcher, Craig R.; Peng, Jian; Tirkas, Panayiotis A.; Kokotoff, David; Zavosh, Frank

    1993-01-01

    The Advanced Helicopter Electromagnetics (AHE) Industrial Associates Program has continuously progressed with its research effort focused on subjects identified and recommended by the Advisory Task Force of the program. The research activities in this reporting period have been steered toward practical helicopter electromagnetic problems, such as HF antenna problems and antenna efficiencies, recommended by the AHE members at the annual conference held at Arizona State University on 28-29 Oct. 1992 and the last biannual meeting held at the Boeing Helicopter on 19-20 May 1993. The main topics addressed include the following: Composite Materials and Antenna Technology. The research work on each topic is closely tied with the AHE Consortium members' interests. Significant progress in each subject is reported. Special attention in the area of Composite Materials has been given to the following: modeling of material discontinuity and their effects on towel-bar antenna patterns; guidelines for composite material modeling by using the Green's function approach in the NEC code; measurements of towel-bar antennas grounded with a partially material-coated plate; development of 3-D volume mesh generator for modeling thick and volumetric dielectrics by using FD-TD method; FDTD modeling of horn antennas with composite E-plane walls; and antenna efficiency analysis for a horn antenna loaded with composite dielectric materials.

  10. Advanced electromagnetic methods for aerospace vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balanis, Constantine A.; Sun, Weimin; El-Sharawy, El-Budawy; Aberle, James T.; Birtcher, Craig R.; Peng, Jian; Tirkas, Panayiotis A.; Kokotoff, David; Zavosh, Frank

    1993-06-01

    The Advanced Helicopter Electromagnetics (AHE) Industrial Associates Program has continuously progressed with its research effort focused on subjects identified and recommended by the Advisory Task Force of the program. The research activities in this reporting period have been steered toward practical helicopter electromagnetic problems, such as HF antenna problems and antenna efficiencies, recommended by the AHE members at the annual conference held at Arizona State University on 28-29 Oct. 1992 and the last biannual meeting held at the Boeing Helicopter on 19-20 May 1993. The main topics addressed include the following: Composite Materials and Antenna Technology. The research work on each topic is closely tied with the AHE Consortium members' interests. Significant progress in each subject is reported. Special attention in the area of Composite Materials has been given to the following: modeling of material discontinuity and their effects on towel-bar antenna patterns; guidelines for composite material modeling by using the Green's function approach in the NEC code; measurements of towel-bar antennas grounded with a partially material-coated plate; development of 3-D volume mesh generator for modeling thick and volumetric dielectrics by using FD-TD method; FDTD modeling of horn antennas with composite E-plane walls; and antenna efficiency analysis for a horn antenna loaded with composite dielectric materials.

  11. Advancing Autonomous Operations for Deep Space Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haddock, Angie T.; Stetson, Howard K.

    2014-01-01

    Starting in Jan 2012, the Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Autonomous Mission Operations (AMO) Project began to investigate the ability to create and execute "single button" crew initiated autonomous activities [1]. NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) designed and built a fluid transfer hardware test-bed to use as a sub-system target for the investigations of intelligent procedures that would command and control a fluid transfer test-bed, would perform self-monitoring during fluid transfers, detect anomalies and faults, isolate the fault and recover the procedures function that was being executed, all without operator intervention. In addition to the development of intelligent procedures, the team is also exploring various methods for autonomous activity execution where a planned timeline of activities are executed autonomously and also the initial analysis of crew procedure development. This paper will detail the development of intelligent procedures for the NASA MSFC Autonomous Fluid Transfer System (AFTS) as well as the autonomous plan execution capabilities being investigated. Manned deep space missions, with extreme communication delays with Earth based assets, presents significant challenges for what the on-board procedure content will encompass as well as the planned execution of the procedures.

  12. Defensive purchasing, the safety (dis)advantage of light trucks, and motor-vehicle policy effectiveness

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nicholas Brozovi?; Amy Whritenour Ando

    2009-01-01

    We model motor-vehicle choice when a consumer’s utility from a particular vehicle depends in part on that vehicle’s expected safety, and thus on the vehicle choices made by other consumers with which (s)he may collide. Calibration of model parameters suggests that light trucks do impose an externality on cars and that increasing the proportion of light trucks in the fleet

  13. Advanced Guidance and Control Methods for Reusable Launch Vehicles: Test Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanson, John M.; Jones, Robert E.; Krupp, Don R.; Fogle, Frank R. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    There are a number of approaches to advanced guidance and control (AG&C) that have the potential for achieving the goals of significantly increasing reusable launch vehicle (RLV) safety/reliability and reducing the cost. In this paper, we examine some of these methods and compare the results. We briefly introduce the various methods under test, list the test cases used to demonstrate that the desired results are achieved, show an automated test scoring method that greatly reduces the evaluation effort required, and display results of the tests. Results are shown for the algorithms that have entered testing so far.

  14. Issues affecting advanced passive light-water reactor safety analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Beelman, R.J.; Fletcher, C.D.; Modro, S.M.

    1992-01-01

    Next generation commercial reactor designs emphasize enhanced safety through improved safety system reliability and performance by means of system simplification and reliance on immutable natural forces for system operation. Simulating the performance of these safety systems will be central to analytical safety evaluation of advanced passive reactor designs. Yet the characteristically small driving forces of these safety systems pose challenging computational problems to current thermal-hydraulic systems analysis codes. Additionally, the safety systems generally interact closely with one another, requiring accurate, integrated simulation of the nuclear steam supply system, engineered safeguards and containment. Furthermore, numerical safety analysis of these advanced passive reactor designs wig necessitate simulation of long-duration, slowly-developing transients compared with current reactor designs. The composite effects of small computational inaccuracies on induced system interactions and perturbations over long periods may well lead to predicted results which are significantly different than would otherwise be expected or might actually occur. Comparisons between the engineered safety features of competing US advanced light water reactor designs and analogous present day reactor designs are examined relative to the adequacy of existing thermal-hydraulic safety codes in predicting the mechanisms of passive safety. Areas where existing codes might require modification, extension or assessment relative to passive safety designs are identified. Conclusions concerning the applicability of these codes to advanced passive light water reactor safety analysis are presented.

  15. Issues affecting advanced passive light-water reactor safety analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Beelman, R.J.; Fletcher, C.D.; Modro, S.M.

    1992-08-01

    Next generation commercial reactor designs emphasize enhanced safety through improved safety system reliability and performance by means of system simplification and reliance on immutable natural forces for system operation. Simulating the performance of these safety systems will be central to analytical safety evaluation of advanced passive reactor designs. Yet the characteristically small driving forces of these safety systems pose challenging computational problems to current thermal-hydraulic systems analysis codes. Additionally, the safety systems generally interact closely with one another, requiring accurate, integrated simulation of the nuclear steam supply system, engineered safeguards and containment. Furthermore, numerical safety analysis of these advanced passive reactor designs wig necessitate simulation of long-duration, slowly-developing transients compared with current reactor designs. The composite effects of small computational inaccuracies on induced system interactions and perturbations over long periods may well lead to predicted results which are significantly different than would otherwise be expected or might actually occur. Comparisons between the engineered safety features of competing US advanced light water reactor designs and analogous present day reactor designs are examined relative to the adequacy of existing thermal-hydraulic safety codes in predicting the mechanisms of passive safety. Areas where existing codes might require modification, extension or assessment relative to passive safety designs are identified. Conclusions concerning the applicability of these codes to advanced passive light water reactor safety analysis are presented.

  16. In-vehicle vibration study of child safety seats.

    PubMed

    Giacomin, J; Gallo, S

    2003-12-15

    This paper reports experimental measurements of the in-vehicle vibrational behaviour of stage 0&1 child safety seats. Road tests were performed for eight combinations of child, child seat and automobile. Four accelerometers were installed in the vehicles and orientated to measure as closely as possible in the vertical direction; two were attached to the floor and two located at the human interfaces. An SAE pad was placed under the ischial tuberosities of the driver at the seat cushion and a child pad, designed for the purpose of this study, was placed under the child. Four test runs were made over a pave' (cobblestone) surface for the driver's seat and four for the child seat at both 20 km h(-1) and 40 km h(-1). Power spectral densities were determined for all measurement points and acceleration transmissibility functions (ATFs) were estimated from the floor of the vehicle to the human interfaces. The system composed of automobile seat, child seat and child was found to transmit greater vibration than the system composed of automobile seat and driver. The ensemble mean transmissibility in the frequency range from 1 to 60 Hz was found to be 77% for the child seats systems as opposed to 61% for the driver's seats. The acceleration transmissibility for the child seat system was found to be higher than that of the driver's seat at most frequencies above 10 Hz for all eight systems tested. The measured ATFs suggest that the principal whole-body vibration resonance of the children occurred at a mean frequency of 8.5, rather than the 3.5 to 5.0 Hz typically found in the case of seated adults. It can be concluded that current belt-fastened child seats are less effective than the vehicle primary seating systems in attenuating vibrational disturbances. The results also suggest the potential inability of evaluating child comfort by means of existing whole-body vibration standards. PMID:14668171

  17. Driver perceptions of the safety implications of quiet electric vehicles.

    PubMed

    Cocron, Peter; Krems, Josef F

    2013-09-01

    Previous research on the safety implications of quiet electric vehicles (EVs) has mostly focused on pedestrians' acoustic perception of EVs, and suggests that EVs are more difficult for pedestrians to hear and, therefore, compromise traffic safety. The two German field studies presented here examine the experiences of 70 drivers with low noise emissions of EVs and the drivers' long-term evaluation of the issue. Participants were surveyed via interviews and questionnaires before driving an EV for the first time, after 3 months of driving, and in the first study, again after 6 months. Based on participants' reports, a catalogue of safety-relevant incidents was composed in Study 1. The catalogue revealed that low noise-related critical incidents only rarely occur, and mostly take place in low-speed environments. The degree of hazard related to these incidents was rated as low to medium. In Study 1, driver concern for vulnerable road users as a result of low noise diminished with increasing driving experience, while perceived comfort due to this feature increased. These results were replicated in Study 2. In the second study, it was additionally examined, if drivers adjust their perceived risk of harming other road users over time. Results show that the affective assessment of risk also decreased with increased driving experience. Based on individual experience, drivers adjust their evaluation of noise-related hazards, suggesting that dangers associated with low noise emissions might be less significant than previously expected. PMID:23727553

  18. Impact of Communication Erasure Channels on Safety of Highway Vehicle Platoons

    E-print Network

    Zhang, Hongwei

    1 Impact of Communication Erasure Channels on Safety of Highway Vehicle Platoons Lijian Xu, Member perfor- mance significantly. This paper employs safety of highway vehicle platoons as a platform to study highway utility, increase fuel economy, and reduce emission. By comparing different information structures

  19. Level Crossing Crash Taxonomy for Connected Vehicle Safety August 5, 2014

    E-print Network

    Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, University of

    1 Level Crossing Crash Taxonomy for Connected Vehicle Safety Research August 5, 2014 Volpe-Rail Intersection Crash Taxonomy For Connected Vehicle Safety Research Office of Research and Development Washington, DC 20590 Focus on level crossing- highway intersection Research products Crash Taxonomy Concept

  20. Coordinated Control and Communication for Enhanced Safety of Highway Vehicle Platoons

    E-print Network

    Zhang, Hongwei

    Coordinated Control and Communication for Enhanced Safety of Highway Vehicle Platoons Lijian Xu as a promising framework in developing intelligent transportation systems. By autonomous or semi-autonomous vehicle control and inter-vehicle coordination, an appropriately managed platoon can potentially offer

  1. Recovery Act - Sustainable Transportation: Advanced Electric Drive Vehicle Education Program

    SciTech Connect

    Caille, Gary

    2013-12-13

    The collective goals of this effort include: 1) reach all facets of this society with education regarding electric vehicles (EV) and plug–in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV), 2) prepare a workforce to service these advanced vehicles, 3) create web–based learning at an unparalleled level, 4) educate secondary school students to prepare for their future and 5) train the next generation of professional engineers regarding electric vehicles. The Team provided an integrated approach combining secondary schools, community colleges, four–year colleges and community outreach to provide a consistent message (Figure 1). Colorado State University Ventures (CSUV), as the prime contractor, plays a key program management and co–ordination role. CSUV is an affiliate of Colorado State University (CSU) and is a separate 501(c)(3) company. The Team consists of CSUV acting as the prime contractor subcontracted to Arapahoe Community College (ACC), CSU, Motion Reality Inc. (MRI), Georgia Institute of Technology (Georgia Tech) and Ricardo. Collaborators are Douglas County Educational Foundation/School District and Gooru (www.goorulearning.org), a nonprofit web–based learning resource and Google spin–off.

  2. Analysis of quasi-hybrid solid rocket booster concepts for advanced earth-to-orbit vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zurawski, Robert L.; Rapp, Douglas C.

    1987-01-01

    A study was conducted to assess the feasibility of quasi-hybrid solid rocket boosters for advanced Earth-to-orbit vehicles. Thermochemical calculations were conducted to determine the effect of liquid hydrogen addition, solids composition change plus liquid hydrogen addition, and the addition of an aluminum/liquid hydrogen slurry on the theoretical performance of a PBAN solid propellant rocket. The space shuttle solid rocket booster was used as a reference point. All three quasi-hybrid systems theoretically offer higher specific impulse when compared with the space shuttle solid rocket boosters. However, based on operational and safety considerations, the quasi-hybrid rocket is not a practical choice for near-term Earth-to-orbit booster applications. Safety and technology issues pertinent to quasi-hybrid rocket systems are discussed.

  3. Analysis of quasi-hybrid solid rocket booster concepts for advanced earth-to-orbit vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zurawski, Robert L.; Rapp, Douglas C.

    1987-01-01

    A study was conducted to assess the feasibility of quasi-hybrid solid rocket boosters for advanced earth-to-orbit vehicles. Thermochemical calculations were conducted to determine the effect of liquid hydrogen addition, solids composition change plus liquid hydrogen addition, and the addition of an aluminum/liquid hydrogen slurry on the theoretical performance of a PBAN solid propellant rocket. The Space Shuttle solid rocket booster was used as a reference point. All three quasi-hybrid systems theoretically offer higher specific impulse when compared with the Space Shuttle solid rocket boosters. However, based on operational and safety considerations, the quasi-hybrid rocket is not a practical choice for near-term earth-to-orbit booster applications. Safety and technology issues pertinent to quasi-hybrid rocket systems are discussed.

  4. Weight and cost forecasting for advanced manned space vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Raymond

    1989-01-01

    A mass and cost estimating computerized methology for predicting advanced manned space vehicle weights and costs was developed. The user friendly methology designated MERCER (Mass Estimating Relationship/Cost Estimating Relationship) organizes the predictive process according to major vehicle subsystem levels. Design, development, test, evaluation, and flight hardware cost forecasting is treated by the study. This methodology consists of a complete set of mass estimating relationships (MERs) which serve as the control components for the model and cost estimating relationships (CERs) which use MER output as input. To develop this model, numerous MER and CER studies were surveyed and modified where required. Additionally, relationships were regressed from raw data to accommodate the methology. The models and formulations which estimated the cost of historical vehicles to within 20 percent of the actual cost were selected. The result of the research, along with components of the MERCER Program, are reported. On the basis of the analysis, the following conclusions were established: (1) The cost of a spacecraft is best estimated by summing the cost of individual subsystems; (2) No one cost equation can be used for forecasting the cost of all spacecraft; (3) Spacecraft cost is highly correlated with its mass; (4) No study surveyed contained sufficient formulations to autonomously forecast the cost and weight of the entire advanced manned vehicle spacecraft program; (5) No user friendly program was found that linked MERs with CERs to produce spacecraft cost; and (6) The group accumulation weight estimation method (summing the estimated weights of the various subsystems) proved to be a useful method for finding total weight and cost of a spacecraft.

  5. Large-Scale Spacecraft Fire Safety Experiments in ISS Resupply Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruff, Gary A.; Urban, David

    2013-01-01

    Our understanding of the fire safety risk in manned spacecraft has been limited by the small scale of the testing we have been able to conduct in low-gravity. Fire growth and spread cannot be expected to scale linearly with sample size so we cannot make accurate predictions of the behavior of realistic scale fires in spacecraft based on the limited low-g testing to date. As a result, spacecraft fire safety protocols are necessarily very conservative and costly. Future crewed missions are expected to be longer in duration than previous exploration missions outside of low-earth orbit and accordingly, more complex in terms of operations, logistics, and safety. This will increase the challenge of ensuring a fire-safe environment for the crew throughout the mission. Based on our fundamental uncertainty of the behavior of fires in low-gravity, the need for realistic scale testing at reduced gravity has been demonstrated. To address this concern, a spacecraft fire safety research project is underway to reduce the uncertainty and risk in the design of spacecraft fire safety systems by testing at nearly full scale in low-gravity. This project is supported by the NASA Advanced Exploration Systems Program Office in the Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate. The activity of this project is supported by an international topical team of fire experts from other space agencies to maximize the utility of the data and to ensure the widest possible scrutiny of the concept. The large-scale space flight experiment will be conducted on three missions; each in an Orbital Sciences Corporation Cygnus vehicle after it has deberthed from the ISS. Although the experiment will need to meet rigorous safety requirements to ensure the carrier vehicle does not sustain damage, the absence of a crew allows the fire products to be released into the cabin. The tests will be fully automated with the data downlinked at the conclusion of the test before the Cygnus vehicle reenters the atmosphere. The international topical team is collaborating with the NASA team in the definition of the experiment requirements and performing supporting analysis, experimentation and technology development.

  6. Safety First Safety Last Safety Always Aerial lifts include the following types of vehicle-mounted

    E-print Network

    Minnesota, University of

    , if they can be installed safely. Aerial Lifts Safety Tip #11 A spill, a slip, a hospital trip #12;Additional Information for Presenters Review the information provided on the reverse side of this safety tip sheet. Please refrain from reading the information verbatim--paraphrase it instead. The University of Minnesota

  7. 41 CFR 102-34.250 - Do Federal employees in Government motor vehicles have to use all safety devices and follow all...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...employees in Government motor vehicles have to use all safety devices and follow all safety guidelines? 102-34.250 Section 102-34...employees in Government motor vehicles have to use all safety devices and follow all safety...

  8. 41 CFR 102-34.250 - Do Federal employees in Government motor vehicles have to use all safety devices and follow all...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...employees in Government motor vehicles have to use all safety devices and follow all safety guidelines? 102-34.250 Section 102-34...employees in Government motor vehicles have to use all safety devices and follow all safety...

  9. 41 CFR 102-34.250 - Do Federal employees in Government motor vehicles have to use all safety devices and follow all...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...employees in Government motor vehicles have to use all safety devices and follow all safety guidelines? 102-34.250 Section 102-34...employees in Government motor vehicles have to use all safety devices and follow all safety...

  10. 41 CFR 102-34.250 - Do Federal employees in Government motor vehicles have to use all safety devices and follow all...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...employees in Government motor vehicles have to use all safety devices and follow all safety guidelines? 102-34.250 Section 102-34...employees in Government motor vehicles have to use all safety devices and follow all safety...

  11. 41 CFR 102-34.250 - Do Federal employees in Government motor vehicles have to use all safety devices and follow all...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...employees in Government motor vehicles have to use all safety devices and follow all safety guidelines? 102-34.250 Section 102-34...employees in Government motor vehicles have to use all safety devices and follow all safety...

  12. Technology in Motion Vehicle (TMV) To promote truck and bus safety programs and

    E-print Network

    Technology in Motion Vehicle (TMV) Goal To promote truck and bus safety programs and technologies messages at multiple venues Demonstrate proven and emerging safety technologies to state and motor carrier stakeholders Promote deployment of safety technologies by fleets and state MCSAP agencies Evaluate program

  13. 29 CFR 1915.93 - Motor vehicle safety equipment, operation and maintenance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...ensure that each employee uses a safety belt, securely and tightly...employer shall ensure that vehicle safety equipment is not removed from...The employer shall replace safety equipment that is removed...to see, and avoid harming, pedestrians and bicyclists at...

  14. 29 CFR 1915.93 - Motor vehicle safety equipment, operation and maintenance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...ensure that each employee uses a safety belt, securely and tightly...employer shall ensure that vehicle safety equipment is not removed from...The employer shall replace safety equipment that is removed...to see, and avoid harming, pedestrians and bicyclists at...

  15. 29 CFR 1915.93 - Motor vehicle safety equipment, operation and maintenance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...ensure that each employee uses a safety belt, securely and tightly...employer shall ensure that vehicle safety equipment is not removed from...The employer shall replace safety equipment that is removed...to see, and avoid harming, pedestrians and bicyclists at...

  16. Advanced aeroservoelastic stabilization techniques for hypersonic flight vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chan, Samuel Y.; Cheng, Peter Y.; Myers, Thomas T.; Klyde, David H.; Magdaleno, Raymond E.; Mcruer, Duane T.

    1992-01-01

    Advanced high performance vehicles, including Single-Stage-To-Orbit (SSTO) hypersonic flight vehicles, that are statically unstable, require higher bandwidth flight control systems to compensate for the instability resulting in interactions between the flight control system, the engine/propulsion dynamics, and the low frequency structural modes. Military specifications, such as MIL-F-9490D and MIL-F-87242, tend to limit treatment of structural modes to conventional gain stabilization techniques. The conventional gain stabilization techniques, however, introduce low frequency effective time delays which can be troublesome from a flying qualities standpoint. These time delays can be alleviated by appropriate blending of gain and phase stabilization techniques (referred to as Hybrid Phase Stabilization or HPS) for the low frequency structural modes. The potential of using HPS for compensating structural mode interaction was previously explored. It was shown that effective time delay was significantly reduced with the use of HPS; however, the HPS design was seen to have greater residual response than a conventional gain stablized design. Additional work performed to advance and refine the HPS design procedure, to further develop residual response metrics as a basis for alternative structural stability specifications, and to develop strategies for validating HPS design and specification concepts in manned simulation is presented. Stabilization design sensitivity to structural uncertainties and aircraft-centered requirements are also assessed.

  17. Aeronautical technology 2000: A projection of advanced vehicle concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    The Aeronautics and Space Engineering Board (ASEB) of the National Research Council conducted a Workshop on Aeronautical Technology: a Projection to the Year 2000 (Aerotech 2000 Workshop). The panels were asked to project advances in aeronautical technologies that could be available by the year 2000. As the workshop was drawing to a close, it became evident that a more comprehensive investigation of advanced air vehicle concepts than was possible in the limited time available at the workshop would be valuable. Thus, a special panel on vehicle applications was organized. In the course of two meetings, the panel identified and described representative types of aircraft judged possible with the workshop's technology projections. These representative aircraft types include: military aircraft; transport aircraft; rotorcraft; extremely high altitude aircraft; and transatmospheric aircraft. Improvements in performance, efficiency, and operational characteristics possible through the application of the workshop's year 2000 technology projections were discussed. The subgroups also identified the technologies considered essential and enhancing or supporting to achieve the projected aircraft improvements.

  18. Increasing the Fuel Economy and Safety of New Light-DutyVehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Wenzel, Tom; Ross, Marc

    2006-09-18

    One impediment to increasing the fuel economy standards forlight-duty vehicles is the long-standing argument that reducing vehiclemass to improve fuel economy will inherently make vehicles less safe.This technical paper summarizes and examines the research that is citedin support of this argument, and presents more recent research thatchallenges it. We conclude that the research claiming that lightervehicles are inherently less safe than heavier vehicles is flawed, andthat other aspects of vehicle design are more important to the on-roadsafety record of vehicles. This paper was prepared for a workshop onexperts in vehicle safety and fuel economy, organized by the William andFlora Hewlett Foundation, to discuss technologies and designs that can betaken to simultaneously improve vehicle safety and fuel economy; theworkshop was held in Washington DC on October 3, 2006.

  19. A basic requirement of autonomous vehicles is that of guaranteeing the safety of the vehicle by avoiding hazardous situations. This paper

    E-print Network

    Kelly, Alonzo

    Page 1 Abstract A basic requirement of autonomous vehicles is that of guaranteeing the safety that must be satisfied by an autonomous vehicle which operates safely in its environment. A typical autonomous vehicle has been fitted with low level vehicle-specific control loops to enable com- puter control

  20. Advanced underground Vehicle Power and Control: The locomotive Research Platform

    SciTech Connect

    Vehicle Projects LLC

    2003-01-28

    Develop a fuelcell mine locomotive with metal-hydride hydrogen storage. Test the locomotive for fundamental limitations preventing successful commercialization of hydride fuelcells in underground mining. During Phase 1 of the DOE-EERE sponsored project, FPI and its partner SNL, completed work on the development of a 14.4 kW fuelcell power plant and metal-hydride energy storage. An existing battery-electric locomotive with similar power requirements, minus the battery module, was used as the base vehicle. In March 2001, Atlas Copco Wagner of Portland, OR, installed the fuelcell power plant into the base vehicle and initiated integration of the system into the vehicle. The entire vehicle returned to Sandia in May 2001 for further development and integration. Initial system power-up took place in December 2001. A revision to the original contract, Phase 2, at the request of DOE Golden Field Office, established Vehicle Projects LLC as the new prime contractor,. Phase 2 allowed industry partners to conduct surface tests, incorporate enhancements to the original design by SNL, perform an extensive risk and safety analysis, and test the fuelcell locomotive underground under representative production mine conditions. During the surface tests one of the fuelcell stacks exhibited reduced power output resulting in having to replace both fuelcell stacks. The new stacks were manufactured with new and improved technology resulting in an increase of the gross power output from 14.4 kW to 17 kW. Further work by CANMET and Hatch Associates, an engineering consulting firm specializing in safety analysis for the mining industry, both under subcontract to Vehicle Projects LLC, established minimum requirements for underground testing. CANMET upgraded the Programmable Logic Control (PLC) software used to monitor and control the fuelcell power plant, taking into account locomotive operator's needs. Battery Electric, a South Africa manufacturer, designed and manufactured (at no cost to the project) a new motor controller capable of operating the higher rpm motor and different power characteristics of the fuelcells. In early August 2002, CANMET, with the technical assistance of Nuvera Fuel Cells and Battery Electric, installed the new PLC software, installed the new motor controller, and installed the new fuelcell stacks. After minor adjustments, the fuelcell locomotive pulled its first fully loaded ore cars on a surface track. The fuelcell-powered locomotive easily matched the battery powered equivalent in its ability to pull tonnage and equaled the battery-powered locomotive in acceleration. The final task of Phase 2, testing the locomotive underground in a production environment, occurred in early October 2002 in a gold mine. All regulatory requirements to allow the locomotive underground were completed and signed off by Hatch Associates prior to going underground. During the production tests, the locomotive performed flawlessly with no failures or downtime. The actual tests occurred during a 2-week period and involved moving both gold ore and waste rock over a 1,000 meter track. Refueling, or recharging, of the metal-hydride storage took place on the surface. After each shift, the metal-hydride storage module was removed from the locomotive, transported to surface, and filled with hydrogen from high-pressure tanks. The beginning of each shift started with taking the fully recharged metal-hydride storage module down into the mine and re-installing it onto the locomotive. Each 8 hour shift consumed approximately one half to two thirds of the onboard hydrogen. This indicates that the fuelcell-powered locomotive can work longer than a similar battery-powered locomotive, which operates about 6 hours, before needing a recharge.

  1. Advanced metallic thermal protection systems for reusable launch vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blosser, Max Leon

    2000-10-01

    Metallic thermal protection systems are a key technology that may help achieve the goal of reducing the cost of space access. A study was performed to develop an understanding of the key factors that govern the performance of metallic thermal protection systems for reusable launch vehicles. Multi-disciplinary background information was assembled and reviewed critically to provide a basis for development of improved metallic thermal protection systems. The fundamentals of aerodynamic heating were reviewed and applied to the development of thermal protection systems. General approaches to thermal protection were categorized and critiqued. The high temperature materials used for thermal protection systems (TPS), including insulations, structural materials, and coatings were reviewed. The history of metallic TPS from early pre-Shuttle concepts to current concepts for a reusable launch vehicle was reviewed for the first time. A current advanced metallic TPS concept was presented and systematically analyzed to discover the most important factors governing the thermal performance of metallic TPS. A large number of relevant factors that influence the thermal analysis and thermal performance of metallic TPS were identified and quantified. Detailed finite element computational models were developed for predicting the thermal performance of variations of the advanced metallic TPS concept mounted on a simple, unstiffened structure. The computational models were also used, in an automated iterative procedure, for sizing the metallic TPS to maintain the structure below a specified temperature limit. A statistical sensitivity analysis method, based on orthogonal matrix techniques used in robust design, was used to quantify and rank the relative importance of the various modeling and design factors considered in this study. Results from this study identify factors that have the most potential to improve metallic TPS performance. The thermal properties of the underlying vehicle structure were found to have a major impact on the thickness and mass of metallic TPS required to protect the structure, leading to the conclusion that the structure and TPS should be designed concurrently. Improved insulation properties were also shown to reduce the required thickness and mass of TPS. Including some heat loss from the structural skin to the interior of a vehicle was found to decrease significantly the required TPS thickness and mass. These results provide a basis for guiding the direction of future research in metallic TPS.

  2. NASA's Advanced Propulsion Technology Activities for Third Generation Fully Reusable Launch Vehicle Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hueter, Uwe

    2000-01-01

    NASA's Office of Aeronautics and Space Transportation Technology (OASTT) established the following three major goals, referred to as "The Three Pillars for Success": Global Civil Aviation, Revolutionary Technology Leaps, and Access to Space. The Advanced Space Transportation Program Office (ASTP) at the NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Ala. focuses on future space transportation technologies under the "Access to Space" pillar. The Propulsion Projects within ASTP under the investment area of Spaceliner100, focus on the earth-to-orbit (ETO) third generation reusable launch vehicle technologies. The goals of Spaceliner 100 is to reduce cost by a factor of 100 and improve safety by a factor of 10,000 over current conditions. The ETO Propulsion Projects in ASTP, are actively developing combination/combined-cycle propulsion technologies that utilized airbreathing propulsion during a major portion of the trajectory. System integration, components, materials and advanced rocket technologies are also being pursued. Over the last several years, one of the main thrusts has been to develop rocket-based combined cycle (RBCC) technologies. The focus has been on conducting ground tests of several engine designs to establish the RBCC flowpaths performance. Flowpath testing of three different RBCC engine designs is progressing. Additionally, vehicle system studies are being conducted to assess potential operational space access vehicles utilizing combined-cycle propulsion systems. The design, manufacturing, and ground testing of a scale flight-type engine are planned. The first flight demonstration of an airbreathing combined cycle propulsion system is envisioned around 2005. The paper will describe the advanced propulsion technologies that are being being developed under the ETO activities in the ASTP program. Progress, findings, and future activities for the propulsion technologies will be discussed.

  3. 32 CFR 636.33 - Vehicle safety inspection criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...vehicle, visible from 500 feet to the rear. (3) Registration Plate Lamp—every vehicle will have a lamp designed to illuminate the registration plate with white light making the plate legible from a distance of 50 feet. (4) Rear...

  4. 32 CFR 636.33 - Vehicle safety inspection criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...vehicle, visible from 500 feet to the rear. (3) Registration Plate Lamp—every vehicle will have a lamp designed to illuminate the registration plate with white light making the plate legible from a distance of 50 feet. (4) Rear...

  5. 32 CFR 636.33 - Vehicle safety inspection criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...vehicle, visible from 500 feet to the rear. (3) Registration Plate Lamp—every vehicle will have a lamp designed to illuminate the registration plate with white light making the plate legible from a distance of 50 feet. (4) Rear...

  6. Inter-vehicle communications: assessing information dissemination under safety constraints

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marc Torrent-Moreno

    2007-01-01

    The main goal of inter-vehicle communication technologies is to provide each vehicle with the required information about its surrounding in order to assist the driver avoiding potential dangers. The required information level, or awareness, can be achieved by the exchange of periodic status messages (beacons) among neighboring vehicles together with the quick dissemination of information about potential hazards. In previous

  7. Entropy control and surface analysis of energy storage systems for advanced vehicles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Noboru Sato

    2003-01-01

    The entropy control to maximize energy efficiency should be carried out by the development and introduction of functional materials in the advanced batteries. This procedure can be investigated by the calculations of thermal generation derived by each parameter. These approaches were done for the advanced Li-ion batteries for hybrid electric vehicle and electric vehicle applications. The thermal generation of Qp

  8. Survey of Advanced Booster Options for Potential Shuttle Derivative Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sackheim, Robert L.; Ryan, Richard; Threet, Ed; Kennedy, James W. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    A never-ending major goal for the Space Shuttle program is to continually improve flight safety, as long as this launch system remains in operational service. One of the options to improve system safety and to enhance vehicle performance as well, that has been seriously studied over the past several decades, is to replace the existing strap-on four segment solid rocket boosters (SRB's) with more capable units. A number of booster upgrade options have been studied in some detail, ranging from five segment solids through hybrids and a wide variety of liquid strap-ons (both pressure and pump fed with various propellants); all the way to a completely reusable liquid fly back booster (complete with air breathing engines for controlled landing and return). All of these possibilities appear to offer improvements in varying degrees; and each has their strengths and weaknesses from both programmatic and technical points of view. The most beneficial booster upgrade/design, if the shuttle program were to continue long enough to justify the required investment, would be an approach that greatly increased both vehicle and crew safety. This would be accomplished by increasing the minimum range/minimum altitude envelope that would readily allow abort to orbit (ATO), possibly even to zero/zero, and possibly reduce or eliminate the Return to Launch Site (RTLS) and even the Trans Atlantic Landing (TAL) abort mode requirements. This paper will briefly survey and discuss all of the various booster'upgrade options studied previously, and compare their relative attributes. The survey will explicitly discuss, in summary comparative form, options that include: five segment solids; several hybrid possibilities; pressure and/or pump-fed liquids using either LO2/kerosene, H2O/kerosene and LO2/J2, any of which could be either fully expendable, partly or fully reusable; and finally a fully reusable liquid fly back booster system, with a number of propellant and propulsion system options. Performance and configuration comparison illustrations and tables will be included to provide a comprehensive survey for the paper.

  9. Development of Pneumatic Aerodynamic Devices to Improve the Performance, Economics, and Safety of Heavy Vehicles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert J. Englar

    2000-01-01

    Under contract to the DOE Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies, the Georgia Tech Research Institute (GTRI) is developing and evaluating pneumatic (blown) aerodynamic devices to improve the performance, economics, stability and safety of operation of Heavy Vehicles. The objective of this program is to apply the pneumatic aerodynamic aircraft technology previously developed and flight-tested by GTRI personnel to the design

  10. The Effect of Automobile Safety on Vehicle Type Choice: An Empirical Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarthy, Patrick S.

    An analysis was made of the extent to which the safety characteristics of new vehicles affect consumer purchase decisions. Using an extensive data set that combines vehicle data collected by the Automobile Club of Southern California Target Car Program with the responses from a national household survey of new car buyers, a statistical model of…

  11. NREL - Advanced Vehicles and Fuels Basics - Center for Transportation Technologies and Systems 2010

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2013-05-29

    We can improve the fuel economy of our cars, trucks, and buses by designing them to use the energy in fuels more efficiently. Researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) are helping the nation achieve these goals by developing transportation technologies like: advanced vehicle systems and components; alternative fuels; as well as fuel cells, hybrid electric, and plug-in hybrid vehicles. For a text version of this video visit http://www.nrel.gov/learning/advanced_vehicles_fuels.html

  12. Reducing Safety Flaring through Advanced Control 

    E-print Network

    Hokanson, D.; Lehman, K.; Matsumoto, S.; Takai, N.; Takase, F.

    2010-01-01

    An advanced process control application, using DMCplus® (Aspen Technology, Inc.), was developed to substantially reduce fuel gas losses to the flare at a large integrated refining / petrochemical complex. Fluctuations in internal fuel gas system...

  13. Advanced Key Technologies for Hot Control Surfaces in Space Re- Entry Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dogigli, Michael; Pradier, Alain; Tumino, Giorgio

    2002-01-01

    (1)MAN Technologie AG, D- 86153 Augsburg, Germany (2,3) ESA, 2200 Noordwijk ZH, The Netherlands Current space re-entry vehicles (e.g. X-38 vehicle 201, the prototype of the International Space Station's Crew Return Vehicle (CRV)) require advanced control surfaces (so called body flaps). Such control surfaces allow the design of smaller and lighter vehicles as well as faster re-entries (compared to the US Shuttle). They are designed as light-weight structures that need no metallic parts, need no mass or volume consuming heat sinks to protect critical components (e.g. bearings) and that can be operated at temperatures of more than 1600 "C in air transferring high mechanical loads (dynamic 40 kN, static 70 kN) at the same time. Because there is a need for CRV and also for Reusable Launch Vehicles (RLV) in future, the European Space Agency (ESA) felt compelled to establish a "Future European Space Transportation and Investigation Program,, (FESTIP) and a "General Support for Technology Program,, (GSTP). One of the main goals of these programs was to develop and qualify key-technologies that are able to master the above mentioned challenging requirements for advanced hot control surfaces and that can be applied for different vehicles. In 1996 MAN Technologie has started the development of hot control surfaces for small lifting bodies in the national program "Heiü Strukturen,,. One of the main results of this program was that especially the following CMC (Ceramic Matrix Composite) key technologies need to be brought up to space flight standard: Complex CMC Structures, CMC Bearings, Metal-to-CMC Joining Technologies, CMC Fasteners, Oxidation Protection Systems and Static and Dynamic Seals. MAN Technologie was contracted by ESA to continue the development and qualification of these key technologies in the frame of the FESTIP and the GSTP program. Development and qualification have successfully been carried out. The key technologies have been applied for the X-38 vehicle 201 body flaps that have been designed, manufactured and qualified also by MAN Technologie in the frame of the national TETRA program ("Technologien fu zuku ftige Raum-Transportsysteme,,). A set of two body flaps will be delivered to NASA at the beginning of 2002 to be integrated into the vehicle 201. Based on development- and qualification tests, the paper describes main technical properties and features of these key technologies that at the same time represent the status of the art. In a qualification test (simultaneous application of thermal and mechanical loads with bearing movements in oxidising atmosphere) of a full scaled CMC bearing, five complete re-entries have been simulated successfully. The paper informs about applied mechanical load and temperature histories as well as about the number of intermittent bearing movements. The paper further informs about the complex CMC attachment structures (attachment of bearing into the body flap and load introduction) that have been qualified together with the CMC bearing. The attachment of the body flap to the vehicle's aft structure has also been qualified by tests in which also four re- entries have been simulated successfully. The attachment in principle is an interfacing structure between the "hot" (1600 "C) CMC body flap and the "cold,, (175 "C) metallic vehicle's aft structure that is able to transfer high me- chanical loads at high temperatures and minimise the heat flux through interfacing components in such way that the temperature difference of 1600 "C 175 "C = 1425 "C is brought down over a structure-length of only 200 mm. The paper informs about applied mechanical load and temperature histories and about the safety margins that have been demonstrated by rupture tests. Mechanical load carrying capacity and thermal resistance of ceramic fasteners have been demonstrated in several development tests which cover tension-, shear-, fatigue- and self locking-tests as well as tests with fastener assemblies representative for the body flaps. The r

  14. Int. J. Heavy Vehicle Systems, Vol. x, No. x, xxxx 1 Copyright 200x Inderscience Enterprises Ltd.

    E-print Network

    Sandu, Adrian

    -9100 Director, Advanced Vehicle Dynamics Laboratory, Center for Vehicle Systems and Safety, Virginia Polytechnic Mechanical Engineering Department, Advanced Vehicle Dynamics Laboratory, Center for Vehicle Systems Faculty for three years. Since Sept. 2004 she has been the Director of the Advanced Vehicle Dynamics

  15. Specification of advanced safety modeling requirements (Rev. 0).

    SciTech Connect

    Fanning, T. H.; Tautges, T. J.

    2008-06-30

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Global Nuclear Energy Partnership has lead to renewed interest in liquid-metal-cooled fast reactors for the purpose of closing the nuclear fuel cycle and making more efficient use of future repository capacity. However, the U.S. has not designed or constructed a fast reactor in nearly 30 years. Accurate, high-fidelity, whole-plant dynamics safety simulations will play a crucial role by providing confidence that component and system designs will satisfy established design limits and safety margins under a wide variety of operational, design basis, and beyond design basis transient conditions. Current modeling capabilities for fast reactor safety analyses have resulted from several hundred person-years of code development effort supported by experimental validation. The broad spectrum of mechanistic and phenomenological models that have been developed represent an enormous amount of institutional knowledge that needs to be maintained. Complicating this, the existing code architectures for safety modeling evolved from programming practices of the 1970s. This has lead to monolithic applications with interdependent data models which require significant knowledge of the complexities of the entire code in order for each component to be maintained. In order to develop an advanced fast reactor safety modeling capability, the limitations of the existing code architecture must be overcome while preserving the capabilities that already exist. To accomplish this, a set of advanced safety modeling requirements is defined, based on modern programming practices, that focuses on modular development within a flexible coupling framework. An approach for integrating the existing capabilities of the SAS4A/SASSYS-1 fast reactor safety analysis code into the SHARP framework is provided in order to preserve existing capabilities while providing a smooth transition to advanced modeling capabilities. In doing this, the advanced fast reactor safety models will target leadership-class computing architectures for massively-parallel high-fidelity computations while providing continued support for rapid prototyping using modest fidelity computations on multiple-core desktop platforms.

  16. Advanced hydrogen/methanol utilization technology demonstration. Phase II: Hydrogen cold start of a methanol vehicle

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1995-05-01

    This is the Phase 11 Final Report on NREL Subcontract No. XR-2-11175-1 {open_quotes}Advanced Hydrogen/Methane Utilization Demonstration{close_quotes} between the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Alternative Fuels Utilization Program, Golden, Colorado and Hydrogen Consultants, Inc. (HCI), Littleton, Colorado. Mr. Chris Colucci was NREL`s Technical Monitor. Colorado State University`s (CSU) Engines and Energy Conversion Laboratory was HCI`s subcontractor. Some of the vehicle test work was carried out at the National Center for Vehicle Emissions Control and Safety (NCVECS) at CSU. The collaboration of the Colorado School of Mines is also gratefully acknowledged. Hydrogen is unique among alternative fuels in its ability to burn over a wide range of mixtures in air with no carbon-related combustion products. Hydrogen also has the ability to burn on a catalyst, starting from room temperature. Hydrogen can be made from a variety of renewable energy resources and is expected to become a widely used energy carrier in the sustainable energy system of the future. One way to make a start toward widespread use of hydrogen in the energy system is to use it sparingly with other alternative fuels. The Phase I work showed that strong affects could be achieved with dilute concentrations of hydrogen in methane (11). Reductions in emissions greater than the proportion of hydrogen in the fuel provide a form of leverage to stimulate the early introduction of hydrogen. Per energy unit or per dollar of hydrogen, a greater benefit is derived than simply displacing fossil-fueled vehicles with pure hydrogen vehicles.

  17. NASA technical advances in aircraft occupant safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Enders, J. H.

    1978-01-01

    A NASA program to improve aircraft safety is discussed in terms of three areas of concentration: unexpected turbulence encounters, fire, and crash impact. To provide warning of clear air turbulence (CAT) so that the pilot can take evasive action, a laser Doppler system is described, which functions by measuring backscatter frequency radiation occurring in aerosols ahead of the aircraft. The system was found able to detect CAT, but at shorter than optimal ranges (10 km as opposed to 32 km). Fire safety has focused on both the early detection of fires through improved sensing methods, and on the development of fire-retardant materials, i.e., intumescent char-forming protective coatings. Crashworthiness is discussed in terms of the development of a survivable crash envelope and improved seat and restraint systems. To evaluate an aircraft for crashworthiness, finite-element computer programs are currently being developed which analyze both aircraft structural configurations and the intrinsic strength of aircraft materials.

  18. Advancing Measurement of Patient Safety Culture

    PubMed Central

    Ginsburg, Liane; Gilin, Debra; Tregunno, Deborah; Norton, Peter G; Flemons, Ward; Fleming, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Objective To examine the psychometric and unit of analysis/strength of culture issues in patient safety culture (PSC) measurement. Data Source Two cross-sectional surveys of health care staff in 10 Canadian health care organizations totaling 11,586 respondents. Study Design A cross-validation study of a measure of PSC using survey data gathered using the Modified Stanford PSC survey (MSI-2005 and MSI-2006); a within-group agreement analysis of MSI-2006 data. Extraction Methods Exploratory factor analyses (EFA) of the MSI-05 survey data and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) of the MSI-06 survey data; Rwg coefficients of homogeneity were calculated for 37 units and six organizations in the MSI-06 data set to examine within-group agreement. Principal Findings The CFA did not yield acceptable levels of fit. EFA and reliability analysis of MSI-06 data suggest two reliable dimensions of PSC: Organization leadership for safety (?=0.88) and Unit leadership for safety (?=0.81). Within-group agreement analysis shows stronger within-unit agreement than within-organization agreement on assessed PSC dimensions. Conclusions The field of PSC measurement has not been able to meet strict requirements for sound measurement using conventional approaches of CFA. Additional work is needed to identify and soundly measure key dimensions of PSC. The field would also benefit from further attention to strength of culture/unit of analysis issues. PMID:18823446

  19. Simulation analysis and study on car-following safety distance model based on braking process of leading vehicle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Qiang Luo; Lunhui Xun; Zhihui Cao; Yanguo Huang

    2011-01-01

    In order to improve traditional safety distance models based on braking process of the leading vehicle, a new safety distance model of one-lane following condition is established based on traditional safety distance models. The new model considers the relative speed between vehicles and the change process of deceleration value. A simulation using Matlab software verifies that the new model overcomes

  20. Advanced Concepts Test (ACT) facility. Summary safety report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allemann, R. T.

    1981-07-01

    As a test of a water-conserving way of cooling thermal power plants, a large-scale test of dry/wet cooling using the ammonia phase-change system, designated the Advanced Concepts Test (ACT), is being constructed at Pacific Gas and Electric Company's Kern Station at Bakersfield. A summary of the safety analyses and considerations that have been done for the facility is presented. These show that the ACT facility is an industrially safe system, and that the safety precautions taken assure that no one will be injured during the course of the testing. The application of industrial codes, safety management, an operational and emergency procedures is discussed.

  1. Passive Safety Features in Advanced Nuclear Power Plant Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tahir, M.; Chughtai, I. R.; Aslam, M.

    2013-03-01

    For implementation of advance passive safety features in future nuclear power plant design, a passive safety system has been proposed and its response has been observed for Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA) in the cold leg of a reactor coolant system. In a transient simulation the performance of proposed system is validated against existing safety injection system for a reference power plant of 325 MWe. The existing safety injection system is a huge system and consists of many active components including pumps, valves, piping and Instrumentation and Control (I&C). A good running of the active components of this system is necessary for its functionality as high head safety injection system under design basis accidents. Using reactor simulation technique, the proposed passive safety injection system and existing safety injection system are simulated and tested for their performance under large break LOCA for the same boundary conditions. Critical thermal hydraulic parameters of both the systems are presented graphically and discussed. The results obtained are approximately the same in both the cases. However, the proposed passive safety injection system is a better choice for such type of reactors due to reduction in components with improved safety.

  2. A basic requirement of autonomous vehicles is that of guarantee-ing the safety of the vehicle by avoiding hazardous situations. This

    E-print Network

    Kelly, Alonzo

    Page 1 Abstract A basic requirement of autonomous vehicles is that of guarantee- ing the safety for some time [1][2][3][7][8][9][10][11] in the field of autonomous vehicle navigation. Yet, evidence that must be satisfied by an autonomous vehicle which operates safely in its environment. For the purposes

  3. Supporting real-time data traffic in safety-critical vehicle-to-infrastructure communication

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Annette Böhm; Magnus Jonsson

    2008-01-01

    Support for real-time traffic is crucial to many ITS (intelligent transport systems) safety applications. At the same time it is desirable to provide a number of non-safety services. In this paper, we propose a communication system for safety-critical V2I (vehicle-to-infrastructure) communication based on an extension to the upcoming IEEE 802.11p MAC standard. Real-time analysis provides the tool to adapt the

  4. 75 FR 67233 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Head Restraints

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-02

    ...Leadtime for Small Vehicle Manufacturers c. Static Lockout of Active Head Restraints During...Leadtime for Small Vehicle Manufacturers C. Static Lockout of Active Head Restraints During...Agrees To Specify the Fixation Point for Static Testing of Active Mechanical Head...

  5. 19 CFR 12.80 - Federal motor vehicle safety standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...solely for the purpose of show, test, experiment, competition (a vehicle the configuration...imported solely for the purpose of test or experiment which is the subject of a declaration...roads is an integral part of the test or experiment. The vehicle may be licensed for...

  6. 19 CFR 12.80 - Federal motor vehicle safety standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...solely for the purpose of show, test, experiment, competition (a vehicle the configuration...imported solely for the purpose of test or experiment which is the subject of a declaration...roads is an integral part of the test or experiment. The vehicle may be licensed for...

  7. 19 CFR 12.80 - Federal motor vehicle safety standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...solely for the purpose of show, test, experiment, competition (a vehicle the configuration...imported solely for the purpose of test or experiment which is the subject of a declaration...roads is an integral part of the test or experiment. The vehicle may be licensed for...

  8. 19 CFR 12.80 - Federal motor vehicle safety standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...solely for the purpose of show, test, experiment, competition (a vehicle the configuration...imported solely for the purpose of test or experiment which is the subject of a declaration...roads is an integral part of the test or experiment. The vehicle may be licensed for...

  9. 19 CFR 12.80 - Federal motor vehicle safety standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...solely for the purpose of show, test, experiment, competition (a vehicle the configuration...imported solely for the purpose of test or experiment which is the subject of a declaration...roads is an integral part of the test or experiment. The vehicle may be licensed for...

  10. Ares-I-X Vehicle Preliminary Range Safety Malfunction Turn Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beaty, James R.; Starr, Brett R.; Gowan, John W., Jr.

    2008-01-01

    Ares-I-X is the designation given to the flight test version of the Ares-I rocket (also known as the Crew Launch Vehicle - CLV) being developed by NASA. As part of the preliminary flight plan approval process for the test vehicle, a range safety malfunction turn analysis was performed to support the launch area risk assessment and vehicle destruct criteria development processes. Several vehicle failure scenarios were identified which could cause the vehicle trajectory to deviate from its normal flight path, and the effects of these failures were evaluated with an Ares-I-X 6 degrees-of-freedom (6-DOF) digital simulation, using the Program to Optimize Simulated Trajectories Version 2 (POST2) simulation framework. The Ares-I-X simulation analysis provides output files containing vehicle state information, which are used by other risk assessment and vehicle debris trajectory simulation tools to determine the risk to personnel and facilities in the vicinity of the launch area at Kennedy Space Center (KSC), and to develop the vehicle destruct criteria used by the flight test range safety officer. The simulation analysis approach used for this study is described, including descriptions of the failure modes which were considered and the underlying assumptions and ground rules of the study, and preliminary results are presented, determined by analysis of the trajectory deviation of the failure cases, compared with the expected vehicle trajectory.

  11. Future of electricity for automobiles: advanced electric vehicle concepts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    OConnell

    1981-01-01

    A large and growing effort involving both the federal government and industry is underway to develop and commercialize highway vehicles that utilize electricity. The electricity they use can be generated from nonpetroleum fuels. The Department of Energy, through its Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Program, is the principal federal agency involved in this work. The goal is to replace petroleum-consuming vehicles

  12. Environmental, health, and safety issues of sodium-sulfur batteries for electric and hybrid vehicles. Volume 4, In-vehicle safety

    SciTech Connect

    Mark, J.

    1992-11-01

    This report is the last of four volumes that identify and assess the environmental, health, and safety issues that may affect the commercial-scale use of sodium-sulfur (Na/S) battery technology as the energy source in electric and hybrid vehicles. The reports are intended to help the Electric and Hybrid Propulsion Division of the Office of Transportation Technologies in the US Department of Energy (DOE/EHP) determine the direction of its research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) program for Na/S battery technology. The reports review the status of Na/S battery RD&D and identify potential hazards and risks that may require additional research or that may affect the design and use of Na/S batteries. This volume covers the in-vehicle safety issues of electric vehicles powered by Na/S batteries. The report is based on a review of the literature and on discussions with experts at DOE, national laboratories and agencies, and private industry. It has three major goals: (1) to identify the unique hazards associated with electric vehicle (EV) use; (2) to describe the existing standards, regulations, and guidelines that are or could be applicable to these hazards; and (3) to discuss the adequacy of the existing requirements in addressing the safety concerns of EVs.

  13. Results of advanced battery technology evaluations for electric vehicle applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deluca, W. H.; Gillie, K. R.; Kulaga, J. E.; Smaga, J. A.; Tummillo, A. F.; Webster, C. E.

    1992-10-01

    Advanced battery technology evaluations are performed under simulated electric-vehicle operating conditions at the Analysis and Diagnostic Laboratory (ADL) of Argonne National Laboratory. The ADL results provide insight into those factors that limit battery performance and life. The ADL facilities include a test laboratory to conduct battery experimental evaluations under simulated application conditions and a post-test analysis laboratory to determine, in a protected atmosphere if needed, component compositional changes and failure mechanisms. This paper summarizes the performance characterizations and life evaluations conducted during 1991-1992 on both single cells and multi-cell modules that encompass eight battery technologies (Na/S, Li/MS (M=metal), Ni/MH, Ni/Cd, Ni/Zn, Ni/Fe, Zn/Br, and Pb-acid). These evaluations were performed for the Department of Energy, Office of Transportation Technologies, Electric and Hybrid Propulsion Division, and the Electric Power Research Institute. The ADL provides a common basis for battery performance characterization and life evaluations with unbiased application of tests and analyses. The results help identify the most-promising R&D approaches for overcoming battery limitations, and provide battery users, developers, and program managers with a measure of the progress being made in battery R&D programs, a comparison of battery technologies, and basic data for modeling.

  14. Advanced launch vehicle system concepts: An historical overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehrlich, Carl F.

    1997-01-01

    Many studies leading to advanced launch vehicle system concepts have been undertaken during the years leading to the Space Shuttle development and since it was started. All of these have focused on nebulous and wide-ranging mission requirements. As a result, many launch system concepts have been defined, each addressing a different mission, yielding a wide range of points of departure once the "real" mission, or missions, have been identified. Future studies have this database available from which to depart once the "real" next generation mission is defined. This paper discusses some of the main issues surrounding the development of future systems. This subject really addresses the three principal requirements needed to be resolved for these systems to come into being: system architecture—what does the system look like and what is its makeup?, technologies—what are the technologies required to make the new system a successful venture and meet the requirements set forth in the mission statement?, and finally, the mission—what do we need to do and when?. The principal focus here will be on the past studies reviewing past concepts which address particular aspects of potential mission requirements with technology development and concepts discussed as we go along.

  15. Advanced automation for in-space vehicle processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sklar, Michael; Wegerif, D.

    1990-01-01

    The primary objective of this 3-year planned study is to assure that the fully evolved Space Station Freedom (SSF) can support automated processing of exploratory mission vehicles. Current study assessments show that required extravehicular activity (EVA) and to some extent intravehicular activity (IVA) manpower requirements for required processing tasks far exceeds the available manpower. Furthermore, many processing tasks are either hazardous operations or they exceed EVA capability. Thus, automation is essential for SSF transportation node functionality. Here, advanced automation represents the replacement of human performed tasks beyond the planned baseline automated tasks. Both physical tasks such as manipulation, assembly and actuation, and cognitive tasks such as visual inspection, monitoring and diagnosis, and task planning are considered. During this first year of activity both the Phobos/Gateway Mars Expedition and Lunar Evolution missions proposed by the Office of Exploration have been evaluated. A methodology for choosing optimal tasks to be automated has been developed. Processing tasks for both missions have been ranked on the basis of automation potential. The underlying concept in evaluating and describing processing tasks has been the use of a common set of 'Primitive' task descriptions. Primitive or standard tasks have been developed both for manual or crew processing and automated machine processing.

  16. Expanding design process of the Airbag Control Unit ACU - Connection of Active and Passive Safety by using vehicles dynamics for rollover and side crash detection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rudolf Ertlmeier; Paul Spannaus

    2008-01-01

    Vehicle safety is based on the avoidance of accidents (active safety) and reduction of injuries in case a crash isnpsilat preventable (passive safety). Therefore, the motion of the vehicle is measured with suitable sensors. The data analysis takes place in qualified vehicle control units. A vehicle stabilisation is calculated in the electronical-stability control unit (ESC). The restraint systems like seatbelts

  17. RISMC ADVANCED SAFETY ANALYSIS WORKING PLAN – FY 2015 – FY 2019

    SciTech Connect

    Szilard, Ronaldo H; Smith, Curtis L

    2014-09-01

    SUMMARY In this report, the Advanced Safety Analysis Program (ASAP) objectives and value proposition is described. ASAP focuses on modernization of nuclear power safety analysis (tools, methods and data); implementing state-of-the-art modeling techniques (which include, for example, enabling incorporation of more detailed physics as they become available); taking advantage of modern computing hardware; and combining probabilistic and mechanistic analyses to enable a risk informed safety analysis process. The modernized tools will maintain the current high level of safety in our nuclear power plant fleet, while providing an improved understanding of safety margins and the critical parameters that affect them. Thus, the set of tools will provide information to inform decisions on plant modifications, refurbishments, and surveillance programs, while improving economics. The set of tools will also benefit the design of new reactors, enhancing safety per unit cost of a nuclear plant. As part of the discussion, we have identified three sets of stakeholders, the nuclear industry, the Department of Energy (DOE), and associated oversight organizations. These three groups would benefit from ASAP in different ways. For example, within the DOE complex, the possible applications that are seen include the safety of experimental reactors, facility life extension, safety-by-design in future generation advanced reactors, and managing security for the storage of nuclear material. This report provides information in five areas: 1. A value proposition (“why is this important?”) that will make the case for stakeholder’s use of the ASAP research and development (R&D) products. 2. An identification of likely end users and pathway to adoption of enhanced tools by the end-users. 3. A proposed set of practical and achievable “use case” demonstrations. 4. A proposed plan to address ASAP verification and validation (V&V) needs. 5. A proposed schedule for the multi-year ASAP.

  18. Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles: Resources for Fleet Managers (Clean Cities) (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Brennan, A.

    2011-04-01

    A discussion of the tools and resources on the Clean Cities, Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center, and the FuelEconomy.gov Web sites that can help vehicle fleet managers make informed decisions about implementing strategies to reduce gasoline and diesel fuel use.

  19. Use and Misuse of MotorVehicle Crash Death Rates in Assessing Highway-Safety Performance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brian ONeill; Sergey Y. Kyrychenko

    2006-01-01

    Objectives. The objectives of the article are to assess the extent to which comparisons of motor-vehicle crash death rates can be used to determine the effectiveness of highway-safety policies over time in a country or to compare policy effectiveness across countries.Methods. Motor-vehicle crash death rates per mile traveled in the 50 U.S. states from 1980 to 2003 are used to

  20. Ad hoc peer-to-peer network architecture for vehicle safety communications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wai Chen; Shengwei Cai

    2005-01-01

    This article addresses the design of an architecture for ad hoc peer-to-peer networking of neighboring vehicles to help achieve near-instantaneous communication for safety applications such as collision avoidance warnings. We propose a local peer group (LPG) architecture to organize neighboring vehicles that have frequently changing neighbors and have no inherent relationships with one another. We study two architectural alternatives for

  1. Advanced Crew Rescue Vehicle/Personnel Launch System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craig, Jerry W.

    1993-02-01

    The Advanced Crew Rescue Vehicle (ACRV) will be an essential element of the Space Station to respond to three specific missions, all of which have occurred during the history space exploration by the U.S. and the Soviets: (1) Mission DRM-1: Return of disabled crew members during medical emergencies; (2) Mission DRM-2: Return of crew members from accidents or as a result of failures of Space Station systems; and (3) Mission DRM-3: Return of crew members during interruption of Space Shuttle launches. The ACRV will have the ability to transport up to eight astronauts during a 24-hour mission. Not only would the ACRV serve as a lifeboat to provide transportation back to Earth, but it would also be available as a immediately available safe refuge in case the Space Station were severely damaged by space debris or other catastrophe. Upon return to Earth, existing world-wide search and rescue assets operated by the Coast Guard and Department of Defense would be able to retrieve personnel returned to Earth via the ACRV. The operational approach proposed for the ACRV is tailored to satisfying mission requirements for simplicity of operation (no piloting skills or specially trained personnel are required), continuous availability, high reliability and affordability. By using proven systems as the basis for many critical ACRV systems, the ACRV program is more likely to achieve each of these mission requirements. Nonetheless, the need for the ACRV to operate reliably with little preflight preparation after, perhaps, 5 to 10 years in orbit imposes challenges not faced by any previous space system of this complexity. Specific concerns exist regarding micrometeoroid impacts, battery life, and degradation of recovery parachutes while in storage.

  2. 78 FR 55137 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Ejection Mitigation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-09

    ...requirements will require changes to the body-in-white which, in the case of our...incomplete vehicle with a full exterior van body. NTEA wanted to have final-stage manufacturers...these companies are distributors for the body manufacturer. NTEA explains that as...

  3. Pilot safety for the X-24A lifting body vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cochrane, J.; Graham, K.

    1971-01-01

    The design and operational characteristics of the X-24A are described in detail. Primary emphasis is placed on the safety considerations incorporated in the design and flight test stages. It is pointed out that the inherently high drag of the lifting body configuration together with its relatively low lift/drag ratio, generated considerable concern with respect to the pilot's ability to perform safe landings from gliding flight. The resulting safety procedures taken at each stage of development are discussed.

  4. UNDER VEHICLE INSPECTION WITH 3D Safety and Security for Check-Point and Gate-Entry Inspections

    E-print Network

    Abidi, Mongi A.

    to the undercarriage by comparing previously archived scans of the same vehicle. The second 3D shape analysis approachChapter 11 UNDER VEHICLE INSPECTION WITH 3D IMAGING Safety and Security for Check-Point and Gate,dpage,akoschan,abidi}@utk.edu Abstract: This research is motivated towards the deployment of intelligent robots for under vehicle

  5. Advanced Reactor Safety Research Division. Quarterly progress report, April 1-June 30, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Romano, A.J.

    1980-01-01

    The Advanced Reactor Safety Research Programs Quarterly Progress Report describes current activities and technical progress in the programs at Brookhaven National Laboratory sponsored by the USNRC Division of Reactor Safety Research. The projects reported each quarter are the following: HTGR safety evaluation, SSC Code Development, LMFBR Safety Experiments, and Fast Reactor Safety Code Validation.

  6. Advanced Technology for Lighter and More Cost Effective Space Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Engineers at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in Huntsville, Alabama, are working with industry partners to develop a new generation of more cost-efficient space vehicles. Lightweight fuel tanks and components under development will be the critical elements in tomorrow's reusable launch vehicles and will tremendously curb the costs of getting to space. In this photo, Tom DeLay, a materials processes engineer for MSFC, uses a new graphite epoxy technology to create lightweight cryogenic fuel lines for futuristic reusable launch vehicles. He is wrapping a water-soluble mandrel, or mold, with a graphite fabric coated with an epoxy resin. Once wrapped, the pipe will be vacuum-bagged and autoclave-cured. The disposable mold will be removed to reveal a thin-walled fuel line. In addition to being much lighter and stronger than metal, this material won't expand or contract as much in the extreme temperatures encountered by launch vehicles.

  7. Commercial Vehicle Safety Alliance (CVSA)/Department of Energy (DOE) cooperative agreement final report

    SciTech Connect

    Slavich, Antoinette; Daust, James E.

    1999-10-01

    This S and T product is a culmination of the activities, including research of the Commercial Vehicle Safety Alliance (CVSA) in developing and implementing inspection procedures and the out-of-service criteria for states and tribes to use when inspecting HRCQ and Transuranic shipments of radioactive materials. The report also contains the results of a pilot study to test the procedures.

  8. In-vehicle information systems to improve traffic safety in road tunnels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Geva Vashitz; David Shinar; Yuval Blum

    2008-01-01

    IntroductionIn-vehicle information systems can improve safety, improve driver’s situational awareness and reduce anxiety, but they may also increase mental workload and distraction. This issue is particularly important in road tunnels because they create extremely dangerous driving conditions.

  9. All-Terrain Vehicle Safety and Use Patterns in Central Illinois Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hafner, John W.; Hough, Scott M.; Getz, Marjorie A.; Whitehurst, Yvette; Pearl, Richard H.

    2010-01-01

    Context: All-terrain vehicles' (ATVs) popularity and associated injuries among children are increasing in the United States. Currently, most known ATV use pattern data are obtained from injured youth and little documented data exist characterizing the typical ATV use patterns and safety practices among American children in general. Purpose: To…

  10. 78 FR 68748 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Designated Seating Positions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-15

    ...Petitions for Reconsideration A. Definition of DSP B. Analysis of Safety Problem C. Seating...of ``designated seating position'' (DSP), as that term is used in the Federal...Occupant Crash Protection, requires that each DSP in a light vehicle be provided with...

  11. Effect of joint mechanism on vehicle redirectional capability of water-filled road safety barrier systems.

    PubMed

    Thiyahuddin, M I; Thambiratnam, D P; Gu, Y T

    2014-10-01

    Portable water-filled barriers (PWFBs) are roadside appurtenances that prevent vehicles from penetrating into temporary construction zones on roadways. PWFBs are required to satisfy the strict regulations for vehicle re-direction in tests. However, many of the current PWFBs fail to re-direct the vehicle at high speeds due to the inability of the joints to provide appropriate stiffness. The joint mechanism hence plays a crucial role in the performance of a PWFB system at high speed impacts. This paper investigates the desired features of the joint mechanism in a PWFB system that can re-direct vehicles at high speeds, while limiting the lateral displacement to acceptable limits. A rectangular "wall" representative of a 30m long barrier system was modeled and a novel method of joining adjacent road barriers was introduced through appropriate pin-joint connections. The impact response of the barrier "wall" and the vehicle was obtained and the results show that a rotational stiffness of 3000kNm/rad at the joints seems to provide the desired features of the PWFB system to re-direct impacting vehicles and restrict the lateral deflection. These research findings will be useful to safety engineers and road barrier designers in developing a new generation of PWFBs for increased road safety. PMID:24887591

  12. Safety assessment characteristics of pedestrian legform impactors in vehicle-front impact tests.

    PubMed

    Matsui, Yasuhiro

    2014-12-01

    This study investigated the characteristics of safety assessment results of front-area vehicle impact tests carried out using the Transport Research Laboratory (TRL) legform impactor and a flexible legform impactor (FLEX legform impactor). Different types of vehicles (sedan, sport utility vehicle, high-roof K-car, and light cargo van) were examined. The impact locations in the study were the center of the bumper and an extremely stiff structure of the bumper (i.e., in front of the side member) of each tested vehicle. The measured injury criteria were normalized by injury assessment reference values of each legform impactor. The test results for center and side-member impacts indicated that there were no significant differences in ligament injury assessments derived from the normalized knee ligament injury measures between the TRL legform impactor and the FLEX legform impactor. Evaluations made using the TRL legform impactor and the FLEX legform impactor are thus similar in the vehicle safety investigation for knee ligament injury. Vehicle-center impact test results revealed that the tibia fracture assessments derived from the normalized tibia fracture measures did not significantly differ between the TRL legform impactor and the FLEX legform impactor. However, for an impact against an extremely stiff structure, there was a difference in the tibia fracture assessment between the FLEX legform impactor and the TRL legform impactor owing to their different sensor types. PMID:25178069

  13. 76 FR 28131 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Motorcycle Helmets

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-13

    ...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION National Highway Traffic...Model Designation 3. Water Decal and Application...Actions by the National Transportation Safety Board and American...not ``Department of Transportation.'' The agency...certification label be a water decal and that it...

  14. System Interface for an Integrated Intelligent Safety System (ISS) for Vehicle Applications

    PubMed Central

    Hannan, Mahammad A.; Hussain, Aini; Samad, Salina A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper deals with the interface-relevant activity of a vehicle integrated intelligent safety system (ISS) that includes an airbag deployment decision system (ADDS) and a tire pressure monitoring system (TPMS). A program is developed in LabWindows/CVI, using C for prototype implementation. The prototype is primarily concerned with the interconnection between hardware objects such as a load cell, web camera, accelerometer, TPM tire module and receiver module, DAQ card, CPU card and a touch screen. Several safety subsystems, including image processing, weight sensing and crash detection systems, are integrated, and their outputs are combined to yield intelligent decisions regarding airbag deployment. The integrated safety system also monitors tire pressure and temperature. Testing and experimentation with this ISS suggests that the system is unique, robust, intelligent, and appropriate for in-vehicle applications. PMID:22205861

  15. Design for Reliability and Safety Approach for the New NASA Launch Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Safie, Fayssal M.; Weldon, Danny M.

    2007-01-01

    The United States National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is in the midst of a space exploration program intended for sending crew and cargo to the international Space Station (ISS), to the moon, and beyond. This program is called Constellation. As part of the Constellation program, NASA is developing new launch vehicles aimed at significantly increase safety and reliability, reduce the cost of accessing space, and provide a growth path for manned space exploration. Achieving these goals requires a rigorous process that addresses reliability, safety, and cost upfront and throughout all the phases of the life cycle of the program. This paper discusses the "Design for Reliability and Safety" approach for the NASA new launch vehicles, the ARES I and ARES V. Specifically, the paper addresses the use of an integrated probabilistic functional analysis to support the design analysis cycle and a probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) to support the preliminary design and beyond.

  16. Integration of Advanced Concepts and Vehicles Into the Next Generation Air Transportation System. Volume 1; Introduction, Key Messages, and Vehicle Attributes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zellweger, Andres; Resnick, Herbert; Stevens, Edward; Arkind, Kenneth; Cotton William B.

    2010-01-01

    Raytheon, in partnership with NASA, is leading the way in ensuring that the future air transportation continues to be a key driver of economic growth and stability and that this system provides an environmentally friendly, safe, and effective means of moving people and goods. A Raytheon-led team of industry and academic experts, under NASA contract NNA08BA47C, looked at the potential issues and impact of introducing four new classes of advanced aircraft into the next generation air transportation system -- known as NextGen. The study will help determine where NASA should further invest in research to support the safe introduction of these new air vehicles. Small uncrewed or unmanned aerial systems (SUAS), super heavy transports (SHT) including hybrid wing body versions (HWB), very light jets (VLJ), and supersonic business jets (SSBJ) are the four classes of aircraft that we studied. Understanding each vehicle's business purpose and strategy is critical to assessing the feasibility of new aircraft operations and their impact on NextGen's architecture. The Raytheon team used scenarios created by aviation experts that depict vehicles in year 2025 operations along with scripts or use cases to understand the issues presented by these new types of vehicles. The information was then mapped into the Joint Planning and Development Office's (JPDO s) Enterprise Architecture to show how the vehicles will fit into NextGen's Concept of Operations. The team also identified significant changes to the JPDO's Integrated Work Plan (IWP) to optimize the NextGen vision for these vehicles. Using a proven enterprise architecture approach and the JPDO s Joint Planning Environment (JPE) web site helped make the leap from architecture to planning efficient, manageable and achievable. Very Light Jets flying into busy hub airports -- Supersonic Business Jets needing to climb and descend rapidly to achieve the necessary altitude Super-heavy cargo planes requiring the shortest common flight path -- are just a few of the potential new operations in the future National Airspace System. To assess the impact of these new scenarios on overall national airspace operations, the Raytheon team used the capabilities of a suite of tools such as NASA's Airspace Concepts Evaluation System (ACES), the Flight Optimization System (FLOPS), FAA's Aviation Environmental Design Tool (AEDT), Intelligent Automations Kinematic Trajectory Generator (KTG) and the Aviation Safety Risk Model (ASRM). Detailed metroplex modeling, surface delay models for super heavy transports, prioritized routing and corridors for supersonics business jets, and VLJ demand models are some of the models developed by the Raytheon team to study the effect of operating these new vehicles in the future NAS. Using this suite of models, several trade studies were conducted to evaluate these effects in terms of delays, equity in access, safety, and the environment. Looking at the impact of each vehicle, a number of critical issues were identified. The Raytheon team concluded that strict compliance to NextGen's 4-dimensional trajectory (4DT) management will be required to accommodate these vehicles unique operations and increased number of flights in the future air space system. The next section provides a discussion of this and the other key findings from our study.

  17. Environmental, health, and safety issues of sodium-sulfur batteries for electric and hybrid vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Mark, J

    1992-11-01

    This report is the last of four volumes that identify and assess the environmental, health, and safety issues that may affect the commercial-scale use of sodium-sulfur (Na/S) battery technology as the energy source in electric and hybrid vehicles. The reports are intended to help the Electric and Hybrid Propulsion Division of the Office of Transportation Technologies in the US Department of Energy (DOE/EHP) determine the direction of its research, development, and demonstration (RD D) program for Na/S battery technology. The reports review the status of Na/S battery RD D and identify potential hazards and risks that may require additional research or that may affect the design and use of Na/S batteries. This volume covers the in-vehicle safety issues of electric vehicles powered by Na/S batteries. The report is based on a review of the literature and on discussions with experts at DOE, national laboratories and agencies, and private industry. It has three major goals: (1) to identify the unique hazards associated with electric vehicle (EV) use; (2) to describe the existing standards, regulations, and guidelines that are or could be applicable to these hazards; and (3) to discuss the adequacy of the existing requirements in addressing the safety concerns of EVs.

  18. Correlates of motor-vehicle safety behaviors in working populations.

    PubMed

    Knight, K K; Fielding, J E; Goetzel, R Z

    1991-06-01

    To determine the prevalence and correlates in a working population of failure to wear seat belts, drinking and driving, and speeding, we examined the responses of 18,046 health-profile participants. Twenty-four percent of subjects reported failure to wear seat belts at least 80% of the time. Twenty-two percent reported speeding at least 10 miles per hour over the speed limit when traffic permits. Twenty-three percent reported traveling at least once a month with a driver who had two or more drinks. Correlates of high-risk behaviors included male gender and youth. Educational attainment was inversely associated with seat-belt nonuse but directly related to speeding and drinking/driving. Our findings suggest a substantial opportunity to help employees lower important risks for serious motor-vehicle injury. PMID:1865251

  19. Analyzing the influence of median cross-section design on highway safety using vehicle dynamics simulations.

    PubMed

    Stine, Jason S; Hamblin, Bridget C; Brennan, Sean N; Donnell, Eric T

    2010-11-01

    Although vehicle dynamics simulations have long been used in vehicle design and crash reconstruction, their use for highway design is rare. This paper investigates the safety of highway medians through iterative simulations of off-road median encroachments. The commercially available software CarSim was used to simulate over one hundred thousand encroachments, representing the entire passenger vehicle fleet and a wide range of encroachment angles, departure speeds, steering inputs, and braking inputs. Each individual simulation output was then weighted using data from previous studies to reflect the probability of each specific accident scenario occurring in a real-life median encroachment. Results of this analysis illustrate the relative influence of median cross-section geometry on the resulting accident outcomes. The simulations indicate that the overall safety of a highway median depends on the occurrence of both vehicle rollover and median crossover events, and the cross-section shape, slope, and width are all shown to greatly affect each of these incidents. An evaluation of the simulation results was conducted with vehicle trajectories from previous experimental crash tests. Further assessment of the aggregate simulation results to actual crash data was achieved through comparison with several databases of crash statistics. Both efforts showed a strong agreement between the simulations and the real-life crash data. PMID:20728628

  20. Environmental, health, and safety issues of sodium-sulfur batteries for electric and hybrid vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Ohi, J.M.

    1992-09-01

    This report is the first of four volumes that identify and assess the environmental, health, and safety issues involved in using sodium-sulfur (Na/S) battery technology as the energy source in electric and hybrid vehicles that may affect the commercialization of Na/S batteries. This and the other reports on recycling, shipping, and vehicle safety are intended to help the Electric and Hybrid Propulsion Division of the Office of Transportation Technologies in the US Department of Energy (DOE/EHP) determine the direction of its research, development, and demonstration (RD D) program for Na/S battery technology. The reports review the status of Na/S battery RD D and identify potential hazards and risks that may require additional research or that may affect the design and use of Na/S batteries. This volume covers cell design and engineering as the basis of safety for Na/S batteries and describes and assesses the potential chemical, electrical, and thermal hazards and risks of Na/S cells and batteries as well as the RD D performed, under way, or to address these hazards and risks. The report is based on a review of the literature and on discussions with experts at DOE, national laboratories and agencies, universities, and private industry. Subsequent volumes will address environmental, health, and safety issues involved in shipping cells and batteries, using batteries to propel electric vehicles, and recycling and disposing of spent batteries. The remainder of this volume is divided into two major sections on safety at the cell and battery levels. The section on Na/S cells describes major component and potential failure modes, design, life testing and failure testing, thermal cycling, and the safety status of Na/S cells. The section on batteries describes battery design, testing, and safety status. Additional EH S information on Na/S batteries is provided in the appendices.

  1. Advanced secondary batteries for electric vehicle propulsion. [Battery development goals and status

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yao

    1978-01-01

    A number of near-term and advanced secondary batteries that are projected to meet performance and cost requirements for electric vehicle applications are currently under development in the U.S.A. Development of the near-term battery technology has been accelerated as a result of the impetus of the Electric and Hybrid Vehicles Research, Development, and Demonstration Act of 1976 (Public Law 94-413). Research

  2. The impact of advancing propulsion technologies on reusable launch vehicles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Russell Joyner; Steve Peery; George Cox

    1996-01-01

    The IHPRPT (Integrated High Payoff Rocket Propulsion Technology) initiative is a joint Government and industry effort to develop and demonstrate innovative, revolutionary technologies that will double launch vehicle propulsion system capability by the year 2010. The liquid rocket engine technology plan uses a ‘‘phased’’ approach to achieving higher engine thrust-to-weight(mass), Isp, lower support cost, lower hardware cost, and increased reliability

  3. ADVANCED UNDERGROUND VEHICLE POWER AND CONTROL FUELCELL MINE LOCOMOTIVE

    E-print Network

    , but their compliance with government emissions regulations reduces actual productivity. Emissions and noise regulations- tion of this problem by fuelcells would provide powerful cost offsets to their current high capital on project planning. Vehicle Projects identifies project funding, negotiates contracts with funders, serves

  4. Advances in Autonomous Obstacle Avoidance for Unmanned Surface Vehicles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jacoby Larson; Michael Bruch; Ryan Halterman; John Rogers; Robert Webster

    The Space and Naval Warfare Systems Center, San Diego has been involved in the continuing development of obstacle avoidance for unmanned surface vehicles (USVs) towards the aim of a high level of autonomous navigation. An autonomous USV can fulfill a variety of missions and applications that are of increasing interest for th e US Navy and other Department of Defense

  5. Commercial vehicles and road safety in Pakistan: exploring high-risk attributes among drivers and vehicles.

    PubMed

    Mir, Mohammed Umer; Razzak, Junaid Abdul; Ahmad, Khabir

    2013-01-01

    Road traffic injuries are on the rise in developing countries with a disproportionately high number of crashes involving commercial vehicles. Baseline information on risk factors is necessary to develop targeted prevention programmes. A survey of commercial drivers was conducted at the largest bus and truck station in Rawalpindi, Pakistan. Structured interviews elicited information from 857 drivers on their socio-demographics, high-risk driving behaviours, fatigue, use of drugs while driving, vehicle maintenance and health conditions, as well as crash involvement. A binary logistic regression analysis was used to investigate the factors associated with crash involvement in the last five years. Overall, 92 (11.2%) drivers reported having had a road crash in the last 5 years. Factors independently associated with the occurrence of crashes were alcohol use (OR 2.2, 95% CI 1.1-4.4), poor vehicle maintenance (OR 3.4, 95% CI 1.7-7.01) and lack of seat belt use (OR 2.7, 95% CI 1.3-5.6). The high prevalence of high-risk attributes in the study population indicates a great need for targeted risk prevention. PMID:23092513

  6. Reliability, Safety and Error Recovery for Advanced Control Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malin, Jane T.

    2003-01-01

    For long-duration automated operation of regenerative life support systems in space environments, there is a need for advanced integration and control systems that are significantly more reliable and safe, and that support error recovery and minimization of operational failures. This presentation outlines some challenges of hazardous space environments and complex system interactions that can lead to system accidents. It discusses approaches to hazard analysis and error recovery for control software and challenges of supporting effective intervention by safety software and the crew.

  7. Advanced technologies seal in emissions, safety and reliability

    SciTech Connect

    Trytek, J.J. (John Crane Inc., Morton Grove, IL (United States))

    1993-07-01

    Pump sealing with zero fugitive emissions and 1,000 percent greater mean time between planned maintenance (MTBPM) becomes affordable with advanced technology mechanical seals. These new seals eliminate the need to replace pumps and related components with less economical, seal-less pumps, regardless of how strict emissions regulations, enforcement practices and monitoring requirements become. More companies are benefiting from new sealing technologies through retrofits. Advanced seal designs focus on emissions containment, not just control, and can contribute significantly to equipment reliability and productivity. This is particularly important because reliability, safety and emissions containment are closely linked. Seals considered poor performers today were not failures a few years ago, according to previously accepted leak rates.

  8. Design considerations of the irradiation test vehicle for the advanced test reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Tsai, H.; Gomes, I.C.; Smith, D.L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)] [and others

    1997-08-01

    An irradiation test vehicle (ITV) for the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) is being jointly developed by the Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Company (LMIT) and the U.S. Fusion Program. The vehicle is intended for neutron irradiation testing of candidate structural materials, including vanadium-based alloys, silicon carbide composites, and low activation steels. It could possibly be used for U.S./Japanese collaboration in the Jupiter Program. The first test train is scheduled to be completed by September 1998. In this report, we present the functional requirements for the vehicle and a preliminary design that satisfies these requirements.

  9. Safety restraint injuries in fatal motor vehicle collisions.

    PubMed

    Chase, J; Donaldson, L; Duflou, J; Gorrie, C

    2007-12-01

    The presence of an apparent seat belt mark (SBM) on a car crash occupant is often used as evidence for use of a seat belt at the time of the crash and, conversely, the lack of a SBM is used as an indication that no seat belt was used. This study examined whether there are clear indications of seat belt use to be found at autopsy and evaluated the sensitivity and specificity of apparent SBM and whether the use of a seat belt and seating location affects the type and severity of injuries sustained. Information on the type of injuries sustained and seatbelt use was retrieved from autopsy reports and police reports, respectively, for cases of fatal motor vehicle collisions occurring in Sydney, Australia over a 5-year period. In this study, a SBM was only found on restrained occupants. The proportion of restrained occupants with evidence of a SBM was 36% (sensitivity), whilst unrestrained occupants showed no evidence of a SBM (100% specificity). A SBM was also found to reliably reflect the seating position of the occupant. We conclude that restrained occupants can be expected to show evidence of the seat belt in just over one third of cases and that the absence of a SBM is not necessarily an indication that no seat belt was used. Spurious SBM is very unlikely to be present if the occupant was unrestrained. PMID:25869265

  10. Gasoline Ultra Efficient Fuel Vehicle with Advanced Low Temperature Combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Confer, Keith

    2014-09-30

    The objective of this program was to develop, implement and demonstrate fuel consumption reduction technologies which are focused on reduction of friction and parasitic losses and on the improvement of thermal efficiency from in-cylinder combustion. The program was executed in two phases. The conclusion of each phase was marked by an on-vehicle technology demonstration. Phase I concentrated on short term goals to achieve technologies to reduce friction and parasitic losses. The duration of Phase I was approximately two years and the target fuel economy improvement over the baseline was 20% for the Phase I demonstration. Phase II was focused on the development and demonstration of a breakthrough low temperature combustion process called Gasoline Direct- Injection Compression Ignition (GDCI). The duration of Phase II was approximately four years and the targeted fuel economy improvement was 35% over the baseline for the Phase II demonstration vehicle. The targeted tailpipe emissions for this demonstration were Tier 2 Bin 2 emissions standards.

  11. A market systems analysis of the U.S. Sport Utility Vehicle market considering frontal crash safety technology and policy.

    PubMed

    Hoffenson, Steven; Frischknecht, Bart D; Papalambros, Panos Y

    2013-01-01

    Active safety features and adjustments to the New Car Assessment Program (NCAP) consumer-information crash tests have the potential to decrease the number of serious traffic injuries each year, according to previous studies. However, literature suggests that risk reductions, particularly in the automotive market, are often accompanied by adjusted consumer risk tolerance, and so these potential safety benefits may not be fully realized due to changes in consumer purchasing or driving behavior. This article approaches safety in the new vehicle market, particularly in the Sport Utility Vehicle and Crossover Utility Vehicle segments, from a market systems perspective. Crash statistics and simulations are used to predict the effects of design and policy changes on occupant crash safety, and discrete choice experiments are conducted to estimate the values consumers place on vehicle attributes. These models are combined in a market simulation that forecasts how consumers respond to the available vehicle alternatives, resulting in predictions of the market share of each vehicle and how the change in fleet mixture influences societal outcomes including injuries, fuel consumption, and firm profits. The model is tested for a scenario where active safety features are implemented across the new vehicle fleet and a scenario where the U.S. frontal NCAP test speed is modified. While results exhibit evidence of consumer risk adjustment, they support adding active safety features and lowering the NCAP frontal test speed, as these changes are predicted to improve the welfare of both firms and society. PMID:22898094

  12. Advanced PEFC development for fuel cell powered vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawatsu, Shigeyuki

    Vehicles equipped with fuel cells have been developed with much progress. Outcomes of such development efforts include a Toyota fuel cell electric vehicle (FCEV) using hydrogen as the fuel which was developed and introduced in 1996, followed by another Toyota FCEV using methanol as the fuel, developed and introduced in 1997. In those Toyota FCEVs, a fuel cell system is installed under the floor of each RAV4L, to sports utility vehicle. It has been found that the CO concentration in the reformed gas of methanol reformer can be reduced to 100 ppm in wide ranges of catalyst temperature and gas flow rate, by using the ruthenium (Ru) catalyst as the CO selective oxidizer, instead of the platinum (Pt) catalyst known from some time ago. It has been also found that a fuel cell performance equivalent to that with pure hydrogen can be ensured even in the reformed gas with the carbon monoxide (CO) concentration of 100 ppm, by using the Pt-Ru (platinum ruthenium alloy) electrocatalyst as the anode electrocatalyst of a polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC), instead of the Pt electrocatalyst known from some time ago.

  13. Advanced Control Surface Seal Development for Future Space Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeMange, Jeffrey J.; Dunlap, Patrick H., Jr.; Steinetz, Bruce M.

    2004-01-01

    High temperature control surface seals have been identified as a critical technology in the development of future space vehicles. These seals must withstand temperatures of up to 2600 F and protect underlying temperature-sensitive structures (such as actuators and sealing capability by remaining resilient during flight conditions. The current baseline seal, used on the Shuttle orbiters and the X-38 vehicle, consists of a Nextel 312 sheath, an internal Inconel X-750 knitted spring tube, and hand-stuffed Saffil batting. Unfortunately at high temperatures (> 1500 F), the seal resiliency significantly degrades due to yielding and creep of the spring tube element. The permanent set in the seals can result in flow passing over the seals and subsequent damage to temperature sensitive components downstream of the seals. Another shortcoming of the baseline seal is that instances have been reported on Shuttle flights where some of the hand-stuffed Saffil batting insulation has been extracted, thus potentially compromising the seal. In vehicles where the thermal protection systems are delicate (such as with Shuttle tiles), the control surface seals must also limit the amount of force applied to the opposing surfaces. Additionally, in many applications the seals are subjected to scrubbing as control surfaces are actuated. The seals must be able to withstand any damage resulting from this high temperature scrubbing and retain their heat/flow blocking abilities.

  14. NHSB Thesaurus of Traffic and Motor Vehicle Safety Terms; A Supplement to Highway Safety Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Transportation, Washington, DC. National Highway Safety Bureau.

    This interim thesaurus contains search terms used to describe the contents of nearly 8,000 documents which have been announced in the weekly journal "Highway Safety Literature." The journal contains information about research reports and other documents of interest to the traffic safety community, including information about planned, in-progress,…

  15. Safety Analysis of Soybean Processing for Advanced Life Support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hentges, Dawn L.

    1999-01-01

    Soybeans (cv. Hoyt) is one of the crops planned for food production within the Advanced Life Support System Integration Testbed (ALSSIT), a proposed habitat simulation for long duration lunar/Mars missions. Soybeans may be processed into a variety of food products, including soymilk, tofu, and tempeh. Due to the closed environmental system and importance of crew health maintenance, food safety is a primary concern on long duration space missions. Identification of the food safety hazards and critical control points associated with the closed ALSSIT system is essential for the development of safe food processing techniques and equipment. A Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) model was developed to reflect proposed production and processing protocols for ALSSIT soybeans. Soybean processing was placed in the type III risk category. During the processing of ALSSIT-grown soybeans, critical control points were identified to control microbiological hazards, particularly mycotoxins, and chemical hazards from antinutrients. Critical limits were suggested at each CCP. Food safety recommendations regarding the hazards and risks associated with growing, harvesting, and processing soybeans; biomass management; and use of multifunctional equipment were made in consideration of the limitations and restraints of the closed ALSSIT.

  16. Safety Evaluation of Buffer-Separated High-Occupancy Vehicle Lanes in Texas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Scott A Cooner; Stephen E Ranft

    2006-01-01

    In Texas, high-occupancy vehicle (HOV) lanes are an integral part of urban mobility. Although an extensive system of permanent HOV lanes is planned for the Dallas–Fort Worth area, the Texas Department of Transportation and Dallas Area Rapid Transit have implemented interim HOV lanes by retrofitting them into existing freeways. Safety is examined for Dallas’s buffer-separated concurrent-flow HOV lanes, which were

  17. Final report for the Advanced Natural Gas Vehicle Project

    SciTech Connect

    John Wozniak

    1999-02-16

    The project objective was to develop the technologies necessary to prototype a dedicated compressed natural gas (CNG) powered, mid-size automobile with operational capabilities comparable to gasoline automobiles. A system approach was used to design and develop the engine, gas storage system and vehicle packaging. The 2.4-liter DOHC engine was optimized for natural gas operation with high-compression pistons, hardened exhaust valves, a methane-specific catalytic converter and multi-point gaseous injection. The chassis was repackaging to increase space for fuel storage with a custom-designed, cast-aluminum, semi-trailing arm rear suspension system, a revised flat trunk sheet-metal floorpan and by equipping the car with run-flat tires. An Integrated Storage system (ISS) was developed using all-composite, small-diameter cylinders encapsulated within a high-strength fiberglass shell with impact-absorbing foam. The prototypes achieved the target goals of a city/highway driving range of 300 miles, ample trunk capacity, gasoline vehicle performance and ultra low exhaust emissions.

  18. Development of Pedestrian-to-Vehicle Communication System Prototype for Pedestrian Safety Using both Wide-Area and Direct Communication

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chika Sugimoto; Yasuhisa Nakamura; Takuya Hashimoto

    2008-01-01

    We propose a prototype pedestrian-to-vehicle communication system which uses a cellular phone and wireless communication to improve the safety of pedestrians. One of the effectual measures against pedestrian-to-vehicle accidents is to make each of pedestrians and drivers find the others and recognize the risk from out of sight and with time to spare for avoidance of accidents. A pedestrian-to-vehicle communication

  19. NREL's Hydrogen-Powered Bus Serves as Showcase for Advanced Vehicle Technologies (AVT) (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2010-08-01

    Brochure describes the hydrogen-powered internal combustion engine (H2ICE) shuttle bus at NREL. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is funding the lease of the bus from Ford to demonstrate market-ready advanced technology vehicles to visitors at NREL.

  20. KELVIN: A Second Generation Land Vehicle 2002 Florida Conference on Recent Advances in Robotics

    E-print Network

    Schwartz, Eric M.

    KELVIN: A Second Generation Land Vehicle 2002 Florida Conference on Recent Advances in Robotics May: Autonomous Navigation, Robotics, Linux Abstract Kelvin is a four-wheeled land-based robotics research, and headlights. 2. The Mobile Platform 2.1 Frame Kelvin's frame, shown in Figure 1, is constructed of welded

  1. Supercapacitor-based optimum switched reluctance drive for advanced electric vehicles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ge Baoming; A. T. de Almeida; F. J. T. E. Ferreira

    2005-01-01

    Hybrid energy source by using optimum combination of supercapacitor and battery in parallel, is incorporated into switched reluctance motor (SRM) drive for an advanced electric vehicle. SRM controller is optimized to maximize the system efficiency at all operation states including motor operation and regenerative braking, and the hybrid energy source affords an opportunity to design the battery bank that is

  2. Advanced grid stiffened structures for the next generation of launch vehicles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steven Huybrechts; Troy E. Meink

    1997-01-01

    Although the necessity of using composite materials in the next generation of launch vehicles has become widely accepted, the specific structural type (monocoque, sandwich, skin-stringer, etc.) has yet to be determined. One possible candidate is the Advanced Grid Stiffened (AGS) structure, a rib-skin configuration evolved from early isogrid stiffening concepts. AGS structures show great promise for satisfying increased reliability and

  3. Radar objects detection and imaging for ground-based vehicle collision avoidance: computer simulation results and safety aspects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. G. Pusone; A. Terzi; A. Coccia; J. J. Reijmers; L. P. Ligthart; W. Ockels

    2007-01-01

    The scope of this paper is to illustrate a new concept of a multi-sensor system for obstacle detection, and collision avoidance by controlling the motion of the vehicle traveling at very high speed regimes, of the order of 250 km\\/h. The paper illustrates the primary requirement of safety for the vehicle and the passengers and presents the effects of relative

  4. Direct-hydrogen-fueled proton-exchange-membrane fuel cell system for transportation applications. Hydrogen vehicle safety report

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas

    1997-01-01

    This report reviews the safety characteristics of hydrogen as an energy carrier for a fuel cell vehicle (FCV), with emphasis on high pressure gaseous hydrogen onboard storage. The authors consider normal operation of the vehicle in addition to refueling, collisions, operation in tunnels, and storage in garages. They identify the most likely risks and failure modes leading to hazardous conditions,

  5. 76 FR 11415 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Power-Operated Window, Partition, and Roof Panel Systems

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-02

    ...Vehicle Safety Standards; Power-Operated Window, Partition, and Roof Panel Systems AGENCY...automatic reversal systems (ARS) for power windows and to make a final decision. The agency...rulemaking to consider requiring all power windows and panels on light motor vehicles...

  6. A numerical investigation on the efficiency of range extending systems using Advanced Vehicle Simulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varnhagen, Scott; Same, Adam; Remillard, Jesse; Park, Jae Wan

    2011-03-01

    Series plug-in hybrid electric vehicles of varying engine configuration and battery capacity are modeled using Advanced Vehicle Simulator (ADVISOR). The performance of these vehicles is analyzed on the bases of energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions on the tank-to-wheel and well-to-wheel paths. Both city and highway driving conditions are considered during the simulation. When simulated on the well-to-wheel path, it is shown that the range extender with a Wankel rotary engine consumes less energy and emits fewer greenhouse gases compared to the other systems with reciprocating engines during many driving cycles. The rotary engine has a higher power-to-weight ratio and lower noise, vibration and harshness compared to conventional reciprocating engines, although performs less efficiently. The benefits of a Wankel engine make it an attractive option for use as a range extender in a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle.

  7. Safety Changes in the US Vehicle Fleet since Model Year 1990, Based on NASS Data

    PubMed Central

    Eigen, Ana Maria; Digges, Kennerly; Samaha, Randa Radwan

    2012-01-01

    Based on the National Automotive Sampling System Crashworthiness Data System since the 1988–1992 model years, there has been a reduction in the MAIS 3+ injury rate and the Mean HARM for all crash modes. The largest improvement in vehicle safety has been in rollovers. There was an increase in the rollover injury rate in the 1993–1998 model year period, but a reduction since then. When comparing vehicles of the model year 1993 to 1998 with later model vehicles, the most profound difference was the reduction of rollover frequency for SUV’s – down more than 20% when compared to other crash modes. When considering only model years since 2002 the rollover frequency reduction was nearly 40%. A 26% reduction in the rate of moderate and serious injuries for all drivers in rollovers was observed for the model years later than 1998. The overall belt use rate for drivers of late model vehicles with HARM weighted injuries was 62% - up from 54% in earlier model vehicles. However, in rollover crashes, the same belt use rate lagged at 54%. PMID:23169134

  8. A novel series connected batteries state of high voltage safety monitor system for electric vehicle application.

    PubMed

    Jiaxi, Qiang; Lin, Yang; Jianhui, He; Qisheng, Zhou

    2013-01-01

    Batteries, as the main or assistant power source of EV (Electric Vehicle), are usually connected in series with high voltage to improve the drivability and energy efficiency. Today, more and more batteries are connected in series with high voltage, if there is any fault in high voltage system (HVS), the consequence is serious and dangerous. Therefore, it is necessary to monitor the electric parameters of HVS to ensure the high voltage safety and protect personal safety. In this study, a high voltage safety monitor system is developed to solve this critical issue. Four key electric parameters including precharge, contact resistance, insulation resistance, and remaining capacity are monitored and analyzed based on the equivalent models presented in this study. The high voltage safety controller which integrates the equivalent models and control strategy is developed. By the help of hardware-in-loop system, the equivalent models integrated in the high voltage safety controller are validated, and the online electric parameters monitor strategy is analyzed and discussed. The test results indicate that the high voltage safety monitor system designed in this paper is suitable for EV application. PMID:24194677

  9. Development of Pneumatic Aerodynamic Devices to Improve the Performance, Economics, and Safety of Heavy Vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Robert J. Englar

    2000-06-19

    Under contract to the DOE Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies, the Georgia Tech Research Institute (GTRI) is developing and evaluating pneumatic (blown) aerodynamic devices to improve the performance, economics, stability and safety of operation of Heavy Vehicles. The objective of this program is to apply the pneumatic aerodynamic aircraft technology previously developed and flight-tested by GTRI personnel to the design of an efficient blown tractor-trailer configuration. Recent experimental results obtained by GTRI using blowing have shown drag reductions of 35% on a streamlined automobile wind-tunnel model. Also measured were lift or down-load increases of 100-150% and the ability to control aerodynamic moments about all 3 axes without any moving control surfaces. Similar drag reductions yielded by blowing on bluff afterbody trailers in current US trucking fleet operations are anticipated to reduce yearly fuel consumption by more than 1.2 billion gallons, while even further reduction is possible using pneumatic lift to reduce tire rolling resistance. Conversely, increased drag and down force generated instantaneously by blowing can greatly increase braking characteristics and control in wet/icy weather due to effective ''weight'' increases on the tires. Safety is also enhanced by controlling side loads and moments caused on these Heavy Vehicles by winds, gusts and other vehicles passing. This may also help to eliminate the jack-knifing problem if caused by extreme wind side loads on the trailer. Lastly, reduction of the turbulent wake behind the trailer can reduce splash and spray patterns and rough air being experienced by following vehicles. To be presented by GTRI in this paper will be results developed during the early portion of this effort, including a preliminary systems study, CFD prediction of the blown flowfields, and design of the baseline conventional tractor-trailer model and the pneumatic wind-tunnel model.

  10. Advanced Korean Industrial Safety and Health Policy with Risk Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Jae Hyun; Moon, Il; Choi, Jaewook; Park, Dooyong; Lee, Youngsoon

    2010-01-01

    This article describes a systematic roadmap master plan for advanced industrial safety and health policy in Korea, with an emphasis on. Since Korean industries had first emergence of industrial safety and health policy in 1953, enormous efforts have been made on upgrading the relevant laws in order to reflect real situation of industrial work environment in accordance with rapid changes of Korean and global business over three decades. Nevertheless, current policy has major defects; too much techniques-based articles, diverged contents in less organization, combined enforcement and punishments and finally enforcing regulations full of commands and control. These deficiencies have make it difficult to accommodate changes of social, industrial and employment environment in customized fashion. The approach to the solution must be generic at the level of paradigm-shift rather than local modifications and enhancement. The basic idea is to establish a new system integrated with a risk assessment scheme, which encourages employers to apply to their work environment under comprehensive responsibility. The risk assessment scheme is designed to enable to inspect employers' compliances afterwards. A project comprises four yearly phases based on applying zones; initially designating and operating a specified risk zone, gradually expanding the special zones during a period of 3 years (2010-2012) and the final zone expanded to entire nation. In each phase, the intermediate version of the system is updated through a process of precise and unbiased validation in terms of its operability, feasibility and sustainability with building relevant infrastructures as needed. PMID:22953160

  11. Advanced korean industrial safety and health policy with risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Hyuckmyun; Cho, Jae Hyun; Moon, Il; Choi, Jaewook; Park, Dooyong; Lee, Youngsoon

    2010-09-01

    This article describes a systematic roadmap master plan for advanced industrial safety and health policy in Korea, with an emphasis on. Since Korean industries had first emergence of industrial safety and health policy in 1953, enormous efforts have been made on upgrading the relevant laws in order to reflect real situation of industrial work environment in accordance with rapid changes of Korean and global business over three decades. Nevertheless, current policy has major defects; too much techniques-based articles, diverged contents in less organization, combined enforcement and punishments and finally enforcing regulations full of commands and control. These deficiencies have make it difficult to accommodate changes of social, industrial and employment environment in customized fashion. The approach to the solution must be generic at the level of paradigm-shift rather than local modifications and enhancement. The basic idea is to establish a new system integrated with a risk assessment scheme, which encourages employers to apply to their work environment under comprehensive responsibility. The risk assessment scheme is designed to enable to inspect employers' compliances afterwards. A project comprises four yearly phases based on applying zones; initially designating and operating a specified risk zone, gradually expanding the special zones during a period of 3 years (2010-2012) and the final zone expanded to entire nation. In each phase, the intermediate version of the system is updated through a process of precise and unbiased validation in terms of its operability, feasibility and sustainability with building relevant infrastructures as needed. PMID:22953160

  12. Development of Micro Air Reconnaissance Vehicle as a Test Bed for Advanced Sensors and Electronics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shams, Qamar A.; Vranas, Thomas L.; Fox, Robert L.; Kuhn, Theodore R.; Ingham, John; Logan, Michael J.; Barnes, Kevin N.; Guenther, Benjamin F.

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a Micro/Mini Air Reconnaissance Vehicle for advanced sensors and electronics at NASA Langley Research Center over the last year. This vehicle is expected to have a total weight of less than four pounds, a design velocity of 40 mph, an endurance of 15-20 minutes, and a maximum range of 5km. The vehicle has wings that are simple to detach yet retain the correct alignment. The upper fuselage surface has a quick release hatch used to access the interior and also to mount the varying propulsion systems. The sensor suite developed for this vehicle consists of a Pitot-static measurement system for determining air speed, an absolute pressure measurement for determining altitude, magnetic direction measurement, and three orthogonal gyros to determine body angular rates. Swarming GPS-guidance and in-flight maneuvering is discussed, as well as design and installation of some other advance sensors like MEMS microphones, infrared cameras, GPS, humidity sensors, and an ultrasonic sonar sensor. Also low cost, small size, high performance control and navigation system for the Micro Air Vehicle is discussed. At the end, laboratory characterization of different sensors, motors, propellers, and batteries will be discussed.

  13. Modeling of dynamic vehicle-road interactions for safety-related road evaluation.

    PubMed

    Orfila, O; Coiret, A; Do, M T; Mammar, S

    2010-11-01

    Usually, road safety is assessed by following adequate highway geometric design standards and can be controlled later by measurement and expertise. Nevertheless, interactions between vehicle dynamics and road characteristics cannot be simultaneously analyzed for these two means of safety evaluation. In this study, an analytical method based on road/vehicle physical interactions applied to road diagnosis is proposed. Vehicle "point" and "bicycle" models are used in this first approach. French highway geometric design standards and a statistical method are presented and evaluated on a real curve case. The proposed numerical criterion, for the "bicycle" model, is then compared to these two classical methods for the considered road section. Its advantages are that it takes into account several combined parameters, that road defects are precisely localized and that it provides hierarchically classified solutions to the road managers. After this comparison step, further improvements should be focused on the modeling of successive curves and on the improvement of the informations given to the road manager. PMID:20728624

  14. Status of the irradiation test vehicle for testing fusion materials in the Advanced Test Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Tsai, H.; Gomes, I.C.; Smith, D.L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Palmer, A.J.; Ingram, F.W. [Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Wiffen, F.W. [Dept. of Energy, Germantown, MD (United States). Office of Fusion Energy

    1998-09-01

    The design of the irradiation test vehicle (ITV) for the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) has been completed. The main application for the ITV is irradiation testing of candidate fusion structural materials, including vanadium-base alloys, silicon carbide composites, and low-activation steels. Construction of the vehicle is underway at the Lockheed Martin Idaho Technology Company (LMITCO). Dummy test trains are being built for system checkout and fine-tuning. Reactor insertion of the ITV with the dummy test trains is scheduled for fall 1998. Barring unexpected difficulties, the ITV will be available for experiments in early 1999.

  15. A Variable Dynamic Testbed Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marriott, A.

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes the concept of a potential test vehicle for the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) that is designed to evaluate the dynamics, human factors, and safety aspects of advanced technologies in passenger class automobiles expected to be introduced as a result of the Intelligent Vehicle/Highway System (IVHS) Program. The Variable Dynamic Testbed Vehicle (VDTV) requirements were determined from the inputs of anticipated users and possible research needs of NHTSA. Design and implementation approaches are described, the benefits of the vehicle are discussed and costs for several options presented.

  16. Advancing Pedestrian Safety at Rail Grade Crossings Paul Metaxatos and P.S. Sriraj

    E-print Network

    Illinois at Chicago, University of

    Advancing Pedestrian Safety at Rail Grade Crossings Paul Metaxatos and P.S. Sriraj Urban The paper highlights the multitude of factors related to pedestrian safety in this context,10 and provides Keywords: safety, pedestrians, non-motorists, rail grade crossings14 TRB 2013 Annual Meeting Paper revised

  17. Variation in U.S. Traffic Safety Policy Environments and Motor Vehicle Fatalities 1980–2010

    PubMed Central

    Silver, Diana; Macinko, James; Bae, Jin Yung; Jimenez, Geronimo; Paul, Maggie

    2013-01-01

    Objective To examine the impact of variation in state laws governing traffic safety on motor vehicle fatalities. Study Design Repeated cross sectional time series design. Methods Fixed effects regression models estimate the relationship between state motor vehicle fatality rates and the strength of the state law environment for 50 states, 1980–2010. The strength of the state policy environment is measured by calculating the proportion of a set of 27 evidence-based laws in place each year. The effect of alcohol consumption on motor vehicle fatalities is estimated using a subset of alcohol laws as instrumental variables. Results Once other risk factors are controlled in statistical models, states with stronger regulation of safer driving and driver/passenger protections had significantly lower motor vehicle fatality rates for all ages. Alcohol consumption was strongly associated with higher MVC death rates, as were state unemployment rates. Conclusions Encouraging laggard states to adopt the full range of available laws could significantly reduce preventable traffic-related deaths in the U.S. – especially those among younger individuals. Estimating the relationship between different policy environments and health outcomes can quantify the result of policy gaps. PMID:24275035

  18. Research on safety evaluation model for in-vehicle secondary task driving.

    PubMed

    Jin, Lisheng; Xian, Huacai; Niu, Qingning; Bie, Jing

    2015-08-01

    This paper presents a new method for evaluating in-vehicle secondary task driving safety. There are five in-vehicle distracter tasks: tuning the radio to a local station, touching the touch-screen telephone menu to a certain song, talking with laboratory assistant, answering a telephone via Bluetooth headset, and finding the navigation system from Ipad4 computer. Forty young drivers completed the driving experiment on a driving simulator. Measures of fixations, saccades, and blinks are collected and analyzed. Based on the measures of driver eye movements which have significant difference between the baseline and secondary task driving conditions, the evaluation index system is built. The Analytic Network Process (ANP) theory is applied for determining the importance weight of the evaluation index in a fuzzy environment. On the basis of the importance weight of the evaluation index, Fuzzy Comprehensive Evaluation (FCE) method is utilized to evaluate the secondary task driving safety. Results show that driving with secondary tasks greatly distracts the driver's attention from road and the evaluation model built in this study could estimate driving safety effectively under different driving conditions. PMID:25194987

  19. Vehicle Density Based Forwarding Protocol for Safety Message Broadcast in VANET

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Jiawei; Wang, Jianxin

    2014-01-01

    In vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs), the medium access control (MAC) protocol is of great importance to provide time-critical safety applications. Contemporary multihop broadcast protocols in VANETs usually choose the farthest node in broadcast range as the forwarder to reduce the number of forwarding hops. However, in this paper, we demonstrate that the farthest forwarder may experience large contention delay in case of high vehicle density. We propose an IEEE 802.11-based multihop broadcast protocol VDF to address the issue of emergency message dissemination. To achieve the tradeoff between contention delay and forwarding hops, VDF adaptably chooses the forwarder according to the vehicle density. Simulation results show that, due to its ability to decrease the transmission collisions, the proposed protocol can provide significantly lower broadcast delay. PMID:25121125

  20. Vehicle density based forwarding protocol for safety message broadcast in VANET.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jiawei; Huang, Yi; Wang, Jianxin

    2014-01-01

    In vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs), the medium access control (MAC) protocol is of great importance to provide time-critical safety applications. Contemporary multihop broadcast protocols in VANETs usually choose the farthest node in broadcast range as the forwarder to reduce the number of forwarding hops. However, in this paper, we demonstrate that the farthest forwarder may experience large contention delay in case of high vehicle density. We propose an IEEE 802.11-based multihop broadcast protocol VDF to address the issue of emergency message dissemination. To achieve the tradeoff between contention delay and forwarding hops, VDF adaptably chooses the forwarder according to the vehicle density. Simulation results show that, due to its ability to decrease the transmission collisions, the proposed protocol can provide significantly lower broadcast delay. PMID:25121125

  1. Systems Safety, Reliability, and Risk Assessment. Task 4: Safety and Launch Vehicle Review Support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This report summarizes support provided by Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) to the NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). Work under this contract was performed in support of the Advanced Space Transportation Program and the Second Generation RLV Program Office.

  2. Advanced traffic management systems and high-occupancy-vehicle systems. Transportation research record

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    ;Contents: Distributed Approach to Real-Time Control of Complex Signalized Networks; MULTIBAND-96: A Program for Variable-Bandwidth Progression Optimization of Multiarterial Traffic Networks; Determination of Timings in Signal Systems with Traffic-Actuated Controllers; Combined Model for Signal Control and Route Choice in Urbn Traffic Networks; Multivariate Optimization Strategies for Real-Time Traffic Control Signals; Implementation Vision for Distributed Control of Traffic Signal Subsystems; Current Developments in SCOOT: Version 3; Estimating Impact of Signal Hardware Improvements; Guidelines for Actuated Controllers in Coordinated Systems; Evaluation of Bus Priority Signal Strategies in Ann Arbor, Michigan; NETSIM-Based Approach to Evaluation of Bus Preemption Strategies; Simulation-Based Methodology for Evaluation of High-Occupancy-Vehicle Facilities; Predicting High-Occupancy-Vehicle Facility Demand; Evaluation of High-Occupancy-Vehicle Lanes on Long Island Expressway; Effect on Congestion and Motorcycle Safety of Motorcycle Travel on High-Occupancy-Vehicle Facilities in Virginia; Development of Arterial High-Occupancy-Vehicle Land Enforcement Techniques; Multiple-Interval Freeway Traffic Flow Forecasting; New Methodology for Smoothing Freeway Loop Detector Data: Introduction to Digital Filtering; Evaluation of Compliance Rates and Travel Time Calculation for Automatic Alternative Route Guidance Systems on Freeways; Algorithm for Controlling Spillback from Ramp Meters; Systemwide Analysis of Freeway Improvements; Transferability of Freeway Incident Detection Algorithms; Deriving Incident Management Measures Using Incident Probability Models and Simulation; and I-880 Field Experiment: Data-Base Development and Incident Delay Estimation Procedures.

  3. An advanced energy management system for controlling the ultracapacitor discharge and improving the electric vehicle range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armenta, Jesús; Núñez, Ciro; Visairo, Nancy; Lázaro, Isabel

    2015-06-01

    Over the last years issues regarding both the use and the improvement of energy management in electric vehicles have been highlighted by industry and academic fields. Some of the research has been focused on exploiting the ultracapacitor characteristics and on protecting the battery life. From this standpoint, this paper proposes an advanced energy management system based on the adequate discharge of the ultracapacitor bank in order to utilize all the energy available from the regenerative breaking. In this way, the energy consumption is reduced and the electric vehicle range is increased. This strategy, based on simple rules, takes advantage of the high power density of the ultracapacitor and prevents an overstress of the battery. The benefits are featured using three standard drive cycles for a 1550 kg electric vehicle via simulations.

  4. Advanced Aero-Propulsive Mid-Lift-to-Drag Ratio Entry Vehicle for Future Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, C. H.; Stosaric, R. R; Cerimele, C. J.; Wong, K. A.; Valle, G. D.; Garcia, J. A.; Melton, J. E.; Munk, M. M.; Blades, E.; Kuruvila, G.; Picetti, D. J.; Hassan, B.; Kniskern, M. W.

    2012-01-01

    NASA is currently looking well into the future toward realizing Exploration mission possibilities to destinations including the Earth-Moon Lagrange points, Near-Earth Asteroids (NEAs) and the Moon. These are stepping stones to our ultimate destination Mars. New ideas will be required to conquer the significant challenges that await us, some just conceptions and others beginning to be realized. Bringing these ideas to fruition and enabling further expansion into space will require varying degrees of change, from engineering and integration approaches used in spacecraft design and operations, to high-level architectural capabilities bounded only by the limits of our ideas. The most profound change will be realized by paradigm change, thus enabling our ultimate goals to be achieved. Inherent to achieving these goals, higher entry, descent, and landing (EDL) performance has been identified as a high priority. Increased EDL performance will be enabled by highly-capable thermal protection systems (TPS), the ability to deliver larger and heavier payloads, increased surface access, and tighter landing footprints to accommodate multiple asset, single-site staging. In addition, realizing reduced cost access to space will demand more efficient approaches and reusable launch vehicle systems. Current operational spacecraft and launch vehicles do not incorporate the technologies required for these far-reaching missions and goals, nor what is needed to achieve the desired launch vehicle cost savings. To facilitate these missions and provide for safe and more reliable capabilities, NASA and its partners will need to make ideas reality by gaining knowledge through the design, development, manufacturing, implementation and flight testing of robotic and human spacecraft. To accomplish these goals, an approach is recommended for integrated development and implementation of three paradigm-shifting capabilities into an advanced entry vehicle system with additional application to launch vehicle stage return, thus making ideas reality. These paradigm shifts include the technology maturation of advanced flexible thermal protection materials onto mid lift-to-drag ratio entry vehicles, the development of integrated supersonic aero-propulsive maneuvering, and the implementation of advanced asymmetric launch shrouds. These paradigms have significant overlap with launch vehicle stage return already being developed by the Air Force and several commercial space efforts. Completing the realization of these combined paradigms holds the key to a high-performing entry vehicle system capability that fully leverages multiple technology benefits to accomplish NASA's Exploration missions to atmospheric planetary destinations.

  5. Development of an advanced high-temperature fastener system for advanced aerospace vehicle application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kull, F. R.

    1975-01-01

    The results of a program to develop a lightweight high temperature reusable fastening system for aerospace vehicle thermal protection system applications are documented. This feasibility program resulted in several fastener innovations which will meet the specific needs of the heat shield application. Three systems were designed from Hayes 188 alloy and tested by environmental exposure and residual mechanical properties. The designs include a clinch stud with a collar retainer, a weld stud with a split ring retainer, and a caged stud with a collar retainer. The results indicated that a lightweight, reusable, high temperature fastening system can be developed for aerospace vehicle application.

  6. A customized vision system for tracking humans wearing reflective safety clothing from industrial vehicles and machinery.

    PubMed

    Mosberger, Rafael; Andreasson, Henrik; Lilienthal, Achim J

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a novel approach for vision-based detection and tracking of humans wearing high-visibility clothing with retro-reflective markers. Addressing industrial applications where heavy vehicles operate in the vicinity of humans, we deploy a customized stereo camera setup with active illumination that allows for efficient detection of the reflective patterns created by the worker's safety garments. After segmenting reflective objects from the image background, the interest regions are described with local image feature descriptors and classified in order to discriminate safety garments from other reflective objects in the scene. In a final step, the trajectories of the detected humans are estimated in 3D space relative to the camera. We evaluate our tracking system in two industrial real-world work environments on several challenging video sequences. The experimental results indicate accurate tracking performance and good robustness towards partial occlusions, body pose variation, and a wide range of different illumination conditions. PMID:25264956

  7. The design and construction of electronic motor control and network interface hardware for advance concept urban mobility vehicles

    E-print Network

    Morrissey, Bryan L. (Bryan Lawrence)

    2008-01-01

    Over the past several years, the Smart Cities Group at MIT's Media Lab has engaged in research to develop several advanced concepts for vehicles to improve urban mobility. This research has focused on developing a modular ...

  8. Weapon and communication systems: virtual life assessment of electronic hardware used in the Advanced Amphibious Assault Vehicle (AAAV)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ricky Valentin; Jeremy Cunningham; Michael D. Osterman; Abhijit Dasgupta II; Michael G. Pecht; Dinos Tsagos

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents the use of techniques for simulating product qualification as well as for product testing of electronic hardware to be used in the United States Marine Corp's Advanced Amphibious Assault Vehicle. The goal of integrating \\

  9. Abstract--Software modules of an advanced vehicle can be updated using Remote Software Upload (RSU) techniques. The

    E-print Network

    Mahmud, Syed Masud

    Abstract-- Software modules of an advanced vehicle can be updated using Remote Software Upload (RSU) techniques. The RSU employs infrastructure-based wireless communication technique where the software supplier sends the software to the targeted vehicle via a roadside Base Station (BS). However, security

  10. Car occupant safety in frontal crashes: a parameter study of vehicle mass, impact speed, and inherent vehicle protection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dagmar G. Buzeman; David C. Viano; Per Lövsund

    1998-01-01

    A new mathematical model was developed to estimate average injury and fatality rates in frontal car-to-car crashes for changes in vehicle fleet mass, impact speed distribution, and inherent vehicle protection. The estimates were calculated from injury\\/fatality risk data, delta-V distribution and collision probability of two vehicles, where delta-V depends on impact speed and mass of the colliding vehicles. The impact

  11. Working in light vehicles--a review and conceptual model for occupational health and safety.

    PubMed

    Stuckey, Rwth; Lamontagne, Anthony D; Sim, Malcolm

    2007-09-01

    Occupational light vehicle (OLV) use is the leading cause of work related traumatic deaths in Westernised countries. Previous research has focused primarily on narrow contexts of OLV-use such as corporate fleet vehicles. We have proposed a comprehensive systems model for OLV-use to provide a framework for identifying research needs and proposing policy and practice interventions. This model presents the worker as the locus of injury at the centre of work- and road-related determinants of injury. Using this model, we reviewed existing knowledge and found most studies focused only on company car drivers, neglecting OLV-users in non-traditional employment arrangements and those using other vehicle types. Environmental exposures, work design factors and risk and protective factors for the wider OLV-user population are inadequately researched. Neither road- nor work-related policy appropriately addresses OLV-use, and population surveillance relies largely on inadequate workers compensation insurance data. This review demonstrates that there are significant gaps in understanding the problem of OLV-use and a need for further research integrating public health, insurance and road safety responses. The model provides a framework for understanding the theory of OLV-use OHS and guidance for urgently needed intervention research, policy and practice. PMID:17854576

  12. Position-Based Data Traffic Prioritization in Safety-Critical, Real-Time Vehicle-to-Infrastructure Communication

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Annette Böhm; Magnus Jonsson

    2009-01-01

    Future active-safety applications in vehicular networks rely heavily on the support for real-time inter-vehicle communication. The medium access control (MAC) mechanism proposed for the upcoming IEEE 802.11p standard intended for intelligent transport systems (ITS) applications does not offer deterministic real-time support, i.e., the channel access delay is not upper bounded. We therefore propose a vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2I) communication solution extending IEEE

  13. 78 FR 41436 - Proposed Revision to Treatment of Non-Safety Systems for Passive Advanced Light Water Reactors

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-10

    ...Non-Safety Systems for Passive Advanced Light Water Reactors AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory...Systems (RTNSS) for Passive Advanced Light Water Reactors.'' The NRC seeks public...Systems (RTNSS) for Passive Advanced Light Water Reactors.'' This area...

  14. 77 FR 62270 - Proposed Revision Treatment of Non-Safety Systems for Passive Advanced Light Water Reactors

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-12

    ...Non-Safety Systems for Passive Advanced Light Water Reactors AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory...Systems (RTNSS) for Passive Advanced Light Water Reactors.'' The current SRP does...the proposed RTNSS for Passive Advance Light Water Reactors. DATES: Submit...

  15. Indiana Advanced Electric Vehicle Training and Education Consortium (I-AEVtec)

    SciTech Connect

    Caruthers, James; Dietz, J.; Pelter, Libby; Chen, Jie; Roberson, Glen; McGinn, Paul; Kizhanipuram, Vinodegopal

    2013-01-31

    The Indiana Advanced Electric Vehicle Training and Education Consortium (I-AEVtec) is an educational partnership between six universities and colleges in Indiana focused on developing the education materials needed to support electric vehicle technology. The I-AEVtec has developed and delivered a number of degree and certificate programs that address various aspects of electric vehicle technology, including over 30 new or significantly modified courses to support these programs. These courses were shared on the SmartEnergyHub. The I-AEVtec program also had a significant outreach to the community with particular focus on K12 students. Finally, the evGrandPrix was established which is a university/college student electric go-kart race, where the students get hands-on experience in designing, building and racing electric vehicles. The evGrandPrix now includes student teams from across the US as well as from Europe and it is currently being held on Opening Day weekend for the Indy500 at the Indianapolis Motor Speedway.

  16. Technical Feasibility of Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) for Road Traffic Safety

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Meng Lu; Kees Wevers

    2005-01-01

    This paper explores the technical feasibility of five Advanced Driver Assistance System (ADAS) functions to contribute to road traffic safety, to reach stated European (EU) and national road traffic safety targets. These functions – enhanced navigation, speed assistance, collision avoidance, intersection support and lane keeping – were selected from previous research as adequate substitutes for infrastructure related measures. State-of-the-art enabling

  17. Evaluating Product-Related Hazards At the Consumer Product Safety CommissionThe Case of All-Terrain Vehicles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gregory B. Rodgers

    1990-01-01

    Multivariate qualitative response models, such as logit regression models, are useful in evaluating product-related risk at the Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC). They are used to determine and quantify the factors associated with accidents, and can suggest or justify appropriate regulatory responses. This article applies the method to evaluating risks associated with all-terrain vehicles. A logit regression model is used

  18. Vehicle design and speed and pedestrian injury: Australia's involvement in the International Harmonised Research Activities Pedestrian Safety Expert Group

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert Anderson; Jack McLean

    Australia is contributing to the International Harmonised Research Activities Pedestrian Safety Expert Group (IHRA PSEG) through research undertaken at the Road Accident Research Unit, and funded by the Commonwealth Department of Transport and Regional Services. The IHRA PSEG is charged with the development of test procedures for assessing the protection afforded by the vehicle to a pedestrian in the event

  19. Alertinfra: a safety tool for infrastructure diagnosis devoted to heavy vehicles Cerezo, V. Bouteldja, M. and Conche, C. 1

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    . Bouteldja, M. and Conche, C. 1 ALERTINFRAPL: A SAFETY TOOL FOR INFRASTRUCTURE DIAGNOSIS DEVOTED TO HEAVY, Département Laboratoire de Lyon, France F. CONCHE CETE de Lyon, Département Laboratoire de Clermont- Ferrand vehicles Cerezo, V. Bouteldja, M. and Conche, C. 2 1. Introduction This paper presents the results

  20. Testing of Passive Safety System Performance for Higher Power Advanced Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    brian G. Woods; Jose Reyes, Jr.; John Woods; John Groome; Richard Wright

    2004-12-31

    This report describes the results of NERI research on the testing of advanced passive safety performance for the Westinghouse AP1000 design. The objectives of this research were: (a) to assess the AP1000 passive safety system core cooling performance under high decay power conditions for a spectrum of breaks located at a variety of locations, (b) to compare advanced thermal hydraulic computer code predictions to the APEX high decay power test data and (c) to develop new passive safety system concepts that could be used for Generation IV higher power reactors.

  1. Pilot vehicle interface on the advanced fighter technology integration F-16

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dana, W. H.; Smith, W. B.; Howard, J. D.

    1986-01-01

    This paper focuses on the work load aspects of the pilot vehicle interface in regard to the new technologies tested during AMAS Phase II. Subjects discussed in this paper include: a wide field-of-view head-up display; automated maneuvering attack system/sensor tracker system; master modes that configure flight controls and mission avionics; a modified helmet mounted sight; improved multifunction display capability; a voice interactive command system; ride qualities during automated weapon delivery; a color moving map; an advanced digital map display; and a g-induced loss-of-consciousness and spatial disorientation autorecovery system.

  2. Main propulsion system design recommendations for an advanced Orbit Transfer Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Redd, L.

    1985-01-01

    Various main propulsion system configurations of an advanced OTV are evaluated with respect to the probability of nonindependent failures, i.e., engine failures that disable the entire main propulsion system. Analysis of the life-cycle cost (LCC) indicates that LCC is sensitive to the main propulsion system reliability, vehicle dry weight, and propellant cost; it is relatively insensitive to the number of missions/overhaul, failures per mission, and EVA and IVA cost. In conclusion, two or three engines are recommended in view of their highest reliability, minimum life-cycle cost, and fail operational/fail safe capability.

  3. Characterization of an Integral Thermal Protection and Cryogenic Insulation Material for Advanced Space Transportation Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salerno, L. J.; White, S. M.; Helvensteijn, B. P. M.

    2000-01-01

    NASA's planned advanced space transportation vehicles will benefit from the use of integral/conformal cryogenic propellant tanks which will reduce the launch weight and lower the earth-to-orbit costs considerably. To implement the novel concept of integral/conformal tanks requires developing an equally novel concept in thermal protection materials. Providing insulation against reentry heating and preserving propellant mass can no longer be considered separate problems to be handled by separate materials. A new family of materials, Superthermal Insulation (STI), has been conceiving and investigated by NASA's Ames Research Center to simultaneously provide both thermal protection and cryogenic insulation in a single, integral material.

  4. Environmental, health, and safety issues of sodium-sulfur batteries for electric and hybrid vehicles. Volume 1, Cell and battery safety

    SciTech Connect

    Ohi, J.M.

    1992-09-01

    This report is the first of four volumes that identify and assess the environmental, health, and safety issues involved in using sodium-sulfur (Na/S) battery technology as the energy source in electric and hybrid vehicles that may affect the commercialization of Na/S batteries. This and the other reports on recycling, shipping, and vehicle safety are intended to help the Electric and Hybrid Propulsion Division of the Office of Transportation Technologies in the US Department of Energy (DOE/EHP) determine the direction of its research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) program for Na/S battery technology. The reports review the status of Na/S battery RD&D and identify potential hazards and risks that may require additional research or that may affect the design and use of Na/S batteries. This volume covers cell design and engineering as the basis of safety for Na/S batteries and describes and assesses the potential chemical, electrical, and thermal hazards and risks of Na/S cells and batteries as well as the RD&D performed, under way, or to address these hazards and risks. The report is based on a review of the literature and on discussions with experts at DOE, national laboratories and agencies, universities, and private industry. Subsequent volumes will address environmental, health, and safety issues involved in shipping cells and batteries, using batteries to propel electric vehicles, and recycling and disposing of spent batteries. The remainder of this volume is divided into two major sections on safety at the cell and battery levels. The section on Na/S cells describes major component and potential failure modes, design, life testing and failure testing, thermal cycling, and the safety status of Na/S cells. The section on batteries describes battery design, testing, and safety status. Additional EH&S information on Na/S batteries is provided in the appendices.

  5. All terrain vehicle ownership, use, and self reported safety behaviours in rural children

    PubMed Central

    Warda, L.; Klassen, T.; Buchan, N.; Zierler, A.

    1998-01-01

    Objectives—To describe all terrain vehicle (ATV) ownership, access, use, and safety behaviours in rural Manitoba children. Methods—Questionnaire administered to a convenience sample of grade 6 students attending an agricultural fair. Results—162 grade 6 children participated. The mean age was 11.4 years, and 46% were male. 125 students (77%) reported having access to ATVs, including 69 four wheeled, 24 three wheeled, and four both three and four wheeled ATVs. ATV experience was reported in 95 students, significantly more often in males and among those with a family owned ATV, with no difference between children living on a farm and in a town. Use of helmets and protective clothing was inadequate (10–40%), and dangerous riding habits common, with males and children living on a farm reporting significantly fewer desirable behaviours. Conclusions—ATVs are commonly used by children in rural Manitoba, with inadequate protective gear and dangerous riding habits. Mandatory rider training, consumer and dealer education, and legislation enforcement could improve ATV safety in this population. PMID:9595331

  6. Biennial Workshop on Digital Signal Processing for In-Vehicle Systems, Sep. 29-Oct. 2, 2013, Seoul, Korea Rear-end Collision Prevention Using Mobile Devices

    E-print Network

    Busso, Carlos

    vehicle dynamics, thus making a portable device a driving safety tool. We aim to de- sign an advanced that can be used to measure useful vehicle dynamics information, thus making such portable devices

  7. Biconic cargo return vehicle with an advanced recovery system. Volume 1: Conceptual design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The conceptual design of the biconic Cargo Return Vehicle (CRV) is presented. The CRV will be able to meet all of the Space Station Freedom (SSF's) resupply needs. Worth note is the absence of a backup recovery chute in case of Advanced Recovery System (ARS) failure. The high reliability of ram-air parachutes does not warrant the penalty weight that such a system would create on successful missions. The CRV will launch vertically integrated with an Liquid Rocket Booster (LRB) vehicle and meets all NASA restrictions on fuel type for all phases of the mission. Because of the downscaled Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle (OMV) program, the CRV has been designed to be able to transfer cargo by docking directly to the Space Station Freedom as well as with OMV assistance. The CRV will cover enough crossrange to reach its primary landing site, Edwards Airforce Base, and all secondary landing sites with the exception of one orbit. Transportation back to KSC will be via the Boeing Super Guppy. Due to difficulties with man-rating the CRV, it will not be used in a CERV role. A brief summary of the CRV's specifications is given.

  8. Advanced onboard storage concepts for natural gas-fueled automotive vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Remick, R. J.; Elkins, R. H.; Camara, E. H.; Bulicz, T.

    1984-01-01

    The evaluation of several advanced concepts for storing natural gas at reduced pressure is presented. The advanced concepts include adsorption on high surface area carbon, adsorption in high porosity zeolite, storage in clathration compounds, and storage by dissolution in liquid solvents. High surface area carbons with high packing density are the best low pressure storage mediums. A simple mathematical model is used to compare adsorption storage on a state of the art carbon with compression storage. The model indicates that a vehicle using adsorption storage of natural gas at 3.6 MPa will have 36 percent of the range, on the EPA city cycle, of a vehicle operating on a compression storage system having the same physical size and a peak storage pressure of 21 MPa. Preliminary experiments and current literature suggest that the storage capacity of state of the art carbons could be improved by as much as 50 percent, and that adsorption systems having a capacity equal to compression storage at 14 MPa are possible without exceeding a maximum pressure of 3.6 MPa.

  9. A heuristic algorithm for the multi-vehicle advance request dial-a-ride problem with time windows

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jang-Jei Jaw; Amedeo R. Odoni; Harilaos N. Psaraftis; Nigel H. M. Wilson

    1986-01-01

    A heuristic algorithm is described for a time-constrained version of the advance-request, multi-vehicle, many-to-many Dial-A-Ride Problem (DARP). The time constraints consist of upper bounds on: (1) the amount of time by which the pick-up or delivery of a customer can deviate from the desired pick-up or delivery time; (2) the time that a customer can spend riding in a vehicle.

  10. Surgical technique: new advancements for expanding indications and safety

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guido Torzilli

    2010-01-01

    The technical issues discussed herein represent part of the panorama of innovative approaches proposed for the surgical treatment\\u000a of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC); in particular, the attention is focused on the recent advances in the field of planning\\u000a the surgical strategy and performing liver dissection via ultrasound guidance. It is described how recent technical \\u000a advances have allowed the range of scenarios

  11. Improving safety for slow-moving vehicles on Iowa's high speed rural roadways

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Caroline Rachel Kinzenbaw

    2008-01-01

    Slow-moving vehicles are commonly found on the rural roads of Iowa. Common slow-moving vehicles in Iowa were analyzed as a part of this thesis which includes farm, construction, maintenance, and all-terrain vehicles as well as mopeds. Though slow-moving vehicle crashes represent a very small percentage of crashes in Iowa, the high speed differential of these vehicles and other traffic can

  12. Applications of advanced intervention technologies to enhance microbial food safety

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Food safety issues may arise due to chemical and/or microbial contaminations. Foodborne pathogens typically are the major reasons in food related outbreaks that result in human sickness/death, product disposal/waste and other economic losses. The food industry is continuously seeking better interv...

  13. Current status of environmental, health, and safety issues of lithium polymer electric vehicle batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Corbus, D.; Hammel, C.J.

    1995-02-01

    Lithium solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) batteries are being investigated by researchers worldwide as a possible energy source for future electric vehicles (EVs). One of the main reasons for interest in lithium SPE battery systems is the potential safety features they offer as compared to lithium battery systems using inorganic and organic liquid electrolytes. However, the development of lithium SPE batteries is still in its infancy, and the technology is not envisioned to be ready for commercialization for several years. Because the research and development (R&D) of lithium SPE battery technology is of a highly competitive nature, with many companies both in the United States and abroad pursuing R&D efforts, much of the information concerning specific developments of lithium SPE battery technology is proprietary. This report is based on information available only through the open literature (i.e., information available through library searches). Furthermore, whereas R&D activities for lithium SPE cells have focused on a number of different chemistries, for both electrodes and electrolytes, this report examines the general environmental, health, and safety (EH&S) issues common to many lithium SPE chemistries. However, EH&S issues for specific lithium SPE cell chemistries are discussed when sufficient information exists. Although lithium batteries that do not have a SPE are also being considered for EV applications, this report focuses only on those lithium battery technologies that utilize the SPE technology. The lithium SPE battery technologies considered in this report may contain metallic lithium or nonmetallic lithium compounds (e.g., lithium intercalated carbons) in the negative electrode.

  14. Specification of advanced safety modeling requirements (Rev. 0)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. H. Fanning; T. J. Tautges

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Global Nuclear Energy Partnership has lead to renewed interest in liquid-metal-cooled fast reactors for the purpose of closing the nuclear fuel cycle and making more efficient use of future repository capacity. However, the U.S. has not designed or constructed a fast reactor in nearly 30 years. Accurate, high-fidelity, whole-plant dynamics safety simulations will play a

  15. Advancing medication infusion safety through the clinical integration of technology.

    PubMed

    Gerhart, Donald; O'Shea, Kristen; Muller, Sharon

    2013-01-01

    Adverse drug events resulting from errors in prescribing or administering medications are preventable. Within a hospital system, numerous technologies are employed to address the common sources of medication error, including the use of electronic medical records, physician order entry, smart infusion pumps, and barcode medication administration systems. Infusion safety is inherently risky because of the high-risk medications administered and the lack of integration among the stand-alone systems in most institutions. Intravenous clinical integration (IVCI) is a technology that connects electronic medical records, physician order entry, smart infusion pumps, and barcode medication administration systems. It combines the safety features of an automatically programmed infusion pump (drug, concentration, infusion rate, and patient weight, all auto-programmed into the device) with software that provides visibility to real-time clinical infusion data. Our article describes the characteristics of IVCI at WellSpan Health and its impact on patient safety. The integrated infusion system has the capability of reducing medication errors, improving patient care, reducing in-facility costs, and supporting asset management. It can enhance continuous quality improvement efforts and efficiency of clinical work flow. After implementing IVCI, the institution realized a safer patient environment and a more streamlined work flow for pharmacy and nursing. PMID:24145584

  16. Advanced technologies seal in emissions, safety and reliability

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Trytek

    1993-01-01

    Pump sealing with zero fugitive emissions and 1,000 percent greater mean time between planned maintenance (MTBPM) becomes affordable with advanced technology mechanical seals. These new seals eliminate the need to replace pumps and related components with less economical, seal-less pumps, regardless of how strict emissions regulations, enforcement practices and monitoring requirements become. More companies are benefiting from new sealing technologies

  17. Battery technology for electric and hybrid vehicles: Expert views about prospects for advancement

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, Erin D.; Chon, Haewon; Keisler, Jeffrey M.

    2010-09-01

    In this paper we present the results of an expert elicitation on the prospects for advances in battery technology for electric and hybrid vehicles. We find disagreement among the experts on a wide range of topics, including the need for government funding, the probability of getting batteries with Lithium Metal anodes to work, and the probability of building safe Lithium-ion batteries. Averaging across experts we find that U.S. government expenditures of $150 M/year lead to a 66% chance of achieving a battery that costs less than $200/kWh, and a 20% chance for a cost of $90/kWh or less. Reducing the cost of batteries from a baseline of $384 to $200 could lead to a savings in the cost of reducing greenhouse gases of about $100 billion in 2050.

  18. An assessment of the impact of transition on advanced winged entry vehicle thermal protection system mass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wurster, K. E.

    1981-01-01

    This study examines the impact of turbulent heating on thermal protection system (TPS) mass for advanced winged entry vehicles. Four basic systems are considered: insulative, metallic hot structures, metallic standoff, and hybrid systems. TPS sizings are performed using entry trajectories tailored specifically to the characteristics of each TPS concept under consideration. Comparisons are made between systems previously sized under the assumption of all laminar heating and those sized using a baseline estimate of transition and turbulent heating. The relative effect of different transition criteria on TPS mass requirements is also examined. Also investigated are entry trajectories tailored to alleviate turbulent heating. Results indicate the significant impact of turbulent heating on TPS mass and demonstrate the importance of both accurate transition criteria and entry trajectory tailoring.

  19. Advanced Transportation System Studies Technical Area 2 (TA-2) Heavy Lift Launch Vehicle Development Contract. Volume 2; Technical Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of the Advanced Transportation System Studies (ATSS) Technical Area 2 (TA-2) Heavy Lift Launch Vehicle Development contract was to provide advanced launch vehicle concept definition and analysis to assist NASA in the identification of future launch vehicle requirements. Contracted analysis activities included vehicle sizing and performance analysis, subsystem concept definition, propulsion subsystem definition (foreign and domestic), ground operations and facilities analysis, and life cycle cost estimation. This document is Volume 2 of the final report for the contract. It provides documentation of selected technical results from various TA-2 analysis activities, including a detailed narrative description of the SSTO concept assessment results, a user's guide for the associated SSTO sizing tools, an SSTO turnaround assessment report, an executive summary of the ground operations assessments performed during the first year of the contract, a configuration-independent vehicle health management system requirements report, a copy of all major TA-2 contract presentations, a copy of the FLO launch vehicle final report, and references to Pratt & Whitney's TA-2 sponsored final reports regarding the identification of Russian main propulsion technologies.

  20. 75 FR 68663 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Rear Impact Guards; Rear Impact Protection; Technical...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-08

    ...it is shown that passenger vehicle passenger compartment intrusion...fatalities when a passenger vehicle rear-ends a tractor- trailer...relative to other passenger vehicle fatalities involved in tractor-trailer...Repair Expenses for the Anti-Lock Brake System and...

  1. 76 FR 55825 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards, Child Restraint Systems

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-09

    ...child restraint systems. Section 14 of...of improving the safety of child restraints...child restraint safety, including considering...has more extensive instrumentation to measure impact...occupant protection systems.\\5\\ Some CRS...Advocates for Highway Safety...

  2. 75 FR 51521 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Air Brake Systems; Technical Report on the Effectiveness...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-20

    ...National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, Room W53-312...SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Safety Standard 121 (49 CFR 571...involvements of hitting animals, pedestrians, or bicycles and, only...National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, Room...

  3. AN ADVANCED TOOL FOR APPLIED INTEGRATED SAFETY MANAGEMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Potts, T. Todd; Hylko, James M.; Douglas, Terence A.

    2003-02-27

    WESKEM, LLC's Environmental, Safety and Health (ES&H) Department had previously assessed that a lack of consistency, poor communication and using antiquated communication tools could result in varying operating practices, as well as a failure to capture and disseminate appropriate Integrated Safety Management (ISM) information. To address these issues, the ES&H Department established an Activity Hazard Review (AHR)/Activity Hazard Analysis (AHA) process for systematically identifying, assessing, and controlling hazards associated with project work activities during work planning and execution. Depending on the scope of a project, information from field walkdowns and table-top meetings are collected on an AHR form. The AHA then documents the potential failure and consequence scenarios for a particular hazard. Also, the AHA recommends whether the type of mitigation appears appropriate or whether additional controls should be implemented. Since the application is web based, the information is captured into a single system and organized according to the >200 work activities already recorded in the database. Using the streamlined AHA method improved cycle time from over four hours to an average of one hour, allowing more time to analyze unique hazards and develop appropriate controls. Also, the enhanced configuration control created a readily available AHA library to research and utilize along with standardizing hazard analysis and control selection across four separate work sites located in Kentucky and Tennessee. The AHR/AHA system provides an applied example of how the ISM concept evolved into a standardized field-deployed tool yielding considerable efficiency gains in project planning and resource utilization. Employee safety is preserved through detailed planning that now requires only a portion of the time previously necessary. The available resources can then be applied to implementing appropriate engineering, administrative and personal protective equipment controls in the field.

  4. Recent Advances in Oncology Acupuncture and Safety Considerations in Practice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Weidong Lu; David S. Rosenthal

    2010-01-01

    Opinion statement  Oncology acupuncture is a new and emerging field of research. Recent advances from published clinical trials have added evidence\\u000a to support the use of acupuncture for symptom management in cancer patients. Recent new developments include (1) pain and\\u000a dysfunction after neck dissection; (2) radiation-induced xerostomia in head and neck cancer; (3) aromatase inhibitor-associated\\u000a arthralgia in breast cancer; (4) hot

  5. Pressure vessel safety research for advanced reactors. Semiannual progress report for December 1991March 1992: Volume 1, No. 1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Huddleston

    1992-01-01

    The NRC sponsored ``Pressure Vessel Safety Research for Advanced Reactor`` project was initiated at Oak Ridge National Laboratory in December 1992. The objective of the project is to identify and assist NRC in resolving any outstanding safety issues in the materials, fabrication, design, or environmental effects areas for the reactor pressure vessel for the advanced reactors such that these issues

  6. Advanced weigh-in-motion system for weighing vehicles at high speed

    SciTech Connect

    Beshears, D.L.; Muhs, J.D.; Scudiere, M.B. [and others

    1998-02-01

    A state-of-the-art, Advanced Weigh-In-Motion (WIM) system has been designed, installed, and tested on the west bound side of Interstate I-75/I-40 near the Knox County Weigh Station. The project is a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and International Road Dynamics, Inc. (IRD) sponsored by the Office of Uranium Programs, Facility and Technology Management Division of the Department of Energy under CRADA No. ORNL95-0364. ORNL, IRD, the Federal Highway Administration, the Tennessee Department of Safety and the Tennessee Department of Transportation have developed a National High Speed WIM Test Facility for test and evaluation of high-speed WIM systems. The WIM system under evaluation includes a Single Load Cell WIM scale system supplied and installed by IRD. ORNL developed a stand-alone, custom data acquisition system, which acquires the raw signals from IRD`s in-ground single load cell transducers. Under a separate contract with the Federal Highway Administration, ORNL designed and constructed a laboratory scale house for data collection, analysis and algorithm development. An initial advanced weight-determining algorithm has been developed. The new advanced WIM system provides improved accuracy and can reduce overall system variability by up to 30% over the existing high accuracy commercial WIM system.

  7. A SECOND LOOK AT THE SAFETY EFFECTIVENESS OF THE MYRTLE CREEK ADVANCED CURVE WARNING SYSTEM

    E-print Network

    Bertini, Robert L.

    -1- A SECOND LOOK AT THE SAFETY EFFECTIVENESS OF THE MYRTLE CREEK ADVANCED CURVE WARNING SYSTEM in both directions of Interstate 5 near Myrtle Creek, Oregon. For the evaluation, two measures) the change in the speed distribution for passenger cars and trucks. The evaluation found that the Myrtle

  8. Advanced Information Processing System (AIPS)-based fault tolerant avionics architecture for launch vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lala, Jaynarayan H.; Harper, Richard E.; Jaskowiak, Kenneth R.; Rosch, Gene; Alger, Linda S.; Schor, Andrei L.

    1990-01-01

    An avionics architecture for the advanced launch system (ALS) that uses validated hardware and software building blocks developed under the advanced information processing system program is presented. The AIPS for ALS architecture defined is preliminary, and reliability requirements can be met by the AIPS hardware and software building blocks that are built using the state-of-the-art technology available in the 1992-93 time frame. The level of detail in the architecture definition reflects the level of detail available in the ALS requirements. As the avionics requirements are refined, the architecture can also be refined and defined in greater detail with the help of analysis and simulation tools. A useful methodology is demonstrated for investigating the impact of the avionics suite to the recurring cost of the ALS. It is shown that allowing the vehicle to launch with selected detected failures can potentially reduce the recurring launch costs. A comparative analysis shows that validated fault-tolerant avionics built out of Class B parts can result in lower life-cycle-cost in comparison to simplex avionics built out of Class S parts or other redundant architectures.

  9. Advanced reactors and associated fuel cycle facilities: safety and environmental impacts.

    PubMed

    Hill, R N; Nutt, W M; Laidler, J J

    2011-01-01

    The safety and environmental impacts of new technology and fuel cycle approaches being considered in current U.S. nuclear research programs are contrasted to conventional technology options in this paper. Two advanced reactor technologies, the sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR) and the very high temperature gas-cooled reactor (VHTR), are being developed. In general, the new reactor technologies exploit inherent features for enhanced safety performance. A key distinction of advanced fuel cycles is spent fuel recycle facilities and new waste forms. In this paper, the performance of existing fuel cycle facilities and applicable regulatory limits are reviewed. Technology options to improve recycle efficiency, restrict emissions, and/or improve safety are identified. For a closed fuel cycle, potential benefits in waste management are significant, and key waste form technology alternatives are described. PMID:21399407

  10. A decentralized planner that guarantees the safety of communicating vehicles with complex dynamics that replan online

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kostas E. Bekris; Konstantinos I. Tsianos; Lydia E. Kavraki

    2007-01-01

    Abstract— This paper considers the problem of coordinating multiple vehicles with kinodynamic constraints that operate in the same partially-known environment. The vehicles are able to communicate,within limited range. Their objective is to avoid collisions between them and with the obstacles, while the vehicles move,towards their goals. An important issue of real-time planning for systems with bounded acceleration is that inevitable

  11. An advanced deterministic method for spent fuel criticality safety analysis

    SciTech Connect

    DeHart, M.D.

    1998-01-01

    Over the past two decades, criticality safety analysts have come to rely to a large extent on Monte Carlo methods for criticality calculations. Monte Carlo has become popular because of its capability to model complex, non-orthogonal configurations or fissile materials, typical of real world problems. Over the last few years, however, interest in determinist transport methods has been revived, due shortcomings in the stochastic nature of Monte Carlo approaches for certain types of analyses. Specifically, deterministic methods are superior to stochastic methods for calculations requiring accurate neutron density distributions or differential fluxes. Although Monte Carlo methods are well suited for eigenvalue calculations, they lack the localized detail necessary to assess uncertainties and sensitivities important in determining a range of applicability. Monte Carlo methods are also inefficient as a transport solution for multiple pin depletion methods. Discrete ordinates methods have long been recognized as one of the most rigorous and accurate approximations used to solve the transport equation. However, until recently, geometric constraints in finite differencing schemes have made discrete ordinates methods impractical for non-orthogonal configurations such as reactor fuel assemblies. The development of an extended step characteristic (ESC) technique removes the grid structure limitations of traditional discrete ordinates methods. The NEWT computer code, a discrete ordinates code built upon the ESC formalism, is being developed as part of the SCALE code system. This paper will demonstrate the power, versatility, and applicability of NEWT as a state-of-the-art solution for current computational needs.

  12. Assessment of safety against derailment using simulations and vehicle acceptance tests: a worldwide comparison of state-of-the-art assessment methods

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nicholas Wilson; Robert Fries; Matthew Witte; Andreas Haigermoser; Mikael Wrang; Jerry Evans; Anna Orlova

    2011-01-01

    The assessment of derailment safety of new railway vehicle designs is a fundamental concern worldwide. Although the methods used for assessment in different countries and regions vary considerably, the fundamental mechanisms being addressed are the same. This paper provides a detailed review of the current state-of-the-art methods for derailment safety assessment in several regions and countries including Europe, UK, USA,

  13. 1997 hybrid electric vehicle specifications

    SciTech Connect

    Sluder, S.; Larsen, R.; Duoba, M.

    1996-10-01

    The US DOE sponsors Advanced Vehicle Technology competitions to help educate the public and advance new vehicle technologies. For several years, DOE has provided financial and technical support for the American Tour de Sol. This event showcases electric and hybrid electric vehicles in a road rally across portions of the northeastern United States. The specifications contained in this technical memorandum apply to vehicles that will be entered in the 1997 American Tour de Sol. However, the specifications were prepared to be general enough for use by other teams and individuals interested in developing hybrid electric vehicles. The purpose of the specifications is to ensure that the vehicles developed do not present a safety hazard to the teams that build and drive them or to the judges, sponsors, or public who attend the competitions. The specifications are by no means the definitive sources of information on constructing hybrid electric vehicles - as electric and hybrid vehicles technologies advance, so will the standards and practices for their construction. In some cases, the new standards and practices will make portions of these specifications obsolete.

  14. INTELLIGENT TRANSPORT SYSTEMS AND MOTORCYCLE SAFETY

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Megan Bayly; Simon Hosking; Michael Regan

    In comparison to the widespread advancement of safety-enhancing technologies for passenger vehicles, there has been only limited development of Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS) for motorcycles. Considering the international over-representation of motorcyclists in crash statistics, in particular, the high incidence of loss of control crashes and multiple- vehicle crashes and the critical issue of motorcycle conspicuity, it would appear that the

  15. Motorcycle Safety

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Research & Activities Data & Statistics Policy Impact Distracted Driving Pedestrian Safety Get the Facts National Strategies for Advancing Child Pedestrian Safety Native American Road Safety Get the Facts Research & ...

  16. Human-System Safety Methods for Development of Advanced Air Traffic Management Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, W.R.

    1999-05-24

    The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) is supporting the National Aeronautics and Space Administration in the development of advanced air traffic management (ATM) systems as part of the Advanced Air Transportation Technologies program. As part of this program INEEL conducted a survey of human-system safety methods that have been applied to complex technical systems, to identify lessons learned from these applications and provide recommendations for the development of advanced ATM systems. The domains that were surveyed included offshore oil and gas, commercial nuclear power, commercial aviation, and military. The survey showed that widely different approaches are used in these industries, and that the methods used range from very high-level, qualitative approaches to very detailed quantitative methods such as human reliability analysis (HRA) and probabilistic safety assessment (PSA). In addition, the industries varied widely in how effectively they incorporate human-system safety assessment in the design, development, and testing of complex technical systems. In spite of the lack of uniformity in the approaches and methods used, it was found that methods are available that can be combined and adapted to support the development of advanced air traffic management systems.

  17. 40 CFR 86.1866-12 - CO2 credits for advanced technology vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1866-12 CO2...

  18. 40 CFR 86.1866-12 - CO2 credits for advanced technology vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1866-12 CO2...

  19. Thermal Management of Batteries in Advanced Vehicles Using PhaseChange Materials

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gi-Heon Kim; Jeffrey Gonder; Jason Lustbader; Ahmad Pesaran

    Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) are promising technologies to help reduce the amount of petroleum consumed for transportation. In both HEVs and PHEVs, the battery pack is a key component to enabling their fuel savings potential. The battery is also one of the most expensive components in the vehicle. One of the most significant factors

  20. Surface Mine Truck Safety Training: A VR Approach to PreOperational Vehicle Inspection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Damien Ennis; Benjamin Lucchesi; Nerissa Oberlander; Keith Wesolowski

    In the surface mining industry, the cost of workplace accidents is high. One aspect of safetytraining is the pre-operational vehicle inspection. Training operators to correctly inspectvehicles is costly and time consuming in both equipment availability and man hours. Thispaper outlines the motivation for and the development of an alternative training method, avirtual reality (VR) based Mine Vehicle Inspection Simulator (MVIS),

  1. Perceived safety and biomechanical stress to the lower limbs when stepping down from fire fighting vehicles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Denis Giguère; Denis Marchand

    2005-01-01

    Injuries related to emergency vehicles represent 19% of compensated work accidents for fire fighters, 37% of which occur while stepping down from their vehicles. This study compared the impact forces, the use of upper limbs and the perception of danger of fire fighters as they step down from five different locations on fire trucks. The results show that stepping down

  2. Benchmarking and accident characteristics of flat-fronted commercial vehicles with respect to pedestrian safety

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G K Chinnaswamy; E C Chirwa; S K Nammi; S Nowpada; T Chen; M Mao

    2007-01-01

    The information about pedestrian accidents and kinematics involving commercial vehicles is not properly understood. In general the total accident scenarios with heavy vehicles are unique in the sense that one has a very strong structure impacting a very soft pedestrian. This makes the problem complex and the solution requires the development of a new description of accident kinematics. This study

  3. Flight Safety Analysis Tool for Space Vehicle Operations in the National Airspace

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Victor H. L. Cheng; Gerald M. Diaz; Banavar Sridhar

    The military, civilian and commercial demands on space access are expected to experience a continuing increase. The many potential applications have been greeted by a plethora of new launch vehicle concepts with promises to enable more launches with reduced cost and improved reliability. The expectation that some reusable launch vehicles can operate to and from regular runways suggests the possibility

  4. Evaluation of a Pilot Program in Rural Schools to Increase Bicycle and Motor Vehicle Safety

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ginger Floerchinger-Franks; Margaret Machala; Karyn Goodale; Sharon Gerberding

    2000-01-01

    Concerned with high bicycle-and motor vehicle-related mortality rates among children, Idaho's South Central District Health Department provided a competition to increase use of 1) seat belts, 2) motor vehicle rear seating, and 3) bicycle helmets among children attending elementary schools in the eight rural counties it serves. Nine of the 44 elementary schools in the health district chose to participate

  5. Advances in coupled safety modeling using systems analysis and high-fidelity methods.

    SciTech Connect

    Fanning, T. H.; Thomas, J. W.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2010-05-31

    The potential for a sodium-cooled fast reactor to survive severe accident initiators with no damage has been demonstrated through whole-plant testing in EBR-II and FFTF. Analysis of the observed natural protective mechanisms suggests that they would be characteristic of a broad range of sodium-cooled fast reactors utilizing metal fuel. However, in order to demonstrate the degree to which new, advanced sodium-cooled fast reactor designs will possess these desired safety features, accurate, high-fidelity, whole-plant dynamics safety simulations will be required. One of the objectives of the advanced safety-modeling component of the Reactor IPSC is to develop a science-based advanced safety simulation capability by utilizing existing safety simulation tools coupled with emerging high-fidelity modeling capabilities in a multi-resolution approach. As part of this integration, an existing whole-plant systems analysis code has been coupled with a high-fidelity computational fluid dynamics code to assess the impact of high-fidelity simulations on safety-related performance. With the coupled capabilities, it is possible to identify critical safety-related phenomenon in advanced reactor designs that cannot be resolved with existing tools. In this report, the impact of coupling is demonstrated by evaluating the conditions of outlet plenum thermal stratification during a protected loss of flow transient. Outlet plenum stratification was anticipated to alter core temperatures and flows predicted during natural circulation conditions. This effect was observed during the simulations. What was not anticipated, however, is the far-reaching impact that resolving thermal stratification has on the whole plant. The high temperatures predicted at the IHX inlet due to thermal stratification in the outlet plenum forces heat into the intermediate system to the point that it eventually becomes a source of heat for the primary system. The results also suggest that flow stagnation in the intermediate system is possible, raising questions about the effectiveness of the intermediate decay heat removal systems in the design that was evaluated. Existing tools do not predict flow stagnation. This work has demonstrated that with a proper coupling approach, a high-fidelity CFD tool can be used to resolve the important flow and temperature distributions throughout a plant while still maintaining the whole-plant safety analysis capabilities of a systems analysis code.

  6. Advances in Liposuction: Five Key Principles with Emphasis on Patient Safety and Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Tabbal, Geo N.; Ahmad, Jamil; Lista, Frank

    2013-01-01

    Summary: Since Illouz’s presentation of a technique for lipoplasty at the 1982 Annual Meeting of the American Society of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgeons, liposuction has become one of the most commonly performed aesthetic surgery procedures. The evolution of liposuction has seen refinements in technique and improvement of patient safety-related standards of care. Based on long-term experience with body contouring surgery, 5 principles of advanced liposuction are presented: preoperative evaluation and planning, intraoperative monitoring—safety measures, the role of wetting solutions and fluid resuscitation, circumferential contouring and complication prevention, and outcomes measurement. PMID:25289270

  7. Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project Safety Advancement Field Effort (SAFE) Program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    In 1992, the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project experienced several health and safety related incidents at active remediation project sites. As a result, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) directed the Technical Assistance Contractor (TAC) to establish a program increasing the DOE`s overall presence at operational remediation sites to identify and minimize risks in operations to the fullest extent possible (Attachments A and B). In response, the TAC, in cooperation with the DOE and the Remedial Action Contractor (RAC), developed the Safety Advancement Field Effort (SAFE) Program.

  8. Next Generation Safety Performance Monitoring at Signalized Intersections Using Connected Vehicle Technology 

    E-print Network

    Zha, Liteng

    2014-04-28

    Crash-based safety evaluation is often hampered by randomness, lack of timeliness, and rarity of crash occurrences. Surrogate safety data are commonly used as an alternative to crash data; however, its current practice is still resource intensive...

  9. Sipping fuel and saving lives: increasing fuel economy withoutsacrificing safety

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon, Deborah; Greene, David L.; Ross, Marc H.; Wenzel, Tom P.

    2007-06-11

    The public, automakers, and policymakers have long worried about trade-offs between increased fuel economy in motor vehicles and reduced safety. The conclusion of a broad group of experts on safety and fuel economy in the auto sector is that no trade-off is required. There are a wide variety of technologies and approaches available to advance vehicle fuel economy that have no effect on vehicle safety. Conversely, there are many technologies and approaches available to advance vehicle safety that are not detrimental to vehicle fuel economy. Congress is considering new policies to increase the fuel economy of new automobiles in order to reduce oil dependence and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The findings reported here offer reassurance on an important dimension of that work: It is possible to significantly increase the fuel economy of motor vehicles without compromising their safety. Automobiles on the road today demonstrate that higher fuel economy and greater safety can co-exist. Some of the safest vehicles have higher fuel economy, while some of the least safe vehicles driven today--heavy, large trucks and SUVs--have the lowest fuel economy. At an October 3, 2006 workshop, leading researchers from national laboratories, academia, auto manufacturers, insurance research industry, consumer and environmental groups, material supply industries, and the federal government agreed that vehicles could be designed to simultaneously improve safety and fuel economy. The real question is not whether we can realize this goal, but the best path to get there. The experts' studies reveal important new conclusions about fuel economy and safety, including: (1) Vehicle fuel economy can be increased without affecting safety, and vice versa; (2) Reducing the weight and height of the heaviest SUVs and pickup trucks will simultaneously increase both their fuel economy and overall safety; and (3) Advanced materials can decouple size from mass, creating important new possibilities for increasing both fuel economy and safety without compromising functionality.

  10. Developing a Comprehensive Software Suite for Advanced Reactor Performance and Safety Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Pointer, William David [ORNL] [ORNL; Bradley, Keith S [ORNL] [ORNL; Fischer, Paul F [ORNL] [ORNL; Smith, Micheal A [ORNL] [ORNL; Tautges, Timothy J [ORNL] [ORNL; Ferencz, Robert M [ORNL] [ORNL; Martineau, Richard C [ORNL] [ORNL; Jain, Rajeev [ORNL] [ORNL; Obabko, Aleksandr [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL)] [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Billings, Jay Jay [ORNL] [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    This paper provides an introduction to the reactor analysis capabilities of the nuclear power reactor simulation tools that are being developed as part of the U.S. Department of Energy s Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation (NEAMS) Toolkit. The NEAMS Toolkit is an integrated suite of multi-physics simulation tools that leverage high-performance computing to reduce uncertainty in the prediction of performance and safety of advanced reactor and fuel designs. The Toolkit effort is comprised of two major components, the Fuels Product Line (FPL), which provides tools for fuel performance analysis, and the Reactor Product Line (RPL), which provides tools for reactor performance and safety analysis. This paper provides an overview of the NEAMS RPL development effort.

  11. Metals emitted from heavy-duty diesel vehicles equipped with advanced PM and NO X emission controls

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shaohua Hu; Jorn D. Herner; Martin Shafer; William Robertson; James J. Schauer; Harry Dwyer; John Collins; Tao Huai; Alberto Ayala

    2009-01-01

    Emission factors for elemental metals were determined from several heavy-duty diesel vehicles (HDDV) of 1998–2007 vintage, operating with advanced PM and\\/or NOX emissions control retrofits on a heavy-duty chassis dynamometer, under steady state cruise, transient, and idle conditions. The emission control retrofits included diesel particulate filters (DPF): catalyzed and uncatalyzed, passive and active prototype vanadium- or zeolite-based selective catalytic reduction

  12. Advanced Turbine Technology Applications Project (ATTAP) and Hybrid Vehicle Turbine Engine Technology Support project (HVTE-TS): Final summary report

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    This final technical report was prepared by Rolls-Royce Allison summarizing the multiyear activities of the Advanced Turbine Technology Applications Project (ATTAP) and the Hybrid Vehicle Turbine Engine Technology Support (HVTE-TS) project. The ATTAP program was initiated in October 1987 and continued through 1993 under sponsorship of the US Department of Energy (DOE), Energy Conservation and Renewable Energy, Office of Transportation Technologies, Propulsion Systems, Advanced Propulsion Division. ATTAP was intended to advance the technological readiness of the automotive ceramic gas turbine engine. The target application was the prime power unit coupled to conventional transmissions and powertrains. During the early 1990s, hybrid electric powered automotive propulsion systems became the focus of development and demonstration efforts by the US auto industry and the Department of energy. Thus in 1994, the original ATTAP technology focus was redirected to meet the needs of advanced gas turbine electric generator sets. As a result, the program was restructured to provide the required hybrid vehicle turbine engine technology support and the project renamed HVTE-TS. The overall objective of the combined ATTAP and HVTE-TS projects was to develop and demonstrate structural ceramic components that have the potential for competitive automotive engine life cycle cost and for operating 3,500 hr in an advanced high temperature turbine engine environment. This report describes materials characterization and ceramic component development, ceramic components, hot gasifier rig testing, test-bed engine testing, combustion development, insulation development, and regenerator system development. 130 figs., 12 tabs.

  13. Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation Waste Integrated Performance and Safety Codes (NEAMS Waste IPSC)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Schultz; Peter Andrew

    2011-01-01

    The objective of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation Waste Integrated Performance and Safety Codes (NEAMS Waste IPSC) is to provide an integrated suite of computational modeling and simulation (M&S) capabilities to quantitatively assess the long-term performance of waste forms in the engineered and geologic environments of a radioactive-waste storage facility or disposal

  14. Potential for Electrified Vehicles to Contribute to U.S. Petroleum and Climate Goals and Implications for Advanced Biofuels.

    PubMed

    Meier, Paul J; Cronin, Keith R; Frost, Ethan A; Runge, Troy M; Dale, Bruce E; Reinemann, Douglas J; Detlor, Jennifer

    2015-07-21

    To examine the national fuel and emissions impacts from increasingly electrified light-duty transportation, we reconstructed the vehicle technology portfolios from two national vehicle studies. Using these vehicle portfolios, we normalized assumptions and examined sensitivity around the rates of electrified vehicle penetration, travel demand growth, and electricity decarbonization. We further examined the impact of substituting low-carbon advanced cellulosic biofuels in place of petroleum. Twenty-seven scenarios were benchmarked against a 50% petroleum-reduction target and an 80% GHG-reduction target. We found that with high rates of electrification (40% of miles traveled) the petroleum-reduction benchmark could be satisfied, even with high travel demand growth. The same highly electrified scenarios, however, could not satisfy 80% GHG-reduction targets, even assuming 80% decarbonized electricity and no growth in travel demand. Regardless of precise consumer vehicle preferences, emissions are a function of the total reliance on electricity versus liquid fuels and the corresponding greenhouse gas intensities of both. We found that at a relatively high rate of electrification (40% of miles and 26% by fuel), an 80% GHG reduction could only be achieved with significant quantities of low-carbon liquid fuel in cases with low or moderate travel demand growth. PMID:26086692

  15. Analytical studies of top-up safety at the Advanced Photon Source.

    SciTech Connect

    Emery, L.

    1999-03-31

    The Advanced Photon source (APS) is a 7 GeV, third-generation synchrotron radiation source. To provide more stable beam for users, they are pursuing a new operating mode called top-up. In this mode, the beam current is not allowed to decay as it normally would, but instead is maintained at a high level through frequent injection. A safety question with top-up mode is, during injection with photon shutters open, can injected beam ever exit a photon beamline? This might happen, for example, due to a full or partial short of a dipole coil. The authors discuss a number of analytical calculations that can be used to quickly assess top-up safety for a general ring. They also apply these results to the specific case of the APS. A companion paper in this conference discusses detailed tracking procedures for assessing safety.

  16. The evolving role of health educators in advancing patient safety: forging partnerships and leading change.

    PubMed

    Mercurio, Annette

    2007-04-01

    At least 1.5 million preventable injuries because of adverse drug events occur in the United States each year, according to an Institute of Medicine report. IOM and other organizations at the forefront of health care improvement emphasize that stronger partnerships between patients, their families, and health care providers are necessary to make health care safer. Health educators possess a skill set and an ethical framework that effectively equip them to advance patient and family-centered care and contribute in other significant ways to a safer health care system. Health educators in clinical settings are playing varied and significant roles in advancing patient safety. They are removing barriers to clear communication and forging partnerships between patients, their families, and staff. Health educators are leading patient safety culture change within their institutions and contributing to the shift from provider-centric to patient-centric systems. To expand their impact in improving patient safety, health educators in clinical settings are participating in public awareness campaigns. In seeking to enhance patient safety, health educators face a number of challenges. To successfully manage those, health educators must expand their knowledge, broaden connections, and engage patients and families in meaningful ways. PMID:17384402

  17. 68 FR 62417 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Hydraulic and Electric Brake Systems

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2003-11-04

    ...105, Hydraulic and electric brake systems, applies...Vehicles and Passenger Car Bodies, prescribes a...process of converting an image of text, such as a scanned...105; Hydraulic and electric braking systems...seat area in passenger cars, multipurpose...

  18. 76 FR 43825 - Launch Safety: Lightning Criteria for Expendable Launch Vehicles

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-22

    ...and lightning triggered by the flight of an expendable launch vehicle through or near an electrified environment in or near a cloud. These changes also increase launch availability and implement changes already adopted by the United States Air Force....

  19. Worldwide advanced nuclear power reactors with passive and inherent safety: What, why, how, and who

    SciTech Connect

    Forsberg, C.W.; Reich, W.J.

    1991-09-01

    The political controversy over nuclear power, the accidents at Three Mile Island (TMI) and Chernobyl, international competition, concerns about the carbon dioxide greenhouse effect and technical breakthroughs have resulted in a segment of the nuclear industry examining power reactor concepts with PRIME safety characteristics. PRIME is an acronym for Passive safety, Resilience, Inherent safety, Malevolence resistance, and Extended time after initiation of an accident for external help. The basic ideal of PRIME is to develop power reactors in which operator error, internal sabotage, or external assault do not cause a significant release of radioactivity to the environment. Several PRIME reactor concepts are being considered. In each case, an existing, proven power reactor technology is combined with radical innovations in selected plant components and in the safety philosophy. The Process Inherent Ultimate Safety (PIUS) reactor is a modified pressurized-water reactor, the Modular High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (MHTGR) is a modified gas-cooled reactor, and the Advanced CANDU Project is a modified heavy-water reactor. In addition to the reactor concepts, there is parallel work on super containments. The objective is the development of a passive box'' that can contain radioactivity in the event of any type of accident. This report briefly examines: why a segment of the nuclear power community is taking this new direction, how it differs from earlier directions, and what technical options are being considered. A more detailed description of which countries and reactor vendors have undertaken activities follows. 41 refs.

  20. Major Safety Aspects of Advanced Candu Reactor and Associated Research and Development

    SciTech Connect

    Bonechi, M.; Wren, D.J.; Hopwood, J.M. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, 2251 Speakman Drive, Mississauga, Ontario, L5K 1B2 (Canada)

    2002-07-01

    The Advanced Candu{sup R} Reactor design is built on the proven technology of existing Candu plants and on AECL's knowledge base acquired over decades of nuclear power plant design, engineering, construction and research. Two prime objectives of ACR-700TM1 are cost reduction and enhanced safety. To achieve them some new features were introduced and others were improved from the previous Candu 6 and Candu 9 designs. The ACR-700 reactor design is based on the modular concept of horizontal fuel channels surrounded by a heavy water moderator, the same as with all Candu reactors. The major novelty in the ACR-700 is the use of slightly enriched fuel and light water as coolant circulating in the fuel channels. This results in a more compact reactor design and a reduction of heavy water inventory, both contributing to a significant decrease in cost compared to Candu reactors, which employ natural uranium as fuel and heavy water as coolant. The reactor core design adopted for ACR-700 also has some features that have a bearing on inherent safety, such as negative power and coolant void reactivity coefficient. Several improvements in engineered safety have been made as well, such as enhanced separation of the safety support systems. Since the ACR-700 design is an evolutionary development of the currently operating Candu plants, limited research is required to extend the validation database for the design and the supporting safety analysis. A program of safety related research and development has been initiated to address the areas where the ACR-700 design is significantly different from the Candu designs. This paper describes the major safety aspects of the ACR-700 with a particular focus on novel features and improvements over the existing Candu reactors. It also outlines the key areas where research and development efforts are undertaken to demonstrate the effectiveness and robustness of the design. (authors)

  1. Overview of the Safety Issues Associated with the Compressed Natural Gas Fuel System and Electric Drive System in a Heavy Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Samuel C. Nelson

    2002-01-01

    This report evaluates the hazards that are unique to a compressed-natural-gas (CNG)-fueled heavy hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) design compared with a conventional heavy vehicle. The unique design features of the heavy HEV are the CNG fuel system for the internal-combustion engine (ICE) and the electric drive system. This report addresses safety issues with the CNG fuel system and the electric

  2. An Integrated Network of Roadside Sensors and Vehicles for Driving Safety: Concept, Design and Experiments

    E-print Network

    Wang, Guiling

    --One major goal of the vehicular ad hoc net- work (VANET) is to improve driving safety. However, the VANET safety. Towards addressing the problem, we propose to integrate the VANET with the inexpensive wireless or connectivity of the VANET. Along with the concept of VANET-WSN integration, new challenges arise and should

  3. Collision safety of a hard-shell low-mass vehicle

    SciTech Connect

    Kaeser, R.; Walz, F.H.; Brunner, A.

    1994-06-01

    Low-mass vehicles and in particular low-mass electric vehicles as produced today in very small quantities are in general not designed for crashworthiness in collisions. Particular problems of compact low-mass cars are: reduced length of the car front, low mass compared to other vehicles, and heavy batteries in the case of an electric car. With the intention of studying design improvements, three frontal crash tests were run last year: the first one with a commercial, lightweight electric car; the second with a reinforced version of the same car; and the last one with a car based on a different structural design with a `hard-shell` car body. Crash tests showed that the latter solution made better use of the small zone available for continuous energy absorption. The paper discusses further the problem of frontal collisions between vehicles of different weight and, in particular, the side collision. A side-collision test was run with the hard-shell vehicle following the ECE lateral-impact test procedure at 50 km/h and led to results for the EuroSIDI-dummy well below current injury tolerance criteria.

  4. The Institute for Advanced Vehicle Systems (IAVS), part of the College of Engineering and Computer

    E-print Network

    Lu, Yi

    with vehicles such as the Toyota Echo and the Ford Focus but with 30% less mass. In addition, the LMV will match-mass vehicle is approxi- mately 10 inches longer than the Toyota to maxi- mize the occupant space is comparable to the Toyota Yaris hatch- back. Luggage space would be equivalent to the Toyota Echo through

  5. Teaching Advanced Vehicle Dynamics Using a Project Based Learning (PBL) Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redkar, Sangram

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an interesting teaching experiment carried out at XXX University. The author offered a new course in computational/analytical vehicle dynamics to senior undergraduate students, graduate students and practicing engineers. The objective of the course was to present vehicle dynamics theory with practical applications using…

  6. Advanced Intelligent Trajectory Tracking Design for Vehicle Systems under the Effects of Uncertain Disturbances

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nai Ren Guo; Yung-Yue Chen; Tzong Jiy Tsai

    2011-01-01

    An intelligent control of the automated highway system for the guidance of four wheeled vehicles is proposed. The control objective is to find one control law that can automatically guide the new-generation smart vehicles when driving in the highway under the effects of uncertain disturbance as wind gust, etc. We successfully propose one control law for designing the intelligent control

  7. All-Terrain Vehicle Safety. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Commerce, Consumer Protection, and Competitiveness of the Committee on Energy and Commerce. House of Representatives, One Hundredth Congress. Second Session on H.R. 3991.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Energy and Commerce.

    Witnesses testified on the merits of the All Terrain Vehicle (ATV) User Safety and Equity Act, a bill that would declare three-wheel ATVs to be banned as hazardous products under the Consumer Product Safety Act, and would direct the Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) to promulgate consumer product safety rules for ATVs. This act prohibits…

  8. Advanced transportation system studies technical area 2 (TA-2): Heavy lift launch vehicle development. volume 3; Program Cost estimates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCurry, J. B.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of the TA-2 contract was to provide advanced launch vehicle concept definition and analysis to assist NASA in the identification of future launch vehicle requirements. Contracted analysis activities included vehicle sizing and performance analysis, subsystem concept definition, propulsion subsystem definition (foreign and domestic), ground operations and facilities analysis, and life cycle cost estimation. The basic period of performance of the TA-2 contract was from May 1992 through May 1993. No-cost extensions were exercised on the contract from June 1993 through July 1995. This document is part of the final report for the TA-2 contract. The final report consists of three volumes: Volume 1 is the Executive Summary, Volume 2 is Technical Results, and Volume 3 is Program Cost Estimates. The document-at-hand, Volume 3, provides a work breakdown structure dictionary, user's guide for the parametric life cycle cost estimation tool, and final report developed by ECON, Inc., under subcontract to Lockheed Martin on TA-2 for the analysis of heavy lift launch vehicle concepts.

  9. Safety of passing longer combination vehicles on two-lane highways

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul F. Hanley; David J. Forkenbrock

    2005-01-01

    Whether to allow wider use of longer combination vehicles (LCVs) is the topic of a policy debate in the United States. If allowed to operate in a greater number of states, LCVs would largely be confined to interstate highways and other major facilities. Yet, it often may be necessary for them to travel on two-lane highways en route to shipping

  10. 70 FR 49223 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Roof Crush Resistance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2005-08-23

    ...limit on the force applied to passenger cars. Third, we are proposing to replace the...crashes, currently applies to passenger cars, and to multipurpose passenger vehicles...Newtons (5,000 pounds) for passenger cars. Recent agency data show that...

  11. The Effectiveness of Vehicle Safety Inspections: An Analysis Using Panel Data

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Merrell; Marc Poitras; Daniel Sutter

    1999-01-01

    We examined the effectiveness of state automobile safety inspections and present new evidence from a panel of the 50 states for the years 1981–1993. Our approach incorporated several innovations over previous studies of safety inspections; most significantly, we estimated a fixed-effects model that incorporated state-specific shifts in casualty rates. We found no evidence that inspections significantly reduce fatality or injury

  12. Vehicle System Dynamics Vol. 46, Supplement, 2008, 315

    E-print Network

    Peng, Huei

    -impact vehicle dynamics and the development of enhanced vehicle safety systems. Keywords: vehicle collision model; 4-DOF vehicle dynamics model; post-impact vehicle states 1. Introduction Vehicle collision mechanics

  13. Effect of increase in weight and stiffness of vehicles on the safety of rear seat occupants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elham Sahraei Esfahani; Dhafer Marzougui; Kennerly Digges; C. D. Kan

    2011-01-01

    In this study, full-scale finite element (FE) simulations have been performed to identify factors affecting the protection of rear seat occupants. An FE model based on the 2001 Ford Taurus was used and coupled with a Hybrid III 5th percentile female dummy model in the rear seat of the vehicle. The dummy model was restrained using a three-point belt system.

  14. Safety in numbers: target prevalence affects the detection of vehicles during simulated driving.

    PubMed

    Beanland, Vanessa; Lenné, Michael G; Underwood, Geoffrey

    2014-04-01

    The "low-prevalence effect" refers to the fact that observers often fail to detect rare targets (<5 % prevalence) during visual search tasks. Previous research has demonstrated robust prevalence effects in real-world tasks that employ static images, such as airport luggage screening. No published research has examined prevalence effects in dynamic tasks, such as driving. We conducted a driving simulator experiment to investigate whether target prevalence effects influence the detection of other vehicles while driving. The target vehicles were motorcycles and buses, with prevalence being manipulated both within and between subjects: Half of the subjects experienced a high prevalence of motorcycles with a low prevalence of buses, and half experienced a high prevalence of buses with a low prevalence of motorcycles. Consistent with our hypotheses, drivers detected high-prevalence targets faster than low-prevalence targets for both vehicle types. Overall, our results support the notion that increasing the prevalence of visual search targets makes them more salient, and consequently easier to detect. PMID:24464593

  15. 49 CFR 1.95 - Delegations to the National Highway Traffic Safety Administrator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...dispenser requirements; and (10) Section 248(a) [42 U.S.C. 17054(a)], relating to biofuels distribution and advanced biofuels infrastructure. (k) Carry out the functions and exercise the motor vehicle safety authority...

  16. Accounting for the Variation of Driver Aggression in the Simulation of Conventional and Advanced Vehicles (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Neubauer, J.; Wood, E.

    2013-05-01

    This presentation discusses a method of accounting for realistic levels of driver aggression to higher-level vehicle studies, including the impact of variation in real-world driving characteristics (acceleration and speed) on vehicle energy consumption and different powertrains (e.g., conventionally powered vehicles versus electrified drive vehicles [xEVs]). Aggression variation between drivers can increase fuel consumption by more than 50% or decrease it by more than 20% from average. The normalized fuel consumption deviation from average as a function of population percentile was found to be largely insensitive to powertrain. However, the traits of ideal driving behavior are a function of powertrain. In conventional vehicles, kinetic losses dominate rolling resistance and aerodynamic losses. In xEVs with regenerative braking, rolling resistance and aerodynamic losses dominate. The relation of fuel consumption predicted from real-world drive data to that predicted by the industry-standard HWFET, UDDS, LA92, and US06 drive cycles was not consistent across powertrains, and varied broadly from the mean, median, and mode of real-world driving. A drive cycle synthesized by NREL's DRIVE tool accurately and consistently reproduces average real-world for multiple powertrains within 1%, and can be used to calculate the fuel consumption effects of varying levels of driver aggression.

  17. 76 FR 49532 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Electronic Stability Control; Technical Report on the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-10

    ...Electronic Stability Control Systems for Cars and LTVs AGENCY: National Highway Traffic...stability control (ESC) for passenger cars and LTVs (light trucks and vans). Safety...involved in a fatal crash. For passenger cars, the reductions are 5 percent and 23...

  18. 75 FR 17604 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Roof Crush Resistance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-07

    ...procedure for the 50th percentile male ES-2re dummy in S8.3.1 of FMVSS No. 214. Errors in Preamble Safety Analysis & Forensic Engineering, LLC (SAFE) brought to our attention errors in the preamble that incorrectly attributed to it the comments...

  19. Food Animal Health and Food Safety The School of Veterinary Medicine has advanced food animal health and food safety since initiating the first

    E-print Network

    Schladow, S. Geoffrey

    each year while reducing mastitis outbreaks in dairy cows. National recognition­Foodborne illnesses, producers, university researchers and others to prevent food-borne illnesses at all points in the foodFood Animal Health and Food Safety The School of Veterinary Medicine has advanced food animal

  20. Technology assessments of advanced energy storage systems for electric and hybrid vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-04-30

    Flywheels, hydropneumatic accumulators (in vehicles with a hydrostatic powertrain), and superconducting magnets were assessed as candidate technologies for recovering braking energy and averaging power demands in electric and hybrid vehicles. The technologies were also assessed for their suitability for fulfilling the entire energy storage requirement in vehicles. The scope of the technology assessments included the current state-of-the-art and developments anticipated within the next few years in the US and abroad. Key individuals and companies currently working on each technology contributed technical information to the study. Some of these individuals and companies are nearing the pre-production prototype stage with systems suitable for automobiles. Several have constructed systems using similar technology for other applications, including satellites and industrial equipment.

  1. Technology assessments of advanced energy storage systems for electric and hybrid vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1993-04-01

    Flywheels, hydropneumatic accumulators (in vehicles with a hydrostatic powertrain), and superconducting magnets were assessed as candidate technologies for recovering braking energy and averaging power demands in electric and hybrid vehicles. The technologies were also assessed for their suitability for fulfilling the entire energy storage requirement in vehicles. The scope of the technology assessments included the current state-of-the-art and developments anticipated within the next few years in the US and abroad. Key individuals and companies currently working on each technology contributed technical information to the study. Some of these individuals and companies are nearing the pre-production prototype stage with systems suitable for automobiles. Several have constructed systems using similar technology for other applications, including satellites and industrial equipment.

  2. Efficacy and safety of endobronchial valves for advanced emphysema: a meta analysis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hua; Xu, Meng; Xie, Yiqun; Gao, Jie

    2015-01-01

    Objective A meta-analysis was undertaken to evaluate the efficacy and safety of bronchoscopic lung volume reduction with endobronchial valves (EBV) for advanced emphysema. Methods A systematic search was performed from PubMed, EMBASE, CNKI, Cochrane Library database. Randomized control clinical trials on treatment of emphysema for 3-12 months with the EBV compared with standard medications and sham EBV were reviewed. Inclusion criteria were applied to select patients with advanced emphysema treated with EBV. The primary outcome was the percentage of the forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV1%). Secondary outcomes included St George’s Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) score, the distance of the 6-minute walk (6MWD) test, the Modified Medical Research Council (MMRC) dyspnoea score, cycle ergometry workload, and the rate of the six major complications at 3 or 12 months. Fixed- or random-effects models were used and weighted mean differences (WMD), relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated. Results Three trials (565 patients) were considered in the meta-analysis. EBV patients yielded greater increases in FEV1% than standard medications (WMD =6.71; 95% CI, 3.31 to 10.10; P=0.0001), EBV patients also demonstrated a significant change for SGRQ score (WMD =?3.64; 95% CI, ?5.93 to ?1.34; P=0.002), MMRC dyspnoea score (WMD =?0.26; 95% CI, ?0.44 to -0.08; P=0.004), and cycle ergometry workload (WMD =4.18; 95% CI, 2.14 to 6.22; P<0.0001). A similar level was evident for 6MWD (WMD =11.66; 95% CI, ?3.31 to 26.64; P=0.13). EBV may increase the rate of hemoptysis (RR =5.15; 95% CI, 1.16 to 22.86; P=0.03), but didn’t increase the adverse events including mortality, respiratory failure, empyema, pneumonia, pneumothrax. The overall rates for complications compared EBV with standard medications and sham EBV was not significant (RR =2.03; 95% CI, 0.98 to 4.21; P=0.06). Conclusions EBV lung volume reduction for advanced emphysema showed superior efficacy and a good safety and tolerability compared with standard medications and sham EBV, further more randomized controlled trial (RCT) studies are needed to pay more attention to the long-term efficacy and safety of bronchoscopic lung volume reduction with EBV in advanced emphysema. PMID:25922709

  3. Overview of the Safety Issues Associated with the Compressed Natural Gas Fuel System and Electric Drive System in a Heavy Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, S.C.

    2002-11-14

    This report evaluates the hazards that are unique to a compressed-natural-gas (CNG)-fueled heavy hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) design compared with a conventional heavy vehicle. The unique design features of the heavy HEV are the CNG fuel system for the internal-combustion engine (ICE) and the electric drive system. This report addresses safety issues with the CNG fuel system and the electric drive system. Vehicles on U. S. highways have been propelled by ICEs for several decades. Heavy-duty vehicles have typically been fueled by diesel fuel, and light-duty vehicles have been fueled by gasoline. The hazards and risks posed by ICE vehicles are well understood and have been generally accepted by the public. The economy, durability, and safety of ICE vehicles have established a standard for other types of vehicles. Heavy-duty (i.e., heavy) HEVs have recently been introduced to U. S. roadways, and the hazards posed by these heavy HEVs can be compared with the hazards posed by ICE vehicles. The benefits of heavy HEV technology are based on their potential for reduced fuel consumption and lower exhaust emissions, while the disadvantages are the higher acquisition cost and the expected higher maintenance costs (i.e., battery packs). The heavy HEV is more suited for an urban drive cycle with stop-and-go driving conditions than for steady expressway speeds. With increasing highway congestion and the resulting increased idle time, the fuel consumption advantage for heavy HEVs (compared with conventional heavy vehicles) is enhanced by the HEVs' ability to shut down. Any increase in fuel cost obviously improves the economics of a heavy HEV. The propulsion system for a heavy HEV is more complex than the propulsion system for a conventional heavy vehicle. The heavy HEV evaluated in this study has in effect two propulsion systems: an ICE fueled by CNG and an electric drive system with additional complexity and failure modes. This additional equipment will result in a less reliable vehicle with a lower availability than a conventional heavy vehicle. Experience with heavy HEVs to date supports this observation. The key safety concern for the electric drive system is the higher voltages and currents that are required in the electric drive system. Faults that could expose personnel to these electric hazards must be considered, addressed, and minimized. The key issue for the CNG-fueled ICE is containment of the high-pressure natural gas. Events that can result in a release of natural gas with the possibility of subsequent ignition are of concern. These safety issues are discussed. The heavy HEV has the potential to have a safety record that is comparable to that of the conventional vehicle, but adequate attention to detail will be required.

  4. Smart Cruise Control: An ITS Application for Improved Fuel Economy, Safety, and Traffic Congestion

    E-print Network

    Smart Cruise Control: An ITS Application for Improved Fuel Economy, Safety, and Traffic Congestion Transportation: Energy Environment Safety Security Vehicle Technologies Research Brief T he U.S. Department of Transportation's (DOT's) IntelliDrive Program promises significant advances in safety, mobility

  5. Safety, usability, and independence for wheelchair-seated drivers and front-row passengers of private vehicles: a qualitative research study.

    PubMed

    van Roosmalen, Linda; Ritchie Orton, Nichole; Schneider, Lawrence

    2013-01-01

    A survey and observational study was conducted with 29 people who remain seated in their wheelchair when driving (21) or riding as a front-row passenger (8) in their personal vehicle. Each subject was observed and surveyed in their own personal vehicle that has been modified for use by occupants seated in wheelchairs. Our survey obtained responses on issues related to occupant restraint (seat belt) system usage, wheelchair securement device usage, and perception of personal safety while riding in a vehicle. Usability and accessibility issues related to seat belt and automated (docking) wheelchair securement technology were revealed, suggesting that wheelchair-seated occupants travel with a higher risk of serious injury in vehicle crashes than front-row occupants seated in original equipment manufacturer (OEM) vehicle seats and using OEM seat belts. Study results also indicate the need for improved torso support for many wheelchair-seated drivers to maintain a posture that allows for effective vehicle control. Study results demonstrate the need for innovative passive restraint technologies that provide postural support during normal vehicle operation and improved occupant restraint during crash conditions for people who drive while seated in their wheelchairs. PMID:23761005

  6. On-road evaluation of advanced hybrid electric vehicles over a wide range of ambient temperatures.

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, R.; Duoba, M. J.; Bocci, D.; Lohse-Busch, H. (Energy Systems)

    2007-01-01

    In recent years, Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEV's) have become a production viable and effective mode of efficient transportation. HEV's can provide increased fuel economy over convention technology vehicle, but these advantages can be affected dramatically by wide variations in operating temperatures. The majority of data measured for benchmarking HEV technologies is generated from ambient test cell temperatures at 22 C. To investigate cold and hot temperature affects on HEV operation and efficiency, an on-road evaluation protocol is defined and conducted over a six month study at widely varying temperatures. Two test vehicles, the 2007 Toyota Camry HEV and 2005 Ford Escape HEV, were driven on a pre-defined urban driving route in ambient temperatures ranging from -14 C to 31 C. Results from the on-road evaluation were also compared and correlated to dynamometer testing of the same drive cycle. Results from this on-road evaluation show the battery power control limits and engine operation dramatically change with temperature. These changes decrease fuel economy by more than two times at -14 C as compared to 25 C. The two vehicles control battery temperature in different manners. The Escape HEV uses the air conditioning system to provide cool air to the batteries at high temperatures and is therefore able to maintain battery temperature to less than 33 C. The Camry HEV uses cabin air to cool the batteries. The observed maximum battery temperature was 44 C.

  7. The Fleet DNA Project aims to accelerate the evolution of advanced vehicle development and

    E-print Network

    and research projects, particularly those that focus on the vocations and vehicles that consume the most fuel at least 50% wastepaper, including 10% post consumer waste. 0.00% 20.00% 40.00% 60.00% 80.00% 100.00% 120 Center, the Fleet DNA Project will feature similar safeguards to protect proprietary data while providing

  8. Advanced Technologies for Light-Duty Vehicles (released in AEO2006)

    EIA Publications

    2006-01-01

    A fundamental concern in projecting the future attributes of light-duty vehicles-passenger cars, sport utility vehicles, pickup trucks, and minivans-is how to represent technological change and the market forces that drive it. There is always considerable uncertainty about the evolution of existing technologies, what new technologies might emerge, and how consumer preferences might influence the direction of change. Most of the new and emerging technologies expected to affect the performance and fuel use of light-duty vehicles over the next 25 years are represented in the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS); however, the potential emergence of new, unforeseen technologies makes it impossible to address all the technology options that could come into play. The previous section of Issues in Focus discussed several potential technologies that currently are not represented in NEMS. This section discusses some of the key technologies represented in NEMS that are expected to be implemented in light-duty vehicles over the next 25 years.

  9. Motor vehicle

    SciTech Connect

    Furukawa, Y.; Sano, S.

    1986-04-15

    An improvement in a motor vehicle is described including: a vehicle body; a front road wheel disposed in the front part of the vehicle body; a rear road wheel disposed in the rear part of the vehicle body; an engine for driving at least either of the front and rear road wheels; and a steering wheel for steering at least either of the front and rear road wheels; comprising: detection means connected to the vehicle for detecting the transverse sliding angle of the vehicle body; and display means connected to the detection means for visually displaying the moving direction of the vehicle body on the basis of an output of the detection means; and the detection means comprises a first sensor for detecting the advancing speed of the vehicle, a second sensor for detecting the transverse acceleration of the vehicle, a third sensor for detecting the yawing velocity of the vehicle, and a processor for calculating the transverse sliding angle on the basis of the advancing speed, the transverse acceleration and the yawing velocity.

  10. Ground vehicle convoying

    SciTech Connect

    Gage, D.W.; Pletta, J.B.

    1987-01-01

    Initial investigations into two different approaches for applying autonomous ground vehicle technology to the ground vehicle convoying application are described. A minimal capability system that would maintain desired speed and vehicle spacing while a human driver provided steering control could improve convoy performance and provide positive control in nighttime and inclement weather, but would not reduce driver manpower requirements. Such a system could be implemented in a modular and relatively low cost manner. A more capable system would eliminate the human driver in following vehicles and reduce manpower requirements for the transportation of supplies. This technology could also be used to aid in the deployment of teleoperated vehicles in a battlefield environment. The needs, requirements, and several proposed solutions for such an Attachable Robotic Convoy Capability (ARCC) system will be discussed. Included are discussions of sensors, actuators, computers, communications, control systems and safety issues. This advanced robotic convoy system will provide a much greater capability, but will be more difficult and expensive to implement.

  11. Artist concept computer graphic of Lockheed Martin X-33 Advance Technology Demonstrator vehicle in f

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    An artist's conception of the X-33 in flight, with the aerospike engine firing. The X-33 demonstrator was designed to test a wide range of new technologies (including the aerospike engine), that would be used in a future single-stage-to-orbit reusable launch vehicle called the VentureStar. Due to technical problems with the liquid hydrogen tank, however, the X-33 program was cancelled in February 2001.

  12. Mechanical design engineering. NASA/university advanced design program: Lunar Bulk Material Transport Vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daugherty, Paul; Griner, Stewart; Hendrix, Alan; Makarov, Chris; Martiny, Stephen; Meyhoefer, Douglas Ralph; Platt, Cody Claxton; Sivak, John; Wheeler, Elizabeth Fitch

    1988-06-01

    The design of a Lunar Bulk Material Transport Vehicle (LBMTV) is discussed. Goals set in the project include a payload of 50 cubic feet of lunar soil with a lunar of approximately 800 moon-pounds, a speed of 15 mph, and the ability to handle a grade of 20 percent. Thermal control, an articulated steering mechanism, a dump mechanism, a self-righting mechanism, viable power sources, and a probable control panel are analyzed. The thermal control system involves the use of small strip heaters to heat the housing of electronic equipment in the absence of sufficient solar radiation and multi-layer insulation during periods of intense solar radiation. The entire system uses only 10 W and weighs about 60 pounds, or 10 moon-pounds. The steering mechanism is an articulated steering joint at the center of the vehicle. It utilizes two actuators and yields a turning radius of 10.3 feet. The dump mechanism rotates the bulk material container through an angle of 100 degree using one actuator. The self-righting mechanism consists of two four bar linkages, each of which is powered by the same size actuator as the other linkages. The LBMTV is powered by rechargeable batteries. A running time of at least two hours is attained under a worst case analysis. The weight of the batteries is 100 pounds. A control panel consisting of feedback and control instruments is described. The panel includes all critical information necessary to control the vehicle remotely. The LBMTV is capable of handling many types of cargo. It is able to interface with many types of removable bulk material containers. These containers are made to interface with the three-legged walker, SKITTER. The overall vehicle is about 15 feet in length and has a weight of about 1000 pounds, or 170 lunar pounds.

  13. Advanced launch vehicle upper stages using liquid propulsion and metallized propellants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palaszewski, B. A.

    1990-01-01

    Metallized propellants are liquid propellants with a metal additive suspended in a gelled fuel or oxidizer. Typically, aluminum particles are the metal additives. These propellants provide increase in the density and/or the specific impulse of the propulsion system. Using metallized propellants for volume- and mass-constrained upper stages can deliver modest increases in performance for Low Earth Orbit to Geosynchronous Earth Orbit and other Earth orbital transfer missions. Metallized propellants, however, can enable very fast planetary missions with a single-stage upper stage system. Trade studies comparing metallized propellant stage performance with non-metallized upper stages and the Inertial Upper Stage are presented. These upper stages are both one- and two-stage vehicles that provide the added energy to send payloads to altitudes and onto trajectories that are unattainable with only the launch vehicle. The stage designs are controlled by the volume and the mass constraints of the Space Transportation System and Space Transportation System-Cargo launch vehicles. The influences of the density and specific impulse increases enabled by metallized propellants are examined for a variety of different stage and propellant combinations.

  14. Advanced Launch Vehicle Upper Stages Using Liquid Propulsion and Metallized Propellants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palaszewski, Bryan A.

    1990-01-01

    Metallized propellants are liquid propellants with a metal additive suspended in a gelled fuel or oxidizer. Typically, aluminum (Al) particles are the metal additive. These propellants provide increase in the density and/or the specific impulse of the propulsion system. Using metallized propellant for volume-and mass-constrained upper stages can deliver modest increases in performance for low earth orbit to geosynchronous earth orbit (LEO-GEO) and other earth orbital transfer missions. Metallized propellants, however, can enable very fast planetary missions with a single-stage upper stage system. Trade studies comparing metallized propellant stage performance with non-metallized upper stages and the Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) are presented. These upper stages are both one- and two-stage vehicles that provide the added energy to send payloads to altitudes and onto trajectories that are unattainable with only the launch vehicle. The stage designs are controlled by the volume and the mass constraints of the Space Transportation System (STS) and Space Transportation System-Cargo (STS-C) launch vehicles. The influences of the density and specific impulse increases enabled by metallized propellants are examined for a variety of different stage and propellant combinations.

  15. Recent Advances in LOX / LH2 Propulsion System for Reusable Vehicle Testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tokudome, Shinichiro; Naruo, Yoshihiro; Yagishita, Tsuyoshi; Nonaka, Satoshi; Shida, Maki; Mori, Hatsuo; Nakamura, Takeshi

    The third-generation vehicle RVT#3 equipped with a pressure-fed engine, which had upgraded in terms of durability enhancement and a LH2 tank of composite material, successfully performed in repeated flight operation tests; and the vehicle reached its maximum flying altitude of 42m in October 2003. The next step for demonstrating entire sequence of full-scale operation is to put a turbopump-fed system into propulsion system. From a result of primary system analysis, we decided to build an expander-cycle engine by diverting a pair of turbopumps, which had built for another research program, to the present study. A combustion chamber with long cylindrical portion adapted to the engine cycle was also newly made. Two captive firing tests have been conducted with two different thrust control methods, following the component tests of combustor and turbopumps separately conducted. A considerable technical issues recognized in the tests were the robustness enhancement of shaft seal design, the adjustment of shaft stiffness, and start-up operation adapted to the specific engine system. Experimental study of GOX/GH2 RCS thrusters have also been started as a part of a conceptual study of the integration of the propulsion system associated with simplification and reliability improvement of the vehicle system.

  16. 14 CFR 139.329 - Pedestrians and ground vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...movement areas and safety areas only to those pedestrians and ground vehicles...movement areas and safety areas by pedestrians and ground vehicles...ensure that each pedestrian and ground vehicle in movement areas or safety areas is...

  17. 14 CFR 139.329 - Pedestrians and ground vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...movement areas and safety areas only to those pedestrians and ground vehicles...movement areas and safety areas by pedestrians and ground vehicles...ensure that each pedestrian and ground vehicle in movement areas or safety areas is...

  18. 14 CFR 139.329 - Pedestrians and ground vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...movement areas and safety areas only to those pedestrians and ground vehicles...movement areas and safety areas by pedestrians and ground vehicles...ensure that each pedestrian and ground vehicle in movement areas or safety areas is...

  19. 14 CFR 139.329 - Pedestrians and ground vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...movement areas and safety areas only to those pedestrians and ground vehicles...movement areas and safety areas by pedestrians and ground vehicles...ensure that each pedestrian and ground vehicle in movement areas or safety areas is...

  20. 14 CFR 139.329 - Pedestrians and ground vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...movement areas and safety areas only to those pedestrians and ground vehicles...movement areas and safety areas by pedestrians and ground vehicles...ensure that each pedestrian and ground vehicle in movement areas or safety areas is...

  1. Advanced Manufacturing at the Marshall Space Flight Center and Application to Ares I and Ares V Launch Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carruth, Ralph

    2008-01-01

    There are various aspects of advanced manufacturing technology development at the field centers of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). The Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has been given the assignment to lead the National Center for Advanced Manufacturing (NCAM) at MSFC and pursue advanced development and coordination with other federal agencies for NASA. There are significant activities at the Marshall Center as well as at the Michoud Assembly Facility (MAF) in New Orleans which we operate in conjunction with the University of New Orleans. New manufacturing processes in metals processing, component development, welding operations, composite manufacturing and thermal protection system material and process development will be utilized in the manufacturing of the United States two new launch vehicles, the Ares I and the Ares V. An overview of NCAM will be presented as well as some of the development activities and manufacturing that are ongoing in Ares Upper Stage development. Some of the tools and equipment produced by Italian owned companies and their application in this work will be mentioned.

  2. Improving Safety and Reliability of Space Auxiliary Power Units

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Viterna, Larry A.

    1998-01-01

    Auxiliary Power Units (APU's) play a critical role in space vehicles. On the space shuttle, APU's provide the hydraulic power for the aerodynamic control surfaces, rocket engine gimballing, landing gear, and brakes. Future space vehicles, such as the Reusable Launch Vehicle, will also need APU's to provide electrical power for flight control actuators and other vehicle subsystems. Vehicle designers and mission managers have identified safety, reliability, and maintenance as the primary concerns for space APU's. In 1997, the NASA Lewis Research Center initiated an advanced technology development program to address these concerns.

  3. Role of Process Control in Improving Space Vehicle Safety A Space Shuttle External Tank Example

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Safie, Fayssal M.; Nguyen, Son C.; Burleson, Keith W.

    2006-01-01

    Developing a safe and reliable space vehicle requires good design and good manufacturing, or in other words "design it right and build it right". A great design can be hard to build or manufacture mainly due to difficulties related to quality. Specifically, process control can be a challenge. As a result, the system suffers from low quality which leads to low reliability and high system risk. The Space Shuttle has experienced some of those cases, but has overcome these difficulties through extensive redesign efforts and process enhancements. One example is the design of the hot gas temperature sensor on the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME), which resulted in failure of the sensor in flight and led to a redesign of the sensor. The most recent example is the Space Shuttle External Tank (ET) Thermal Protection System (TPS) reliability issues that contributed to the Columbia accident. As a result, extensive redesign and process enhancement activities have been performed over the last two years to minimize the sensitivities and difficulties of the manual TPS application process.

  4. An analysis of driving and working hour on commercial motor vehicle driver safety using naturalistic data collection.

    PubMed

    Soccolich, Susan A; Blanco, Myra; Hanowski, Richard J; Olson, Rebecca L; Morgan, Justin F; Guo, Feng; Wu, Shih-Ching

    2013-09-01

    Current hours-of-service (HOS) regulations prescribe limits to commercial motor vehicle (CMV) drivers' operating hours. By using naturalistic-data-collection, researchers were able to assess activities performed in the 14-h workday and the relationship between safety-critical events (SCEs) and driving hours, work hours, and breaks. The data used in the analyses were collected in the Naturalistic Truck Driving Study and included 97 drivers and about 735,000 miles of continuous driving data. An assessment of the drivers' workday determined that, on average, drivers spent 66% of their shift driving, 23% in non-driving work, and 11% resting. Analyses evaluating the relationship between driving hours (i.e., driving only) and SCE risk found a time-on-task effect across hours, with no significant difference in safety outcomes between 11th driving hour and driving hours 8, 9 or 10. Analyses on work hours (i.e., driving in addition to non-driving work) found that risk of being involved in an SCE generally increased as work hours increased. This suggests that time-on-task effects may not be related to driving hours alone, but implies an interaction between driving hours and work hours: if a driver begins the day with several hours of non-driving work, followed by driving that goes deep into the 14-h workday, SCE risk was found to increase. Breaks from driving were found to be beneficial in reducing SCEs (during 1-h window after a break) and were effective in counteracting the negative effects of time-on-task. PMID:22818778

  5. Assessment of modular construction for safety-related structures at advanced nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Braverman, J.; Morante, R.; Hofmayer, C.

    1997-03-01

    Modular construction techniques have been successfully used in a number of industries, both domestically and internationally. Recently, the use of structural modules has been proposed for advanced nuclear power plants. The objective in utilizing modular construction is to reduce the construction schedule, reduce construction costs, and improve the quality of construction. This report documents the results of a program which evaluated the proposed use of modular construction for safety-related structures in advanced nuclear power plant designs. The program included review of current modular construction technology, development of licensing review criteria for modular construction, and initial validation of currently available analytical techniques applied to concrete-filled steel structural modules. The program was conducted in three phases. The objective of the first phase was to identify the technical issues and the need for further study in order to support NRC licensing review activities. The two key findings were the need for supplementary review criteria to augment the Standard Review Plan and the need for verified design/analysis methodology for unique types of modules, such as the concrete-filled steel module. In the second phase of this program, Modular Construction Review Criteria were developed to provide guidance for licensing reviews. In the third phase, an analysis effort was conducted to determine if currently available finite element analysis techniques can be used to predict the response of concrete-filled steel modules.

  6. A DOSE ESCALATION, SAFETY, AND TOLERABILITY STUDY OF MN-029 IN PATIENTS WITH ADVANCED SOLID TUMORS

    PubMed Central

    Traynor, Anne M.; Gordon, Michael S.; Alberti, Dona; Mendelson, David S.; Munsey, Mark S.; Wilding, George; Gammans, Richard E.; Read, William L.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To assess the maximum-tolerated dose (MTD), dose-limiting toxicity (DLT), safety, and tolerability of MN-209, a novel vascular disrupting agent, in patients with advanced solid tumors. Study Design MN-029 was administered weekly for 3 consecutive weeks out of 4; 2 cycles were planned. Dose escalation proceeded by 100% per toxicity criteria. Intra-patient dose escalation was permitted. Results Twenty patients received a total of 151 infusions of MN-029. No DLTs or grade 4 toxicities occurred. The most common adverse events were nausea, vomiting, arthralgias, and headache. One patient developed acute substernal chest pain 4 days after his first dose of MN-029 and was removed from the study. An MTD was not determined. The recommended phase II dose was identified as 180 mg/m2/week. One patient with advanced pancreatic cancer attained a partial response lasting 10 weeks. Conclusions MN-029 was well tolerated in this schedule. Further development of this class of agents is warranted, especially in combination with other anti-cancer treatments. PMID:19434370

  7. Electric vehicles and advanced battery R&D. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Energy of the Committee on Science, Space, and Technology, U.S. House of Representatives, One Hundred Third Congress, Second Session, June 30, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    The hearing addressed electric vehicles and advanced battery research and development. The status and prospects for the National Programs Plans of the Department of Energy and the Department of Defense for electric vehicle development and advanced electric batteries are examined. Statements of government and industry officials are included along with documents submitted for the record.

  8. Analysis of two-phase flow phenomena with FLUENT4 code in the experiments for advanced light water reactor safety

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Miettinen; M. Tuomainen; I. Karppinen; J. Tuunanen

    2002-01-01

    In the development of advanced light water reactors, thermohydraulic phenomena are versatile in comparison with the present concepts. The new features are the passive safety systems, where energy transport takes place by natural circulation instead of forced flow. For cooling of the molten core, new concepts have been created including external vessel cooling and core catchers. In all new concepts,

  9. Fieldcrest Cannon, Inc. Advanced Technical Preparation. Statistical Process Control (SPC). Safety Section: Modules 1-3. Instructor Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Averitt, Sallie D.

    These three modules, which were developed for use by instructors in a manufacturing firm's advanced technical preparation program, contain the materials required to present the safety section of the plant's adult-oriented, job-specific competency-based training program. The 3 modules contain 12 lessons on the following topics: lockout/tagout…

  10. Evaluating the Effects of Transient Faults on Vehicle Dynamic Performance in Automotive Systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fulvio Corno; Matteo Sonza Reorda; S. Tosato; F. Esposito

    2004-01-01

    Current automotive systems are integrating more and more electronic components in the handling and performance areas, for supporting advanced comfort and safety features. The effects of component or network failures raise serious concerns about the overall vehicle stability and safety. This paper proposes a methodology for analyzing at the system level (taking into account both mechanical and electronic components) the

  11. Optimal Design of Integrated Systems Health Management (ISHM) Systems for improving safety in NASA's Exploration Vehicles: A Two-Level Multidisciplinary Design Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehr, Ali Farhang; Tumer, Irem; Barszcz, Eric

    2005-01-01

    Integrated Vehicle Health Management (ISHM) systems are used to detect, assess, and isolate functional failures in order to improve safety of space systems such as Orbital Space Planes (OSPs). An ISHM system, as a whole, consists of several subsystems that monitor different components of an OSP including: Spacecraft, Launch Vehicle, Ground Control, and the International Space Station. In this research, therefore, we propose a new methodology to design and optimize ISHM as a distributed system with multiple disciplines (that correspond to different subsystems of OSP safety). A paramount amount of interest has been given in the literature to the multidisciplinary design optimization of problems with such architecture (as will be reviewed in the full paper).

  12. Orbit Transfer Vehicle (OTV) advanced expander cycle engine point design study. Task 7: Engine data summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christensen, K. L.

    1980-01-01

    A performance optimized engine system design for a man-rated advanced LOX/hydrogen expander cycle engine was investigated. The data are presented in tables, figures, and drawings. The following categories of data for the advanced expander cycle engine are presented: engine operating specification and pressure schedule; engine system layout drawing; major component layout drawings, including thrust chamber and nozzle, extendible nozzle actuating mechanism and seal, LOX turbopump, LOX boost pump, hydrogen turbopump, hydrogen boost pump, and propellant control valves; engine performance and service life prediction; engine weight; and engine envelope. The data represent updates based upon current results from the design and analyses tasks performed under contract. Futher iterations in the designs and data can be expected as the advanced expander cycle engine design matures.

  13. Design, Fabrication and Test of Graphite/Polyimide Composite Joints and Attachments for Advanced Aerospace Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cushman, J. B.

    1981-01-01

    Standard and advanced bonded joint concepts were evaluated to develop a data base for the design and analysis of advanced composite joints for use at elevated temperatures (561K (550F)). Design concepts for specific joint applications and the fundamental parameters controlling the static strength characteristics of such joints were identified. Test results are presented for rail shear and sandwich beam compression tests and tension tests of moisture conditioned specimens and bonded on "T" sections. Coefficients of thermal expansion data are presented for A7F (LARC 13 Amide-imide modified) adhesion. Static discriminator test results for type 1 and type 2 bonded and bolted preliminary attachment concepts are presented and discussed.

  14. 75 FR 25927 - Vehicle/Track Interaction Safety Standards; High-Speed and High Cant Deficiency Operations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-10

    ...behavior typically represent the vehicle body, wheelsets, truck frames, and other major vehicle components as rigid bodies connected with elastic and damping...the inertia properties of each of the...

  15. Cost of Ownership and Well-to-Wheels Carbon Emissions/Oil Use of Alternative Fuels and Advanced Light-Duty Vehicle Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Elgowainy, Mr. Amgad [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Rousseau, Mr. Aymeric [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Wang, Mr. Michael [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Ruth, Mr. Mark [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL); Andress, Mr. David [David Andress & Associates, Inc.; Ward, Jacob [U.S. Department of Energy; Joseck, Fred [U.S. Department of Energy; Nguyen, Tien [U.S. Department of Energy; Das, Sujit [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne), and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) updated their analysis of the well-to-wheels (WTW) greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions, petroleum use, and the cost of ownership (excluding insurance, maintenance, and miscellaneous fees) of vehicle technologies that have the potential to significantly reduce GHG emissions and petroleum consumption. The analyses focused on advanced light-duty vehicle (LDV) technologies such as plug-in hybrid, battery electric, and fuel cell electric vehicles. Besides gasoline and diesel, alternative fuels considered include natural gas, advanced biofuels, electricity, and hydrogen. The Argonne Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation (GREET) and Autonomie models were used along with the Argonne and NREL H2A models.

  16. Commercial and operational impacts on design for the Hotol advanced launch vehicle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. J. Salt; R. C. Parkinson

    1990-01-01

    The development of future Space exploration and exploitation will be paced by launch system capabilities. Current systems are high cost, low reliability, unavailable and inflexible when compared to other forms of transport. Advanced launch systems now being proposed (Hotol, Saenger, NASP) seek to dramatically reduce these drawbacks, particularly to reduce the cost of transport into low earth orbit. There is

  17. Modeling the Behaviour of an Advanced Material Based Smart Landing Gear System for Aerospace Vehicles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Byji Varughese; G. N. Dayananda; M. Subba Rao

    2008-01-01

    The last two decades have seen a substantial rise in the use of advanced materials such as polymer composites for aerospace structural applications. In more recent years there has been a concerted effort to integrate materials, which mimic biological functions (referred to as smart materials) with polymeric composites. Prominent among smart materials are shape memory alloys, which possess both actuating

  18. Orbit transfer vehicle advanced expander cycle engine point design study. Volume 2: Study results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diem, H. G.

    1980-01-01

    The design characteristics of the baseline engine configuration of the advanced expander cycle engine are described. Several aspects of engine optimization are considered which directly impact the design of the baseline thrust chamber. Four major areas of the power cycle optimization are emphasized: main turbine arrangement; cycle engine source; high pressure pump design; and boost pump drive.

  19. Metals emitted from heavy-duty diesel vehicles equipped with advanced PM and NO X emission controls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Shaohua; Herner, Jorn D.; Shafer, Martin; Robertson, William; Schauer, James J.; Dwyer, Harry; Collins, John; Huai, Tao; Ayala, Alberto

    Emission factors for elemental metals were determined from several heavy-duty diesel vehicles (HDDV) of 1998-2007 vintage, operating with advanced PM and/or NO X emissions control retrofits on a heavy-duty chassis dynamometer, under steady state cruise, transient, and idle conditions. The emission control retrofits included diesel particulate filters (DPF): catalyzed and uncatalyzed, passive and active prototype vanadium- or zeolite-based selective catalytic reduction (SCR) systems, and a catalyzed DPF fitted on a hybrid diesel electric drive vehicle. The prototype SCR systems in combination with DPF retrofits are of particular interest because they represent the expected emissions controls for compliance with PM and NO X regulations in 2010. PM samples from a full-exhaust dilution tunnel were collected on bulk filters, and on a Personal Cascade Impactor Sampler (PCIS) for total and water-soluble elemental analysis. All the DPFs significantly reduced emissions of total trace elements (>85% and >95% for cruise and for the Urban Dynamometer Driving Schedule (UDDS), respectively). However, we observed differences in the post-retrofit metals emissions due to driving cycle effects (i.e., exhaust temperature) and type of retrofit. In general, the metals emissions over cruise conditions (which leads to higher exhaust temperatures) were substantially different from the emissions over a transient cycle or while idling. For instance, during cruise, we observed higher levels of platinum (1.1 ± 0.6-4.2 ± 3.6 ng km -1) for most of the retrofit-equipped vehicle tests compared to the baseline configuration (0.3 ± 0.1 ng km -1). The vanadium-based DPF + SCR vehicle during cruise operation exhibited emissions of vanadium (562 ± 265 ng km -1) and titanium (5841 ± 3050 ng km -1), suggesting the possible release of actual SCR wash-coat (V 2O 5/TiO 2) from the catalyst under the higher temperatures characteristic of cruise operation. The vanadium emissions exhibited a bi-modal mass size distribution, with modes at <0.25 ?m and 1.0-2.5 ?m size ranges for the vanadium-based SCR system. For the DPF + SCR systems, a greater fraction of the metal emissions from the zeolite-based system is water-soluble compared to emissions from the vanadium-based system.

  20. Abstract--Inter-vehicle communication is a promising way to share and disseminate real-time and nearby safety

    E-print Network

    Mease, Kenneth D.

    conditions to immediate nearby vehicles (one-hop) and other vehicles in the vicinity (multi-hop). However an understanding of traffic waves onto the network design for one-hop periodic broadcast. Stop-and-go movement computing and satellite communication has resulted in millions of vehicle drivers with real-time road

  1. Protecting food safety: more needs to be done to keep pace with scientific advances and the changing food supply.

    PubMed

    Olson, Erik D

    2011-05-01

    Foodborne illness and the health risks from chemicals in food are a concern. However, food safety statutes largely unchanged for more than forty years are failing to keep pace with scientific advances and the changing food supply. The FDA Food Safety Modernization Act, enacted in January 2011, is intended to help reduce foodborne illness by establishing new prevention measures for food regulated by the Food and Drug Administration. Additional funding is needed so that the agency has enough resources to help realize the law's potential. Furthermore, key food safety issues untouched by the 2011 statute, including restrictions on antibiotic use in animal agriculture, laws governing meat and poultry safety, and requirements governing the use of chemicals in food, should be reviewed and updated as necessary-using up-to-date science-to tighten the focus on preventing disease. PMID:21555475

  2. Advanced engine study for mixed-mode orbit-transfer vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mellish, J. A.

    1978-01-01

    Engine design, performance, weight and envelope data were established for three mixed-mode orbit-transfer vehicle engine candidates. Engine concepts evaluated are the tripropellant, dual-expander and plug cluster. Oxygen, RP-1 and hydrogen are the propellants considered for use in these engines. Theoretical performance and propellant properties were established for bipropellant and tripropellant mixes of these propellants. RP-1, hydrogen and oxygen were evaluated as coolants and the maximum attainable chamber pressures were determined for each engine concept within the constraints of the propellant properties and the low cycle thermal fatigue (300 cycles) requirement. The baseline engine design and component operating characteristics are determined at a thrust level of 88,964N (20,000 lbs) and a thrust split of 0.5. The parametric data is generated over ranges of thrust and thrust split of 66.7 to 400kN (15 to 90 klb) and 0.4 to 0.8, respectively.

  3. An advanced tracker design for pointing and control of space vehicles using the charge injection device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, C.; Kollodge, J. C.

    1982-01-01

    The use of charge transfer devices (CTD) in pointing and control of space vehicles is examined, with emphasis on the use of charge injection devices (CID). The selection of CTD type and CID operation, including CID signal and noise analysis and signal improvement, are discussed. Star tracking operational advantages of the CTD are pointed out, and the tracking optical concept is discussed and graphically depicted. The position interpolation procedure and the effects of rate of stellar motion on position interpolation are considered, and error analysis is examined. Finally, the breadboard and test program are discussed in detail, coarse and fine acquisition, test for star, track pattern, test procedure and results. An overall accuracy performance of approximately 0.02 pixels or approximately 0.8 arcsec for the test equipment and tracker was obtained.

  4. Advanced Usage of Vehicle Sketch Pad for CFD-Based Conceptual Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ordaz, Irian; Li, Wu

    2013-01-01

    Conceptual design is the most fluid phase of aircraft design. It is important to be able to perform large scale design space exploration of candidate concepts that can achieve the design intent to avoid more costly configuration changes in later stages of design. This also means that conceptual design is highly dependent on the disciplinary analysis tools to capture the underlying physics accurately. The required level of analysis fidelity can vary greatly depending on the application. Vehicle Sketch Pad (VSP) allows the designer to easily construct aircraft concepts and make changes as the design matures. More recent development efforts have enabled VSP to bridge the gap to high-fidelity analysis disciplines such as computational fluid dynamics and structural modeling for finite element analysis. This paper focuses on the current state-of-the-art geometry modeling for the automated process of analysis and design of low-boom supersonic concepts using VSP and several capability-enhancing design tools.

  5. Leveraging Intelligent Vehicle Technologies to Maximize Fuel Economy (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Gonder, J.

    2011-11-01

    Advancements in vehicle electronics, along with communication and sensing technologies, have led to a growing number of intelligent vehicle applications. Example systems include those for advanced driver information, route planning and prediction, driver assistance, and crash avoidance. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory is exploring ways to leverage intelligent vehicle systems to achieve fuel savings. This presentation discusses several potential applications, such as providing intelligent feedback to drivers on specific ways to improve their driving efficiency, and using information about upcoming driving to optimize electrified vehicle control strategies for maximum energy efficiency and battery life. The talk also covers the potential of Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) and related technologies to deliver significant fuel savings in addition to providing safety and convenience benefits.

  6. Lessons learned in acquiring new regulations for shipping advanced electric vehicle batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Henriksen, G. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Hammel, C. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); Altemos, E.A. [Winston and Strawn, Washington, DC (United States)

    1994-12-01

    In 1990, the Electric and Hybrid Propulsion Division of the US Department of Energy established its ad hoc EV Battery Readiness Working Group to identify regulatory barriers to the commercialization of advanced EV battery technologies and facilitate the removal of these barriers. A Shipping Sub-Working Group (SSWG) was formed to address the regulatory issues associated with the domestic and international shipment of these new battery technologies. The SSWG invites major industrial developers of advanced battery technologies to join as members and work closely with appropriate domestic and international regulatory authorities to develop suitable regulations and procedures for the safe transport of these new battery technologies. This paper describes the domestic and international regulatory processes for the transport of dangerous goods; reviews the status of shipping regulations for sodium-beta and lithium batteries; and delineates the lessons learned to date in this process. The sodium-beta battery family was the first category of advanced EV batteries to be addressed by the SSWG. It includes both sodium/sulfur and sodium/metal chloride batteries. Their efforts led to the establishment of a UN number (UN 3292) in the UN Recommendations, for cold cells and batteries, and establishment of a US Department of Transportation general exemption (DOT-E-10917) covering cold and hot batteries, as well as cold cells. The lessons learned for sodium-beta batteries, over the period of 1990--94, are now being applied to the development of regulations for shipping a new generation of lithium battery technologies (lithium-polymer and lithium-aluminum/iron sulfide batteries).

  7. A Variable Stability Test Vehicle for ITS Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griffin, Daniel C.; Lee, Allan Y.

    1996-01-01

    A variable stability test bed is under development for the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA). The Variable Dynamic Testbed Vehicle (VDTV) is being designed for research and testing of advanced collision warning and avoidance technologies being developed by industry and most likely being made available to consumers in the near future.

  8. Parametric Analysis of a Hover Test Vehicle using Advanced Test Generation and Data Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gundy-Burlet, Karen; Schumann, Johann; Menzies, Tim; Barrett, Tony

    2009-01-01

    Large complex aerospace systems are generally validated in regions local to anticipated operating points rather than through characterization of the entire feasible operational envelope of the system. This is due to the large parameter space, and complex, highly coupled nonlinear nature of the different systems that contribute to the performance of the aerospace system. We have addressed the factors deterring such an analysis by applying a combination of technologies to the area of flight envelop assessment. We utilize n-factor (2,3) combinatorial parameter variations to limit the number of cases, but still explore important interactions in the parameter space in a systematic fashion. The data generated is automatically analyzed through a combination of unsupervised learning using a Bayesian multivariate clustering technique (AutoBayes) and supervised learning of critical parameter ranges using the machine-learning tool TAR3, a treatment learner. Covariance analysis with scatter plots and likelihood contours are used to visualize correlations between simulation parameters and simulation results, a task that requires tool support, especially for large and complex models. We present results of simulation experiments for a cold-gas-powered hover test vehicle.

  9. Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation Waste Integrated Performance and Safety Codes (NEAMS Waste IPSC).

    SciTech Connect

    Schultz, Peter Andrew

    2011-12-01

    The objective of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation Waste Integrated Performance and Safety Codes (NEAMS Waste IPSC) is to provide an integrated suite of computational modeling and simulation (M&S) capabilities to quantitatively assess the long-term performance of waste forms in the engineered and geologic environments of a radioactive-waste storage facility or disposal repository. Achieving the objective of modeling the performance of a disposal scenario requires describing processes involved in waste form degradation and radionuclide release at the subcontinuum scale, beginning with mechanistic descriptions of chemical reactions and chemical kinetics at the atomic scale, and upscaling into effective, validated constitutive models for input to high-fidelity continuum scale codes for coupled multiphysics simulations of release and transport. Verification and validation (V&V) is required throughout the system to establish evidence-based metrics for the level of confidence in M&S codes and capabilities, including at the subcontiunuum scale and the constitutive models they inform or generate. This Report outlines the nature of the V&V challenge at the subcontinuum scale, an approach to incorporate V&V concepts into subcontinuum scale modeling and simulation (M&S), and a plan to incrementally incorporate effective V&V into subcontinuum scale M&S destined for use in the NEAMS Waste IPSC work flow to meet requirements of quantitative confidence in the constitutive models informed by subcontinuum scale phenomena.

  10. Modeling the Behaviour of an Advanced Material Based Smart Landing Gear System for Aerospace Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varughese, Byji; Dayananda, G. N.; Rao, M. Subba

    2008-07-01

    The last two decades have seen a substantial rise in the use of advanced materials such as polymer composites for aerospace structural applications. In more recent years there has been a concerted effort to integrate materials, which mimic biological functions (referred to as smart materials) with polymeric composites. Prominent among smart materials are shape memory alloys, which possess both actuating and sensory functions that can be realized simultaneously. The proper characterization and modeling of advanced and smart materials holds the key to the design and development of efficient smart devices/systems. This paper focuses on the material characterization; modeling and validation of the model in relation to the development of a Shape Memory Alloy (SMA) based smart landing gear (with high energy dissipation features) for a semi rigid radio controlled airship (RC-blimp). The Super Elastic (SE) SMA element is configured in such a way that it is forced into a tensile mode of high elastic deformation. The smart landing gear comprises of a landing beam, an arch and a super elastic Nickel-Titanium (Ni-Ti) SMA element. The landing gear is primarily made of polymer carbon composites, which possess high specific stiffness and high specific strength compared to conventional materials, and are therefore ideally suited for the design and development of an efficient skid landing gear system with good energy dissipation characteristics. The development of the smart landing gear in relation to a conventional metal landing gear design is also dealt with.

  11. Applications of Near-infrared Spectroscopy in Food Safety Evaluation and Control: A Review of Recent Research Advances.

    PubMed

    Qu, Jia-Huan; Liu, Dan; Cheng, Jun-Hu; Sun, Da-Wen; Ma, Ji; Pu, Hongbin; Zeng, Xin-An

    2015-11-10

    Food safety is a critical public concern, and has drawn great attention in society. Consequently, developments of rapid, robust, and accurate methods and techniques for food safety evaluation and control are required. As a nondestructive and convenient tool, near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) has been widely shown to be a promising technique for food safety inspection and control due to its huge advantages of speed, noninvasive measurement, ease of use, and minimal sample preparation requirement. This review presents the fundamentals of NIRS and focuses on recent advances in its applications, during the last 10 years of food safety control, in meat, fish and fishery products, edible oils, milk and dairy products, grains and grain products, fruits and vegetables, and others. Based upon these applications, it can be demonstrated that NIRS, combined with chemometric methods, is a powerful tool for food safety surveillance and for the elimination of the occurrence of food safety problems. Some disadvantages that need to be solved or investigated with regard to the further development of NIRS are also discussed. PMID:24689758

  12. Proceedings of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission nineteenth water reactor safety information meeting. Volume 3, Structural engineering; Advanced reactor research; Advanced passive reactors; Human factors research; Human factors issues related to advanced passive LWRs; Thermal hydraulics; Earth sciences

    SciTech Connect

    Weiss, A.J. [comp.] [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1992-04-01

    This three-volume report contains 83 papers out of the 108 that were presented at the Nineteenth Water Reactor Safety Information Meeting held at the Bethesda Marriott Hotel, Bethesda, Maryland, during the week of October 28--30, 1991. The papers are printed in the order of their presentation in each session and describe progress and results of programs in nuclear safety research conducted in this country and abroad. Foreign participation in the meeting included 14 different papers presented by researchers from Canada, Germany, France, Japan, Sweden, Taiwan, and USSR. This document, Volume 3, presents papers on: Structural engineering; Advanced reactor research; Advanced passive reactors; Human factors research; Human factors issues related to advanced passive light water researchers; Thermal Hydraulics; and Earth sciences. The individual papers have been cataloged separately.

  13. A Public-Private Consortium Advances Cardiac Safety Evaluation: Achievements of the HESI Cardiac Safety Technical Committee

    EPA Science Inventory

    The evaluation of cardiovascular side-effects is a critical element in the development of all new drugs and chemicals. Cardiac safety issues have been and continue to be a major cause of attrition and withdrawal due to Adverse Drug Reactions (ADRs) in pharmaceutical drug developm...

  14. TESEC 2001, Genova, Italy ADVANCED TECHNIQUES FOR SAFETY ANALYSIS APPLIED TO

    E-print Network

    Tronci, Enrico

    for safety analysis of complex computer based systems. Such approaches are applied to the gas turbine control, Genova, Italy 2 safety functions to be implemented by the safety related system. As far as it concerns of the plant, due to instrumentation system failures. Another problem is in the current use of the different

  15. Worldwide advanced nuclear power reactors with passive and inherent safety: What, why, how, and who

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. W. Forsberg; W. J. Reich

    1991-01-01

    The political controversy over nuclear power, the accidents at Three Mile Island (TMI) and Chernobyl, international competition, concerns about the carbon dioxide greenhouse effect and technical breakthroughs have resulted in a segment of the nuclear industry examining power reactor concepts with PRIME safety characteristics. PRIME is an acronym for Passive safety, Resilience, Inherent safety, Malevolence resistance, and Extended time after

  16. Abstract--Reliability in Ricean multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO) channels is crucial for safety related vehicle-to-

    E-print Network

    Zemen, Thomas

    -Multiple-Output (MIMO) circular antenna array with vertically polarized patch antenna elements and the measurement1 Abstract-- Reliability in Ricean multiple-input-multiple- output (MIMO) channels is crucial sounder measurements of vehicle-to-vehicle MIMO radio channels in the 5.2 GHz band. Our results show

  17. A Microcomputer-Based Control And Simulation Of An Advanced Ipm Synchronous Machine Drive System For Electric Vehicle Propulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bose, B. K.; Szczesny, P. M.

    1987-10-01

    Advanced digital control and computer-aided control system design techniques are playing key roles in the complex drive system design and control implementation. The paper describes a high performance microcomputer-based control and digital simulation of an inverter-fed interior permanent magnet (IPM) synchronous machine which uses Neodymium-Iron-Boron magnet. The fully operational four-quadrant drive system includes constant-torque region with zero speed operation and high speed field-weakening constant-power region. The control uses vector or field-oriented technique in constant-torque region with the direct axis aligned to the stator flux, whereas the constant-power region control is based on torque angle orientation of the impressed square-wave voltage. All the key feedback signals for the control are estimated with precision. The drive system is basically designed with an outer torque control loop for electric vehicle application, but speed and position control loops can be added for other industrial applications. The distributed microcomputer-based control system is based on Intel-8096 microcontroller and Texas Instruments TMS32010 type digital signal processor. The complete drive system has been simulated using the VAX-based simulation language SIMNON* to verify the feasibility of the control laws and to study the performances of the drive system. The simulation results are found to have excellent correlation with the laboratory breadboard tests.

  18. Media Articles Describing Advances in Scientific Research as a Vehicle for Student Engagement Fostering Climate Literacy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brassell, S. C.

    2014-12-01

    "Records of Global Climate Change" enables students to fulfill the science component of an undergraduate distribution requirement in "Critical Approaches" at IU Bloomington. The course draws students from all disciplines with varying levels of understanding of scientific approaches and often limited familiarity with climate issues. Its discussion sessions seek to foster scientific literacy via an alternating series of assignments focused on a combination of exercises that involve either examination and interpretation of on-line climate data or consideration and assessment of the scientific basis of new discoveries about climate change contained in recently published media articles. The final assignment linked to the discussion sessions requires students to review and summarize the topics discussed during the semester. Their answers provide direct evidence of newly acquired abilities to assimilate and evaluate scientific information on a range of topics related to climate change. In addition, student responses to an end-of-semester survey confirm that the vast majority considers that their knowledge and understanding of climate change was enhanced, and unsolicited comments note that the discussion sessions contributed greatly to this advancement. Many students remarked that the course's emphasis on examination of paleoclimate records helped their comprehension of the unprecedented nature of present-day climate trends. Others reported that their views on the significance of climate change had been transformed, and some commented that they now felt well equipped to engage in discussions about climate change because they were better informed about its scientific basis and facts.

  19. Design, fabrication and test of graphite/polyimide composite joints and attachments for advanced aerospace vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barclay, D. L.

    1980-01-01

    Results of an experimental program to develop several types of graphite/polyimide (GR/PI) bonded and bolted joints for lightly loaded flight components for advanced space transportation systems and high speed aircraft are presented. Tasks accomplished include: a literature survey; design of static discriminator specimens; design allowables testing; fabrication of test panels and specimens; small specimen testing; and standard joint testing. Detail designs of static discriminator specimens for each of the four major attachment types are presented. Test results are given for the following: (1) transverse tension of Celion 3000/PMR-15 laminate; (2) net tension of a laminate for both a loaded and unloaded bolt hole; (3) comparative testing of bonded and co-cured doublers along with pull-off tests of single and double bonded angles; (4) single lap shear tests, transverse tension and coefficient of thermal expansion tests of A7F (LARC-13 amide-imide modified) adhesive; and (5) tension tests of standard single lap, double lap, and symmetric step lap bonded joints. Also, included are results of a finite element analysis of a single lap bonded composite joint.

  20. An Evaluation of High Temperature Airframe Seals for Advanced Hypersonic Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeMange, Jeffrey J.; Dunlap, Patrick H.; Steinetz, Bruce M.; Drlik, Gary J.

    2007-01-01

    High temperature seals are required for advanced hypersonic airframe applications. In this study, both spring tube thermal barriers and innovative wafer seal systems were evaluated under relevant hypersonic test conditions (temperatures, pressures, etc.) via high temperature compression testing and room temperature flow assessments. Thermal barriers composed of a Rene 41 spring tube filled with Saffil insulation and overbraided with a Nextel 312 sheath showed acceptable performance at 1500 F in both short term and longer term compression testing. Nextel 440 thermal barriers with Rene 41 spring tubes and Saffil insulation demonstrated good compression performance up to 1750 F. A silicon nitride wafer seal/compression spring system displayed excellent load performance at temperatures as high as 2200 F and exhibited room temperature leakage values that were only 1/3 those for the spring tube rope seals. For all seal candidates evaluated, no significant degradation in leakage resistance was noted after high temperature compression testing. In addition to these tests, a superalloy seal suitable for dynamic seal applications was optimized through finite element techniques.

  1. Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education in Science, 1996

    1996-01-01

    Discusses safety issues in science, including: allergic reactions to peanuts used in experiments; explosions in lead/acid batteries; and inspection of pressure vessels, such as pressure cookers or model steam engines. (MKR)

  2. Integration of the advanced transparency framework to advanced nuclear systems : enhancing Safety, Operations, Security and Safeguards (SOSS).

    SciTech Connect

    Mendez, Carmen Margarita (Sociotecnia Solutions); Rochau, Gary Eugene; Cleary, Virginia D.

    2008-08-01

    The advent of the nuclear renaissance gives rise to a concern for the effective design of nuclear fuel cycle systems that are safe, secure, nonproliferating and cost-effective. We propose to integrate the monitoring of the four major factors of nuclear facilities by focusing on the interactions between Safeguards, Operations, Security, and Safety (SOSS). We proposed to develop a framework that monitors process information continuously and can demonstrate the ability to enhance safety, operations, security, and safeguards by measuring and reducing relevant SOSS risks, thus ensuring the safe and legitimate use of the nuclear fuel cycle facility. A real-time comparison between expected and observed operations provides the foundation for the calculation of SOSS risk. The automation of new nuclear facilities requiring minimal manual operation provides an opportunity to utilize the abundance of process information for monitoring SOSS risk. A framework that monitors process information continuously can lead to greater transparency of nuclear fuel cycle activities and can demonstrate the ability to enhance the safety, operations, security and safeguards associated with the functioning of the nuclear fuel cycle facility. Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has developed a risk algorithm for safeguards and is in the process of demonstrating the ability to monitor operational signals in real-time though a cooperative research project with the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA). The risk algorithms for safety, operations and security are under development. The next stage of this work will be to integrate the four algorithms into a single framework.

  3. Evaluation of the safety and usability of touch gestures in operating in-vehicle information systems with visual occlusion.

    PubMed

    Kim, Huhn; Song, Haewon

    2014-05-01

    Nowadays, many automobile manufacturers are interested in applying the touch gestures that are used in smart phones to operate their in-vehicle information systems (IVISs). In this study, an experiment was performed to verify the applicability of touch gestures in the operation of IVISs from the viewpoints of both driving safety and usability. In the experiment, two devices were used: one was the Apple iPad, with which various touch gestures such as flicking, panning, and pinching were enabled; the other was the SK EnNavi, which only allowed tapping touch gestures. The participants performed the touch operations using the two devices under visually occluded situations, which is a well-known technique for estimating load of visual attention while driving. In scrolling through a list, the flicking gestures required more time than the tapping gestures. Interestingly, both the flicking and simple tapping gestures required slightly higher visual attention. In moving a map, the average time taken per operation and the visual attention load required for the panning gestures did not differ from those of the simple tapping gestures that are used in existing car navigation systems. In zooming in/out of a map, the average time taken per pinching gesture was similar to that of the tapping gesture but required higher visual attention. Moreover, pinching gestures at a display angle of 75° required that the participants severely bend their wrists. Because the display angles of many car navigation systems tends to be more than 75°, pinching gestures can cause severe fatigue on users' wrists. Furthermore, contrary to participants' evaluation of other gestures, several participants answered that the pinching gesture was not necessary when operating IVISs. It was found that the panning gesture is the only touch gesture that can be used without negative consequences when operating IVISs while driving. The flicking gesture is likely to be used if the screen moving speed is slower or if the car is in heavy traffic. However, the pinching gesture is not an appropriate method of operating IVISs while driving in the various scenarios examined in this study. PMID:24231034

  4. Providing the Basis for Innovative Improvements in Advanced LWR Reactor Passive Safety Systems Design: An Educational R&D Project

    SciTech Connect

    Brian G. Williams; Jim C. P. Liou; Hiral Kadakia; Bill Phoenix; Richard R. Schultz

    2007-02-27

    This project characterizes typical two-phase stratified flow conditions in advanced water reactor horizontal pipe sections, following activation of passive cooling systems. It provides (1) a means to educate nuclear engineering students regarding the importance of two-phase stratified flow in passive cooling systems to the safety of advanced reactor systems and (2) describes the experimental apparatus and process to measure key parameters essential to consider when designing passive emergency core cooling flow paths that may encounter this flow regime. Based on data collected, the state of analysis capabilities can be determined regarding stratified flow in advanced reactor systems and the best paths forward can be identified to ensure that the nuclear industry can properly characterize two-phase stratified flow in passive emergency core cooling systems.

  5. Long-term safety and sustained efficacy of extended-release pramipexole in early and advanced Parkinson's disease

    PubMed Central

    Hauser, R A; Schapira, A H V; Barone, P; Mizuno, Y; Rascol, O; Busse, M; Debieuvre, C; Fraessdorf, M; Poewe, W; Pramipexole ER Studies Group

    2014-01-01

    Background and purpose To assess the long-term safety and efficacy of pramipexole as a once-daily (q.d.) extended-release oral formulation in early or advanced Parkinson's disease (PD). Methods In two double-blind (DB) studies of early PD and one of advanced PD, active-treatment arms received pramipexole immediate release (IR) or extended release (ER), with exposure lasting up to 33 weeks. In open-label (OL) extensions that followed immediately, subjects took ER q.d. for up to 80 weeks, with dosage adjustment permitted (range 0.375–4.5 mg q.d.). Results Of 590 subjects completing an early-PD DB study, 511 entered the early-PD OL extension; 408 completed it. Reported adverse events (AEs) with incidence ?10.0% were somnolence (15.1%), peripheral edema (11.7%) and back pain (10.6%). Of 465 subjects completing the advanced-PD DB study, 391 entered the advanced-PD OL extension; 329 completed it. Reported AEs with incidence ?10.0% were dyskinesia (27.4%) and somnolence (13.6%). Impulse control disorders were identified by semi-structured interview in 13 subjects (1.4% of 902). In exploratory analyses, adjusted mean Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) Parts II + III scores (excluding ex-placebo recipients) remained substantially improved from DB baseline scores prior to pramipexole introduction, at ?6.6 and ?6.3 points amongst ex-DB-ER and ex-DB-IR recipients after 113 weeks of pramipexole (33 DB plus 80 OL) in early PD, and ?11.5 and ?9.1 after up to 113 weeks (up to 33 DB plus 80 OL) in advanced PD. Conclusions These results support the long-term safety and efficacy of pramipexole ER in early and advanced PD. AEs were typical for dopaminergic medications, and UPDRS scores suggested sustained symptomatic benefit. PMID:24834511

  6. Postmarket safety in Canada: are significant therapeutic advances and biologics less safe than other drugs? A cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Lexchin, Joel

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Examine the probability of new active substances (NASs) approved in Canada between 1 January 1997 and 31 March 2012 acquiring a serious postmarket safety warning. Design Cohort study. Data sources Annual reports of the Therapeutic Products Directorate and the Biologic and Genetic Therapies Directorate; evaluations of therapeutic innovation from the Patented Medicine Prices Review Board and Prescrire International; MedEffect Canada website. Interventions Postmarket regulatory safety warning or withdrawal from market due to safety reasons. Primary and secondary outcome measures Compare the probability of acquiring a postmarket safety warning in Canada in four different groups of drugs: (1) traditional medications versus biologics; (2) medications that offer significant new therapeutic benefits versus those that do not. Determine how well the type of review that an NAS received from Health Canada predicted the product's postmarket therapeutic value. Results The probability of a traditional NAS acquiring a serious safety warning and/or being withdrawn was 29.9% (95% CI 21.8% to 40.2%) vs 27.3% (95% CI 18.2% to 39.7%) for an NAS of biological origin (p=0.47, log-rank test). For medications that were significant therapeutic advances the probability was 40.2% (95% CI 24.5% to 60.9%) vs 33.9% (95% CI 26.4% to 42.7%) for those that were not (p=0.18, log-rank test). Health Canada was 77.4% accurate in predicting the therapeutic importance of an NAS. Conclusions There was no difference in postmarket regulatory safety action between traditional medications and biologics and no difference between drugs with significant therapeutic benefits and those without. Although these results draw on Canadian data, they are likely to be relevant internationally. Further research should assess whether the current level of premarket safety evaluation is acceptable. PMID:24549164

  7. Test Results for Entry Guidance Methods for Space Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanson, John M.; Jones, Robert E.

    2004-01-01

    There are a number of approaches to advanced guidance and control that have the potential for achieving the goals of significantly increasing reusable launch vehicle (or any space vehicle that enters an atmosphere) safety and reliability, and reducing the cost. This paper examines some approaches to entry guidance. An effort called Integration and Testing of Advanced Guidance and Control Technologies has recently completed a rigorous testing phase where these algorithms faced high-fidelity vehicle models and were required to perform a variety of representative tests. The algorithm developers spent substantial effort improving the algorithm performance in the testing. This paper lists the test cases used to demonstrate that the desired results are achieved, shows an automated test scoring method that greatly reduces the evaluation effort required, and displays results of the tests. Results show a significant improvement over previous guidance approaches. The two best-scoring algorithm approaches show roughly equivalent results and are ready to be applied to future vehicle concepts.

  8. Advanced Bio-Imaging for Nanomaterial Environmental Health and Safety: Post-Event Summary The NNIN-Nano Research Facility at Washington University in St. Louis held a short course, Advanced

    E-print Network

    Subramanian, Venkat

    Advanced Bio-Imaging for Nanomaterial Environmental Health and Safety: Post-Event Summary The NNIN-Nano Research Facility at Washington University in St. Louis held a short course, Advanced Bio the applications and technical requirements of electron microscopy for nano-bio- imaging. An introductory lecture

  9. A multicenter phase II study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of gefitinib as first-line treatment for Korean patients with advanced pulmonary adenocarcinoma harboring EGFR mutations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dong-Wan Kim; Se-Hoon Lee; Jong Seok Lee; Myung Ah Lee; Jin Hyoung Kang; Si Young Kim; Sang Won Shin; Hoon-Kyo Kim; Dae Seog Heo

    2011-01-01

    This study was designed to prospectively evaluate the efficacy and safety of first-line gefitinib treatment in patients with advanced pulmonary adenocarcinoma harboring epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations and to explore the molecular factors affecting the efficacy of gefitinib. Tumor tissue, derived from either the original tumor or the metastatic or recurrent site was taken from chemo-naïve pts with advanced

  10. Control System Architecture for Unmanned Land Vehicles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sandor Szabo; Karl N. Murphy; Harry A. Scott; Steven A. Legowik; Roger V. Bostelman

    A second major effort is currently underway toward the development of vehicles with autonomous capabilities. The Autonomous Land Vehicle and Advanced Ground Vehicle Technology programs highlighted the first efforts in autonomous vehicles. The second push is fueled by the Office of the Secretary of Defense's (OSD) Unmanned Ground Vehicle (UGV) program. The Surrogate Teleoperated Vehicle and Demo I programs have

  11. Shuttle orbiter experiments: Use of an operational vehicle for advancement and validation of space systems design technologies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul F. Holloway; David A. Throckmorton

    1995-01-01

    The NASA Orbiter Experiments (OEX) Program provided a mechanism for utilization of an operational space shuttle orbiter as a flight research vehicle, as an adjunct to its normal space transportation mission. OEX Program experiments were unique among orbiter payloads, as the research instrumentation for these experiments were carried as integral parts of the vehicle's structure, rather than being placed in

  12. 36 CFR 4.4 - Report of motor vehicle accident.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Report of motor vehicle accident. 4.4 Section 4.4...THE INTERIOR VEHICLES AND TRAFFIC SAFETY § 4.4 Report of motor vehicle accident. (a) The operator of a motor vehicle involved in an accident resulting in property...

  13. 36 CFR 1004.4 - Report of motor vehicle accident.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Report of motor vehicle accident. 1004.4 Section 1004...PRESIDIO TRUST VEHICLES AND TRAFFIC SAFETY § 1004.4 Report of motor vehicle accident. (a) The operator of a motor vehicle involved in an accident resulting in property...

  14. 36 CFR 1004.4 - Report of motor vehicle accident.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Report of motor vehicle accident. 1004.4 Section 1004...PRESIDIO TRUST VEHICLES AND TRAFFIC SAFETY § 1004.4 Report of motor vehicle accident. (a) The operator of a motor vehicle involved in an accident resulting in property...

  15. 36 CFR 4.4 - Report of motor vehicle accident.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Report of motor vehicle accident. 4.4 Section 4.4...THE INTERIOR VEHICLES AND TRAFFIC SAFETY § 4.4 Report of motor vehicle accident. (a) The operator of a motor vehicle involved in an accident resulting in property...

  16. Advanced neutron source reactor conceptual safety analysis report, three-element-core design: Chapter 15, accident analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, N.C.J.; Wendel, M.W.; Yoder, G.L.; Harrington, R.M.

    1996-02-01

    In order to utilize reduced enrichment fuel, the three-element-core design for the Advanced Neutron Source has been proposed. The proposed core configuration consists of inner, middle, and outer elements, with the middle element offset axially beneath the inner and outer elements, which are axially aligned. The three-element-core RELAP5 model assumes that the reactor hardware is changed only within the core region, so that the loop piping, heat exchangers, and pumps remain as assumed for the two-element-core configuration. To assess the impact of changes in the core region configuration and the thermal-hydraulic steady-state conditions, the safety analysis has been updated. This report gives the safety margins for the loss-of-off-site power and pressure-boundary fault accidents based on the RELAP5 results. AU margins are greater for the three-element-core simulations than those calculated for the two-element core.

  17. Toolbox Safety Talk Ladder Safety

    E-print Network

    Pawlowski, Wojtek

    and construction worker injuries. Falls cause 15% of all accidental deaths, and are second only to motor vehicle Health & Safety for recordkeeping. Slips, trips, and falls constitute the majority of general industry

  18. How health professions education can advance patient safety and quality improvement.

    PubMed

    Wong, Brian M

    2014-01-01

    A commonly held belief is that education and training are weak interventions that have limited success on their own in improving system reliability, clinical processes and, ultimately, patient safety and healthcare quality (Caffazzo and St-Cyr 2012). Yet, for emerging fields such as patient safety and quality improvement (PS/QI), one should not underestimate the importance of educating frontline staff in the fundamentals of these disciplines. For most healthcare institutions, there is a major bandwidth problem when it comes to PS/QI work, which acts as a critical barrier to accelerating change and improving patient safety and healthcare quality. Too few people are relied on to solve all of the institution's safety and quality problems. PMID:25344612

  19. Development and validation of nonthermal and advanced thermal food safety intervention technologies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alternative nonthermal and thermal food safety interventions are gaining acceptance by the food processing industry and consumers. These technologies include high pressure processing, ultraviolet and pulsed light, ionizing radiation, pulsed and radiofrequency electric fields, cold atmospheric plasm...

  20. Safety in the Chemical Laboratory: Advanced Firemanship: How to Teach Your Audience a Lesson.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pitt, Martin J.

    1984-01-01

    Provides tips to assist in preparing a training program designed to show that: (1) fire is dangerous; (2) ordinary individuals can neither understand fire nor extinguish it; and (3) a fire safety officer can do both. (JN)

  1. Study of Cost Effective Large Advanced Pressurized Water Reactors that Employ Passive Safety Features

    SciTech Connect

    Winters, J. W.; Corletti, M. M.; Hayashi, Y.

    2003-11-12

    A report of DOE sponsored portions of AP1000 Design Certification effort. On December 16, 1999, The United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission issued Design Certification of the AP600 standard nuclear reactor design. This culminated an 8-year review of the AP600 design, safety analysis and probabilistic risk assessment. The AP600 is a 600 MWe reactor that utilizes passive safety features that, once actuated, depend only on natural forces such as gravity and natural circulation to perform all required safety functions. These passive safety systems result in increased plant safety and have also significantly simplified plant systems and equipment, resulting in simplified plant operation and maintenance. The AP600 meets NRC deterministic safety criteria and probabilistic risk criteria with large margins. A summary comparison of key passive safety system design features is provided in Table 1. These key features are discussed due to their importance in affecting the key thermal-hydraulic phenomenon exhibited by the passive safety systems in critical areas. The scope of some of the design changes to the AP600 is described. These changes are the ones that are important in evaluating the passive plant design features embodied in the certified AP600 standard plant design. These design changes are incorporated into the AP1000 standard plant design that Westinghouse is certifying under 10 CFR Part 52. In conclusion, this report describes the results of the representative design certification activities that were partially supported by the Nuclear Energy Research Initiative. These activities are unique to AP1000, but are representative of research activities that must be driven to conclusion to realize successful licensing of the next generation of nuclear power plants in the United States.

  2. Advanced photon source proposal for upgrading the radiation safety of x-ray labs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1991-01-01

    There are two adjacent x-ray labs in building 360, each having two entrance doors. Lab A240 has two x-ray machines and lab A248 has one. All machines are equipped with sliding safety windows and microswitches to monitor the state of the windows - open or closed. Two modes of operation are possible. (1) Secure Mode in which all safety windows

  3. Advanced reactor safety research. Quarterly report, April-June 1982. Volume 22

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    1983-10-01

    Overall objective of this work is to provide NRC a comprehensive data base essential to (1) defining key safety issues, (2) understanding risk-significant accident sequences, (3) developing and verifying models used in safety assessments, and (4) assuring the public that power reactor systems will not be licensed and placed in commercial service in the United States without appropriate consideration being given to their effects on health and safety. This report describes progress in a number of activities dealing with current safety issues relevant to both light water and breeder reactors. The work includes a broad range of experiments to simulate accidental conditions to provide the required data base to understand important accident sequences and to serve as a basis for development and verification of the complex computer simulation models and codes used in accident analysis and licensing reviews. Such a program must include the development of analytical models, verified by experiment, which can be used to predict reactor and safety system performance under a broad variety of abnormal conditions. Current major emphasis is focused on providing information to NRC relevant to (1) its deliberations and decisions dealing with severe LWR accidents, and (2) its safety evaluation of the proposed Clinch River Breeder Reactor.

  4. Environmental Assessment of the US Department of Energy Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Program

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, M.K.; Bernard, M.J. III; Walsh, R.F

    1980-11-01

    This environmental assessment (EA) focuses on the long-term (1985-2000) impacts of the US Department of Energy (DOE) electric and hybrid vehicle (EHV) program. This program has been designed to accelerate the development of EHVs and to demonstrate their commercial feasibility as required by the Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Research, Development and Demonstration Act of 1976 (P.L. 94-413), as amended (P.L. 95-238). The overall goal of the program is the commercialization of: (1) electric vehicles (EVs) acceptable to broad segments of the personal and commercial vehicle markets, (2) hybrid vehicles (HVs) with range capabilities comparable to those of conventional vehicles (CVs), and (3) advanced EHVs completely competitive with CVs with respect to both cost and performance. Five major EHV projects have been established by DOE: market demonstration, vehicle evaluation and improvement, electric vehicle commercialization, hybrid vehicle commercialization, and advanced vehicle development. Conclusions are made as to the effects of EV and HV commercialization on the: consumption and importation of raw materials; petroleum and total energy consumption; ecosystems impact from the time of obtaining raw material through vehicle use and materials recycling; environmental impacts on air and water quality, land use, and noise; health and safety aspects; and socio-economic factors. (LCL)

  5. The effect of touch-key size on the usability of In-Vehicle Information Systems and driving safety during simulated driving.

    PubMed

    Kim, Heejin; Kwon, Sunghyuk; Heo, Jiyoon; Lee, Hojin; Chung, Min K

    2014-05-01

    Investigating the effect of touch-key size on usability of In-Vehicle Information Systems (IVISs) is one of the most important research issues since it is closely related to safety issues besides its usability. This study investigated the effects of the touch-key size of IVISs with respect to safety issues (the standard deviation of lane position, the speed variation, the total glance time, the mean glance time, the mean time between glances, and the mean number of glances) and the usability of IVISs (the task completion time, error rate, subjective preference, and NASA-TLX) through a driving simulation. A total of 30 drivers participated in the task of entering 5-digit numbers with various touch-key sizes while performing simulated driving. The size of the touch-key was 7.5 mm, 12.5 mm, 17.5 mm, 22.5 mm and 27.5 mm, and the speed of driving was set to 0 km/h (stationary state), 50 km/h and 100 km/h. As a result, both the driving safety and the usability of the IVISs increased as the touch-key size increased up to a certain size (17.5 mm in this study), at which they reached asymptotes. We performed Fitts' law analysis of our data, and this revealed that the data from the dual task experiment did not follow Fitts' law. PMID:23759791

  6. Abstract--Reliability in Ricean multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO) channels is crucial for safety related vehicle-to-

    E-print Network

    Zemen, Thomas

    leads to high temporal resolution. The antenna system used was a 4x4 MIMO circular antenna array with vertically polarized patch antenna elements and the measurement vehicles were two similar transporters1 Abstract-- Reliability in Ricean multiple-input-multiple- output (MIMO) channels is crucial

  7. A comparison of the factors influencing the safety of work-related drivers in work and personal vehicles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sharon Newnam; Will Murray

    There is some evidence to suggest that people who drive for work purposes engage in less safe driving practices than other drivers. This issue was examined by surveying 204 people who drive for work purposes, from four different organisations. It was predicted that work-related drivers would report more unsafe driving behaviours in a work vehicle in comparison to their personal

  8. A comprehensive program to improve safety for pregnant women and fetuses in motor vehicle crashes: A preliminary report

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark D Pearlman; Kathleen DeSantis Klinich; Lawrence W Schneider; Jonathan Rupp; Steve Moss; James Ashton-Miller

    2000-01-01

    Objective: A program was developed to study the mechanisms of abruptio placentae and pregnancy loss caused by motor vehicle crashes. The results were intended to be used to develop strategies to improve protection of the fetus in this setting. Study Design: Four integrated projects were conducted: (1) seated anthropometric measurements and belt fit determination during pregnancy, (2) development of new

  9. Launch Vehicle Demonstrator Using Shuttle Assets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Creech, Dennis M.; Threet, Grady E., Jr.; Philips, Alan D.; Waters, Eric D.

    2011-01-01

    The Advanced Concepts Office at NASA's George C. Marshall Space Flight Center undertook a study to define candidate early heavy lift demonstration launch vehicle concepts derived from existing space shuttle assets. The objective was to determine the performance capabilities of these vehicles and characterize potential early demonstration test flights. Given the anticipated budgetary constraints that may affect America's civil space program, and a lapse in U.S. heavy launch capability with the retirement of the space shuttle, an early heavy lift launch vehicle demonstration flight would not only demonstrate capabilities that could be utilized for future space exploration missions, but also serve as a building block for the development of our nation s next heavy lift launch system. An early heavy lift demonstration could be utilized as a test platform, demonstrating capabilities of future space exploration systems such as the Multi Purpose Crew Vehicle. By using existing shuttle assets, including the RS-25D engine inventory, the shuttle equipment manufacturing and tooling base, and the segmented solid rocket booster industry, a demonstrator concept could expedite the design-to-flight schedule while retaining critical human skills and capital. In this study two types of vehicle designs are examined. The first utilizes a high margin/safety factor battleship structural design in order to minimize development time as well as monetary investment. Structural design optimization is performed on the second, as if an operational vehicle. Results indicate low earth orbit payload capability is more than sufficient to support various vehicle and vehicle systems test programs including Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle articles. Furthermore, a shuttle-derived, hydrogen core vehicle configuration offers performance benefits when trading evolutionary paths to maximum capability.

  10. Recent Advances in Near-Net-Shape Fabrication of Al-Li Alloy 2195 for Launch Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wagner, John; Domack, Marcia; Hoffman, Eric

    2007-01-01

    Recent applications in launch vehicles use 2195 processed to Super Lightweight Tank specifications. Potential benefits exist by tailoring heat treatment and other processing parameters to the application. Assess the potential benefits and advocate application of Al-Li near-net-shape technologies for other launch vehicle structural components. Work with manufacturing and material producers to optimize Al-Li ingot shape and size for enhanced near-net-shape processing. Examine time dependent properties of 2195 critical for reusable applications.

  11. System safety education focused on flight safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holt, E.

    1971-01-01

    The measures necessary for achieving higher levels of system safety are analyzed with an eye toward maintaining the combat capability of the Air Force. Several education courses were provided for personnel involved in safety management. Data include: (1) Flight Safety Officer Course, (2) Advanced Safety Program Management, (3) Fundamentals of System Safety, and (4) Quantitative Methods of Safety Analysis.

  12. Advanced reactor safety research quarterly report, October-December 1982. Volume 24

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    1984-04-01

    This report describes progress in a number of activities dealing with current safety issues relevant to both light water reactors (LWRs) and breeder reactors. The work includes a broad range of experiments to simulate accidental conditions to provide the required data base to understand important accident sequences and to serve as a basis for development and verification of the complex computer simulation models and codes used in accident analysis and licensing reviews. Such a program must include the development of analytical models, verified by experiment, which can be used to predict reactor and safety system performance under a broad variety of abnormal conditions. Current major emphasis is focused on providing information to NRC relevant to (1) its deliberations and decisions dealing with severe LWR accidents and (2) its safety evaluation of the proposed Clinch River Breeder Reactor.

  13. Recent Advances in Image Assisted Neurosurgical Procedures: Improved Navigational Accuracy and Patient Safety

    SciTech Connect

    Olivi, Alessandro, M.D.

    2010-08-28

    Neurosurgical procedures require precise planning and intraoperative support. Recent advances in image guided technology have provided neurosurgeons with improved navigational support for more effective and safer procedures. A number of exemplary cases will be presented.

  14. Implementation of In-vehicle Multisensor Information Fusion Gateway for Cooperative Driving

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ting-Ying Wei; Zhi-Liang Qiu; Chung-Ping Young; Yu-Tsung Lo

    2011-01-01

    Active safety is an important feature of a modern vehicle to provide precaution warning or compensatory control before the pre-crash stage of vehicle safety. All vehicle signals and information are acquired by several in-vehicle sensors on ECUs or surrounding vehicles, and integrated in vehicle gateway through in-vehicle or vehicle-to-vehicle communications. The information exchanged among the host and surrounding vehicles provides

  15. Performance of broadcast transmission from multiple vehicles in vehicle-roadside-vehicle relay network

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kazuya Minato; Huiting Cheng; Yasushi Yamao

    2011-01-01

    Vehicle to vehicle (V2V) communication is regarded as an essential means to avoid traffic accidents and increase vehicle safety. However, reliability of the communications severely suffers from wireless propagation on the road. A vehicle-roadside-vehicle relay communication scheme has been proposed to improve the reliability of the V2V communications. The packet broadcast transmission performance of the proposed scheme with large number

  16. Fusion of cooperative localization data with dynamic object information using data communication for preventative vehicle safety applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kloeden, H.; Schwarz, D.; Rasshofer, R. H.; Biebl, E. M.

    2013-07-01

    Cooperative sensors allow for reliable detection, classification and localization of objects in the vehicle's surroundings - even without a line-of-sight contact to the object. The sensor principle is based on a communication signal between the vehicle and a transponder attached to the object of interest - a pedestrian, for example. Thereby, localization information is gathered by measuring the round-trip time-of-flight (RTOF) and evaluating the angle-of-arrival (AOA) of the incident signal. After that, tracking algorithms are used to recover the kinematic state of the object providing a basis for situation assessment. This paper investigates possibilities and benefits of extending this principle by the communication of information from inertial sensors which are locally attached to the transponder. Furthermore, this paper presents a robust approach for fusing the localization data with dynamic object information using the Dempster-Shafer theory. The approach is evaluated by performing real-world experiments for the analysis of pedestrian accidents.

  17. Systems & Technology, Advanced Engineering Provided to Michigan State University as an example system description for educational purposes only.

    E-print Network

    ). Performance Target 1: Safety Effectiveness There shall be zero vehicle/pedestrian collisions for each(s) due to safety maneuvers. System Definition for "Automated Pedestrian Collision Avoidance" (APCA Pedestrian Collision Avoidance System Customer: Mr. David Agnew, Continental Automotive Systems, Advanced

  18. Research in advanced power systems for mining health and safety. Final report

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. S. Chaplin; R. E. Anderson; J. J. Shore; J. L. Smith; D. M. Jassowski

    1972-01-01

    Systems analytical techniques have been formulated and applied to quantitatively assess the relative safety merits of four shuttle car power systems for use in underground coal mines. Results from two techniques, forced decision analysis and fault tree analysis suggest the open cycle diesel to be the most desirable of the power systems studied, with the closed cycle diesel being next,

  19. CFN Operations and Safety Awareness (COSA) Checklist Advanced Optical Methods Facility

    E-print Network

    Ohta, Shigemi

    &H Coordinator Proposal No.: #12;Emergency phone numbers: Fire/Medical 631-344-2222, Security 631-344-2238, Laser NC-ESH-USERS X Cyber Security Training GE-CYBERSEC X Laser Safety TQ-LASER X Laser Medical, close windows and doors, await further instruction from the Laboratory emergency forces or housing

  20. Advanced silver zinc battery development for the SRB and ET range safety subsystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adamedes, Zoe

    1994-02-01

    This document presents in viewgraph format the design and development of silver zinc (AgZn) batteries for the solid rocket booster (SRB) and external tank (ET) range safety subsystems. Various engineering techniques, including composite separator systems, new electrode processing techniques, and new restraint techniques, were used to meet difficult requirements.

  1. Orbit Transfer Vehicle Engine Study. Phase A, extension 1: Study plan update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mellish, J. A.

    1979-01-01

    The updated study plan for the Space Transportation System orbit transfer vehicle (OTV) engine study is presented. The study program consists of engine system, programmatic, cost, and risk analyses of OTV engine concepts. Detailed task descriptions for the advanced expander cycle engine optimization, alternate low thrust capability, and safety, reliability, and cost comparisons are given.

  2. 2006 NASA Range Safety Annual Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    TenHaken, Ron; Daniels, B.; Becker, M.; Barnes, Zack; Donovan, Shawn; Manley, Brenda

    2007-01-01

    Throughout 2006, Range Safety was involved in a number of exciting and challenging activities and events, from developing, implementing, and supporting Range Safety policies and procedures-such as the Space Shuttle Launch and Landing Plans, the Range Safety Variance Process, and the Expendable Launch Vehicle Safety Program procedures-to evaluating new technologies. Range Safety training development is almost complete with the last course scheduled to go on line in mid-2007. Range Safety representatives took part in a number of panels and councils, including the newly formed Launch Constellation Range Safety Panel, the Range Commanders Council and its subgroups, the Space Shuttle Range Safety Panel, and the unmanned aircraft systems working group. Space based range safety demonstration and certification (formerly STARS) and the autonomous flight safety system were successfully tested. The enhanced flight termination system will be tested in early 2007 and the joint advanced range safety system mission analysis software tool is nearing operational status. New technologies being evaluated included a processor for real-time compensation in long range imaging, automated range surveillance using radio interferometry, and a space based range command and telemetry processor. Next year holds great promise as we continue ensuring safety while pursuing our quest beyond the Moon to Mars.

  3. Alternate vehicles for engine/vehicle optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Venkatasubramanyam, G.; Martin, James A.

    1993-01-01

    The space shuttle main engine, full flow staged combustion, integrated modular engine concept, split expander, and expander bleed rocket engine cycles were studied for use on Single-Stage-to-Orbit fully reusable vehicles. The vehicle uses vertical take-off and horizontal landing and liquid hydrogen rockets for propulsion. The PROPSIZE computer code was modified for use on the available computers. Vehicle sizing was done after trajectory optimization for various engine designs. The various rocket engine cycles were compared and it was found that the full flow staged combustion cycle had the lowest vehicle dry mass. The split expander cycle could have advantages in safety and cooling which could make it the preferred choice in some cases. Comparison to previous work with two-stage heavy-lift vehicles showed that the same ranking of the cycles was found for both vehicle concepts.

  4. Using a Wheelchair as a Seat in a Motor Vehicle: An Overview of Wheelchair Transportation Safety and Related Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Larry

    2007-01-01

    This is the first of a series of six articles on the topic of transportation safety for wheelchair-seated travelers and will highlight some of the basic issues and principles that have been considered in the development of voluntary standards for wheelchair tiedown and occupant restraints systems (WTORS) as well as for wheelchairs that are used as…

  5. 75 FR 71648 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards, Child Restraint Systems; Hybrid III 10-Year-Old Child...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-24

    ...Systems; Hybrid III 10-Year-Old Child Test Dummy AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety...regarding a Hybrid III 10-year-old child test dummy that the agency seeks to use in the compliance test procedures of the standard. This...

  6. Electric and hybrid vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Jacovides, L.J.; Cornell, E.P.; Kirk, R.

    1981-01-01

    A study of the energy utilization of gasoline and battery-electric powered special purpose vehicles is discussed along with the impact of electric cars on national energy consumption, the development of electric vehicles in Japan, the applicability of safety standards to electric and hybrid-vehicles, and crashworthiness tests on two electric vehicles. Aspects of energy storage are explored, taking into account a review of battery systems for electrically powered vehicles, the dynamic characterization of lead-acid batteries for vehicle applications, nickel-zinc storage batteries as energy sources for electric vehicles, and a high energy tubular battery for a 1800 kg payload electric delivery van. Subjects considered in connection with drive systems include the drive system of the DOE near-term electric vehicle, a high performance AC electric drive system, an electromechanical transmission for hybrid vehicle power trains, and a hybrid vehicle for fuel economy. Questions of vehicle development are examined, giving attention to the Electrovair electric car, special purpose urban cars, the system design of the electric test vehicle, a project for city center transport, and a digital computer program for simulating electric vehicle performance.

  7. Advanced photon source proposal for upgrading the radiation safety of x-ray labs

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, N.

    1991-07-01

    There are two adjacent x-ray labs in building 360, each having two entrance doors. Lab A240 has two x-ray machines and lab A248 has one. All machines are equipped with sliding safety windows and microswitches to monitor the state of the windows - open or closed. Two modes of operation are possible. (1) Secure Mode in which all safety windows are closed as indicated by the microswitches. This satisfies the interlock system, allowing the high voltage power supply to be turned on. (2) Bypass Mode in which the interlock system is overridden by a key-controlled selector switch and high voltage can be turned on with machine hutch window(s) open. The bypass mode is potentially unsafe because it is possible for an operator to leave a running instrument unattended while the windows are open. Thus, it is possible for someone entering the lab to expose themselves to x-rays.

  8. An assistive environment for improving human safety utilizing advanced sound and motion data classification

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Charalampos Doukas; Ilias Maglogiannis

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the concept and an initial implementation of an assistive awareness system that may be used for human\\u000a activity interpretation and emergency recognition in cases such as elder or patient falls and distress speech expressions,\\u000a thus improving their safety. Awareness is achieved through collecting, analyzing and classifying motion and sound data. The\\u000a latter are collected through sensors equipped

  9. Organic Tanks Safety Program: Advanced organic analysis FY 1996 progress report

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1996-09-01

    Major focus during the first part of FY96 was to evaluate using organic functional group concentrations to screen for energetics. Fourier transform infrared and Raman spectroscopy would be useful screening tools for determining C-H and COO- organic content in tank wastes analyzed in a hot cell. These techniques would be used for identifying tanks of potential safety concern that may require further analysis. Samples from Tanks 241-C-106 and -C-204 were analyzed; the major organic in C-106 was B2EHPA and in C-204 was TBP. Analyses of simulated wastes were also performed for the Waste Aging Studies Task; organics formed as a result of degradation were identified, and the original starting components were monitored quantitatively. Sample analysis is not routine and required considerable methods adaptation and optimization. Several techniques have been evaluated for directly analyzing chelator and chelator fragments in tank wastes: matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection using Cu complexation. Although not directly funded by the Tanks Safety Program, the success of these techniques have implications for both the Flammable Gas and Organic Tanks Safety Programs.

  10. MAOI efficacy and safety in advanced stage treatment-resistant depression—A retrospective study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jay D. Amsterdam; Justine Shults

    2005-01-01

    ObjectiveEvidence-based data suggest that MAOI therapy may be effective in up to 50% of patients with treatment-resistant depression (TRD). We hypothesized that MAOI therapy is similarly effective in patients with advanced stage TRD who are unresponsive to ?4 prior antidepressant drug (AD) trials compared to patients with early stage TRD who are unresponsive to ?3 prior AD trials.

  11. Safety and Economical Requirements of Conceptual Fusion Power Reactors in Co-Existing Advanced Fission Plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Salomaa; S. Sipilä; V. Tulkki; G. Zemulis

    An EPR fission plant is expected to operate from 2010 to 2070. In this time range a new generation of advanced fission reactors and several stages of fusion reactors from ITER to DEMO will emerge. Their viability in the competitive socio-economic environment and also their possible synergy benefits are discussed in this paper. The studied cases involve the Finnish EPR,

  12. Vehicle dynamics and external disturbance estimation for vehicle path prediction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chiu-Feng Lin; A. Galip Ulsoy; David J. LeBlanc

    2000-01-01

    This paper addresses the onboard prediction of a motor vehicle's path to help enable a variety of emerging functions in autonomous vehicle control and active safety systems. It is shown in simulation that good accuracy of path prediction is achieved using numerical integration of a linearized two degree of freedom vehicle handling model. To improve performance, a steady-state Kalman filter

  13. Vehicular communication - a candidate technology for traffic safety

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ioan Chisalita; Nahid Shahmehri

    2004-01-01

    Research in traffic safety has indicated that in-vehicle safety systems provide a better service to drivers when they use data about nearby vehicles. For supplying such information, vehicular communication can be employed. However, the development of in-vehicle safety systems is currently at an early stage, and the applicability of the communication between vehicles for improving traffic safety is still under

  14. Test Results for Entry Guidance Methods for Reusable Launch Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanson, John M.; Jones, Robert E.

    2003-01-01

    There are a number of approaches to advanced guidance and control (AG&C) that have the potential for achieving the goals of significantly increasing reusable launch vehicle (RLV) safety and reliability, and reducing the cost. This paper examines some approaches to entry guidance. An effort called Integration and Testing of Advanced Guidance and Control Technologies (ITAGCT) has recently completed a rigorous testing phase where these algorithms faced high-fidelity vehicle models and were required to perform a variety of representative tests. The algorithm developers spent substantial effort improving the algorithm performance in the testing. This paper lists the test cases used to demonstrate that the desired results are achieved, shows an automated test scoring method that greatly reduces the evaluation effort required, and displays results of the tests. Results show a significant improvement over previous guidance approaches. The two best-scoring algorithm approaches show roughly equivalent results and are ready to be applied to future reusable vehicle concepts.

  15. Steam-explosion safety considerations for the Advanced Neutron Source Reactor at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Taleyarkhan, R.

    1990-02-01

    This report provides a perspective on steam-explosion safety and design issues for the Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) reactor being designed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. A historical background along with a description of experiments and analytical work performed to date has been provided. Preliminary analyses (for the ANS) have been conducted to evaluate steam-explosion pressure- pulse loadings, the effects of reactor coolant system (RCS) overpressurization, and slug energetics. The method used for pressure-pulse magnitude evaluation was benchmarked with previous calculations, an aluminum-water steam-explosion experiment, and test reactor steam explosion data with good agreement. Predicted pressure-pulse magnitudes evaluated were found to be several orders of magnitude lower than corresponding values evaluated by correlating available energies with shock-wave pressures from equivalent chemical detonations. The preliminary best estimate, as well as conservative estimates for RCS volume-pressurization failure and slug energetics for RCS volume-pressurization failure and slug energetics, indicated that (1) steam explosions in the ANS have significant damage potential, and (2) steam-explosion issues must be considered during the design phase of the ANS Project. Recommendations are made for efficiently addressing this important safety and design issue. 38 refs., 17 figs., 11 tabs.

  16. Advanced three-dimensional two-phase flow simulation tools for application to reactor safety (ASTAR)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Staedtke; G. Franchello; B. Worth; U. Graf; P. Romstedt; A. Kumbaro; J. García-Cascales; H. Paillère; H. Deconinck; M. Ricchiuto; B. Smith; F. De Cachard; E. F. Toro; E. Romenski; S. Mimouni

    2005-01-01

    This paper summarizes the cumulative work undertaken in the frame of the EU shared-cost action “ASTAR Project”—the current status and future perspectives in the field of advanced numerical simulation of three-dimensional two-phase flow processes. This 3-year running project, which started in September 2000, involves seven partner institutes from around Europe. Specific emphasis is given to the further development of characteristic-based

  17. Safety Features Comparative Study between Advanced Boiling Water Reactor and Supercritical Water-Cooling Reactor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hangding Wang; Tao Zhou; Zhousen Hou

    2011-01-01

    Supercritical water-cooling reactor is one of the advanced nuclear power plants as the fourth generation reactor of internationally recognized. The plant system design is once-through cycle, feed-water flow rate are provided from pressure head by pump through the reactor core became steam, and directly into the turbine. There is not a recirculation loop in this cycle, this is the the

  18. Safer Vehicles for People and the Planet

    SciTech Connect

    Wenzel, Thomas P; Wenzel, Thomas P; Ross, Marc

    2008-03-01

    Motor vehicles contribute to climate change and petroleum dependence. Improving their fuel economy by making them lighter need not compromise safety. The cars and trucks plying America's roads and highways generate roughly 20 percent of the nation's total emissions of carbon dioxide, a pollutant that is, of course, of increasing concern because of its influence on climate. Motor vehicles also account for most of our country's dependence on imported petroleum, the price of which has recently skyrocketed to near-record levels. So policymakers would welcome the many benefits that would accrue from lessening the amount of fuel consumed in this way. Yet lawmakers have not significantly tightened new vehicle fuel-economy standards since they were first enacted three decades ago. Since then, manufacturers have, for the most part, used advances in automotive technology, ones that could have diminished fuel consumption, to boost performance and increase vehicle weight. In addition, the growth in popularity of pickups, sport utility vehicles (SUVs) and minivans--and the large amounts of gas they typically guzzle--has resulted in the average vehicle using the same amount of fuel per mile as it did 20 years ago. One of the historical impediments to imposing tougher fuel-economy standards has been the long-standing worry that reducing the mass of a car or truck to help meet these requirements would make it more dangerous to its occupants in a crash. People often justify this concern in terms of 'simple physics', noting, for example, that, all else being equal, in a head-on collision, the lighter vehicle is the more strongly decelerated, an argument that continues to sway regulators, legislators and many in the general public. We have spent the past several years examining the research underlying this position--and some recent work challenging it. We have also conducted our own analyses and come to the conclusion that the claim that lighter vehicles are inherently dangerous to those riding in them is flawed. For starters, all else is never equal; other aspects of vehicle design appear to control what really happens in a crash, as reflected in the safety record of different kinds of vehicles. What's more, the use of high-strength steel, light-weight metals such as aluminum and magnesium, and fiber-reinforced plastics now offers automotive engineers the means to fashion vehicles that are simultaneously safer and less massive than their predecessors, and such designs would, of course, enjoy the better fuel economy that shedding pounds brings.

  19. [Agreement between two observers in the measurement of smoking and use of safety belt and cell phones in vehicles].

    PubMed

    Martínez-Sánchez, Jose M; Curto, Ariadna; Fernández, Esteve

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of direct observations of smoking and use of seat belts and cell phones in drivers in the city of Barcelona, and to analyze the agreement between two observers. We performed 315 pairs of observations. The simple percentage inter-observer agreement between driver and passenger smoking was 100% with a Kappa coefficient=1.0. There was high inter-observer agreement in measurement of cell phone use and the number of passengers aged less than 14 years old. The variable with the lowest agreement was the driver's age. In conclusion, direct observation studies are a good resource for monitoring smoking and use of seat belts and cell phones in the drivers of motor vehicles. PMID:22035767

  20. Efficacy and Safety of Docetaxel Plus Oxaliplatin and Capecitabine in the First Line Treatment of Advanced Gastric Adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ying; Ye, Zhengbao; Xi, Wenqi; Ma, Tao; Shi, Min; Yang, Liu; Zhu, Zhenggang

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate the efficacy and safety of docetaxel plus oxaliplatin and capecitabine (DOX) in the first line treatment of advanced gastric adenocarcinoma. Methods. A total of 37 patients were enrolled into this study, and they received DOX regimen (docetaxel 75?mg/m2 and oxaliplatin 130?mg/m2 intravenous infusion on day 1, and capecitabine 1000?mg/m2 orally twice daily on d1–14); treatment was repeated every 3 weeks. Results. All 37 patients were assessable for evaluation. The numbers of patients with complete response (CR), partial responses (PR), stable disease (SD), and progressive disease (PD) were 1, 10, 23, and 3, respectively. The objective response rate (ORR) was 29.7%, with the disease control rate (DCR) of 91.9%. Median progression-free survival (mPFS) and overall survival (mOS) were 197 days and 364 days, respectively. The most common grade 3/4 toxicities were hematological toxicities. The most common grade 3/4 nonhematological toxicities were fatigue, nausea, vomiting, anorexia, diarrhea, and hand-foot syndrome. Conclusion. The DOX regimen demonstrated a promising efficacy as the first line regimen in treating advanced gastric cancer patients with good performance status, the toxicities were tolerated and controllable. Large-scale clinical observation is necessary to get further evidence. PMID:24151630

  1. Technology assessment of advanced propulsion systems for some classes of combat vehicles. Volume 2. Appendices AF. Final report

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. R. Riddell; D. M. Dix

    1978-01-01

    Contents: Relationship of Propulsion System Parameters to Land Combat Vehicle Characteristics; Relationship of Propulsion System Parameters to the Characteristics of High-Speed Ships; Size and Specific Fuel Consumption Relationships in Otto-Cycle Engines; Size and Specific Fuel Relationships for Diesel Engines; Size and Fuel Consumption Relationships for Open Brayton-Cycle Engines; and Size and Specific Fuel Consumption Realtionships for Closed Brayton-Cycle Engines.

  2. Advanced Transportation System Studies Technical Area 2 (TA-2) Heavy Lift Launch Vehicle Development Contract. Volume 2; Technical Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    The sections in this report include: Single Stage to Orbit (SSTO) Design Ground-rules; Operations Issues and Lessons Learned; Vertical-Takeoff/Landing Versus Vertical-Takeoff/Horizontal-Landing; SSTO Design Results; SSTO Simulation Results; SSTO Assessment Results; SSTO Sizing Tool User's Guide; SSto Turnaround Assessment Report; Ground Operations Assessment First Year Executive Summary; Health Management System Definition Study; Major TA-2 Presentations; First Lunar Outpost Heavy Lift Launch Vehicle Design and Assessment; and the section, Russian Propulsion Technology Assessment Reports.

  3. Modeling, Simulation, and Control of an Advanced Luo Converter for Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle Energy-Storage System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zahra Amjadi; Sheldon S. Williamson

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the analysis and novel controller design for a hybrid switched-capacitor bidirectional dc\\/dc con- verter that is applicable for hybrid electric vehicle (HEV)\\/plug-in HEV energy-storage system (ESS) applications, based on the power of the traction motor and the gradient of the battery current. Features of voltage step-down, voltage step-up, and bidi- rectional power flow are integrated into a

  4. Advanced Models for Prediction of High Altitude Aero-Thermal Loads of a Space Re-entry Vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Votta, R.; Schettino, A.; Bonfiglioli, A.

    2011-05-01

    The analysis of the rarefaction effects in predicting the main aero-thermal loads of a Space re-entry vehicle is presented. It is well known that the Navier-Stokes equations fail in rarefied regimes and other approaches must be used. In the present paper different configurations have been simulated by using the Direct Simulation Monte Carlo method. Moreover, slip flow boundary conditions have been implemented in a Navier-Stokes code in order to extend the validity of the continuum approach to the transitional flow regime. Finally, bridging formulas for high altitude aerodynamics of winged bodies have been used. Firstly, two simple geometries have been analysed, specifically designed to study the phenomenon of shock wave boundary layer interaction: a hollow cylinder flare, for which some experiments are available; and a blunt-nosed flat plate/flap model designed and tested at the Italian Aerospace Research Centre. The other configurations taken into account are, respectively, an experimental winged re-entry vehicle and a capsule, for which global aerodynamic coefficients and local wall heating have been determined with different approaches. The Navier-Stokes code with slip flow boundary conditions has shown good predicting capabilities compared with experiments in the hollow cylinder flare case; however, for the winged vehicle and capsule cases, the CFD results are not fully satisfactory and the Monte Carlo method remains the most reliable approach, together with the bridging formula, that provides good results for the aerodynamic coefficients.

  5. Sensor Systems for Vehicle Environment Perception in a Highway Intelligent Space System

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Xiaofeng; Gao, Feng; Xu, Guoyan; Ding, Nenggen; Cai, Yao; Ma, Mingming; Liu, Jianxing

    2014-01-01

    A Highway Intelligent Space System (HISS) is proposed to study vehicle environment perception in this paper. The nature of HISS is that a space sensors system using laser, ultrasonic or radar sensors are installed in a highway environment and communication technology is used to realize the information exchange between the HISS server and vehicles, which provides vehicles with the surrounding road information. Considering the high-speed feature of vehicles on highways, when vehicles will be passing a road ahead that is prone to accidents, the vehicle driving state should be predicted to ensure drivers have road environment perception information in advance, thereby ensuring vehicle driving safety and stability. In order to verify the accuracy and feasibility of the HISS, a traditional vehicle-mounted sensor system for environment perception is used to obtain the relative driving state. Furthermore, an inter-vehicle dynamics model is built and model predictive control approach is used to predict the driving state in the following period. Finally, the simulation results shows that using the HISS for environment perception can arrive at the same results detected by a traditional vehicle-mounted sensors system. Meanwhile, we can further draw the conclusion that using HISS to realize vehicle environment perception can ensure system stability, thereby demonstrating the method's feasibility. PMID:24834907

  6. Sensor systems for vehicle environment perception in a Highway Intelligent Space System.

    PubMed

    Tang, Xiaofeng; Gao, Feng; Xu, Guoyan; Ding, Nenggen; Cai, Yao; Ma, Mingming; Liu, Jianxing

    2014-01-01

    A Highway Intelligent Space System (HISS) is proposed to study vehicle environment perception in this paper. The nature of HISS is that a space sensors system using laser, ultrasonic or radar sensors are installed in a highway environment and communication technology is used to realize the information exchange between the HISS server and vehicles, which provides vehicles with the surrounding road information. Considering the high-speed feature of vehicles on highways, when vehicles will be passing a road ahead that is prone to accidents, the vehicle driving state should be predicted to ensure drivers have road environment perception information in advance, thereby ensuring vehicle driving safety and stability. In order to verify the accuracy and feasibility of the HISS, a traditional vehicle-mounted sensor system for environment perception is used to obtain the relative driving state. Furthermore, an inter-vehicle dynamics model is built and model predictive control approach is used to predict the driving state in the following period. Finally, the simulation results shows that using the HISS for environment perception can arrive at the same results detected by a traditional vehicle-mounted sensors system. Meanwhile, we can further draw the conclusion that using HISS to realize vehicle environment perception can ensure system stability, thereby demonstrating the method's feasibility. PMID:24834907

  7. DEVELOPMENT OF HUMAN FACTORS ENGINEERING GUIDANCE FOR SAFETY EVALUATIONS OF ADVANCED REACTORS.

    SciTech Connect

    O'HARA, J.; PERSENSKY, J.; SZABO, A.

    2006-10-01

    Advanced reactors are expected to be based on a concept of operations that is different from what is currently used in today's reactors. Therefore, regulatory staff may need new tools, developed from the best available technical bases, to support licensing evaluations. The areas in which new review guidance may be needed and the efforts underway to address the needs will be discussed. Our preliminary results focus on some of the technical issues to be addressed in three areas for which new guidance may be developed: automation and control, operations under degraded conditions, and new human factors engineering methods and tools.

  8. School Bus Safety Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    This publication provides a summary and update of school bus-safety activities conducted by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA). This report discusses Congressional mandates and NHTSA's actions to improve school-bus safety (which include programs that affect human behavior and motor-vehicle safety performance), the magnitude…

  9. Accelerated Monte Carlo Simulation for Safety Analysis of the Advanced Airspace Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thipphavong, David

    2010-01-01

    Safe separation of aircraft is a primary objective of any air traffic control system. An accelerated Monte Carlo approach was developed to assess the level of safety provided by a proposed next-generation air traffic control system. It combines features of fault tree and standard Monte Carlo methods. It runs more than one order of magnitude faster than the standard Monte Carlo method while providing risk estimates that only differ by about 10%. It also preserves component-level model fidelity that is difficult to maintain using the standard fault tree method. This balance of speed and fidelity allows sensitivity analysis to be completed in days instead of weeks or months with the standard Monte Carlo method. Results indicate that risk estimates are sensitive to transponder, pilot visual avoidance, and conflict detection failure probabilities.

  10. 49 CFR 592.8 - Inspection; release of vehicle and bond.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED...Office of Vehicle Safety Compliance, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, Fourth Floor, Room...

  11. Task 4 supporting technology. Part 2: Detailed test plan for thermal seals. Thermal seals evaluation, improvement and test. CAN8-1, Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV), advanced technology demonstrator: X-33. Leading edge and seals thermal protection system technology demonstration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hogenson, P. A.; Lu, Tina

    1995-01-01

    The objective is to develop the advanced thermal seals to a technology readiness level (TRL) of 6 to support the rapid turnaround time and low maintenance requirements of the X-33 and the future reusable launch vehicle (RLV). This program is divided into three subtasks: (1) orbiter thermal seals operation history review; (2) material, process, and design improvement; and (3) fabrication and evaluation of the advanced thermal seals.

  12. Initial performance assessment of the Westinghouse AP600 containment design and related safety issues. [Advanced reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Tills, J.L. (Tills (Jack) and Associates, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)); Washington, K.E.; Nicolette, V.F. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States))

    1991-01-01

    The CONTAIN code is currently being used to predict containment thermal hydraulic conditions during design basis and severe accidents for advanced light water reactor (ALWR) designs such as the Westinghouse AP600. In the AP600 design, a passive containment cooling system (PCCS) is used for reducing long-term overpressure during accidents. CONTAIN models for heat and mass transfer within the AP600 containment and outer air cooling channel are verified by comparing recent CONTAIN calculations to integral test data obtained by Westinghouse in their PCCS Integral Test Facility. The comparison includes test in which the outer containment wall is both dry and wet, that is, the wet tests involve an evaporative water film that enhances heat transfer as will be the case for AP600. The appropriateness of the heat and mass transfer analogy methodology used in the CONTAIN code is demonstrated. Code model limitations are discussed along with model development plans and applications for AP600.

  13. An Innovative Approach for Data Collection and Handling to Enable Advancements in Micro Air Vehicle Persistent Surveillance 

    E-print Network

    Goodnight, Ryan David

    2010-10-12

    be carrying a specific subset of hardware along with it during its mission. 2.1.1 Necessary Hardware and Examples The selection of a propulsion system is one of the primary drivers in how an MAV flight unit will eventually take form. Because... the propulsion of the MAV is 17 directly related to its fuel source, several factors must be considered prior to making the final decision. For instance, a gas powered motor would not be a desirable selection for a vehicle that will be intended for multiple...

  14. Radical advancement in multi-spectral imaging for autonomous vehicles (UAVs, UGVs, and UUVs) using active compensation.

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, Brian F.; Bagwell, Brett E.; Wick, David Victor

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this LDRD was to demonstrate a compact, multi-spectral, refractive imaging systems using active optical compensation. Compared to a comparable, conventional lens system, our system has an increased operational bandwidth, provides for spectral selectivity and, non-mechanically corrects aberrations induced by the wavelength dependent properties of a passive refractive optical element (i.e. lens). The compact nature and low power requirements of the system lends itself to small platforms such as autonomous vehicles. In addition, the broad spectral bandwidth of our system would allow optimized performance for both day/night use, and the multi-spectral capability allows for spectral discrimination and signature identification.

  15. Advances in Atmospheric Radiation Measurements and Modeling Needed to Improve Air Safety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tobiska, W. Kent; Atwell, William; Beck, Peter; Benton, Eric; Copeland, Kyle; Dyer, Clive; Gersey, Brad; Getley, Ian; Hands, Alex; Holland, Michael; Hong, Sunhak; Hwang, Junga; Jones, Bryn; Malone, Kathleen; Meier, Matthias M.; Mertens, Chris; Phillips, Tony; Ryden, Keith; Schwadron, Nathan; Wender, Stephen A.; Wilkins, Richard; Xapsos, Michael A.

    2015-04-01

    Air safety is tied to the phenomenon of ionizing radiation from space weather, primarily from galactic cosmic rays but also from solar energetic particles. A global framework for addressing radiation issues in this environment has been constructed, but more must be done at international and national levels. Health consequences from atmospheric radiation exposure are likely to exist. In addition, severe solar radiation events may cause economic consequences in the international aviation community due to exposure limits being reached by some crew members. Impacts from a radiation environment upon avionics from high-energy particles and low-energy, thermalized neutrons are now recognized as an area of active interest. A broad community recognizes that there are a number of mitigation paths that can be taken relative to the human tissue and avionics exposure risks. These include developing active monitoring and measurement programs as well as improving scientific modeling capabilities that can eventually be turned into operations. A number of roadblocks to risk mitigation still exist, such as effective pilot training programs as well as monitoring, measuring, and regulatory measures. An active international effort toward observing the weather of atmospheric radiation must occur to make progress in mitigating radiation exposure risks. Stakeholders in this process include standard-making bodies, scientific organizations, regulatory organizations, air traffic management systems, aircraft owners and operators, pilots and crew, and even the public.

  16. Development of tools for safety analysis of control software in advanced reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Guarro, S.; Yau, M.; Motamed, M. [Advanced Systems Concepts Associates, El Segundo, CA (United States)

    1996-04-01

    Software based control systems have gained a pervasive presence in a wide variety of applications, including nuclear power plant control and protection systems which are within the oversight and licensing responsibility of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. While the cost effectiveness and flexibility of software based plant process control is widely recognized, it is very difficult to achieve and prove high levels of demonstrated dependability and safety assurance for the functions performed by process control software, due to the very flexibility and potential complexity of the software itself. The development of tools to model, analyze and test software design and implementations in the context of the system that the software is designed to control can greatly assist the task of providing higher levels of assurance than those obtainable by software testing alone. This report presents and discusses the development of the Dynamic Flowgraph Methodology (DFM) and its application in the dependability and assurance analysis of software-based control systems. The features of the methodology and full-scale examples of application to both generic process and nuclear power plant control systems are presented and discussed in detail. The features of a workstation software tool developed to assist users in the application of DFM are also described.

  17. Advanced organic analysis and analytical methods development: FY 1995 progress report. Waste Tank Organic Safety Program

    SciTech Connect

    Wahl, K.L.; Campbell, J.A.; Clauss, S.A. [and others

    1995-09-01

    This report describes the work performed during FY 1995 by Pacific Northwest Laboratory in developing and optimizing analysis techniques for identifying organics present in Hanford waste tanks. The main focus was to provide a means for rapidly obtaining the most useful information concerning the organics present in tank waste, with minimal sample handling and with minimal waste generation. One major focus has been to optimize analytical methods for organic speciation. Select methods, such as atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry, were developed to increase the speciation capabilities, while minimizing sample handling. A capillary electrophoresis method was developed to improve separation capabilities while minimizing additional waste generation. In addition, considerable emphasis has been placed on developing a rapid screening tool, based on Raman and infrared spectroscopy, for determining organic functional group content when complete organic speciation is not required. This capability would allow for a cost-effective means to screen the waste tanks to identify tanks that require more specialized and complete organic speciation to determine tank safety.

  18. Advanced control technology and its potential for future transport aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The topics covered include fly by wire, digital control, control configured vehicles, applications to advanced flight vehicles, advanced propulsion control systems, and active control technology for transport aircraft.

  19. Hybrid & Hydrogen Vehicle Research Laboratory

    E-print Network

    Lee, Dongwon

    Hybrid & Hydrogen Vehicle Research Laboratory www.vss.psu.edu/hhvrl Joel R. Anstrom, Director 201 The Pennsylvania Transportation Institute Hybrid and Hydrogen Vehicle Research Laboratory will contribute to the advancement of hybrid and hydrogen vehicle technology to promote the emerging hydrogen economy by providing

  20. ATV Safety

    E-print Network

    Smith, David

    2004-09-16

    , Extension Safety Program The Texas A&M University System Source: All-Terrain Vehicle 2001 Injury and Exposure Studies. Consumer Product Safety Commission. January 2003. Causes of Injuries and Fatalities ATV accidents are rarely caused by design flaws. Most... at a sharp angle to cross a gully, plac- ing the vehicle in a severe side lean. Blood analysis showed significant levels of both amphetamine and cannabinoid, and a bag of a suspected controlled sub- stance was found on the body. Source: Wyoming FACE...