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1

Advanced Range Safety System for High Energy Vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The advanced range safety system project is a collaboration between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and the United States Air Force to develop systems that would reduce costs and schedule for safety approval for new classes of unmanned high-energy vehicles. The mission-planning feature for this system would yield flight profiles that satisfy the mission requirements for the user while providing an increased quality of risk assessment, enhancing public safety. By improving the speed and accuracy of predicting risks to the public, mission planners would be able to expand flight envelopes significantly. Once in place, this system is expected to offer the flexibility of handling real-time risk management for the high-energy capabilities of hypersonic vehicles including autonomous return-from-orbit vehicles and extended flight profiles over land. Users of this system would include mission planners of Space Launch Initiative vehicles, space planes, and other high-energy vehicles. The real-time features of the system could make extended flight of a malfunctioning vehicle possible, in lieu of an immediate terminate decision. With this improved capability, the user would have more time for anomaly resolution and potential recovery of a malfunctioning vehicle.

Claxton, Jeffrey S.; Linton, Donald F.

2002-01-01

2

Advanced Chassis Control Systems for Vehicle Handling and Active Safety  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper chassis controls for vehicle handling and active safety have been reviewed. In particular, we have observed the effectiveness and limit of 4WS and DYC. It is pointed out that DYC is more effective in vehicle motion with larger side-slip and\\/or higher lateral acceleration and taking the nonlinearity of tire and vehicle dynamics into consideration is essential for

YOSHIMI FURUKAWA; MASATO ABE

1997-01-01

3

Current status of environmental, health, and safety issues of electrochemical capacitors for advanced vehicle applications  

SciTech Connect

Electrochemical capacitors are a candidate for traction power assists in hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). Other advanced automotive applications, while not the primary focus of current development efforts, are also possible. These include load leveling high-energy batteries, power conditioning electronics, electrically hated catalysts, electric power steering, and engine starter power. Higher power and longer cycle life are expected for electrochemical capacitors than for batteries. Evaluation of environmental, health, and safety (EH and S) issues of electrochemical capacitors is an essential part of the development and commercialization of electrochemical capacitors for advanced vehicles. This report provides an initial EH and S assessment. This report presents electrochemical capacitor electrochemistry, materials selection, intrinsic material hazards, mitigation of those hazards, environmental requirements, pollution control options, and shipping requirements. Most of the information available for this assessment pertains to commercial devices intended for application outside the advanced vehicle market and to experiment or prototype devices. Electrochemical capacitors for power assists in HEVs are not produced commercially now. Therefore, materials for advanced vehicle electrochemical capacitors may change, and so would the corresponding EH and S issues. Although changes are possible, this report describes issues for likely electrochemical capacitor designs.

Vimmerstedt, L.J.; Hammel, C.J.

1997-04-01

4

Advanced Aerodynamic Devices to Improve the Performance, Economics, Handling, and Safety of Heavy Vehicles  

SciTech Connect

Research is being conducted at the Georgia Tech Research Institute (GTRI) to develop advanced aerodynamic devices to improve the performance, economics, stability, handling and safety of operation of Heavy Vehicles by using previously-developed and flight-tested pneumatic (blown) aircraft technology. Recent wind-tunnel investigations of a generic Heavy Vehicle model with blowing slots on both the leading and trailing edges of the trailer have been conducted under contract to the DOE Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies. These experimental results show overall aerodynamic drag reductions on the Pneumatic Heavy Vehicle of 50% using only 1 psig blowing pressure in the plenums, and over 80% drag reductions if additional blowing air were available. Additionally, an increase in drag force for braking was confirmed by blowing different slots. Lift coefficient was increased for rolling resistance reduction by blowing only the top slot, while downforce was produced for traction increase by blowing only the bottom. Also, side force and yawing moment were generated on either side of the vehicle, and directional stability was restored by blowing the appropriate side slot. These experimental results and the predicted full-scale payoffs are presented in this paper, as is a discussion of additional applications to conventional commercial autos, buses, motor homes, and Sport Utility Vehicles.

Robert J. Englar

2001-05-14

5

Advanced Technology Vehicle Testing  

SciTech Connect

The goal of the U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA) is to increase the body of knowledge as well as the awareness and acceptance of electric drive and other advanced technology vehicles (ATV). The AVTA accomplishes this goal by testing ATVs on test tracks and dynamometers (Baseline Performance testing), as well as in real-world applications (Fleet and Accelerated Reliability testing and public demonstrations). This enables the AVTA to provide Federal and private fleet managers, as well as other potential ATV users, with accurate and unbiased information on vehicle performance and infrastructure needs so they can make informed decisions about acquiring and operating ATVs. The ATVs currently in testing include vehicles that burn gaseous hydrogen (H2) fuel and hydrogen/CNG (H/CNG) blended fuels in internal combustion engines (ICE), and hybrid electric (HEV), urban electric, and neighborhood electric vehicles. The AVTA is part of DOE's FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies Program.

James Francfort

2004-06-01

6

5-Star Safety Ratings: 2011-Newer Vehicles  

MedlinePLUS

5-Star Safety Ratings 2011-Newer Vehicles 1990-2010 Vehicles Air Bags Child Safety at Parents Central Resources Rollover ... to the most frequently asked questions about 5-Star Safety Ratings. Shop Smart for a Safer Car, ...

7

Vehicle Battery Safety Roadmap Guidance  

SciTech Connect

The safety of electrified vehicles with high capacity energy storage devices creates challenges that must be met to assure commercial acceptance of EVs and HEVs. High performance vehicular traction energy storage systems must be intrinsically tolerant of abusive conditions: overcharge, short circuit, crush, fire exposure, overdischarge, and mechanical shock and vibration. Fail-safe responses to these conditions must be designed into the system, at the materials and the system level, through selection of materials and safety devices that will further reduce the probability of single cell failure and preclude propagation of failure to adjacent cells. One of the most important objectives of DOE's Office of Vehicle Technologies is to support the development of lithium ion batteries that are safe and abuse tolerant in electric drive vehicles. This Roadmap analyzes battery safety and failure modes of state-of-the-art cells and batteries and makes recommendations on future investments that would further DOE's mission.

Doughty, D. H.

2012-10-01

8

Advanced Technology and Alternative Fuel Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

This fact sheet provides a basic overview of today's alternative fuel choices--including biofuels, biodiesel, electricity, and hydrogen--alternative fuel vehicles, and advanced vehicle technology, such as hybrid electric vehicles, fuel cells and advanced drive trains.

Tuttle

2001-01-01

9

Improve vehicle's function safety with an approach investigating vehicle's electromagnetic interference with its function safety  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, an approach to improve vehicle's function safety by integrating the analysis of electromagnetic interference with the analysis of safety function is proposed. It is proposed that vehicle's EMI analysis should be carried out with vehicle's function safety analysis. These two analyses should be carried out together from the beginning of the design of vehicle's electrical and electronic

Shuo Wang

2011-01-01

10

29 CFR 500.100 - Vehicle safety obligations.  

...AGRICULTURAL WORKER PROTECTION Motor Vehicle Safety and Insurance for Transportation of Migrant and Seasonal Agricultural Workers, Housing Safety and Health for Migrant Workers Motor Vehicle Safety § 500.100 Vehicle safety...

2014-07-01

11

29 CFR 500.102 - Applicability of vehicle safety standards.  

...AGRICULTURAL WORKER PROTECTION Motor Vehicle Safety and Insurance for Transportation of Migrant and Seasonal Agricultural Workers, Housing Safety and Health for Migrant Workers Motor Vehicle Safety § 500.102 Applicability of vehicle...

2014-07-01

12

Advanced Vehicle system concepts. [nonpetroleum passenger transportation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Various nonpetroleum vehicle system concepts for passenger vehicles in the 1990's are being considered as part of the Advanced Vehicle (AV) Assessment at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The vehicle system and subsystem performance requirements, the projected characteristics of mature subsystem candidates, and promising systems are presented. The system candidates include electric and hybrid vehicles powered by electricity with or without a nonpetroleum power source. The subsystem candidates include batteries (aqueous-mobile, flow, high-temperature, and metal-air), fuel cells (phosphoric acid, advanced acids, and solid polymer electrolyte), nonpetroleum heat engines, advanced dc and ac propulsion components, power-peaking devices, and transmissions.

Hardy, K. S.; Langendoen, J. M.

1983-01-01

13

LNG vehicle technology, economics, and safety assessment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Liquid natural gas (LNG) is an attractive transportation fuel because of its high heating value and energy density (i.e., Btu/lb. and Btu/gal.), clean burning characteristics, relatively low cost ($/Btu), and domestic availability. This research evaluated LNG vehicle and refueling system technology, economics, and safety. Prior and current LNG vehicle projects were studied to identify needed technology improvements. Life-cycle cost analyses considered various LNG vehicle and fuel supply options. Safety records, standards, and analysis methods were reviewed. The LNG market niche is centrally fueled heavy-duty fleet vehicles with high fuel consumption. For these applications, fuel cost savings can amortize equipment capital costs.

Powars, Charles A.; Moyer, Carl B.; Lowell, Douglas D.

1994-02-01

14

76 FR 11418 - Rear Visibility; Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard, Rearview Mirrors; Federal Motor Vehicle...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Rearview Mirrors; Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard, Low-Speed Vehicles; Phase-in Reporting Requirements AGENCY: National...trucks, multipurpose passenger vehicles, buses, and low-speed vehicles rated at 10,000 pounds or less, gross vehicle...

2011-03-02

15

Recycling readiness of advanced batteries for electric vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Maximizing the reclamation\\/recycle of electric-vehicle (EV) batteries is considered to be essential for the successful commercialization of this technology. Since the early 1990s, the US Department of Energy has sponsored the ad hoc advanced battery readiness working group to review this and other possible barriers to the widespread use of EVs, such as battery shipping and in-vehicle safety. Regulation is

Jungst

1997-01-01

16

Teaching Technology by Assessing Vehicle Safety  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

According to the National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, motor vehicle crashes are the leading cause of death among Americans aged 2-34. Many states have adopted periodic motor vehicle inspection (PMVI) to ensure the safety of the highways, and states that have adopted PMVI report a reduction in highway fatalities. Deaths and injuries…

Lazaros, Edward J.

2012-01-01

17

Safety considerations for sodium-sulfur batteries for electric vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Safety issues and current transport (shipment and in-vehicle use) and environmental regulations applicable to sodium-sulfur batteries for electric vehicles are summarized, and an assessment technique is suggested for evaluating hazards relative to commonly accepted risks. It is found that shipment regulations do not directly apply to sodium-sulfur batteries. Disposal hazards need to be quantified and decommissioning procedures need to be developed to comply with the environmental regulations. The risk assessment could be used to help commercialize sodium-sulfur and other advanced batteries in electric vehicles.

Stodolsky, Frank

18

10 CFR 611.3 - Advanced technology vehicle.  

...2014-01-01 false Advanced technology vehicle. 611.3 Section...ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY VEHICLES MANUFACTURER ASSISTANCE...General § 611.3 Advanced technology vehicle. In order to...

2014-01-01

19

10 CFR 611.3 - Advanced technology vehicle.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 false Advanced technology vehicle. 611.3 Section...ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY VEHICLES MANUFACTURER ASSISTANCE...General § 611.3 Advanced technology vehicle. In order to...

2012-01-01

20

10 CFR 611.3 - Advanced technology vehicle.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 false Advanced technology vehicle. 611.3 Section...ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY VEHICLES MANUFACTURER ASSISTANCE...General § 611.3 Advanced technology vehicle. In order to...

2011-01-01

21

10 CFR 611.3 - Advanced technology vehicle.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Advanced technology vehicle. 611.3 Section...ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY VEHICLES MANUFACTURER ASSISTANCE...General § 611.3 Advanced technology vehicle. In order to...

2013-01-01

22

5-Star Safety Ratings: 1990-2010 Vehicles  

MedlinePLUS

5-Star Safety Ratings 2011-Newer Vehicles 1990-2010 Vehicles Air Bags Child Safety at Parents Central Resources Rollover ... to the most frequently asked questions about 5-Star Safety Ratings. Shop Smart for a Safer Car, ...

23

Advanced Clean Cars Zero Emission Vehicle Regulation  

E-print Network

Advanced Clean Cars Zero Emission Vehicle Regulation ZEV #12;Advanced Clean Cars ZEV Program.4% of Annual Sales in 2025 Projected: ZEVs #12;Advanced Clean Cars Hydrogen Infrastructure · Without infrastructure, the cars won't come · Complementary Policies to support ZEV regulation ­ Clean Fuels Outlet

California at Davis, University of

24

LNG vehicle technology, economics, and safety assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Liquid natural gas (LNG) is an attractive transportation fuel because of its high heating value and energy density (i.e., Btu\\/lb. and Btu\\/gal.), clean burning characteristics, relatively low cost ($\\/Btu), and domestic availability. This research evaluated LNG vehicle and refueling system technology, economics, and safety. Prior and current LNG vehicle projects were studied to identify needed technology improvements. Life-cycle cost analyses

Charles A. Powars; Carl B. Moyer; Douglas D. Lowell

1994-01-01

25

Smart sensor technology for advanced launch vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Next-generation advanced launch vehicles will require improved use of sensor data and the management of multisensor resources to achieve automated preflight checkout, prelaunch readiness assessment and vehicle inflight condition monitoring. Smart sensor technology is a key component in meeting these needs. This paper describes the development of a smart sensor-based condition monitoring system concept referred to as the Distributed Sensor

Jeff Schoess

1989-01-01

26

Advanced secondary batteries for electric vehicle propulsion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Contemplated battery applications and requirements for electric vehicles are summarized. Development goals for the applications and the technological status of near-term state-of-the-art and long-term advanced batteries are reviewed. Among the near-term batteries for electric vehicles are the improved lead-acid, nickel-iron, and nickel-zinc systems. Zinc-chlorine, sodium-sulfur, and lithium-metal sulfide systems are the most promising advanced batteries under development. Batteries are modular

N. P. Yao

1978-01-01

27

Safety First Safety Last Safety Always Aerial lifts include the following types of vehicle-mounted  

E-print Network

lifts Link: Occupational Safety and Health Administration www.osha.gov #12;Safety First Safety Last Safety Always Aerial lifts include the following types of vehicle, if they can be installed safely. Aerial Lifts Safety Tip #11 A spill, a slip, a hospital trip #12;Additional

Minnesota, University of

28

Need for Speed: Motorized Vehicle Safety for Children  

MedlinePLUS

... Children Safety & Prevention Listen Need for Speed: Motorized Vehicle Safety for Children Article Body Although children cannot ... the driver's seat of other types of motorized vehicles. Most commonly, these youngsters are driving tractors, lawn ...

29

Advanced Vehicle Concepts and Implications for NextGen  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report presents the results of a major NASA study of advanced vehicle concepts and their implications for the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen). Comprising the efforts of dozens of researchers at multiple institutions, the analyses presented here cover a broad range of topics including business-case development, vehicle design, avionics, procedure design, delay, safety, environmental impacts, and metrics. The study focuses on the following five new vehicle types: Cruise-efficient short takeoff and landing (CESTOL) vehicles Large commercial tiltrotor aircraft (LCTRs) Unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) Very light jets (VLJs) Supersonic transports (SST). The timeframe of the study spans the years 2025-2040, although some analyses are also presented for a 3X scenario that has roughly three times the number of flights as today. Full implementation of NextGen is assumed.

Blake, Matt; Smith, Jim; Wright, Ken; Mediavilla Ricky; Kirby, Michelle; Pfaender, Holger; Clarke, John-Paul; Volovoi, Vitali; Dorbian, Christopher; Ashok, Akshay; Reynolds, Tom; Waitz, Ian; Hileman, James; Arunachalam, Sarav; Hedrick, Matt; Vempati, Lakshmi; Laroza, Ryan; denBraven, Wim; Henderson, Jeff

2010-01-01

30

Smart sensor technology for advanced launch vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Next-generation advanced launch vehicles will require improved use of sensor data and the management of multisensor resources to achieve automated preflight checkout, prelaunch readiness assessment and vehicle inflight condition monitoring. Smart sensor technology is a key component in meeting these needs. This paper describes the development of a smart sensor-based condition monitoring system concept referred to as the Distributed Sensor Architecture. A significant event and anomaly detection scheme that provides real-time condition assessment and fault diagnosis of advanced launch system rocket engines is described. The design and flight test of a smart autonomous sensor for Space Shuttle structural integrity health monitoring is presented.

Schoess, Jeff

1989-07-01

31

Ron Medford Senior Associate Administrator, Vehicle Safety  

E-print Network

PercentageUse Safety Belt Use Rates in US 1% Increase in Belt Use Saves 268 Lives in US Click It Or Ticket at the University of Minnesota CTS Winter Luncheon 2008 #12;2 Top 10 Leading Causes of Death in U.S. 2002 data, by Age Group Top 10 Leading Causes of Death in U.S. 2002 data, by Age Group #12;3 Motor Vehicle Traffic

Minnesota, University of

32

Advanced wiring technique and hardware application: Airplane and space vehicle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An advanced wiring system is described which achieves the safety/reliability required for present and future airplane and space vehicle applications. Also, present wiring installation techniques and hardware are analyzed to establish existing problem areas. An advanced wiring system employing matrix interconnecting unit, plug to plug trunk bundles (FCC or ribbon cable) is outlined, and an installation study presented. A planned program to develop, lab test and flight test key features of these techniques and hardware as a part of the SST technology follow-on activities is discussed.

Ernst, H. L.; Eichman, C. D.

1972-01-01

33

Highway Safety Program Manual: Volume 2: Motor Vehicle Registration.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Volume 2 of the 19-volume Highway Safety Program Manual (which provides guidance to State and local governments on preferred highway safety practices) describes the purposes and specific objectives of motor vehicle registration. Federal authority for vehicle registration and general policies regarding vehicle registration systems are outlined.…

National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

34

Recycling readiness of advanced batteries for electric vehicles  

SciTech Connect

Maximizing the reclamation/recycle of electric-vehicle (EV) batteries is considered to be essential for the successful commercialization of this technology. Since the early 1990s, the US Department of Energy has sponsored the ad hoc advanced battery readiness working group to review this and other possible barriers to the widespread use of EVs, such as battery shipping and in-vehicle safety. Regulation is currently the main force for growth in EV numbers and projections for the states that have zero-emission vehicle (ZEV) programs indicate about 200,000 of these vehicles would be offered to the public in 2003 to meet those requirements. The ad hoc Advanced Battery Readiness Working Group has identified a matrix of battery technologies that could see use in EVs and has been tracking the state of readiness of recycling processes for each of them. Lead-acid, nickel/metal hydride, and lithium-ion are the three EV battery technologies proposed by the major automotive manufacturers affected by ZEV requirements. Recycling approaches for the two advanced battery systems on this list are partly defined, but could be modified to recover more value from end-of-life batteries. The processes being used or planned to treat these batteries are reviewed, as well as those being considered for other longer-term technologies in the battery recycling readiness matrix. Development efforts needed to prepare for recycling the batteries from a much larger EV population than exists today are identified.

Jungst, R.G.

1997-09-01

35

Vehicle safety telemetry for automated highways  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The emphasis in current, automatic vehicle testing and diagnosis is primarily centered on the proper operation of the engine. Lateral and longitudinal guidance technologies, including speed control and headway sensing for collision avoidance, are reviewed. The principal guidance technique remains the buried wire. Speed control and headway sensing, even though they show the same basic elements in braking and fuel systems, are proceeding independently. The applications of on-board electronic and microprocessor techniques were investigated; each application (emission control, spark advance, or anti-slip braking) is being treated as an independent problem is proposed. A unified bus system of distributed processors for accomplishing the various functions and testing required for vehicles equipped to use automated highways.

Hansen, G. R.

1977-01-01

36

Propulsion issues for advanced orbit transfer vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Studies of the United States Space Transportation System show that in the mid to late 1990s expanded capabilities for orbital transfer vehicles (OTV) will be needed to meet increased payload requirements for transporting materials and possibly men to geosynchronous orbit. Discussion and observations relative to the propulsion system issues of space basing, aeroassist compatibility, man ratability and enhanced payload delivery capability are presented. These issues will require resolution prior to the development of a propulsion system for the advanced OTV. The NASA program in support of advanced propulsion for an OTV is briefly described along with conceptual engine design characteristics.

Cooper, L. P.

1984-01-01

37

Recycling of Advanced Batteries for Electric Vehicles  

SciTech Connect

The pace of development and fielding of electric vehicles is briefly described and the principal advanced battery chemistries expected to be used in the EV application are identified as Ni/MH in the near term and Li-ion/Li-polymer in the intermediate to long term. The status of recycling process development is reviewed for each of the two chemistries and future research needs are discussed.

JUNGST,RUDOLPH G.

1999-10-06

38

Advanced propulsion concepts for orbital transfer vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Studies of the United States Space Transportation System show that in the mid-to-late 1990s expanded capabilities for Orbital Transfer Vehicles (OTV) will be needed to meet increased payload requirements for transporting materials and possible men to geosynchronous orbit. NASA is conducting a technology program in support of an advanced propulsion system for future OTVs. This program is briefly described with results to date of the first program element, the Conceptual Design and Technology Definition studies.

Cooper, L. P.

1982-01-01

39

76 FR 2631 - Certification; Importation of Vehicles and Equipment Subject to Federal Safety, Bumper, and Theft...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...purchase or sale of motor vehicles or motor vehicle equipment. We also propose...purchase or sale of motor vehicles or motor vehicle equipment. These offenses...and 593 Imports, Motor Vehicle Safety, Motor Vehicles, Reporting and...

2011-01-14

40

76 FR 53072 - Certification; Importation of Vehicles and Equipment Subject to Federal Safety, Bumper, and Theft...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...purchase, or sale of motor vehicles or motor vehicle equipment. The amendments...purchase, or sale of motor vehicles or motor vehicle equipment. These offenses...and 593 Imports, Motor vehicle safety, Motor vehicles, Reporting and...

2011-08-25

41

77 FR 54836 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 571 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards CFR Correction...10,000 pounds) and motorcycles. * * * * * Table II...Tire characteristic Motorcycle All 12 rim diameter...

2012-09-06

42

Advanced Technology Vehicle Modeling in PERE (Physical Emission Rate Estimator).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study proposes a modeling methodology for light duty advanced technology vehicles including those powered by: Advanced gasoline internal combustion engine; Advanced diesel internal combustion engines; Hybrid electric and gasoline/diesel powertrains; ...

E. Nam

2004-01-01

43

Predicting Production Costs for Advanced Aerospace Vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

For early design concepts, the conventional approach to cost is normally some kind of parametric weight-based cost model. There is now ample evidence that this approach can be misleading and inaccurate. By the nature of its development, a parametric cost model requires historical data and is valid only if the new design is analogous to those for which the model was derived. Advanced aerospace vehicles have no historical production data and are nowhere near the vehicles of the past. Using an existing weight-based cost model would only lead to errors and distortions of the true production cost. This paper outlines the development of a process-based cost model in which the physical elements of the vehicle are soared according to a first-order dynamics model. This theoretical cost model, first advocated by early work at MIT, has been expanded to cover the basic structures of an advanced aerospace vehicle. Elemental costs based on the geometry of the design can be summed up to provide an overall estimation of the total production cost for a design configuration. This capability to directly link any design configuration to realistic cost estimation is a key requirement for high payoff MDO problems. Another important consideration in this paper is the handling of part or product complexity. Here the concept of cost modulus is introduced to take into account variability due to different materials, sizes, shapes, precision of fabrication, and equipment requirements. The most important implication of the development of the proposed process-based cost model is that different design configurations can now be quickly related to their cost estimates in a seamless calculation process easily implemented on any spreadsheet tool.

Bao, Han P.; Samareh, J. A.; Weston, R. P.

2002-01-01

44

77 FR 51731 - All-Terrain Vehicle Safety Summit  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...CPSC-2012-0048] 16 CFR Chapter II All-Terrain Vehicle Safety Summit AGENCY...announcing its intent to hold a Summit on all-terrain vehicle (ATV) safety. The Summit...should register by September 14, 2012; all other individuals who wish to attend...

2012-08-27

45

Advanced propulsion concepts for orbital transfer vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Studies of the United States Space Transportation System show that in the mid-to-late 1990s expanded capabilities for Orbital Transfer Vehicles (OTV) will be needed to meet increased payload requirements for transporting materials and possible men to geosynchronous orbit. NASA is conducting a technology program in support of an advanced propulsion system for future OTVs. This program is briefly described with results to date of the first program element, the Conceptual Design and Technology Definition studies. Previously announced in STAR as N83-26924

Cooper, L. P.

1983-01-01

46

49 CFR 663.41 - Certification of compliance with Federal motor vehicle safety standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Certification of compliance with Federal motor vehicle safety standards. 663.41...or Inapplicability of Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards § 663.41...Certification of compliance with Federal motor vehicle safety standards. If a...

2012-10-01

47

49 CFR 663.41 - Certification of compliance with Federal motor vehicle safety standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Certification of compliance with Federal motor vehicle safety standards. 663.41...or Inapplicability of Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards § 663.41...Certification of compliance with Federal motor vehicle safety standards. If a...

2013-10-01

48

49 CFR 663.41 - Certification of compliance with Federal motor vehicle safety standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Certification of compliance with Federal motor vehicle safety standards. 663.41...or Inapplicability of Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards § 663.41...Certification of compliance with Federal motor vehicle safety standards. If a...

2010-10-01

49

49 CFR 663.41 - Certification of compliance with Federal motor vehicle safety standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Certification of compliance with Federal motor vehicle safety standards. 663.41...or Inapplicability of Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards § 663.41...Certification of compliance with Federal motor vehicle safety standards. If a...

2011-10-01

50

Advanced APS Impacts on Vehicle Payloads  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Advanced auxiliary propulsion system (APS) technology has the potential to both, increase the payload capability of earth-to-orbit (ETO) vehicles by reducing APS propellant mass, and simplify ground operations and logistics by reducing the number of fluids on the vehicle and eliminating toxic, corrosive propellants. The impact of integrated cryogenic APS on vehicle payloads is addressed. In this system, launch propulsion system residuals are scavenged from integral launch propulsion tanks for use in the APS. Sufficient propellant is preloaded into the APS to return to earth with margin and noncomplete scavenging assumed. No propellant conditioning is required by the APS, but ambient heat soak is accommodated. High temperature rocket materials enable the use of the unconditioned hydrogen/oxygen in the APS and are estimated to give APS rockets specific impulse of up to about 444 sec. The payload benefits are quantified and compared with an uprated monomethyl hydrazine/nitrogen tetroxide system in a conservative fashion, by assuming a 25.5 percent weight growth for the hydrogen/oxygen system and a 0 percent weight growth for the uprated system. The combination and scavenging and high performance gives payload impacts which are highly mission specific. A payload benefit of 861 kg (1898 lbm) was estimated for a Space Station Freedom rendezvous mission and 2099 kg (4626 lbm) for a sortie mission, with payload impacts varying with the amount of launch propulsion residual propellants. Missions without liquid propellant scavenging were estimated to have payload penalties, however, operational benefits were still possible.

Schneider, Steven J.; Reed, Brian D.

1989-01-01

51

Millimeter wave safety warning system for in-vehicle signing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Georgia Tech Research Institute (GTRI) has developed a millimeter wave safety warning system for in-vehicle signing for use in the nation's Intelligent Transportation System (ITS, formerly IVHS). The Safety Warning System TU (SWS) utilizes a homodyne radar that operates at 24.1 GHz as both a radar and a system to transmit highway safety messages. The warning message is received by

G. Greneker

1998-01-01

52

A road safety performance indicator for vehicle fleet compatibility.  

PubMed

This paper discusses the development and the application of a safety performance indicator which measures the intrinsic safety of a country's vehicle fleet related to fleet composition. The indicator takes into account both the 'relative severity' of individual collisions between different vehicle types, and the share of those vehicle types within a country's fleet. The relative severity is a measure for the personal damage that can be expected from a collision between two vehicles of any type, relative to that of a collision between passenger cars. It is shown how this number can be calculated using vehicle mass only. A sensitivity analysis is performed to study the dependence of the indicator on parameter values and basic assumptions made. The indicator is easy to apply and satisfies the requirements for appropriate safety performance indicators. It was developed in such a way that it specifically scores the intrinsic safety of a fleet due to its composition, without being influenced by other factors, like helmet wearing. For the sake of simplicity, and since the required data is available throughout Europe, the indicator was applied to the relative share of three of the main vehicle types: passenger cars, heavy goods vehicles and motorcycles. Using the vehicle fleet data from 13EU Member States and Norway, the indicator was used to rank the countries' safety performance. The UK was found to perform best in terms of its fleet composition (value is 1.07), while Greece has the worst performance with the highest indicator value (1.41). PMID:23953768

Christoph, Michiel; Vis, Martijn Alexander; Rackliff, Lucy; Stipdonk, Henk

2013-11-01

53

Advanced hybrid vehicle propulsion system study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results are presented of a study of an advanced heat engine/electric automotive hybrid propulsion system. The system uses a rotary stratified charge engine and ac motor/controller in a parallel hybrid configuration. The three tasks of the study were (1) parametric studies involving five different vehicle types, (2) design trade-off studies to determine the influence of various vehicle and propulsion system paramaters on system performance fuel economy and cost, and (3) a conceptual design establishing feasibility at the selected approach. Energy consumption for the selected system was .034 1/km (61.3 mpg) for the heat engine and .221 kWh/km (.356 kWh/mi) for the electric power system over a modified J227 a schedule D driving cycle. Life cycle costs were 7.13 cents/km (11.5 cents/mi) at $2/gal gasoline and 7 cents/kWh electricity for 160,000 km (100,000 mi) life.

Schwarz, R.

1982-01-01

54

Analysis of Event Data Recorder Data for Vehicle Safety Improvement.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Volpe Center performed a comprehensive engineering analysis of Event Data Recorder (EDR) data supplied by NHTSA to assess its accuracy and usefulness in crash reconstruction and improvement of vehicle safety systems. The Volpe Center gathered and anal...

M. P. DaSilva

2008-01-01

55

Project ENDEAVOR: distributed modeling for advanced marine vehicle performance analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Project ENDEAVOR (Booij et al., 1999) (Environment for Design of Advanced Marine Vehicles and Operations Research) has devised a unique capability to support advanced marine vehicles (AMVs) in the areas of mission planning, design, and performance analysis. The Project has established an 8-year global NOAA WaveWatch III (WWIII) deepwater condition database to feed the Simulation of Waves Nearshore (SWAN)2 regional

Donald Fabozzi; J. Bergquist; John Winship; Demont Hansen

2005-01-01

56

Modelling, Simulation, Testing, and Optimization of Advanced Hybrid Vehicle Powertrains  

E-print Network

Modelling, Simulation, Testing, and Optimization of Advanced Hybrid Vehicle Powertrains By Jeffrey in the Department of Mechanical Engineering ©Jeffrey Wishart, 2008 University of Victoria All rights reserved of the author. #12;ii Modelling, Simulation, Testing and Optimization of Advanced Hybrid Vehicle Powertrains

Victoria, University of

57

NASA's advanced space transportation system launch vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Some insight is provided into the advanced transportation planning and systems that will evolve to support long term mission requirements. The general requirements include: launch and lift capacity to low earth orbit (LEO); space based transfer systems for orbital operations between LEO and geosynchronous equatorial orbit (GEO), the Moon, and Mars; and Transfer vehicle systems for long duration deep space probes. These mission requirements are incorporated in the NASA Civil Needs Data Base. To accomplish these mission goals, adequate lift capacity to LEO must be available: to support science and application missions; to provide for construction of the Space Station Freedom; and to support resupply of personnel and supplies for its operations. Growth in lift capacity must be time phased to support an expanding mission model that includes Freedom Station, the Mission to Planet Earth, and an expanded robotic planetary program. The near term increase in cargo lift capacity associated with development of the Shuttle-C is addressed. The joint DOD/NASA Advanced Launch System studies are focused on a longer term new cargo capability that will significantly reduce costs of placing payloads in space.

Branscome, Darrell R.

1991-01-01

58

ADVISOR: a systems analysis tool for advanced vehicle modeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides an overview of Advanced Vehicle Simulator (ADVISOR)—the US Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) ADVISOR written in the MATLAB\\/Simulink environment and developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. ADVISOR provides the vehicle engineering community with an easy-to-use, flexible, yet robust and supported analysis package for advanced vehicle modeling. It is primarily used to quantify the fuel economy, the performance,

T. Markel; A. Brooker; T. Hendricks; V. Johnson; K. Kelly; B. Kramer; M O’Keefe; S. Sprik; K. Wipke

2002-01-01

59

Integrated Vehicle Thermal Management for Advanced Vehicle Propulsion Technologies  

SciTech Connect

A critical element to the success of new propulsion technologies that enable reductions in fuel use is the integration of component thermal management technologies within a viable vehicle package. Vehicle operation requires vehicle thermal management systems capable of balancing the needs of multiple vehicle systems that may require heat for operation, require cooling to reject heat, or require operation within specified temperature ranges. As vehicle propulsion transitions away from a single form of vehicle propulsion based solely on conventional internal combustion engines (ICEs) toward a wider array of choices including more electrically dominant systems such as plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), new challenges arise associated with vehicle thermal management. As the number of components that require active thermal management increase, so do the costs in terms of dollars, weight, and size. Integrated vehicle thermal management is one pathway to address the cost, weight, and size challenges. The integration of the power electronics and electric machine (PEEM) thermal management with other existing vehicle systems is one path for reducing the cost of electric drive systems. This work demonstrates techniques for evaluating and quantifying the integrated transient and continuous heat loads of combined systems incorporating electric drive systems that operate primarily under transient duty cycles, but the approach can be extended to include additional steady-state duty cycles typical for designing vehicle thermal management systems of conventional vehicles. The work compares opportunities to create an integrated low temperature coolant loop combining the power electronics and electric machine with the air conditioning system in contrast to a high temperature system integrated with the ICE cooling system.

Bennion, K.; Thornton, M.

2010-04-01

60

29 CFR 1915.93 - Motor vehicle safety equipment, operation and maintenance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Motor vehicle safety equipment, operation and...Working Conditions § 1915.93 Motor vehicle safety equipment, operation and...1) This section applies to any motor vehicle used to transport...

2012-07-01

61

29 CFR 1915.93 - Motor vehicle safety equipment, operation and maintenance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Motor vehicle safety equipment, operation and...Working Conditions § 1915.93 Motor vehicle safety equipment, operation and...1) This section applies to any motor vehicle used to transport...

2013-07-01

62

Advanced vehicle systems assessment. Volume 5: Appendices  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An appendix to the systems assessment for the electric hybrid vehicle project is presented. Included are battery design, battery cost, aluminum vehicle construction, IBM PC computer programs and battery discharge models.

Hardy, K.

1985-01-01

63

Millimeter wave safety warning system for in-vehicle signing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Georgia Tech Research Institute (GTRI) has developed a millimeter wave safety warning system for in vehicle signing that is soon to be tested for applicability for use in the nation's Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) (formerly IVHS). The Safety Warning System TM (SWS) utilizes a homodyne radar that operates at 24.1 GHz as both a radar and a system to transmit

G. Greneker

1997-01-01

64

10 CFR 611.202 - Advanced Technology Vehicle Manufacturing Facility Award Program.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-01-01 false Advanced Technology Vehicle Manufacturing Facility Award... ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY VEHICLES MANUFACTURER ASSISTANCE PROGRAM...Funding Awards § 611.202 Advanced Technology Vehicle Manufacturing Facility...

2011-01-01

65

10 CFR 611.202 - Advanced Technology Vehicle Manufacturing Facility Award Program.  

... 2014-01-01 false Advanced Technology Vehicle Manufacturing Facility Award... ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY VEHICLES MANUFACTURER ASSISTANCE PROGRAM...Funding Awards § 611.202 Advanced Technology Vehicle Manufacturing Facility...

2014-01-01

66

10 CFR 611.202 - Advanced Technology Vehicle Manufacturing Facility Award Program.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-01-01 false Advanced Technology Vehicle Manufacturing Facility Award... ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY VEHICLES MANUFACTURER ASSISTANCE PROGRAM...Funding Awards § 611.202 Advanced Technology Vehicle Manufacturing Facility...

2013-01-01

67

10 CFR 611.202 - Advanced Technology Vehicle Manufacturing Facility Award Program.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-01-01 false Advanced Technology Vehicle Manufacturing Facility Award... ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY VEHICLES MANUFACTURER ASSISTANCE PROGRAM...Funding Awards § 611.202 Advanced Technology Vehicle Manufacturing Facility...

2012-01-01

68

The Relationship between Vehicle Weight/Size and Safety  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Light-duty vehicles account for about 20% of US CO2 emissions. However, new vehicle fuel economy standards have not been significantly tightened since they were first enacted three decades ago. A historical impediment to imposing tougher fuel economy standards has been the long-standing perception that reducing the mass of a car or truck would make it more dangerous to its occupants in a crash. One often hears that this perception is dictated by "simple physics:" that, all else being equal, you are at greater risk in a lighter vehicle than in a heavier one. Our research on driver fatality risk has found that, when it comes to vehicle safety, all else is never equal. Vehicle mass is not the most important variable in determining occupant safety, not even in frontal crashes between two vehicles. You are at no greater risk driving an average car than you are driving a much heavier (and less fuel efficient) truck-based SUV. And larger and heavier truck-based SUVs and pickups impose enormous risks on car occupants. We summarize the most recent research on the interplay between vehicle weight, size and safety, and what the implications are for new state and federal standards to reduce vehicle CO2 emissions.

Wenzel, Tom; Ross, Marc

2008-09-01

69

76 FR 45436 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Electric-Powered Vehicles; Electrolyte Spillage and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...protection requirements of Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard...physiological impacts of direct current (DC) are less than those of alternating current (AC), the final rule specified...AIAM) \\2\\ and Honda Motor Co., Ltd....

2011-07-29

70

Safety Climate of Commercial Vehicle Operation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Enhancing the safety culture within trucking and motor coach industries has become a key area of concern given the potential impact it has on crashes and overall safety. Many organizations recognize that safety is compromised if the culture within their o...

D. M. Neyens, J. Short, L. N. Boyle, Y. Peng

2010-01-01

71

Safety Issues with Hydrogen as a Vehicle Fuel  

SciTech Connect

This report is an initial effort to identify and evaluate safety issues associated with the use of hydrogen as a vehicle fuel in automobiles. Several forms of hydrogen have been considered: gas, liquid, slush, and hydrides. The safety issues have been discussed, beginning with properties of hydrogen and the phenomenology of hydrogen combustion. Safety-related operating experiences with hydrogen vehicles have been summarized to identify concerns that must be addressed in future design activities and to support probabilistic risk assessment. Also, applicable codes, standards, and regulations pertaining to hydrogen usage and refueling have been identified and are briefly discussed. This report serves as a safety foundation for any future hydrogen safety work, such as a safety analysis or a probabilistic risk assessment.

L. C. Cadwallader; J. S. Herring

1999-09-01

72

Safety Issues with Hydrogen as a Vehicle Fuel  

SciTech Connect

This report is an initial effort to identify and evaluate safety issues associated with the use of hydrogen as a vehicle fuel in automobiles. Several forms of hydrogen have been considered: gas, liquid, slush, and hydrides. The safety issues have been discussed, beginning with properties of hydrogen and the phenomenology of hydrogen combustion. Safety-related operating experiences with hydrogen vehicles have been summarized to identify concerns that must be addressed in future design activities and to support probabilistic risk assessment. Also, applicable codes, standards, and regulations pertaining to hydrogen usage and refueling have been identified and are briefly discussed. This report serves as a safety foundation for any future hydrogen safety work, such as a safety analysis or a probabilistic risk assessment.

Cadwallader, Lee Charles; Herring, James Stephen

1999-10-01

73

National Highway Traffic Safety Administration: Vehicle and Equipment Information  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The National Highway Transportation Safety Administration makes it easy to track down the safety reliability records of automobiles with their newly redesigned web site. The Vehicle and Equipment page offers information on safety problems and issues, testing results, regulations and standards, and research and development. Of particular interest are searchable databases on recalls, technical service bulletins, consumer complaints, and compliance investigations; each search retrieves information specific to the make, model, and year the user enters. The vehicle owners' questionnaire can be used to submit a report of car defects that the NHTSA should investigate.

1997-01-01

74

Advanced structures technology and aircraft safety  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA research and development on advanced aeronautical structures technology related to flight safety is reviewed. The effort is categorized as research in the technology base and projects sponsored by the Aircraft Energy Efficiency (ACEE) Project Office. Base technology research includes mechanics of composite structures, crash dynamics, and landing dynamics. The ACEE projects involve development and fabrication of selected composite structural components for existing commercial transport aircraft. Technology emanating from this research is intended to result in airframe structures with improved efficiency and safety.

Mccomb, H. G., Jr.

1983-01-01

75

29 CFR 500.103 - Activities not subject to vehicle safety standards.  

...AGRICULTURAL WORKER PROTECTION Motor Vehicle Safety and Insurance for Transportation of Migrant and Seasonal Agricultural Workers, Housing Safety and Health for Migrant Workers Motor Vehicle Safety § 500.103 Activities not subject...

2014-07-01

76

78 FR 76265 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Small Business Impacts of Motor Vehicle Safety  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...multipurpose passenger vehicles, trucks, buses, trailers, motorcycles, and motor vehicle equipment. DATES: You should submit...Noncompliance. 557................. Petitions for Hearings on Notification and Remedy of Defects....

2013-12-17

77

Vehicle routing, traveler adis, network modeling, and advanced control systems. Transportation research record  

SciTech Connect

Partial Contents: Efficient Search Algorithms for Route Information Services of Direct and Connecting Transit Trips; Influence of Urban Network Features on Quality of Traffic Service; Advanced Traffic Management System: Real-Time Network Traffic Simulation Methodology with a Massively Parallel Computing Architecture; Standards for Intelligent Vehicle-Highway System Technologies; Concept of Super Smart Vehicle Systems and Their Relation to Advanced Vehicle Control Systems; Intelligent Vehicle-Highway System Safety: A Demonstration Specification and Hazard Analysis; California INRAD Project: Demonstration of Low-Power Inductive Loop Radio Technology for Use in Traffic Operations; Development of Prototype Knowledge-Based Expert System for Managing Congestion on Massachusetts Turnpike; Artificial Intelligence-Based System Representation and Search Procedures for Transit Route Network Design; Evaluation of Artificial Neural Network Applications in Transportation Engineering; Validation of an Expert System: A Case Study; Model for Optimum Deployment of Emergency Repair Trucks: Application in Electric Utility Industry.

Not Available

1992-01-01

78

Advanced propulsion system concept for hybrid vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A series hybrid system, utilizing a free piston Stirling engine with a linear alternator, and a parallel hybrid system, incorporating a kinematic Stirling engine, are analyzed for various specified reference missions/vehicles ranging from a small two passenger commuter vehicle to a van. Parametric studies for each configuration, detail tradeoff studies to determine engine, battery and system definition, short term energy storage evaluation, and detail life cycle cost studies were performed. Results indicate that the selection of a parallel Stirling engine/electric, hybrid propulsion system can significantly reduce petroleum consumption by 70 percent over present conventional vehicles.

Bhate, S.; Chen, H.; Dochat, G.

1980-01-01

79

Advances in hypersonic vehicle synthesis with application to studies of advanced thermal protection system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report summarizes the work entitled 'Advances in Hypersonic Vehicle Synthesis with Application to Studies of Advanced Thermal Protection Systems.' The effort was in two areas: (1) development of advanced methods of trajectory and propulsion system optimization; and (2) development of advanced methods of structural weight estimation. The majority of the effort was spent in the trajectory area.

Mark D. Ardema

1995-01-01

80

Preventive Safety: Warning System for Control Loss of Two-Wheeled Vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present study aims at identifying existing and emerging Intelligent Transport System (ITS) that have the possibility to enhance the safety of motorcycle rider. A review of the literature revealed that very few commercially available ITS currently exist specifically for motorcycles, although several emerging technologies were identified. Consultations with international experts in ITS, motorcycle safety, motorcycle manufacturers and various road safety research organizations confirmed this report. However, there are emerging and existing technologies for other vehicles that have the potential to address key motorcycle safety issues. In spite of the emergence of active and passive safety, these systems in most cases do not avoid the accident. The purpose of this paper is to provide assistance to the rider by incorporating a warning system for accident situations, which can alert the driver sufficiently in advance so that he can anticipate the accident.

Slimi, Hamid; Arioui, Hichem; Nouveliere, Lydie; Mammar, Saîd

2009-03-01

81

Natural Gas Vehicle Cylinder Safety, Training and Inspection Project  

SciTech Connect

Under the auspices of the National Energy Technology Laboratory and the US Department of Energy, the Clean Vehicle Education Foundation conducted a three-year program to increase the understanding of the safe and proper use and maintenance of vehicular compressed natural gas (CNG) fuel systems. High-pressure fuel systems require periodic inspection and maintenance to insure safe and proper operation. The project addressed the needs of CNG fuel containers (cylinders) and associated high-pressure fuel system components related to existing law, codes and standards (C&S), available training and inspection programs, and assured coordination among vehicle users, public safety officials, fueling station operators and training providers. The program included a public and industry awareness campaign, establishment and administration of a cylinder inspector certification training scholarship program, evaluation of current safety training and testing practices, monitoring and investigation of CNG vehicle incidents, evaluation of a cylinder recertification program and the migration of CNG vehicle safety knowledge to the nascent hydrogen vehicle community.

Hank Seiff

2008-12-31

82

Safety Issues with Hydrogen as a Vehicle Fuel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydrogen is considered to be one of the most promising, and by far the most environmentally friendly, fuels to replace diesel and petrol in the future. However, public knowledge about hydrogen must increase if hydrogen is going to be accepted as a common vehicle fuel. The safety aspects must be thoroughly and objectively addressed as a single accident very well

Mĺrten Niklasson; David Gĺrsjö; Anders Folkesson; Per Alvfors; Eva Sunnerstedt; Joakim Hägvall

83

Vehicle-to-vehicle wireless communication protocols for enhancing highway traffic safety  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents an overview of highway cooperative collision avoidance (CCA), which is an emerging vehicular safety application using the IEEE- and ASTM-adopted Dedicated Short Range Communication (DSRC) standard. Along with a description of the DSRC architecture, we introduce the concept of CCA and its implementation requirements in the context of a vehicle-to-vehicle wireless network, primarily at the Medium Access

Subir Biswas; R. Tatchikou; F. Dion

2006-01-01

84

Coordinated Control and Communication for Enhanced Safety of Highway Vehicle Platoons  

E-print Network

Coordinated Control and Communication for Enhanced Safety of Highway Vehicle Platoons Lijian Xu enhanced safety, improved highway utility, increased fuel economy, and reduced emission. This paper, communication resource allocation, and vehicle coordination in highway platoon control problems. I. INTRODUCTION

Zhang, Hongwei

85

Advanced Vehicle Technology Analysis and Evaluation Team  

E-print Network

National Impacts Analysis (EERE)Analysis (EERE) #12;4 Past Projects · Development of map-based and engineering, hybrid FCV, and H2 ICEV fuel economy studies · Subsystem/component requirements analysis ­ H2 Set ­ Models · Conventional, hybrid and electric vehicles · Fuel consumption and performance

86

Status of advanced propulsion for space based orbital transfer vehicle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new Orbital Transfer Vehicle (OTV) propulsion system will be required to meet the needs of space missions beyond the mid-1990's. As envisioned, the advanced OTV will be used in conjunction with earth-to-orbit vehicles, Space Station, and Orbit Maneuvering Vehicle. The OTV will transfer men, large space structures, and conventional payloads between low earth and higher energy orbits. Space probes carried by the OTV will continue the exploration of the solar system. When lunar bases are established, the OTV will be their transportation link to earth. NASA is currently funding the development of technology for advanced propulsion concepts for future Orbital Transfer Vehicles. Progress in key areas during 1986 is presented.

Cooper, Larry P.; Scheer, Dean D.

1986-01-01

87

Status of advanced propulsion for space based orbital transfer vehicle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new Orbital Transfer Vehicle (OTV) propulsion system will be required to meet the needs of space missions beyond the mid-1990's. As envisioned, the advanced OTV will be used in conjunction with Earth-to-orbit vehicles, Space Station, and Orbit Maneuvering Vehicle. The OTV will transfer men, large space structures, and conventional payloads between low Earth and higher energy orbits. Space probes carried by the OTV will continue the exploration of the solar system. When lunar bases are established, the OTV will be their transportation link to Earth. NASA is currently funding the development of technology for advanced propulsion concepts for future Orbital Transfer Vehicles. Progress in key areas during 1986 is presented.

Cooper, L. P.; Scheer, D. D.

1986-01-01

88

Continuously variable transmission: Assessment of applicability to advance electric vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A brief historical account of the evolution of continuously variable transmissions (CVT) for automotive use is given. The CVT concepts which are potentially suitable for application with electric and hybrid vehicles are discussed. The arrangement and function of several CVT concepts are cited along with their current developmental status. The results of preliminary design studies conducted on four CVT concepts for use in advanced electric vehicles are discussed.

Loewenthal, S. H.; Parker, R. J.

1981-01-01

89

DEVELOPING SAFETY-CRITICAL SOFTWARE REQUIREMENTS FOR COMMERCIAL REUSABLE LAUNCH VEHICLES  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of inventors and entrepreneurs are currently attempting to develop and commercially operate reusable launch vehicles to carry voluntary participants into space. To reduce the risk to the public in the operation of these vehicles, a launch vehicle operator typically performs analyses to identify safety measures and develop safety requirements. The focus of these safety efforts has historically been

Daniel P. Murray; Terry L. Hard

90

Multiple advanced battery systems for electric vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary form only given. Eagle-Picher Industries (EPI) has adopted a broad-based approach to the electric vehicle (EV) market by the parallel development of multiple battery systems. Nickel-iron (NiFe), nickel-cadmium (NiCd) and valve regulated lead-acid (VRLA) batteries are being manufactured for a variety of applications, including EVs. Silver-zinc (AgZn) batteries are being produced for both military\\/aerospace applications and for high performance

D. Coates; C. Fox

1994-01-01

91

Advancing Pedestrian Safety at Rail Grade Crossings Paul Metaxatos and P.S. Sriraj  

E-print Network

Advancing Pedestrian Safety at Rail Grade Crossings Paul Metaxatos and P.S. Sriraj Urban1 2 Contrary to the declining number of fatalities due to train-vehicle collisions at highway-3 rail grade crossings, the number of pedestrian and bicycle fatalities at highway- and4 pathway-rail grade

Illinois at Chicago, University of

92

ADVANCED UNDERGROUND VEHICLE POWER AND CONTROL FUELCELL MINE LOCOMOTIVE  

E-print Network

with mobility and productivity. Diesel vehicles are more mobile and theoretically more productive that provides advice from indus- try and executes public education. 1 Proceedings of the 2002 U.S. DOE Hydrogen and education Hatch Associates Ltd ­ Safety analyses Kappes, Cassiday & Associates ­ Surface test site in Nevada

93

Advanced Guidance and Control Project for Reusable Launch Vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The goals of this project are to significantly reduce the time and cost associated with guidance and control design for reusable launch vehicles, and to increase their safety and reliability. Success will lead to reduced cycle times during vehicle design and to reduced costs associated with flying to new orbits, with new payloads, and with modified vehicles. Success will also lead to more robustness to unforeseen circumstances in flight thereby enhancing safety and reducing risk. There are many guidance and control methods available that hold some promise for improvement in the desired areas. Investigators are developing a representative set of independent guidance and control methods for this project. These methods are being incorporated into a high-fidelity off is being conducted across a broad range of flight requirements. The guidance and control methods that perform the best will have demonstrated the desired qualities.

Hanson, John M.

2000-01-01

94

Application of the GSFUDS to advanced batteries and vehicles  

SciTech Connect

The GSFUDS approach to determining appropriate battery test power profiles is applied to various combinations of advanced batteries and electric vehicles. Computer simulations are used to show that the SFUDS velocity driving profile developed for the IDSEP electric vehicle also yielded energy consumption (Wh/km) and peak power values for other vehicles of greatly different characteristics that are in good agreement with the corresponding values for the same vehicles on the FUDS driving cycle. The computer results also showed that the GSFUDS power steps expressed as multiples of the average power, Pav are applicable to electric vehicles in general for the SFUDS driving profile if the peak power step is altered to reflect the changes in the vehicle design. A general procedure is given for presenting battery test data in terms of the constant power and GSFUDS Ragone curves from which the vehicle range can be determined for the FUDS and other driving cycles for different vehicle designs. 5 refs., 6 figs., 6 tabs.

Burke, A.F.; Cole, G.H.

1990-01-01

95

Advanced electromagnetic methods for aerospace vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

High- and low-frequency methods to analyze various radiation elements located on aerospace vehicles with combinations of conducting, nonconducting, and energy absorbing surfaces and interfaces. The focus was on developing fundamental concepts, techniques, and algorithms which would remove some of the present limitations in predicting radiation characteristics of antennas on complex aerospace vehicles. In order to accomplish this, the following subjects were examined: (1) the development of techniques for rigorous analysis of surface discontinuities of metallic and nonmetallic surfaces using the equivalent surface impedance concept and Green's function; (2) the effects of anisotropic material on antenna radiation patterns through the use of an equivalent surface impedance concept which is incorporated into the existing numerical electromagnetics computer codes; and (3) the fundamental concepts of precipitation static (P-Static), such as formulations and analytical models. A computer code was used to model the P-Static process on a simple structure. Measurement techniques were also developed to characterized the electrical properties at microwave frequencies. Samples of typical materials used in airframes were tested and the results are included.

Balanis, Constantine A.; Choi, Jachoon; El-Sharawy, El-Budawy; Hashemi-Yeganeh, Shahrokh; Birtcher, Craig R.

1990-01-01

96

Improved Range Safety Analysis for Space Vehicles Using Range Safety Template Toolkit  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper discusses an alternative to traditional methodologies for space launch and re-entry vehicle range safety analysis using the Range Safety Template Toolkit (RSTT), developed by Australia's Defense Science and Technology Organization (DSTO) in partnership with Aerospace Concepts Pty Ltd. RSTT offers rapid generation of mission-specific safety templates that comply with internationally-recognized standards for range risk criteria. Compared to some traditional methods, RSTT produces more accurate assessments of risk to personnel and infrastructure. This provides range operators with greater confidence in the range safety products, enhancing their ability to rigorously manage safety on their ranges. RSTT also offers increased precision of risk analysis and iteration of mission design allowing greater flexibility in planning range operations with rapid feedback on the safety impact of mission changes. These concepts are explored through examples involving a suborbital sounding rocket, demonstrating how traditional range safety assumptions may be reassessed using the RSTT robust probabilistic methodology.

Tisato, J.; Vuletich, I.; Brett, M.; Williams, W.; Wilson, S.

2012-01-01

97

Fuel Properties Database from the Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (AFDC)  

DOE Data Explorer

This database contains information on advanced petroleum and non-petroleum based fuels, as well as key data on advanced compression ignition fuels. Included are data on physical, chemical, operational, environmental, safety, and health properties. These data result from tests conducted according to standard methods (mostly American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM). The source and test methods for each fuel data set are provided with the information. The database can be searched in various ways and can output numbers or explanatory text. Heavy vehicle chassis emission data are also available for some fuels.

98

Advanced electromagnetic methods for aerospace vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Advanced Helicopter Electromagnetics (AHE) Industrial Associates Program continues its research on variety of main topics identified and recommended by the Advisory Task Force of the program. The research activities center on issues that advance technology related to helicopter electromagnetics. While most of the topics are a continuation of previous works, special effort has been focused on some of the areas due to recommendations from the last annual conference. The main topics addressed in this report are: composite materials, and antenna technology. The area of composite materials continues getting special attention in this period. The research has focused on: (1) measurements of the electrical properties of low-conductivity materials; (2) modeling of material discontinuity and their effects on the scattering patterns; (3) preliminary analysis on interaction of electromagnetic fields with multi-layered graphite fiberglass plates; and (4) finite difference time domain (FDTD) modeling of fields penetration through composite panels of a helicopter.

Balanis, Constantine A.; Sun, Weimin; El-Sharawy, El-Budawy; Aberle, James T.; Birtcher, Craig R.; Peng, Jian; Tirkas, Panayiotis A.

1992-01-01

99

Responses to Questions and Answers Advanced Vehicle Technology Manufacturing Solicitation  

E-print Network

1 Responses to Questions and Answers Advanced Vehicle Technology Manufacturing Solicitation PON successful applicants after the Notice of Proposed Awards to confirm this role and obtain any additional definition of "manufacturing equipment?" For example, would purchases of tooling or assembly line equipment

100

Ejection safety for advanced fighter helmets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The old saying, `Safety is paramount.' was never more true than it is in the area of ejection safety for high-speed fighter aircraft. The fighter aircraft of today has been designed to endure tremendous structural loading during dogfight or evasive maneuvers. It can fly faster, turn quicker, stay in the air longer (with in-flight refuel) and carry more bombs than its predecessor. Because of human physiological limits, the human has become the weak link in today's fighter aircraft. The fighter pilot must endure and function with peak performance in conditions that are much worse than anything the majority of us will ever encounter. When these conditions reach a point that human endurance is exceeded, devices such as anti-g suits and positive pressure breathing apparatus help the fighter pilot squeeze out that extra percentage of strength necessary to outperform the opponent. As fighter aircraft become more sophisticated, helmet trackers, helmet displays and noise cancellation devices are being added to the helmet. Yet the fighter pilot's helmet must remain lightweight and be aesthetically appealing, while still offering ballistic protection. It must function with existing life support equipment such as the Combined Advanced Technology Enhanced Design g-Ensemble (COMBAT-EDGE). It must not impede the pilot's ability to perform any action necessary to accomplish the planned mission. The helmet must protect the pilot during the harsh environment of ejection. When the pilot's only resort is to pull the handle and initiate the ejection sequence, the helmet becomes his salvation or instant death. This paper discusses the safety concerns relative to the catapult phase of ejecting from a high-speed fighter while wearing an advanced fighter helmet.

Wiley, Larry L.; Brown, Randall W.; MacMillan, Robert T.

1995-05-01

101

Advanced electromagnetic methods for aerospace vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Advanced Helicopter Electromagnetics is centered on issues that advance technology related to helicopter electromagnetics. Progress was made on three major topics: composite materials; precipitation static corona discharge; and antenna technology. In composite materials, the research has focused on the measurements of their electrical properties, and the modeling of material discontinuities and their effect on the radiation pattern of antennas mounted on or near material surfaces. The electrical properties were used to model antenna performance when mounted on composite materials. Since helicopter platforms include several antenna systems at VHF and UHF bands, measuring techniques are being explored that can be used to measure the properties at these bands. The effort on corona discharge and precipitation static was directed toward the development of a new two dimensional Voltage Finite Difference Time Domain computer program. Results indicate the feasibility of using potentials for simulating electromagnetic problems in the cases where potentials become primary sources. In antenna technology the focus was on Polarization Diverse Conformal Microstrip Antennas, Cavity Backed Slot Antennas, and Varactor Tuned Circular Patch Antennas. Numerical codes were developed for the analysis of two probe fed rectangular and circular microstrip patch antennas fed by resistive and reactive power divider networks.

Balanis, Constantine A.; El-Sharawy, El-Budawy; Hashemi-Yeganeh, Shahrokh; Aberle, James T.; Birtcher, Craig R.

1991-01-01

102

A Plan for Advanced Guidance and Control Technology for 2nd Generation Reusable Launch Vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Advanced guidance and control (AG&C) technologies are critical for meeting safety/reliability and cost requirements for the next generation of reusable launch vehicle (RLV). This becomes clear upon examining the number of expendable launch vehicle failures in the recent past where AG&C technologies would have saved a RLV with the same failure mode, the additional vehicle problems where this technology applies, and the costs associated with mission design with or without all these failure issues. The state-of-the-art in guidance and control technology, as well as in computing technology, is at the point where we can took to the possibility of being able to safely return a RLV in any situation where it can physically be recovered. This paper outlines reasons for AG&C, current technology efforts, and the additional work needed for making this goal a reality.

Hanson, John M.; Fogle, Frank (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

103

Control definition study for advanced vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The low speed, high angle of attack flight mechanics of an advanced, canard-configured, supersonic tactical aircraft designed with moderate longitudinal relaxed static stability (Static Margin, SM = 16% C sub W at M = 0.4) was investigated. Control laws were developed for the longitudinal axis (""G'' or maneuver and angle of attack command systems) and for the lateral/directional axes. The performance of these control laws was examined in engineering simulation. A canard deflection/rate requirement study was performed as part of the ""G'' command law evaluation at low angles of attack. Simulated coupled maneuvers revealed the need for command limiters in all three aircraft axes to prevent departure from controlled flight. When modified with command/maneuver limiters, the control laws were shown to be adequate to prevent aircraft departure during aggressive air combat maneuvering.

Lapins, M.; Martorella, R. P.; Klein, R. W.; Meyer, R. C.; Sturm, M. J.

1983-01-01

104

49 CFR 240.115 - Criteria for consideration of prior safety conduct as a motor vehicle operator.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...consideration of prior safety conduct as a motor vehicle operator. 240.115 Section...consideration of prior safety conduct as a motor vehicle operator. (a) Each railroad's...When evaluating a person's motor vehicle driving record, a railroad...

2011-10-01

105

49 CFR 240.115 - Criteria for consideration of prior safety conduct as a motor vehicle operator.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...consideration of prior safety conduct as a motor vehicle operator. 240.115 Section...consideration of prior safety conduct as a motor vehicle operator. (a) Each railroad's...When evaluating a person's motor vehicle driving record, a railroad...

2012-10-01

106

49 CFR 240.115 - Criteria for consideration of prior safety conduct as a motor vehicle operator.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...consideration of prior safety conduct as a motor vehicle operator. 240.115 Section...consideration of prior safety conduct as a motor vehicle operator. (a) Each railroad's...When evaluating a person's motor vehicle driving record, a railroad...

2013-10-01

107

Vehicle active safety applications by fusing multiple-sensor for the Springrobot system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the Springrobot system and its applications in vehicle active safety, and it is divided into three parts. Firstly, we describe in detail Springrobot intelligent vehicle's hardware structure, internal and external sensing systems, sensor fusion, and its control system. The second part is its vehicle active safety applications including lane departure warning system, forward collision avoidance assistance system,

Hong Cheng; Nanning Zheng; Lin Ma; Junjie Qin; Xuetao Zhang

2005-01-01

108

Communication Information Structures and Contents for Enhanced Safety of Highway Vehicle  

E-print Network

1 Communication Information Structures and Contents for Enhanced Safety of Highway Vehicle Platoons, Senior Member, IEEE Abstract--Highway platooning of vehicles has been identified as a promising framework-vehicle coordination, an appropriately managed platoon can potentially offer enhanced safety, improved highway utility

Zhang, Hongwei

109

J Syst Sci Complex (20XX) XX: 128 Control of Vehicle Platoons for Highway Safety and  

E-print Network

J Syst Sci Complex (20XX) XX: 1­28 Control of Vehicle Platoons for Highway Safety and Efficient & Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013 Abstract Platoon formation of highway vehicles is a critical foundation for autonomous or semi- autonomous vehicle control for enhanced safety, improved highway utility

Zhang, Hongwei

110

The new facility for hydrogen and fuel cell vehicle safety evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

For the evaluation of hydrogen and fuel cell vehicle safety, a new comprehensive facility was constructed in our institute. The new facility includes an explosion resistant indoor vehicle fire test building and high pressure hydrogen tank safety evaluation equipment. The indoor vehicle fire test building has sufficient strength to withstand even an explosion of a high pressure hydrogen tank of

S. Watanabe; Y. Tamura; J. Suzuki

2007-01-01

111

75 FR 76185 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard, Rearview Mirrors; Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...describe variation in image size and resolution...location on the vehicle body. Rosco stated that image sizes for rear cross-view...except at the edges of the image and immediately aft of...generally displays the entire body of the child when...

2010-12-07

112

An economic study of an advanced technology supersonic cruise vehicle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A description is given of the methods used and the results of an economic study of an advanced technology supersonic cruise vehicle. This vehicle was designed for a maximum range of 4000 n.mi. at a cruise speed of Mach 2.7 and carrying 292 passengers. The economic study includes the estimation of aircraft unit cost, operating cost, and idealized cash flow and discounted cash flow return on investment. In addition, it includes a sensitivity study on the effects of unit cost, manufacturing cost, production quantity, average trip length, fuel cost, load factor, and fare on the aircraft's economic feasibility.

Smith, C. L.; Williams, L. J.

1975-01-01

113

Advancing Autonomous Operations for Deep Space Vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Starting in Jan 2012, the Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Autonomous Mission Operations (AMO) Project began to investigate the ability to create and execute "single button" crew initiated autonomous activities [1]. NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) designed and built a fluid transfer hardware test-bed to use as a sub-system target for the investigations of intelligent procedures that would command and control a fluid transfer test-bed, would perform self-monitoring during fluid transfers, detect anomalies and faults, isolate the fault and recover the procedures function that was being executed, all without operator intervention. In addition to the development of intelligent procedures, the team is also exploring various methods for autonomous activity execution where a planned timeline of activities are executed autonomously and also the initial analysis of crew procedure development. This paper will detail the development of intelligent procedures for the NASA MSFC Autonomous Fluid Transfer System (AFTS) as well as the autonomous plan execution capabilities being investigated. Manned deep space missions, with extreme communication delays with Earth based assets, presents significant challenges for what the on-board procedure content will encompass as well as the planned execution of the procedures.

Haddock, Angie T.; Stetson, Howard K.

2014-01-01

114

Advanced electromagnetic methods for aerospace vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Advanced Helicopter Electromagnetics (AHE) Industrial Associates Program has fruitfully completed its fourth year. Under the support of the AHE members and the joint effort of the research team, new and significant progress has been achieved in the year. Following the recommendations by the Advisory Task Force, the research effort is placed on more practical helicopter electromagnetic problems, such as HF antennas, composite materials, and antenna efficiencies. In this annual report, the main topics to be addressed include composite materials and antenna technology. The research work on each topic has been driven by the AHE consortium members' interests and needs. The remarkable achievements and progresses in each subject is reported respectively in individual sections of the report. The work in the area of composite materials includes: modeling of low conductivity composite materials by using Green's function approach; guidelines for composite material modeling by using the Green's function approach in the NEC code; development of 3-D volume mesh generator for modeling thick and volumetric dielectrics by using FD-TD method; modeling antenna elements mounted on a composite Comanche tail stabilizer; and antenna pattern control and efficiency estimate for a horn antenna loaded with composite dielectric materials.

Balanis, Constantine A.; Sun, Weimin; El-Sharawy, El-Budawy; Aberle, James T.; Birtcher, Craig R.; Peng, Jian; Tirkas, Panayiotis A.; Andrew, William V.; Kokotoff, David; Zavosh, Frank

1993-01-01

115

Advanced electromagnetic methods for aerospace vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Advanced Helicopter Electromagnetics (AHE) Industrial Associates Program has continuously progressed with its research effort focused on subjects identified and recommended by the Advisory Task Force of the program. The research activities in this reporting period have been steered toward practical helicopter electromagnetic problems, such as HF antenna problems and antenna efficiencies, recommended by the AHE members at the annual conference held at Arizona State University on 28-29 Oct. 1992 and the last biannual meeting held at the Boeing Helicopter on 19-20 May 1993. The main topics addressed include the following: Composite Materials and Antenna Technology. The research work on each topic is closely tied with the AHE Consortium members' interests. Significant progress in each subject is reported. Special attention in the area of Composite Materials has been given to the following: modeling of material discontinuity and their effects on towel-bar antenna patterns; guidelines for composite material modeling by using the Green's function approach in the NEC code; measurements of towel-bar antennas grounded with a partially material-coated plate; development of 3-D volume mesh generator for modeling thick and volumetric dielectrics by using FD-TD method; FDTD modeling of horn antennas with composite E-plane walls; and antenna efficiency analysis for a horn antenna loaded with composite dielectric materials.

Balanis, Constantine A.; Sun, Weimin; El-Sharawy, El-Budawy; Aberle, James T.; Birtcher, Craig R.; Peng, Jian; Tirkas, Panayiotis A.; Kokotoff, David; Zavosh, Frank

1993-01-01

116

76 FR 11417 - Public Workshop and Hearing for Rear Visibility; Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard, Rearview...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Vehicle Safety Standard, Low-Speed Vehicles; Phase-in Reporting...vehicles, buses, and low-speed vehicles rated at 10,000 pounds...The workshop will be held in a lab environment. The agency will...workshop will be located in a lab environment, NHTSA...

2011-03-02

117

Aeronautical technology 2000 - A projection of advanced vehicle concepts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

At the request of NASA and under the aegis of the National Research Council, representatives from industry, academic institutions and government have participated in a workshop to consider opportunities for the exploitation of aircraft technology in such fields as aerodynamics, materials, structures, guidance, navigation and control, human factors, propulsion, computers and data processing, and systems integration. Attention is given to the advanced vehicle concepts that have emerged for possible year-2000 implementation, which encompass such diverse aircraft types as supersonic transports, hypersonic airliners, missiles, and interceptors, transatmospheric vehicles, next-generation space shuttles, subsonic transports and attack aircraft, advanced helicopter, tilt-rotor VTOL configurations, and solar- and microwave beam-powered extremely high altitude aircraft.

Rosen, C. C., III; Burger, R. J.; Sigalla, A.

1984-01-01

118

Issues affecting advanced passive light-water reactor safety analysis  

SciTech Connect

Next generation commercial reactor designs emphasize enhanced safety through improved safety system reliability and performance by means of system simplification and reliance on immutable natural forces for system operation. Simulating the performance of these safety systems will be central to analytical safety evaluation of advanced passive reactor designs. Yet the characteristically small driving forces of these safety systems pose challenging computational problems to current thermal-hydraulic systems analysis codes. Additionally, the safety systems generally interact closely with one another, requiring accurate, integrated simulation of the nuclear steam supply system, engineered safeguards and containment. Furthermore, numerical safety analysis of these advanced passive reactor designs wig necessitate simulation of long-duration, slowly-developing transients compared with current reactor designs. The composite effects of small computational inaccuracies on induced system interactions and perturbations over long periods may well lead to predicted results which are significantly different than would otherwise be expected or might actually occur. Comparisons between the engineered safety features of competing US advanced light water reactor designs and analogous present day reactor designs are examined relative to the adequacy of existing thermal-hydraulic safety codes in predicting the mechanisms of passive safety. Areas where existing codes might require modification, extension or assessment relative to passive safety designs are identified. Conclusions concerning the applicability of these codes to advanced passive light water reactor safety analysis are presented.

Beelman, R.J.; Fletcher, C.D.; Modro, S.M.

1992-08-01

119

Issues affecting advanced passive light-water reactor safety analysis  

SciTech Connect

Next generation commercial reactor designs emphasize enhanced safety through improved safety system reliability and performance by means of system simplification and reliance on immutable natural forces for system operation. Simulating the performance of these safety systems will be central to analytical safety evaluation of advanced passive reactor designs. Yet the characteristically small driving forces of these safety systems pose challenging computational problems to current thermal-hydraulic systems analysis codes. Additionally, the safety systems generally interact closely with one another, requiring accurate, integrated simulation of the nuclear steam supply system, engineered safeguards and containment. Furthermore, numerical safety analysis of these advanced passive reactor designs wig necessitate simulation of long-duration, slowly-developing transients compared with current reactor designs. The composite effects of small computational inaccuracies on induced system interactions and perturbations over long periods may well lead to predicted results which are significantly different than would otherwise be expected or might actually occur. Comparisons between the engineered safety features of competing US advanced light water reactor designs and analogous present day reactor designs are examined relative to the adequacy of existing thermal-hydraulic safety codes in predicting the mechanisms of passive safety. Areas where existing codes might require modification, extension or assessment relative to passive safety designs are identified. Conclusions concerning the applicability of these codes to advanced passive light water reactor safety analysis are presented.

Beelman, R.J.; Fletcher, C.D.; Modro, S.M.

1992-01-01

120

Advanced Guidance and Control Methods for Reusable Launch Vehicles: Test Results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

There are a number of approaches to advanced guidance and control (AG&C) that have the potential for achieving the goals of significantly increasing reusable launch vehicle (RLV) safety/reliability and reducing the cost. In this paper, we examine some of these methods and compare the results. We briefly introduce the various methods under test, list the test cases used to demonstrate that the desired results are achieved, show an automated test scoring method that greatly reduces the evaluation effort required, and display results of the tests. Results are shown for the algorithms that have entered testing so far.

Hanson, John M.; Jones, Robert E.; Krupp, Don R.; Fogle, Frank R. (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

121

76 FR 17808 - Final Vehicle Safety Rulemaking and Research Priority Plan 2011-2013  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...TRANSPORTATION National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 571 [Docket No. NHTSA-2009-0108] Final Vehicle Safety Rulemaking...Department of Transportation, 1200 New Jersey Avenue, SE., West Building Ground Floor, Room W12-140, Washington, DC...

2011-03-31

122

75 FR 70670 - Final Vehicle Safety Rulemaking and Research Priority Plan 2010-2013  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...TRANSPORTATION National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 571 [Docket No. NHTSA-2009-0108] Final Vehicle Safety Rulemaking...Department of Transportation, 1200 New Jersey Avenue, SE., West Building Ground Floor, Room W12-140, Washington, DC...

2010-11-18

123

Vehicle Data for Alternative Fuel Vehicles (AFVs) and Hybrid Fuel Vehicles (HEVs) from the Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (AFCD)  

DOE Data Explorer

The AFDC provides search capabilities for many different models of both light-duty and heavy-duty vehicles. Engine and transmission type, fuel and class, fuel economy and emission certification are some of the facts available. The search will also help users locate dealers in their areas and do cost analyses. Information on alternative fuel vehicles and on advanced technology vehicles, along with calculators, resale and conversion information, links to incentives and programs such as Clean Cities, and dozens of fact sheets and publications make this section of the AFDC a valuable resource for car buyers.

124

Recovery Act - Sustainable Transportation: Advanced Electric Drive Vehicle Education Program  

SciTech Connect

The collective goals of this effort include: 1) reach all facets of this society with education regarding electric vehicles (EV) and plug–in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV), 2) prepare a workforce to service these advanced vehicles, 3) create web–based learning at an unparalleled level, 4) educate secondary school students to prepare for their future and 5) train the next generation of professional engineers regarding electric vehicles. The Team provided an integrated approach combining secondary schools, community colleges, four–year colleges and community outreach to provide a consistent message (Figure 1). Colorado State University Ventures (CSUV), as the prime contractor, plays a key program management and co–ordination role. CSUV is an affiliate of Colorado State University (CSU) and is a separate 501(c)(3) company. The Team consists of CSUV acting as the prime contractor subcontracted to Arapahoe Community College (ACC), CSU, Motion Reality Inc. (MRI), Georgia Institute of Technology (Georgia Tech) and Ricardo. Collaborators are Douglas County Educational Foundation/School District and Gooru (www.goorulearning.org), a nonprofit web–based learning resource and Google spin–off.

Caille, Gary

2013-12-13

125

40 CFR 86.1866-12 - CO2 credits for advanced technology vehicles.  

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false CO2 credits for advanced technology vehicles...Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1866-12 CO2 credits for advanced technology vehicles...use a value of zero (0) grams/mile of CO2 to represent the proportion of...

2014-07-01

126

Developing SAE Safety Standards for Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Vehicles (FCVs)  

E-print Network

Group Status SAE J1766 Post-crash electrical safety 04-2005 Safety Being revised SAE J2572 Measuring Static SAE J2578 Integration of hydrogen and electrical systems on FCVs 01-2009 Safety Being revised SAEDeveloping SAE Safety Standards for Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Vehicles (FCVs) Polymer and Composite

127

Weight and cost forecasting for advanced manned space vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A mass and cost estimating computerized methology for predicting advanced manned space vehicle weights and costs was developed. The user friendly methology designated MERCER (Mass Estimating Relationship/Cost Estimating Relationship) organizes the predictive process according to major vehicle subsystem levels. Design, development, test, evaluation, and flight hardware cost forecasting is treated by the study. This methodology consists of a complete set of mass estimating relationships (MERs) which serve as the control components for the model and cost estimating relationships (CERs) which use MER output as input. To develop this model, numerous MER and CER studies were surveyed and modified where required. Additionally, relationships were regressed from raw data to accommodate the methology. The models and formulations which estimated the cost of historical vehicles to within 20 percent of the actual cost were selected. The result of the research, along with components of the MERCER Program, are reported. On the basis of the analysis, the following conclusions were established: (1) The cost of a spacecraft is best estimated by summing the cost of individual subsystems; (2) No one cost equation can be used for forecasting the cost of all spacecraft; (3) Spacecraft cost is highly correlated with its mass; (4) No study surveyed contained sufficient formulations to autonomously forecast the cost and weight of the entire advanced manned vehicle spacecraft program; (5) No user friendly program was found that linked MERs with CERs to produce spacecraft cost; and (6) The group accumulation weight estimation method (summing the estimated weights of the various subsystems) proved to be a useful method for finding total weight and cost of a spacecraft.

Williams, Raymond

1989-01-01

128

Hybrid and electric advanced vehicle systems (heavy) simulation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A computer program to simulate hybrid and electric advanced vehicle systems (HEAVY) is described. It is intended for use early in the design process: concept evaluation, alternative comparison, preliminary design, control and management strategy development, component sizing, and sensitivity studies. It allows the designer to quickly, conveniently, and economically predict the performance of a proposed drive train. The user defines the system to be simulated using a library of predefined component models that may be connected to represent a wide variety of propulsion systems. The development of three models are discussed as examples.

Hammond, R. A.; Mcgehee, R. K.

1981-01-01

129

Reusable cryogenic foam insulation for advanced aerospace vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Future high-speed aircraft and aerospace vehicles using cryogenic propellants will require an advanced reusable insulation system for the propellant tank structure. This cryogenic insulation system must be lightweight, structurally and thermally efficient, and capable of multiple reuse without cracking or degraded performance. This paper presents recent progress in the development of a reusable cryogenic foam insulation system having a maximum service temperature of 400 F. The system consists of preshaped, precut blocks of rigid polymethacrylimide foam insulation, wrapped with a high-temperature Kapton and aluminum foil vapor barrier which is adhesively bonded to the propellant tank wall.

Mcauliffe, Patrick S.; Taylor, Allan H.; Sparks, Larry L.; Dube, William P.

1991-01-01

130

Level Crossing Crash Taxonomy for Connected Vehicle Safety August 5, 2014  

E-print Network

1 Level Crossing Crash Taxonomy for Connected Vehicle Safety Research August 5, 2014 Volpe-Rail Intersection Crash Taxonomy For Connected Vehicle Safety Research Office of Research and Development Washington, DC 20590 Focus on level crossing- highway intersection Research products Crash Taxonomy Concept

Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, University of

131

Multibody dynamic simulation of military vehicles for stability, safety, mobility, and load prediction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multibody Dynamic Simulation has been used to successfully simulate a wide variety of military vehicles and predict the safety, mobility, stability, and operating loads of the complete system. The objective is to predict accurate vehicle behavior under any operating condition and provide the basis for making engineering design changes to improve performance. Vehicles used for agriculture, construction, recreation, and military

Dick Kading

2006-01-01

132

A Decentralized Planner that Guarantees the Safety of Communicating Vehicles with Complex Dynamics that Replan Online  

E-print Network

A Decentralized Planner that Guarantees the Safety of Communicating Vehicles with Complex Dynamics replanning algorithms for a vehicle with complex dynamics [15], [1] to a decen- tralized framework the problem of coordinating multiple vehicles with kinodynamic constraints that operate in the same partially

Kavraki, Lydia E.

133

Analysis of quasi-hybrid solid rocket booster concepts for advanced earth-to-orbit vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A study was conducted to assess the feasibility of quasi-hybrid solid rocket boosters for advanced Earth-to-orbit vehicles. Thermochemical calculations were conducted to determine the effect of liquid hydrogen addition, solids composition change plus liquid hydrogen addition, and the addition of an aluminum/liquid hydrogen slurry on the theoretical performance of a PBAN solid propellant rocket. The space shuttle solid rocket booster was used as a reference point. All three quasi-hybrid systems theoretically offer higher specific impulse when compared with the space shuttle solid rocket boosters. However, based on operational and safety considerations, the quasi-hybrid rocket is not a practical choice for near-term Earth-to-orbit booster applications. Safety and technology issues pertinent to quasi-hybrid rocket systems are discussed.

Zurawski, Robert L.; Rapp, Douglas C.

1987-01-01

134

Advanced aeroservoelastic stabilization techniques for hypersonic flight vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Advanced high performance vehicles, including Single-Stage-To-Orbit (SSTO) hypersonic flight vehicles, that are statically unstable, require higher bandwidth flight control systems to compensate for the instability resulting in interactions between the flight control system, the engine/propulsion dynamics, and the low frequency structural modes. Military specifications, such as MIL-F-9490D and MIL-F-87242, tend to limit treatment of structural modes to conventional gain stabilization techniques. The conventional gain stabilization techniques, however, introduce low frequency effective time delays which can be troublesome from a flying qualities standpoint. These time delays can be alleviated by appropriate blending of gain and phase stabilization techniques (referred to as Hybrid Phase Stabilization or HPS) for the low frequency structural modes. The potential of using HPS for compensating structural mode interaction was previously explored. It was shown that effective time delay was significantly reduced with the use of HPS; however, the HPS design was seen to have greater residual response than a conventional gain stablized design. Additional work performed to advance and refine the HPS design procedure, to further develop residual response metrics as a basis for alternative structural stability specifications, and to develop strategies for validating HPS design and specification concepts in manned simulation is presented. Stabilization design sensitivity to structural uncertainties and aircraft-centered requirements are also assessed.

Chan, Samuel Y.; Cheng, Peter Y.; Myers, Thomas T.; Klyde, David H.; Magdaleno, Raymond E.; Mcruer, Duane T.

1992-01-01

135

Aeronautical technology 2000: A projection of advanced vehicle concepts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Aeronautics and Space Engineering Board (ASEB) of the National Research Council conducted a Workshop on Aeronautical Technology: a Projection to the Year 2000 (Aerotech 2000 Workshop). The panels were asked to project advances in aeronautical technologies that could be available by the year 2000. As the workshop was drawing to a close, it became evident that a more comprehensive investigation of advanced air vehicle concepts than was possible in the limited time available at the workshop would be valuable. Thus, a special panel on vehicle applications was organized. In the course of two meetings, the panel identified and described representative types of aircraft judged possible with the workshop's technology projections. These representative aircraft types include: military aircraft; transport aircraft; rotorcraft; extremely high altitude aircraft; and transatmospheric aircraft. Improvements in performance, efficiency, and operational characteristics possible through the application of the workshop's year 2000 technology projections were discussed. The subgroups also identified the technologies considered essential and enhancing or supporting to achieve the projected aircraft improvements.

1985-01-01

136

75 FR 71648 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards, Child Restraint Systems; Hybrid III 10-Year-Old Child...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...2127-AJ44 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards, Child Restraint Systems; Hybrid III 10-Year-Old Child Test Dummy AGENCY: National Highway Traffic...Vehicle Safety Standard (FMVSS) No. 213, Child Restraint Systems, regarding a Hybrid...

2010-11-24

137

14 CFR 417.233 - Analysis for an unguided suborbital launch vehicle flown with a wind weighting safety system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Analysis for an unguided suborbital launch vehicle flown...TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LAUNCH SAFETY Flight Safety Analysis § 417.233 Analysis for an unguided suborbital launch vehicle...

2010-01-01

138

Large-Scale Spacecraft Fire Safety Experiments in ISS Resupply Vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Our understanding of the fire safety risk in manned spacecraft has been limited by the small scale of the testing we have been able to conduct in low-gravity. Fire growth and spread cannot be expected to scale linearly with sample size so we cannot make accurate predictions of the behavior of realistic scale fires in spacecraft based on the limited low-g testing to date. As a result, spacecraft fire safety protocols are necessarily very conservative and costly. Future crewed missions are expected to be longer in duration than previous exploration missions outside of low-earth orbit and accordingly, more complex in terms of operations, logistics, and safety. This will increase the challenge of ensuring a fire-safe environment for the crew throughout the mission. Based on our fundamental uncertainty of the behavior of fires in low-gravity, the need for realistic scale testing at reduced gravity has been demonstrated. To address this concern, a spacecraft fire safety research project is underway to reduce the uncertainty and risk in the design of spacecraft fire safety systems by testing at nearly full scale in low-gravity. This project is supported by the NASA Advanced Exploration Systems Program Office in the Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate. The activity of this project is supported by an international topical team of fire experts from other space agencies to maximize the utility of the data and to ensure the widest possible scrutiny of the concept. The large-scale space flight experiment will be conducted on three missions; each in an Orbital Sciences Corporation Cygnus vehicle after it has deberthed from the ISS. Although the experiment will need to meet rigorous safety requirements to ensure the carrier vehicle does not sustain damage, the absence of a crew allows the fire products to be released into the cabin. The tests will be fully automated with the data downlinked at the conclusion of the test before the Cygnus vehicle reenters the atmosphere. The international topical team is collaborating with the NASA team in the definition of the experiment requirements and performing supporting analysis, experimentation and technology development.

Ruff, Gary A.; Urban, David

2013-01-01

139

14 CFR 417.233 - Analysis for an unguided suborbital launch vehicle flown with a wind weighting safety system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...unguided suborbital launch vehicle flown with a wind weighting safety system. 417.233...unguided suborbital launch vehicle flown with a wind weighting safety system. For each launch...unguided suborbital launch vehicle flown with a wind weighting safety system, in...

2012-01-01

140

14 CFR 417.233 - Analysis for an unguided suborbital launch vehicle flown with a wind weighting safety system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...unguided suborbital launch vehicle flown with a wind weighting safety system. 417.233...unguided suborbital launch vehicle flown with a wind weighting safety system. For each launch...unguided suborbital launch vehicle flown with a wind weighting safety system, in...

2013-01-01

141

14 CFR 417.233 - Analysis for an unguided suborbital launch vehicle flown with a wind weighting safety system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...unguided suborbital launch vehicle flown with a wind weighting safety system. 417.233...unguided suborbital launch vehicle flown with a wind weighting safety system. For each launch...unguided suborbital launch vehicle flown with a wind weighting safety system, in...

2011-01-01

142

Advanced underground Vehicle Power and Control: The locomotive Research Platform  

SciTech Connect

Develop a fuelcell mine locomotive with metal-hydride hydrogen storage. Test the locomotive for fundamental limitations preventing successful commercialization of hydride fuelcells in underground mining. During Phase 1 of the DOE-EERE sponsored project, FPI and its partner SNL, completed work on the development of a 14.4 kW fuelcell power plant and metal-hydride energy storage. An existing battery-electric locomotive with similar power requirements, minus the battery module, was used as the base vehicle. In March 2001, Atlas Copco Wagner of Portland, OR, installed the fuelcell power plant into the base vehicle and initiated integration of the system into the vehicle. The entire vehicle returned to Sandia in May 2001 for further development and integration. Initial system power-up took place in December 2001. A revision to the original contract, Phase 2, at the request of DOE Golden Field Office, established Vehicle Projects LLC as the new prime contractor,. Phase 2 allowed industry partners to conduct surface tests, incorporate enhancements to the original design by SNL, perform an extensive risk and safety analysis, and test the fuelcell locomotive underground under representative production mine conditions. During the surface tests one of the fuelcell stacks exhibited reduced power output resulting in having to replace both fuelcell stacks. The new stacks were manufactured with new and improved technology resulting in an increase of the gross power output from 14.4 kW to 17 kW. Further work by CANMET and Hatch Associates, an engineering consulting firm specializing in safety analysis for the mining industry, both under subcontract to Vehicle Projects LLC, established minimum requirements for underground testing. CANMET upgraded the Programmable Logic Control (PLC) software used to monitor and control the fuelcell power plant, taking into account locomotive operator's needs. Battery Electric, a South Africa manufacturer, designed and manufactured (at no cost to the project) a new motor controller capable of operating the higher rpm motor and different power characteristics of the fuelcells. In early August 2002, CANMET, with the technical assistance of Nuvera Fuel Cells and Battery Electric, installed the new PLC software, installed the new motor controller, and installed the new fuelcell stacks. After minor adjustments, the fuelcell locomotive pulled its first fully loaded ore cars on a surface track. The fuelcell-powered locomotive easily matched the battery powered equivalent in its ability to pull tonnage and equaled the battery-powered locomotive in acceleration. The final task of Phase 2, testing the locomotive underground in a production environment, occurred in early October 2002 in a gold mine. All regulatory requirements to allow the locomotive underground were completed and signed off by Hatch Associates prior to going underground. During the production tests, the locomotive performed flawlessly with no failures or downtime. The actual tests occurred during a 2-week period and involved moving both gold ore and waste rock over a 1,000 meter track. Refueling, or recharging, of the metal-hydride storage took place on the surface. After each shift, the metal-hydride storage module was removed from the locomotive, transported to surface, and filled with hydrogen from high-pressure tanks. The beginning of each shift started with taking the fully recharged metal-hydride storage module down into the mine and re-installing it onto the locomotive. Each 8 hour shift consumed approximately one half to two thirds of the onboard hydrogen. This indicates that the fuelcell-powered locomotive can work longer than a similar battery-powered locomotive, which operates about 6 hours, before needing a recharge.

Vehicle Projects LLC

2003-01-28

143

Technology in Motion Vehicle (TMV) To promote truck and bus safety programs and  

E-print Network

Technology in Motion Vehicle (TMV) Goal To promote truck and bus safety programs and technologies messages at multiple venues Demonstrate proven and emerging safety technologies to state and motor carrier stakeholders Promote deployment of safety technologies by fleets and state MCSAP agencies Evaluate program

144

78 FR 2797 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Minimum Sound Requirements for Hybrid and Electric Vehicles  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Requirements for Hybrid and Electric Vehicles; Draft Environmental...Requirements for Hybrid and Electric Vehicles; Proposed Rules Federal...are to ensure that hybrid and electric vehicles produce enough sound...performance of a product, process or material.'' Examples of...

2013-01-14

145

Reducing Safety Flaring through Advanced Control  

E-print Network

An advanced process control application, using DMCplus® (Aspen Technology, Inc.), was developed to substantially reduce fuel gas losses to the flare at a large integrated refining / petrochemical complex. Fluctuations in internal fuel gas system...

Hokanson, D.; Lehman, K.; Matsumoto, S.; Takai, N.; Takase, F.

2010-01-01

146

Automated Transfer Vehicle (ATV) Critical Safety Software Overview  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The European Automated Transfer Vehicle is an unmanned transportation system designed to dock to International Space Station (ISS) and to contribute to the logistic servicing of the ISS. Concisely, ATV control is realized by a nominal flight control function (using computers, softwares, sensors, actuators). In order to cover the extreme situations where this nominal chain can not ensure safe trajectory with respect to ISS, a segregated proximity flight safety function is activated, where unsafe free drift trajectories can be encountered. This function relies notably on a segregated computer, the Monitoring and Safing Unit (MSU) ; in case of major ATV malfunction detection, ATV is then controlled by MSU software. Therefore, this software is critical because a MSU software failure could result in catastrophic consequences. This paper provides an overview both of this software functions and of the software development and validation method which is specific considering its criticality. First part of the paper describes briefly the proximity flight safety chain. Second part deals with the software functions. Indeed, MSU software is in charge of monitoring nominal computers and ATV corridors, using its own navigation algorithms, and, if an abnormal situation is detected, it is in charge of the ATV control during the Collision Avoidance Manoeuvre (CAM) consisting in an attitude controlled braking boost, followed by a Post-CAM manoeuvre : a Sun-pointed ATV attitude control during up to 24 hours on a safe trajectory. Monitoring, navigation and control algorithms principles are presented. Third part of this paper describes the development and validation process : algorithms functional studies , ADA coding and unit validations ; algorithms ADA code integration and validation on a specific non real-time MATLAB/SIMULINK simulator ; global software functional engineering phase, architectural design, unit testing, integration and validation on target computer.

Berthelier, D.

2002-01-01

147

Advanced Control Surface Seal Development for Future Space Vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's Glenn Research Center (GRC) has been developing advanced high temperature structural seals since the late 1980s and is currently developing seals for future space vehicles as part of the Next Generation Launch Technology (NGLT) program. This includes control surface seals that seal the edges and hinge lines of movable flaps and elevons on future reentry vehicles. In these applications, the seals must operate at temperatures above 2000 F in an oxidizing environment, limit hot gas leakage to protect underlying structures, endure high temperature scrubbing against rough surfaces, and remain flexible and resilient enough to stay in contact with sealing surfaces for multiple heating and loading cycles. For this study, three seal designs were compared against the baseline spring tube seal through a series of compression tests at room temperature and 2000 F and flow tests at room temperature. In addition, canted coil springs were tested as preloaders behind the seals at room temperature to assess their potential for improving resiliency. Addition of these preloader elements resulted in significant increases in resiliency compared to seals by themselves and surpassed the performance of the baseline seal at room temperature. Flow tests demonstrated that the seal candidates with engineered cores had lower leakage rates than the baseline spring tube design. However, then the seals were placed on the preloader elements, the flow rates were higher as the seals were not compressed as much and therefore were not able to fill the groove as well. High temperature tests were also conducted to assess the compatability of seal fabrics against cermaic matrix composite (CMC) panels anticipated for use in next generation launch vehicles. These evaluations demonstrated potential bonding issues between the Nextel fabrics and CMC candidates.

DeMange, Jeffrey J.; Dunlap, Patrick H.; Steinetz, Bruce M.

2003-01-01

148

Survey of Advanced Booster Options for Potential Shuttle Derivative Vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A never-ending major goal for the Space Shuttle program is to continually improve flight safety, as long as this launch system remains in operational service. One of the options to improve system safety and to enhance vehicle performance as well, that has been seriously studied over the past several decades, is to replace the existing strap-on four segment solid rocket boosters (SRB's) with more capable units. A number of booster upgrade options have been studied in some detail, ranging from five segment solids through hybrids and a wide variety of liquid strap-ons (both pressure and pump fed with various propellants); all the way to a completely reusable liquid fly back booster (complete with air breathing engines for controlled landing and return). All of these possibilities appear to offer improvements in varying degrees; and each has their strengths and weaknesses from both programmatic and technical points of view. The most beneficial booster upgrade/design, if the shuttle program were to continue long enough to justify the required investment, would be an approach that greatly increased both vehicle and crew safety. This would be accomplished by increasing the minimum range/minimum altitude envelope that would readily allow abort to orbit (ATO), possibly even to zero/zero, and possibly reduce or eliminate the Return to Launch Site (RTLS) and even the Trans Atlantic Landing (TAL) abort mode requirements. This paper will briefly survey and discuss all of the various booster'upgrade options studied previously, and compare their relative attributes. The survey will explicitly discuss, in summary comparative form, options that include: five segment solids; several hybrid possibilities; pressure and/or pump-fed liquids using either LO2/kerosene, H2O/kerosene and LO2/J2, any of which could be either fully expendable, partly or fully reusable; and finally a fully reusable liquid fly back booster system, with a number of propellant and propulsion system options. Performance and configuration comparison illustrations and tables will be included to provide a comprehensive survey for the paper.

Sackheim, Robert L.; Ryan, Richard; Threet, Ed; Kennedy, James W. (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

149

32 CFR 636.33 - Vehicle safety inspection criteria.  

... (3) Registration Plate Lamp—every vehicle will have a lamp designed to illuminate the registration plate with white light making the plate legible from a distance of 50 feet. (4) Rear Reflectors—every vehicle, except...

2014-07-01

150

32 CFR 636.33 - Vehicle safety inspection criteria.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... (3) Registration Plate Lamp—every vehicle will have a lamp designed to illuminate the registration plate with white light making the plate legible from a distance of 50 feet. (4) Rear Reflectors—every vehicle, except...

2012-07-01

151

32 CFR 636.33 - Vehicle safety inspection criteria.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... (3) Registration Plate Lamp—every vehicle will have a lamp designed to illuminate the registration plate with white light making the plate legible from a distance of 50 feet. (4) Rear Reflectors—every vehicle, except...

2010-07-01

152

32 CFR 636.33 - Vehicle safety inspection criteria.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... (3) Registration Plate Lamp—every vehicle will have a lamp designed to illuminate the registration plate with white light making the plate legible from a distance of 50 feet. (4) Rear Reflectors—every vehicle, except...

2013-07-01

153

32 CFR 636.33 - Vehicle safety inspection criteria.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... (3) Registration Plate Lamp—every vehicle will have a lamp designed to illuminate the registration plate with white light making the plate legible from a distance of 50 feet. (4) Rear Reflectors—every vehicle, except...

2011-07-01

154

32 CFR 234.17 - Vehicles and traffic safety.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS CONDUCT ON THE PENTAGON RESERVATION § 234.17 Vehicles and...traffic and the use of vehicles within the Pentagon Reservation are governed by State law...partially removed, within a vehicle on the Pentagon Reservation is prohibited. (3)...

2010-07-01

155

32 CFR 234.17 - Vehicles and traffic safety.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS CONDUCT ON THE PENTAGON RESERVATION § 234.17 Vehicles and...traffic and the use of vehicles within the Pentagon Reservation are governed by State law...partially removed, within a vehicle on the Pentagon Reservation is prohibited. (3)...

2012-07-01

156

32 CFR 234.17 - Vehicles and traffic safety.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS CONDUCT ON THE PENTAGON RESERVATION § 234.17 Vehicles and...traffic and the use of vehicles within the Pentagon Reservation are governed by State law...partially removed, within a vehicle on the Pentagon Reservation is prohibited. (3)...

2011-07-01

157

NASA technical advances in aircraft occupant safety  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A NASA program to improve aircraft safety is discussed in terms of three areas of concentration: unexpected turbulence encounters, fire, and crash impact. To provide warning of clear air turbulence (CAT) so that the pilot can take evasive action, a laser Doppler system is described, which functions by measuring backscatter frequency radiation occurring in aerosols ahead of the aircraft. The system was found able to detect CAT, but at shorter than optimal ranges (10 km as opposed to 32 km). Fire safety has focused on both the early detection of fires through improved sensing methods, and on the development of fire-retardant materials, i.e., intumescent char-forming protective coatings. Crashworthiness is discussed in terms of the development of a survivable crash envelope and improved seat and restraint systems. To evaluate an aircraft for crashworthiness, finite-element computer programs are currently being developed which analyze both aircraft structural configurations and the intrinsic strength of aircraft materials.

Enders, J. H.

1978-01-01

158

NREL - Advanced Vehicles and Fuels Basics - Center for Transportation Technologies and Systems 2010  

SciTech Connect

We can improve the fuel economy of our cars, trucks, and buses by designing them to use the energy in fuels more efficiently. Researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) are helping the nation achieve these goals by developing transportation technologies like: advanced vehicle systems and components; alternative fuels; as well as fuel cells, hybrid electric, and plug-in hybrid vehicles. For a text version of this video visit http://www.nrel.gov/learning/advanced_vehicles_fuels.html

None

2010-01-01

159

14 CFR 437.51 - Rest rules for vehicle safety operations personnel.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...operations personnel must have at least 8 hours of rest after 12 hours of work. (c) All vehicle safety operations personnel must receive a minimum 48-hour rest period after 5 consecutive days of 12-hour...

2010-01-01

160

Intersociety Advanced Marine Vehicles Conference and Exhibit, Arlington, VA, June 5-7, 1989, Technical Papers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present conference on advanced marine vehicles discusses advancements in surface-effect ship (SES) technologies, small waterplane-area twin-hull (SWATH) ship operations, advanced marine vehicle concepts, ocean systems and subsurface vehicles, air-cushion vehicle (ACV) concepts, seaplane technologies, advanced hull hydrodynamics, wing-in-ground effect (WIGE) aircraft, competition-craft aerodynamics, and marine propulsion. Attention is given to military applications of the 'NES 200' SES platform, experiences over 16 years of SWATH ship operations, hydrofoil catamarans for military and civilian applications, SES passenger ferries for the N.Y.C. metropolitan area, advanced submarine concepts, parametric studies in SWATH ship design, ACV experience in Antarctica, the CL-215 seaplane, large-scale WIGE vehicles, an ocean spacecraft-launch facility, an ACV Arctic icebreaker, and 'marinizing' methods for gas turbine engines.

161

Specification of advanced safety modeling requirements (Rev. 0).  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy's Global Nuclear Energy Partnership has lead to renewed interest in liquid-metal-cooled fast reactors for the purpose of closing the nuclear fuel cycle and making more efficient use of future repository capacity. However, the U.S. has not designed or constructed a fast reactor in nearly 30 years. Accurate, high-fidelity, whole-plant dynamics safety simulations will play a crucial role by providing confidence that component and system designs will satisfy established design limits and safety margins under a wide variety of operational, design basis, and beyond design basis transient conditions. Current modeling capabilities for fast reactor safety analyses have resulted from several hundred person-years of code development effort supported by experimental validation. The broad spectrum of mechanistic and phenomenological models that have been developed represent an enormous amount of institutional knowledge that needs to be maintained. Complicating this, the existing code architectures for safety modeling evolved from programming practices of the 1970s. This has lead to monolithic applications with interdependent data models which require significant knowledge of the complexities of the entire code in order for each component to be maintained. In order to develop an advanced fast reactor safety modeling capability, the limitations of the existing code architecture must be overcome while preserving the capabilities that already exist. To accomplish this, a set of advanced safety modeling requirements is defined, based on modern programming practices, that focuses on modular development within a flexible coupling framework. An approach for integrating the existing capabilities of the SAS4A/SASSYS-1 fast reactor safety analysis code into the SHARP framework is provided in order to preserve existing capabilities while providing a smooth transition to advanced modeling capabilities. In doing this, the advanced fast reactor safety models will target leadership-class computing architectures for massively-parallel high-fidelity computations while providing continued support for rapid prototyping using modest fidelity computations on multiple-core desktop platforms.

Fanning, T. H.; Tautges, T. J.

2008-06-30

162

The Effect of Automobile Safety on Vehicle Type Choice: An Empirical Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An analysis was made of the extent to which the safety characteristics of new vehicles affect consumer purchase decisions. Using an extensive data set that combines vehicle data collected by the Automobile Club of Southern California Target Car Program with the responses from a national household survey of new car buyers, a statistical model of…

McCarthy, Patrick S.

163

Advanced Key Technologies for Hot Control Surfaces in Space Re- Entry Vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

(1)MAN Technologie AG, D- 86153 Augsburg, Germany (2,3) ESA, 2200 Noordwijk ZH, The Netherlands Current space re-entry vehicles (e.g. X-38 vehicle 201, the prototype of the International Space Station's Crew Return Vehicle (CRV)) require advanced control surfaces (so called body flaps). Such control surfaces allow the design of smaller and lighter vehicles as well as faster re-entries (compared to the US Shuttle). They are designed as light-weight structures that need no metallic parts, need no mass or volume consuming heat sinks to protect critical components (e.g. bearings) and that can be operated at temperatures of more than 1600 "C in air transferring high mechanical loads (dynamic 40 kN, static 70 kN) at the same time. Because there is a need for CRV and also for Reusable Launch Vehicles (RLV) in future, the European Space Agency (ESA) felt compelled to establish a "Future European Space Transportation and Investigation Program,, (FESTIP) and a "General Support for Technology Program,, (GSTP). One of the main goals of these programs was to develop and qualify key-technologies that are able to master the above mentioned challenging requirements for advanced hot control surfaces and that can be applied for different vehicles. In 1996 MAN Technologie has started the development of hot control surfaces for small lifting bodies in the national program "Heiü Strukturen,,. One of the main results of this program was that especially the following CMC (Ceramic Matrix Composite) key technologies need to be brought up to space flight standard: Complex CMC Structures, CMC Bearings, Metal-to-CMC Joining Technologies, CMC Fasteners, Oxidation Protection Systems and Static and Dynamic Seals. MAN Technologie was contracted by ESA to continue the development and qualification of these key technologies in the frame of the FESTIP and the GSTP program. Development and qualification have successfully been carried out. The key technologies have been applied for the X-38 vehicle 201 body flaps that have been designed, manufactured and qualified also by MAN Technologie in the frame of the national TETRA program ("Technologien fu zuku ftige Raum-Transportsysteme,,). A set of two body flaps will be delivered to NASA at the beginning of 2002 to be integrated into the vehicle 201. Based on development- and qualification tests, the paper describes main technical properties and features of these key technologies that at the same time represent the status of the art. In a qualification test (simultaneous application of thermal and mechanical loads with bearing movements in oxidising atmosphere) of a full scaled CMC bearing, five complete re-entries have been simulated successfully. The paper informs about applied mechanical load and temperature histories as well as about the number of intermittent bearing movements. The paper further informs about the complex CMC attachment structures (attachment of bearing into the body flap and load introduction) that have been qualified together with the CMC bearing. The attachment of the body flap to the vehicle's aft structure has also been qualified by tests in which also four re- entries have been simulated successfully. The attachment in principle is an interfacing structure between the "hot" (1600 "C) CMC body flap and the "cold,, (175 "C) metallic vehicle's aft structure that is able to transfer high me- chanical loads at high temperatures and minimise the heat flux through interfacing components in such way that the temperature difference of 1600 "C 175 "C = 1425 "C is brought down over a structure-length of only 200 mm. The paper informs about applied mechanical load and temperature histories and about the safety margins that have been demonstrated by rupture tests. Mechanical load carrying capacity and thermal resistance of ceramic fasteners have been demonstrated in several development tests which cover tension-, shear-, fatigue- and self locking-tests as well as tests with fastener assemblies representative for the body flaps. The r

Dogigli, Michael; Pradier, Alain; Tumino, Giorgio

2002-01-01

164

Advanced Concepts Test (ACT) facility. Summary safety report  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As a test of a water-conserving way of cooling thermal power plants, a large-scale test of dry/wet cooling using the ammonia phase-change system, designated the Advanced Concepts Test (ACT), is being constructed at Pacific Gas and Electric Company's Kern Station at Bakersfield. A summary of the safety analyses and considerations that have been done for the facility is presented. These show that the ACT facility is an industrially safe system, and that the safety precautions taken assure that no one will be injured during the course of the testing. The application of industrial codes, safety management, an operational and emergency procedures is discussed.

Allemann, R. T.

1981-07-01

165

Nonlinear state and tire force estimation for advanced vehicle control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vehicle motion and tire force histories are estimated from an incomplete, noise-corrupted measurement set using an extended Kalman filter. A nine degree-of-freedom vehicle model and an analytic tire force model are used to simulate true vehicle motion, and a five degree-of-freedom vehicle model is used in the estimator. The filtered histories of forces and motion can be used to construct

Laura R. Ray

1995-01-01

166

Chemical characterization of emissions from advanced technology light-duty vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Results of detailed emissions measurements of seven 2000 model year advanced technology vehicles are reported. Six of the seven vehicles were imported from Europe and Japan and are not yet available for sale in Canada. Three of the vehicles were with direct injection diesel (DDI) technology, three with gasoline direct injection (GDI) technology and one vehicle was a gasoline-electric hybrid. It is expected that vehicles with these technologies will be forming a larger fraction of the Canadian light-duty vehicle fleet in the coming years in response to requirements to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from the transportation sector in support of Canada's ratification of the Kyoto Protocol; and as a result of improving fuel quality (most notably reducing the sulphur content of both diesel and gasoline). It is therefore important to understand the potential impacts on air quality of such changes in the composition of the vehicle fleet. The emissions from these vehicles were characterized over four test cycles representing different driving conditions. Samples of the exhaust were collected for determining methane, non-methane hydrocarbons and carbonyl compounds for the purposes of comparing ozone-forming potential of the emissions. Although these vehicles were not certified to Canadian emissions standards as tested, all vehicles met the then current Tier 1 emission standards, except for one diesel vehicle which did not meet the particulate matter (PM) standard. The DDI vehicles had the highest NO X emissions, the highest specific reactivity and the highest ozone-forming potential of the vehicles tested. When compared to conventional gasoline vehicles, the ozone-forming potential was equivalent. The GDI vehicles had lower NO X emissions, lower specific reactivity and lower ozone-forming potential than the conventional gasoline vehicles. Both the diesel and GDI vehicles had higher PM emissions than the conventional gasoline vehicles. The gasoline-electric hybrid vehicle had the lowest emissions, lowest specific reactivity, lowest ozone-forming potential and highest fuel economy of all vehicles tested.

Graham, Lisa

167

75 FR 15620 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Air Brake Systems  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 571 [Docket No. NHTSA 2009-0175...Jersey Avenue, SE., West Building, Washington, DC 20590. SUPPLEMENTARY...List of Subjects in 49 CFR Part 571 Imports, Motor vehicle safety...0 Accordingly, 49 CFR part 571 is corrected by making the...

2010-03-30

168

Results of advanced batter technology evaluations for electric vehicle applications  

SciTech Connect

Advanced battery technology evaluations are performed under simulated electric-vehicle operating conditions at the Analysis Diagnostic Laboratory (ADL) of Argonne National Laboratory. The ADL results provide insight Into those factors that limit battery performance and life. The ADL facilities include a test laboratory to conduct battery experimental evaluations under simulated application conditions and a post-test analysis laboratory to determine, In a protected atmosphere if needed, component compositional changes and failure mechanisms. This paper summarizes the performance characterizations and life evaluations conducted during 1991--1992 on both single cells and multi-cell modules that encompass eight battery technologies (Na/S, Li/MS (M=metal), Ni/MH, Ni/Cd, Ni/Zn, Ni/Fe, Zn/Br, and Pb-acid). These evaluations were performed for the Department of Energy, Office of Transportation Technologies, Electric and Hybrid Propulsion Division, and the Electric Power Research Institute. The ADL provides a common basis for battery performance characterization and life evaluations with unbiased application of tests and analyses. The results help identify the most-promising R D approaches for overcoming battery limitations, and provide battery users, developers, and program managers with a measure of the progress being made in battery R D programs, a comparison of battery technologies, and basic data for modeling.

DeLuca, W.H.; Gillie, K.R.; Kulaga, J.E.; Smaga, J.A.; Tummillo, A.F.; Webster, C.E.

1992-01-01

169

Results of advanced battery technology evaluations for electric vehicle applications  

SciTech Connect

Advanced battery technology evaluations are performed under simulated electric-vehicle operating conditions at the Analysis & Diagnostic Laboratory (ADL) of Argonne National Laboratory. The ADL results provide insight Into those factors that limit battery performance and life. The ADL facilities include a test laboratory to conduct battery experimental evaluations under simulated application conditions and a post-test analysis laboratory to determine, In a protected atmosphere if needed, component compositional changes and failure mechanisms. This paper summarizes the performance characterizations and life evaluations conducted during 1991--1992 on both single cells and multi-cell modules that encompass eight battery technologies [Na/S, Li/MS (M=metal), Ni/MH, Ni/Cd, Ni/Zn, Ni/Fe, Zn/Br, and Pb-acid]. These evaluations were performed for the Department of Energy, Office of Transportation Technologies, Electric and Hybrid Propulsion Division, and the Electric Power Research Institute. The ADL provides a common basis for battery performance characterization and life evaluations with unbiased application of tests and analyses. The results help identify the most-promising R&D approaches for overcoming battery limitations, and provide battery users, developers, and program managers with a measure of the progress being made in battery R&D programs, a comparison of battery technologies, and basic data for modeling.

DeLuca, W.H.; Gillie, K.R.; Kulaga, J.E.; Smaga, J.A.; Tummillo, A.F.; Webster, C.E.

1992-09-01

170

HFE safety reviews of advanced nuclear power plant control rooms  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Advanced control rooms (ACR's) will utilize human-system interface (HSI) technologies that may have significant implications for plant safety in that they will affect the operator's overall role and means of interacting with the system. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) reviews the human factors engineering (HFE) aspects of HSI's to ensure that they are designed to good HFE principles and support performance and reliability in order to protect public health and safety. However, the only available NRC guidance was developed more than ten years ago, and does not adequately address the human performance issues and technology changes associated with ACR's. Accordingly, a new approach to ACR safety reviews was developed based upon the concept of 'convergent validity'. This approach to ACR safety reviews is described.

Ohara, John

1994-01-01

171

Ares-I-X Vehicle Preliminary Range Safety Malfunction Turn Analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ares-I-X is the designation given to the flight test version of the Ares-I rocket (also known as the Crew Launch Vehicle - CLV) being developed by NASA. As part of the preliminary flight plan approval process for the test vehicle, a range safety malfunction turn analysis was performed to support the launch area risk assessment and vehicle destruct criteria development processes. Several vehicle failure scenarios were identified which could cause the vehicle trajectory to deviate from its normal flight path, and the effects of these failures were evaluated with an Ares-I-X 6 degrees-of-freedom (6-DOF) digital simulation, using the Program to Optimize Simulated Trajectories Version 2 (POST2) simulation framework. The Ares-I-X simulation analysis provides output files containing vehicle state information, which are used by other risk assessment and vehicle debris trajectory simulation tools to determine the risk to personnel and facilities in the vicinity of the launch area at Kennedy Space Center (KSC), and to develop the vehicle destruct criteria used by the flight test range safety officer. The simulation analysis approach used for this study is described, including descriptions of the failure modes which were considered and the underlying assumptions and ground rules of the study, and preliminary results are presented, determined by analysis of the trajectory deviation of the failure cases, compared with the expected vehicle trajectory.

Beaty, James R.; Starr, Brett R.; Gowan, John W., Jr.

2008-01-01

172

Safety impacts of SUVs, vans, and pickup trucks in two-vehicle crashes.  

PubMed

Policy makers, vehicle manufacturers, and consumers have shown growing concern about the relative safety of sport utility vehicles (SUVs), vans, pickups, and cars. Empirical analysis of real-world crashes is complicated by the possibility that apparent relationships between vehicle type and safety may be confounded by other factors, such as driver behavior and crash circumstances. This study compares different vehicle types with respect to their crashworthiness (self-protection) and aggressivity (risk to others) in crashes between two passenger vehicles. The U.S. Crashworthiness Data System is used to analyze detailed information on 6,481 drivers involved in crashes during 1993-1999. Logistic regression analysis is used to model the risk of serious injury or death to a driver, conditional on a crash occurring. Covariates include the body type of each vehicle in the crash; the driver's age, gender, and restraint use; and the configuration of the crash. A unique feature of this study is the use of "delta-v" to represent the joint effects of vehicle mass and crash severity. While estimated effects are somewhat sensitive to the injury severity level used as the outcome variable, SUVs, vans, and pickups appear to be more aggressive and may be more crashworthy than cars. Effects of pickups are most pronounced. Drivers in pickups face less risk of serious injury than car drivers (odds ratio [OR], 0.35; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.20-0.60), and drivers who collide with pickups experience more than twice the risk than those who collide with a car (OR, 2.18; 95% CI, 1.03-4.62). While vehicle mass and crash severity contribute to the apparent crashworthiness and aggressivity of passenger vehicles, other vehicle characteristics associated with body type (e.g., the stiffness and height of the underlying structure of the vehicle) also influence safety risks. PMID:12926558

Toy, Edmond L; Hammitt, James K

2003-08-01

173

Advanced Crew Rescue Vehicle/Personnel Launch System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Advanced Crew Rescue Vehicle (ACRV) will be an essential element of the Space Station to respond to three specific missions, all of which have occurred during the history space exploration by the U.S. and the Soviets: (1) Mission DRM-1: Return of disabled crew members during medical emergencies; (2) Mission DRM-2: Return of crew members from accidents or as a result of failures of Space Station systems; and (3) Mission DRM-3: Return of crew members during interruption of Space Shuttle launches. The ACRV will have the ability to transport up to eight astronauts during a 24-hour mission. Not only would the ACRV serve as a lifeboat to provide transportation back to Earth, but it would also be available as a immediately available safe refuge in case the Space Station were severely damaged by space debris or other catastrophe. Upon return to Earth, existing world-wide search and rescue assets operated by the Coast Guard and Department of Defense would be able to retrieve personnel returned to Earth via the ACRV. The operational approach proposed for the ACRV is tailored to satisfying mission requirements for simplicity of operation (no piloting skills or specially trained personnel are required), continuous availability, high reliability and affordability. By using proven systems as the basis for many critical ACRV systems, the ACRV program is more likely to achieve each of these mission requirements. Nonetheless, the need for the ACRV to operate reliably with little preflight preparation after, perhaps, 5 to 10 years in orbit imposes challenges not faced by any previous space system of this complexity. Specific concerns exist regarding micrometeoroid impacts, battery life, and degradation of recovery parachutes while in storage.

Craig, Jerry W.

1993-01-01

174

Development of advanced driver assistance systems with vehicle hardware-in-the-loop simulations  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a new method for the design and validation of advanced driver assistance systems (ADASs). With vehicle hardware-in-the-loop (VEHIL) simulations, the development process, and more specifically the validation phase, of intelligent vehicles is carried out safer, cheaper, and is more manageable. In the VEHIL laboratory, a full-scale ADAS-equipped vehicle is set up in a hardware-in-the-loop simulation environment, where

Olaf Gietelink; Jeroen Ploeg; Bart De Schutter; Michel Verhaegen

2006-01-01

175

Advancing electric-vehicle development with pure-lead-tin battery technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electric-vehicle (EV) development continues to make solid progress towards extending vehicle range, reliability and ease of use, aided significantly by technological advances in vehicle systems. There is, however, a widespread misconception that current battery technologies are not capable of meeting even the minimum user requirements that would launch EVs into daily use. Existing pure-lead-tin technology is moving EVs out of

W. A. O'Brien; R. B. Stickel; G. J. May

1997-01-01

176

Centers for Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicle Technology Pre-Application Workshop Attendee List  

E-print Network

. Clements Clean Air / Alternative Fuel / School Transportation Experience 559-356-1334 johndclements56@gmailPON-13-605 Centers for Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicle Technology Pre-Application Workshop

177

Fuel-cycle greenhouse gas emissions impacts of alternative transportation fuels and advanced vehicle technologies.  

SciTech Connect

At an international conference on global warming, held in Kyoto, Japan, in December 1997, the United States committed to reduce its greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by 7% over its 1990 level by the year 2012. To help achieve that goal, transportation GHG emissions need to be reduced. Using Argonne's fuel-cycle model, I estimated GHG emissions reduction potentials of various near- and long-term transportation technologies. The estimated per-mile GHG emissions results show that alternative transportation fuels and advanced vehicle technologies can help significantly reduce transportation GHG emissions. Of the near-term technologies evaluated in this study, electric vehicles; hybrid electric vehicles; compression-ignition, direct-injection vehicles; and E85 flexible fuel vehicles can reduce fuel-cycle GHG emissions by more than 25%, on the fuel-cycle basis. Electric vehicles powered by electricity generated primarily from nuclear and renewable sources can reduce GHG emissions by 80%. Other alternative fuels, such as compressed natural gas and liquefied petroleum gas, offer limited, but positive, GHG emission reduction benefits. Among the long-term technologies evaluated in this study, conventional spark ignition and compression ignition engines powered by alternative fuels and gasoline- and diesel-powered advanced vehicles can reduce GHG emissions by 10% to 30%. Ethanol dedicated vehicles, electric vehicles, hybrid electric vehicles, and fuel-cell vehicles can reduce GHG emissions by over 40%. Spark ignition engines and fuel-cell vehicles powered by cellulosic ethanol and solar hydrogen (for fuel-cell vehicles only) can reduce GHG emissions by over 80%. In conclusion, both near- and long-term alternative fuels and advanced transportation technologies can play a role in reducing the United States GHG emissions.

Wang, M. Q.

1998-12-16

178

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles: Resources for Fleet Managers (Clean Cities) (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect

A discussion of the tools and resources on the Clean Cities, Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center, and the FuelEconomy.gov Web sites that can help vehicle fleet managers make informed decisions about implementing strategies to reduce gasoline and diesel fuel use.

Brennan, A.

2011-04-01

179

Advanced transportation system study: Manned launch vehicle concepts for two way transportation system payloads to LEO  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the Advanced Transportation System Study (ATSS) task area 1 study effort is to examine manned launch vehicle booster concepts and two-way cargo transfer and return vehicle concepts to determine which of the many proposed concepts best meets NASA's needs for two-way transportation to low earth orbit. The study identified specific configurations of the normally unmanned, expendable launch

James B. Duffy

1993-01-01

180

An assessment of research and development leadership in advanced batteries for electric vehicles  

SciTech Connect

Due to the recently enacted California regulations requiring zero emission vehicles be sold in the market place by 1998, electric vehicle research and development (R&D) is accelerating. Much of the R&D work is focusing on the Achilles` heel of electric vehicles -- advanced batteries. This report provides an assessment of the R&D work currently underway in advanced batteries and electric vehicles in the following countries: Denmark, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Russia, and the United Kingdom. Although the US can be considered one of the leading countries in terms of advanced battery and electric vehicle R&D work, it lags other countries, particularly France, in producing and promoting electric vehicles. The US is focusing strictly on regulations to promote electric vehicle usage while other countries are using a wide variety of policy instruments (regulations, educational outreach programs, tax breaks and subsidies) to encourage the use of electric vehicles. The US should consider implementing additional policy instruments to ensure a domestic market exists for electric vehicles. The domestic is the largest and most important market for the US auto industry.

Bruch, V.L.

1994-02-01

181

The impact of passive safety systems on desirability of advanced light water reactors  

E-print Network

This work investigates whether the advanced light water reactor designs with passive safety systems are more desirable than advanced reactor designs with active safety systems from the point of view of uncertainty in the ...

Eul, Ryan C

2006-01-01

182

77 FR 24560 - National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Electric Vehicle Safety Technical Symposium  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...vehicles powered by lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries. The symposium will include brief NHTSA presentations...agency research and activities related to Li-ion batteries and Li-ion battery-powered vehicles, as well as presentations...

2012-04-24

183

Lng vehicle technology, economics, and safety assessment. Final report, April 1991June 1993  

Microsoft Academic Search

Liquid natural gas (LNG) is an attractive transportation fuel because of its high heating value and energy density (i.e. Btu\\/lb and Btu\\/gal), clean burning characteristics, relatively low cost ($\\/Btu), and domestic availability. This research evaluated LNG vehicle and refueling system technology, economics, and safety. Prior and current LNG vehicle projects were studied to identify needed technology improvements. Life-cycle cost analyses

C. A. Powars; C. B. Moyer; D. D. Lowell

1994-01-01

184

NASA Expendable Launch Vehicle (ELV) Payload Safety Review Process  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Issues addressed by this program: (1) Complicated roles and responsibilities associated with multi-partner projects (2) Working relationships and communications between all organizations involved in the payload safety process (3) Consistent interpretation and implementation of safety requirements from one project to the rest (4) Consistent implementation of the Tailoring Process (5) Clearly defined NASA decision-making-authority (6) Bring Agency-wide perspective to each ElV payload project. Current process requires a Payload Safety Working Group (PSWG) for eac payload with representatives from all involved organizations.

Starbus, Calvert S.; Donovan, Shawn; Dook, Mike; Palo, Tom

2007-01-01

185

The Market Acceptance of Advanced Automotive Technologies (MA3T) Model  

E-print Network

The Market Acceptance of Advanced Automotive Technologies (MA3T) Model Research Brief Oak Ridge: Energy Environment Safety Security Vehicle Technologies T he Market Acceptance of Advanced Automotive T simulates market demand for advanced vehicle technologies by representing relevant attributes

186

Pilot safety for the X-24A lifting body vehicle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design and operational characteristics of the X-24A are described in detail. Primary emphasis is placed on the safety considerations incorporated in the design and flight test stages. It is pointed out that the inherently high drag of the lifting body configuration together with its relatively low lift/drag ratio, generated considerable concern with respect to the pilot's ability to perform safe landings from gliding flight. The resulting safety procedures taken at each stage of development are discussed.

Cochrane, J.; Graham, K.

1971-01-01

187

Advanced Robotics for In-Space Vehicle Processing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An analysis of spaceborne vehicle processing is described. Generic crew-EVA tasks are presented for a specific vehicle, the orbital maneuvering vehicle (OMV), with general implications to other on-orbit vehicles. The OMV is examined with respect to both servicing and maintenance. Crew-EVA activities are presented by task and mapped to a common set of generic crew-EVA primitives to identify high-demand areas for telerobot services. Similarly, a set of telerobot primitives is presented that can be used to model telerobot actions for alternative telerobot reference configurations. The telerobot primitives are tied to technologies and used for composting telerobot operations for an automated refueling scenario. Telerobotics technology issues and design accomodation guidelines (hooks and scars) for the Space Station Freedom are described.

Smith, Jeffrey H.; Estus, Jay; Heneghan, Cate; Bosley, John

1990-01-01

188

US advanced battery consortium in-vehicle battery testing procedure  

SciTech Connect

This article describes test procedures to be used as part of a program to monitor the performance of batteries used in electric vehicle applications. The data will be collected as part of an electric vehicle testing program, which will include battery packs from a number of different suppliers. Most data will be collected by on-board systems or from driver logs. The paper describes the test procedure to be implemented for batteries being used in this testing.

NONE

1997-03-01

189

Building rural motor vehicle safety capacity through community sports  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction\\/objectivePersons living in rural areas are at great risk of motor vehicle injury, as are children ages 4–7 years when prematurely graduated to seat belts designed for adults. Social marketing, individual decision-making and community engagement models were integrated to increase booster seat use through an accepted sport in rural communities. We report on lessons learnt from a multi-state study in

B L Anderson; B K Miller; M E Aitken; D M Daniels

2010-01-01

190

A pilot trial of all-terrain vehicle safety messaging in a movie theatre  

Microsoft Academic Search

IntroductionAll terrain vehicle (ATV) injuries are increasing among rural children and adolescents. Methods to effectively promote ATV safety messages are not well described. The purpose of this study was to determine the feasibility of using a movie theatre as a venue for ATV injury prevention.MethodsA public service announcement on ATV safety was shown in a rural movie theatre in Arkansas,

J Graham; S Hope Mullins; B Miller; J Nixon; S Eoff; M Brann; M E Aitken

2010-01-01

191

Advanced Reactor Safety Research Division. Quarterly progress report, April 1-June 30, 1980  

SciTech Connect

The Advanced Reactor Safety Research Programs Quarterly Progress Report describes current activities and technical progress in the programs at Brookhaven National Laboratory sponsored by the USNRC Division of Reactor Safety Research. The projects reported each quarter are the following: HTGR safety evaluation, SSC Code Development, LMFBR Safety Experiments, and Fast Reactor Safety Code Validation.

Romano, A.J.

1980-01-01

192

Comparison of advanced battery technologies for electric vehicles  

SciTech Connect

Battery technologies of different chemistries, manufacture and geometry were evaluated as candidates for use in Electric Vehicles (EV). The candidate batteries that were evaluated include four single cell and seven multi-cell modules representing four technologies: Lead-Acid, Nickel-Cadmium, Nickel-Metal Hydride and Zinc-Bromide. A standard set of testing procedures for electric vehicle batteries, based on industry accepted testing procedures, and any tests which were specific to individual battery types were used in the evaluations. The batteries were evaluated by conducting performance tests, and by subjecting them to cyclical loading, using a computer controlled charge--discharge cycler, to simulate typical EV driving cycles. Criteria for comparison of batteries were: performance, projected vehicle range, cost, and applicability to various types of EVs. The four battery technologies have individual strengths and weaknesses and each is suited to fill a particular application. None of the batteries tested can fill every EV application.

Dickinson, B.E.; Lalk, T.R. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Mechanical Engineering Dept.; Swan, D.H. [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States). Inst. of Transportation Studies

1993-12-31

193

The impact of improved vehicle design on highway safety  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a framework for evaluating the safety of automobile designs in terms of likelihood of accident occurrence and severity of likely injuries sustained. Fault-tree analysis is utilized to model interacting relationships between causative factors that affect accident occurrence. A multiattribute injury model based on harm measures obtained from the National Accident Sampling System Database is presented to describe

J. S. Eisele; Y. Y. Haimes; N. J. Garber; D. Li; J. H. Lambert; P. Kuzminski; M. Chowdhury

1996-01-01

194

U.S. Department of Energy -- Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity: Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Testing and Demonstration Activities  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA) tests plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) in closed track, dynamometer and onroad testing environments. The onroad testing includes the use of dedicated drivers on repeated urban and highway driving cycles that range from 10 to 200 miles, with recharging between each loop. Fleet demonstrations with onboard data collectors are also ongoing with PHEVs operating in several dozen states and Canadian Provinces, during which trips- and miles-per-charge, charging demand and energy profiles, and miles-per-gallon and miles-per-kilowatt-hour fuel use results are all documented, allowing an understanding of fuel use when vehicles are operated in charge depleting, charge sustaining, and mixed charge modes. The intent of the PHEV testing includes documenting the petroleum reduction potential of the PHEV concept, the infrastructure requirements, and operator recharging influences and profiles. As of May 2008, the AVTA has conducted track and dynamometer testing on six PHEV conversion models and fleet testing on 70 PHEVs representing nine PHEV conversion models. A total of 150 PHEVs will be in fleet testing by the end of 2008, all with onboard data loggers. The onroad testing to date has demonstrated 100+ miles per gallon results in mostly urban applications for approximately the first 40 miles of PHEV operations. The primary goal of the AVTA is to provide advanced technology vehicle performance benchmark data for technology modelers, research and development programs, and technology goal setters. The AVTA testing results also assist fleet managers in making informed vehicle purchase, deployment and operating decisions. The AVTA is part of DOE’s Vehicle Technologies Program. These AVTA testing activities are conducted by the Idaho National Laboratory and Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation, with Argonne National Laboratory providing dynamometer testing support. The proposed paper and presentation will discuss PHEV testing activities and results. INL/CON-08-14333

James E. Francfort; Donald Karner; John G. Smart

2009-05-01

195

Foundational development of an advanced nuclear reactor integrated safety code.  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the activities and results of a Sandia LDRD project whose objective was to develop and demonstrate foundational aspects of a next-generation nuclear reactor safety code that leverages advanced computational technology. The project scope was directed towards the systems-level modeling and simulation of an advanced, sodium cooled fast reactor, but the approach developed has a more general applicability. The major accomplishments of the LDRD are centered around the following two activities. (1) The development and testing of LIME, a Lightweight Integrating Multi-physics Environment for coupling codes that is designed to enable both 'legacy' and 'new' physics codes to be combined and strongly coupled using advanced nonlinear solution methods. (2) The development and initial demonstration of BRISC, a prototype next-generation nuclear reactor integrated safety code. BRISC leverages LIME to tightly couple the physics models in several different codes (written in a variety of languages) into one integrated package for simulating accident scenarios in a liquid sodium cooled 'burner' nuclear reactor. Other activities and accomplishments of the LDRD include (a) further development, application and demonstration of the 'non-linear elimination' strategy to enable physics codes that do not provide residuals to be incorporated into LIME, (b) significant extensions of the RIO CFD code capabilities, (c) complex 3D solid modeling and meshing of major fast reactor components and regions, and (d) an approach for multi-physics coupling across non-conformal mesh interfaces.

Clarno, Kevin (Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN); Lorber, Alfred Abraham; Pryor, Richard J.; Spotz, William F.; Schmidt, Rodney Cannon; Belcourt, Kenneth (Ktech Corporation, Albuquerque, NM); Hooper, Russell Warren; Humphries, Larry LaRon

2010-02-01

196

NREL's emulation tool helps manufacturers ensure the safety and reliability of electric vehicle batteries.  

E-print Network

current collector (Al) Battery separator Cathode electrode Negative current collector (Cu) Anode electrode batteries. Battery safety is key to the acceptance and penetration of electrified vehicles challenging failure mechanisms of lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries--a battery internal short circuit (ISC). When

197

Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard No. 209 (Seat Belt Assemblies). Bay Trim Accessories, LTD.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report contains the test data, results and conclusions of tests performed on one set of twelve (12) Type 1 seat belt assemblies for compliance to Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard No. 209. The set of seat belts without retractors was subjected to ...

1970-01-01

198

Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard No. 209 (Seat Belt Assemblies). Beams Manufacturing Company.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report contains the results of tests performed on one set of twelve (12) seat belt assemblies in accordance with Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard No. 209. This set of seat belts without retractors was subjected to the following tests: Web width a...

1970-01-01

199

Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard No. 209 (Seat Belt Assemblies). Irvin Industries, Inc.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report contains the test data, results and conclusions of tests performed on one set of twelve (12) Type 1 seat belt assemblies for compliance to Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard No. 209. The set of seat belts without retractors was subjected to ...

1970-01-01

200

Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard No. 209 (Seat Belt Assemblies). Jim Robins Company.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report contains the test data, results and conclusions of tests performed on one set of twelve (12) Type 1 seat belt assemblies for compliance to Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard No. 209. The set of Jim Robbins seat belts, model 3910 without retr...

1970-01-01

201

Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard No. 209 (Seat Belt Assemblies). Rose Manufacturing Company.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report contains the results of tests performed on one set of twelve (12) seat belt assemblies in accordance with Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard No. 209. This set of seat belts without retractors was subjected to the following tests: Web width a...

1970-01-01

202

All-Terrain Vehicle Safety and Use Patterns in Central Illinois Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Context: All-terrain vehicles' (ATVs) popularity and associated injuries among children are increasing in the United States. Currently, most known ATV use pattern data are obtained from injured youth and little documented data exist characterizing the typical ATV use patterns and safety practices among American children in general. Purpose: To…

Hafner, John W.; Hough, Scott M.; Getz, Marjorie A.; Whitehurst, Yvette; Pearl, Richard H.

2010-01-01

203

Commercial Vehicle Safety Alliance (CVSA)/Department of Energy (DOE) cooperative agreement final report  

SciTech Connect

This S and T product is a culmination of the activities, including research of the Commercial Vehicle Safety Alliance (CVSA) in developing and implementing inspection procedures and the out-of-service criteria for states and tribes to use when inspecting HRCQ and Transuranic shipments of radioactive materials. The report also contains the results of a pilot study to test the procedures.

Slavich, Antoinette; Daust, James E.

1999-10-01

204

78 FR 68748 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Designated Seating Positions  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Petitions for Reconsideration A. Definition of DSP B. Analysis of Safety Problem C. Seating...of ``designated seating position'' (DSP), as that term is used in the Federal...Occupant Crash Protection, requires that each DSP in a light vehicle be provided with...

2013-11-15

205

Recent advances in oncology acupuncture and safety considerations in practice.  

PubMed

Oncology acupuncture is a new and emerging field of research. Recent advances from published clinical trials have added evidence to support the use of acupuncture for symptom management in cancer patients. Recent new developments include (1) pain and dysfunction after neck dissection; (2) radiation-induced xerostomia in head and neck cancer; (3) aromatase inhibitor-associated arthralgia in breast cancer; (4) hot flashes in breast cancer and prostate cancer; and (5) chemotherapy-induced neutropenia in ovarian cancer. Some interventions are becoming a non-pharmaceutical option for cancer patients, while others still require further validation and confirmation. Meanwhile, owing to the rapid development of the field and increased demands from cancer patients, safety issues concerning oncology acupuncture practice have become imperative. Patients with cancer may be at higher risk developing adverse reactions from acupuncture. Practical strategies for enhancing safety measures are discussed and recommended. PMID:21103962

Lu, Weidong; Rosenthal, David S

2010-12-01

206

A Fleet Monitoring System for Advanced Tracking of Commercial Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many commercial off-the-shelf fleet telematics systems can provide basic tracking & tracing functionalities for vehicle fleets. These systems, however, require that dispatchers manually identify any discrepancies between the actual data available in the fleet telematics system and the planned data in the logistics system. Furthermore, actual data such as arrival and departure times at customer locations must be transferred manually

Asvin GoelandVolker Gruhn; Volker Gruhn

2006-01-01

207

Advances in Autonomous Obstacle Avoidance for Unmanned Surface Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Space and Naval Warfare Systems Center, San Diego has been involved in the continuing development of obstacle avoidance for unmanned surface vehicles (USVs) towards the aim of a high level of autonomous navigation. An autonomous USV can fulfill a variety of missions and applications that are of increasing interest for th e US Navy and other Department of Defense

Jacoby Larson; Michael Bruch; Ryan Halterman; John Rogers; Robert Webster

208

Advanced lead acid battery designs for hybrid electric vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the authors present a high power, lead acid battery design that has demonstrated long life. The design uses horizontal plates with multiple lug connectors to deliver high power for hybrid electric vehicle applications. The horizontal plate configuration helps improve life by allowing for better thermal management and mechanical compression. They use computer models that were previously developed

Dean B. Edwards; Charles Kinney

2001-01-01

209

An advanced smart management system for electric vehicle recharge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent studies about climate change are mandating a drastic reduction of green house gas (GHG) emissions. Solutions include the utilization of renewable energy sources (e.g., wind, solar energy) and the increased utilization of hybrid and electric vehicles (EVs). In this scenario ICT can play a significant role by fostering the smart utilization of current energy and transportation infrastructures (smart grid

M. Gharbaoui; L. Valcarenghi; R. Brunoi; B. Martini; M. Conti; P. Castoldi

2012-01-01

210

Advanced transportation system study: Manned launch vehicle concepts for two way transportation system payloads to LEO. Program cost estimates document  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report describes Rockwell International's cost analysis results of manned launch vehicle concepts for two way transportation system payloads to low earth orbit during the basic and option 1 period of performance for contract NAS8-39207, advanced transportation system studies. Vehicles analyzed include the space shuttle, personnel launch system (PLS) with advanced launch system (ALS) and national launch system (NLS) boosters, foreign launch vehicles, NLS-2 derived launch vehicles, liquid rocket booster (LRB) derived launch vehicle, and cargo transfer and return vehicle (CTRV).

Duffy, James B.

1993-01-01

211

Reliability, Safety and Error Recovery for Advanced Control Software  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

For long-duration automated operation of regenerative life support systems in space environments, there is a need for advanced integration and control systems that are significantly more reliable and safe, and that support error recovery and minimization of operational failures. This presentation outlines some challenges of hazardous space environments and complex system interactions that can lead to system accidents. It discusses approaches to hazard analysis and error recovery for control software and challenges of supporting effective intervention by safety software and the crew.

Malin, Jane T.

2003-01-01

212

Progress on advanced dc and ac induction drives for electric vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Progress is reported in the development of complete electric vehicle propulsion systems, and the results of tests on the Road Load Simulator of two such systems representative of advanced dc and ac drive technology are presented. One is the system used in the DOE's ETV-1 integrated test vehicle which consists of a shunt wound dc traction motor under microprocessor control using a transistorized controller. The motor drives the vehicle through a fixed ratio transmission. The second system uses an ac induction motor controlled by transistorized pulse width modulated inverter which drives through a two speed automatically shifted transmission. The inverter and transmission both operate under the control of a microprocessor. The characteristics of these systems are also compared with the propulsion system technology available in vehicles being manufactured at the inception of the DOE program and with an advanced, highly integrated propulsion system upon which technology development was recently initiated.

Schwartz, H. J.

1982-01-01

213

MSFC Advanced Concepts Office and the Iterative Launch Vehicle Concept Method  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This slide presentation reviews the work of the Advanced Concepts Office (ACO) at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) with particular emphasis on the method used to model launch vehicles using INTegrated ROcket Sizing (INTROS), a modeling system that assists in establishing the launch concept design, and stage sizing, and facilitates the integration of exterior analytic efforts, vehicle architecture studies, and technology and system trades and parameter sensitivities.

Creech, Dennis

2011-01-01

214

Final report for the Advanced Natural Gas Vehicle Project  

Microsoft Academic Search

The project objective was to develop the technologies necessary to prototype a dedicated compressed natural gas (CNG) powered, mid-size automobile with operational capabilities comparable to gasoline automobiles. A system approach was used to design and develop the engine, gas storage system and vehicle packaging. The 2.4-liter DOHC engine was optimized for natural gas operation with high-compression pistons, hardened exhaust valves,

John Wozniak

1999-01-01

215

Advanced Control Surface Seal Development for Future Space Vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

High temperature control surface seals have been identified as a critical technology in the development of future space vehicles. These seals must withstand temperatures of up to 2600 F and protect underlying temperature-sensitive structures (such as actuators and sealing capability by remaining resilient during flight conditions. The current baseline seal, used on the Shuttle orbiters and the X-38 vehicle, consists of a Nextel 312 sheath, an internal Inconel X-750 knitted spring tube, and hand-stuffed Saffil batting. Unfortunately at high temperatures (> 1500 F), the seal resiliency significantly degrades due to yielding and creep of the spring tube element. The permanent set in the seals can result in flow passing over the seals and subsequent damage to temperature sensitive components downstream of the seals. Another shortcoming of the baseline seal is that instances have been reported on Shuttle flights where some of the hand-stuffed Saffil batting insulation has been extracted, thus potentially compromising the seal. In vehicles where the thermal protection systems are delicate (such as with Shuttle tiles), the control surface seals must also limit the amount of force applied to the opposing surfaces. Additionally, in many applications the seals are subjected to scrubbing as control surfaces are actuated. The seals must be able to withstand any damage resulting from this high temperature scrubbing and retain their heat/flow blocking abilities.

DeMange, Jeffrey J.; Dunlap, Patrick H., Jr.; Steinetz, Bruce M.

2004-01-01

216

Advanced PEFC development for fuel cell powered vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vehicles equipped with fuel cells have been developed with much progress. Outcomes of such development efforts include a Toyota fuel cell electric vehicle (FCEV) using hydrogen as the fuel which was developed and introduced in 1996, followed by another Toyota FCEV using methanol as the fuel, developed and introduced in 1997. In those Toyota FCEVs, a fuel cell system is installed under the floor of each RAV4L, to sports utility vehicle. It has been found that the CO concentration in the reformed gas of methanol reformer can be reduced to 100 ppm in wide ranges of catalyst temperature and gas flow rate, by using the ruthenium (Ru) catalyst as the CO selective oxidizer, instead of the platinum (Pt) catalyst known from some time ago. It has been also found that a fuel cell performance equivalent to that with pure hydrogen can be ensured even in the reformed gas with the carbon monoxide (CO) concentration of 100 ppm, by using the Pt-Ru (platinum ruthenium alloy) electrocatalyst as the anode electrocatalyst of a polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC), instead of the Pt electrocatalyst known from some time ago.

Kawatsu, Shigeyuki

217

Integration of Advanced Concepts and Vehicles Into the Next Generation Air Transportation System. Volume 1; Introduction, Key Messages, and Vehicle Attributes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Raytheon, in partnership with NASA, is leading the way in ensuring that the future air transportation continues to be a key driver of economic growth and stability and that this system provides an environmentally friendly, safe, and effective means of moving people and goods. A Raytheon-led team of industry and academic experts, under NASA contract NNA08BA47C, looked at the potential issues and impact of introducing four new classes of advanced aircraft into the next generation air transportation system -- known as NextGen. The study will help determine where NASA should further invest in research to support the safe introduction of these new air vehicles. Small uncrewed or unmanned aerial systems (SUAS), super heavy transports (SHT) including hybrid wing body versions (HWB), very light jets (VLJ), and supersonic business jets (SSBJ) are the four classes of aircraft that we studied. Understanding each vehicle's business purpose and strategy is critical to assessing the feasibility of new aircraft operations and their impact on NextGen's architecture. The Raytheon team used scenarios created by aviation experts that depict vehicles in year 2025 operations along with scripts or use cases to understand the issues presented by these new types of vehicles. The information was then mapped into the Joint Planning and Development Office's (JPDO s) Enterprise Architecture to show how the vehicles will fit into NextGen's Concept of Operations. The team also identified significant changes to the JPDO's Integrated Work Plan (IWP) to optimize the NextGen vision for these vehicles. Using a proven enterprise architecture approach and the JPDO s Joint Planning Environment (JPE) web site helped make the leap from architecture to planning efficient, manageable and achievable. Very Light Jets flying into busy hub airports -- Supersonic Business Jets needing to climb and descend rapidly to achieve the necessary altitude Super-heavy cargo planes requiring the shortest common flight path -- are just a few of the potential new operations in the future National Airspace System. To assess the impact of these new scenarios on overall national airspace operations, the Raytheon team used the capabilities of a suite of tools such as NASA's Airspace Concepts Evaluation System (ACES), the Flight Optimization System (FLOPS), FAA's Aviation Environmental Design Tool (AEDT), Intelligent Automations Kinematic Trajectory Generator (KTG) and the Aviation Safety Risk Model (ASRM). Detailed metroplex modeling, surface delay models for super heavy transports, prioritized routing and corridors for supersonics business jets, and VLJ demand models are some of the models developed by the Raytheon team to study the effect of operating these new vehicles in the future NAS. Using this suite of models, several trade studies were conducted to evaluate these effects in terms of delays, equity in access, safety, and the environment. Looking at the impact of each vehicle, a number of critical issues were identified. The Raytheon team concluded that strict compliance to NextGen's 4-dimensional trajectory (4DT) management will be required to accommodate these vehicles unique operations and increased number of flights in the future air space system. The next section provides a discussion of this and the other key findings from our study.

Zellweger, Andres; Resnick, Herbert; Stevens, Edward; Arkind, Kenneth; Cotton William B.

2010-01-01

218

Environmental, health, and safety issues of sodium-sulfur batteries for electric and hybrid vehicles  

SciTech Connect

This report is the last of four volumes that identify and assess the environmental, health, and safety issues that may affect the commercial-scale use of sodium-sulfur (Na/S) battery technology as the energy source in electric and hybrid vehicles. The reports are intended to help the Electric and Hybrid Propulsion Division of the Office of Transportation Technologies in the US Department of Energy (DOE/EHP) determine the direction of its research, development, and demonstration (RD D) program for Na/S battery technology. The reports review the status of Na/S battery RD D and identify potential hazards and risks that may require additional research or that may affect the design and use of Na/S batteries. This volume covers the in-vehicle safety issues of electric vehicles powered by Na/S batteries. The report is based on a review of the literature and on discussions with experts at DOE, national laboratories and agencies, and private industry. It has three major goals: (1) to identify the unique hazards associated with electric vehicle (EV) use; (2) to describe the existing standards, regulations, and guidelines that are or could be applicable to these hazards; and (3) to discuss the adequacy of the existing requirements in addressing the safety concerns of EVs.

Mark, J

1992-11-01

219

Analyzing the influence of median cross-section design on highway safety using vehicle dynamics simulations.  

PubMed

Although vehicle dynamics simulations have long been used in vehicle design and crash reconstruction, their use for highway design is rare. This paper investigates the safety of highway medians through iterative simulations of off-road median encroachments. The commercially available software CarSim was used to simulate over one hundred thousand encroachments, representing the entire passenger vehicle fleet and a wide range of encroachment angles, departure speeds, steering inputs, and braking inputs. Each individual simulation output was then weighted using data from previous studies to reflect the probability of each specific accident scenario occurring in a real-life median encroachment. Results of this analysis illustrate the relative influence of median cross-section geometry on the resulting accident outcomes. The simulations indicate that the overall safety of a highway median depends on the occurrence of both vehicle rollover and median crossover events, and the cross-section shape, slope, and width are all shown to greatly affect each of these incidents. An evaluation of the simulation results was conducted with vehicle trajectories from previous experimental crash tests. Further assessment of the aggregate simulation results to actual crash data was achieved through comparison with several databases of crash statistics. Both efforts showed a strong agreement between the simulations and the real-life crash data. PMID:20728628

Stine, Jason S; Hamblin, Bridget C; Brennan, Sean N; Donnell, Eric T

2010-11-01

220

Safety Analysis of Soybean Processing for Advanced Life Support  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Soybeans (cv. Hoyt) is one of the crops planned for food production within the Advanced Life Support System Integration Testbed (ALSSIT), a proposed habitat simulation for long duration lunar/Mars missions. Soybeans may be processed into a variety of food products, including soymilk, tofu, and tempeh. Due to the closed environmental system and importance of crew health maintenance, food safety is a primary concern on long duration space missions. Identification of the food safety hazards and critical control points associated with the closed ALSSIT system is essential for the development of safe food processing techniques and equipment. A Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) model was developed to reflect proposed production and processing protocols for ALSSIT soybeans. Soybean processing was placed in the type III risk category. During the processing of ALSSIT-grown soybeans, critical control points were identified to control microbiological hazards, particularly mycotoxins, and chemical hazards from antinutrients. Critical limits were suggested at each CCP. Food safety recommendations regarding the hazards and risks associated with growing, harvesting, and processing soybeans; biomass management; and use of multifunctional equipment were made in consideration of the limitations and restraints of the closed ALSSIT.

Hentges, Dawn L.

1999-01-01

221

Results of electric vehicle safety issues survey: Conducted on behalf of ad hoc EV battery readiness working group in-vehicle safety sub-working group  

SciTech Connect

This report documents the results of a survey conducted in the winter of 1994-1995 by the In-Vehicle Safety Sub-Working Group, a working subunit of the DOE-sponsored ad hoc EV Battery Readiness Working Group. The survey was intended to determine the opinions of a group of industry experts regarding the relative importance of a list of some 39 potential safety concerns, grouped into 8 broad areas related to electric vehicles and their battery systems. Participation in the survey was solicited from the members of the Battery Readiness Working Group, along with members of the SAE EV Battery Safety Issues Task Force and selected other knowledgeable individuals. Results of the survey questionnaire were compiled anonymously from the 38 individuals who submitted responses. For each of the issues, survey respondents ranked them as having high, medium or low importance in each of three areas: the severity of events involving this concern, the probability that such events will occur, and the likelihood that mitigating action for such events may be needed beyond normal practices. The accumulated responses from this ranking activity are tabulated, and the response totals are also provided by several subgroupings of respondents. Additionally, large numbers of written comments were provided by respondents, and these are summarized with numbers of responses indicated. A preliminary statistical analysis of the tabulated results was performed but did not provide a satisfactory ranking of the concerns and has not been included in this report. A list is provided of the 15 concerns which a majority of the respondents indicated could be of both medium-to-high severity and medium-to-high probability of occurrence. This list will be reviewed by the Safety Sub-Working Group to determine the status of actions being taken by industry or government to mitigate these concerns, and the likelihood that additional research, standards development or regulation may be warranted to address them.

Hunt, G.L.

1996-06-01

222

Final report for the Advanced Natural Gas Vehicle Project  

SciTech Connect

The project objective was to develop the technologies necessary to prototype a dedicated compressed natural gas (CNG) powered, mid-size automobile with operational capabilities comparable to gasoline automobiles. A system approach was used to design and develop the engine, gas storage system and vehicle packaging. The 2.4-liter DOHC engine was optimized for natural gas operation with high-compression pistons, hardened exhaust valves, a methane-specific catalytic converter and multi-point gaseous injection. The chassis was repackaging to increase space for fuel storage with a custom-designed, cast-aluminum, semi-trailing arm rear suspension system, a revised flat trunk sheet-metal floorpan and by equipping the car with run-flat tires. An Integrated Storage system (ISS) was developed using all-composite, small-diameter cylinders encapsulated within a high-strength fiberglass shell with impact-absorbing foam. The prototypes achieved the target goals of a city/highway driving range of 300 miles, ample trunk capacity, gasoline vehicle performance and ultra low exhaust emissions.

John Wozniak

1999-02-16

223

A study of commercial vehicle safety alliance's out-of-service criteria.  

PubMed

This paper summarizes a two-phase project that reviewed the Commercial Vehicle Safety Alliance's out-of-service criteria for vehicles. The first phase examined relevant background information and conducted a questionnaire survey of CVSA inspectors and industry representatives. The second phase of the project involved extensive collection and evaluation of accident data. The results of both phases show a high level of support, in terms of contribution to vehicle accidents, for four of the vehicle criteria (regarding brakes, load securement, tires, and wheels and rims). There was some support for coupling devices, fuel systems, lighting devices, steering and suspension. The support for the remaining vehicle criteria (exhaust systems, frames, van and open top trailer bodies, and windshield wipers) was little to none. Further research continuing the study of accident data is recommended to confirm these findings. However, the data must be collected in a consistent and detailed manner if accurate information on the relationship of accidents and vehicle criteria is to be established. PMID:9542545

Randhawa, S U; Miller, S G; Bell, C A; Montagne, P E

1998-01-01

224

Development of a Robust and Cost-Effective Friction Stir Welding Process for Use in Advanced Military Vehicles  

E-print Network

Military Vehicles M. Grujicic, G. Arakere, B. Pandurangan, A. Hariharan, C.-F. Yen, and B.A. Cheeseman-armor-based military-vehicle systems have resorted to an increasing use of higher strength aluminum alloys (with technology, its introduction into advanced military vehicle structures is not straight forward and entails

Grujicic, Mica

225

A market systems analysis of the U.S. Sport Utility Vehicle market considering frontal crash safety technology and policy.  

PubMed

Active safety features and adjustments to the New Car Assessment Program (NCAP) consumer-information crash tests have the potential to decrease the number of serious traffic injuries each year, according to previous studies. However, literature suggests that risk reductions, particularly in the automotive market, are often accompanied by adjusted consumer risk tolerance, and so these potential safety benefits may not be fully realized due to changes in consumer purchasing or driving behavior. This article approaches safety in the new vehicle market, particularly in the Sport Utility Vehicle and Crossover Utility Vehicle segments, from a market systems perspective. Crash statistics and simulations are used to predict the effects of design and policy changes on occupant crash safety, and discrete choice experiments are conducted to estimate the values consumers place on vehicle attributes. These models are combined in a market simulation that forecasts how consumers respond to the available vehicle alternatives, resulting in predictions of the market share of each vehicle and how the change in fleet mixture influences societal outcomes including injuries, fuel consumption, and firm profits. The model is tested for a scenario where active safety features are implemented across the new vehicle fleet and a scenario where the U.S. frontal NCAP test speed is modified. While results exhibit evidence of consumer risk adjustment, they support adding active safety features and lowering the NCAP frontal test speed, as these changes are predicted to improve the welfare of both firms and society. PMID:22898094

Hoffenson, Steven; Frischknecht, Bart D; Papalambros, Panos Y

2013-01-01

226

NASA advanced aeronautics design solar powered remotely piloted vehicle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Environmental problems such as the depletion of the ozone layer and air pollution demand a change in traditional means of propulsion that is sensitive to the ecology. Solar powered propulsion is a favorable alternative that is both ecologically harmless as well as cost effective. Integration of solar energy into designs ranging from futuristic vehicles to heating is beneficial to society. The design and construction of a Multi-Purpose Remotely Piloted Vehicle (MPRPV) seeks to verify the feasibility of utilizing solar propulsion as a primary fuel source. This task has been a year long effort by a group of ten students, divided into five teams, each dealing with different aspects of the design. The aircraft was designed to take-off, climb to the design altitude, fly in a sustained figure-eight flight path, and cruise for approximately one hour. This mission requires flight at Reynolds numbers between 150,000 and 200,000 and demands special considerations in the aerodynamic design in order to achieve flight in this regime. Optimal performance requires a light weight configuration with both structural integrity and maximum power availability. The structure design and choice of solar cells for the propulsion was governed by the weight, efficiency, and cost considerations. The final design is a MPRPV weighting 35 N which cruises 7 m/s at the design altitude of 50 m. The configuration includes a wing composed of balsa and foam NACA 6409 airfoil sections and carbon fiber spars, a tail of similar construction, and a truss structure fuselage. The propulsion system consists of 98 10 percent efficient solar cells donated by Mobil Solar, a NiCad battery for energy storage, and a folding propeller regulated by a lightweight and efficient control system. The airfoils and propeller chosen for the design were research and tested during the design process.

Elario, David S.; Guillmette, Neal H.; Lind, Gregory S.; Webster, Jonathan D.; Ferreira, Michael J.; Konstantakis, George C.; Marshall, David L.; Windt, Cari L.

1991-01-01

227

Advances in Decentralized Single-Beacon Acoustic Navigation for Underwater Vehicles: Theory and  

E-print Network

reference beacon in addition to its own inertial navigation sensors to perform absolute localizationAdvances in Decentralized Single-Beacon Acoustic Navigation for Underwater Vehicles: Theory and implementation of a decentralized navigation system that enables simultaneous single-beacon navigation

Whitcomb, Louis L.

228

Orbital Transfer Vehicle (OTV) advanced expander cycle engine point design study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Progress in the development of a performance optimized engine system design for an advanced LOX/hydrogen expander cycle engine is reported. Analysis of the components and engine and the resulting drawings is discussed. The status of the orbit transfer vehicle liquid engine transient simulation computer model is given.

Mellish, J. A.

1980-01-01

229

Battery technology for electric and hybrid vehicles: Expert views about prospects for advancement  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we present the results of an expert elicitation on the prospects for advances in battery technology for electric and hybrid vehicles. We find disagreement among the experts on a wide range of topics, including the need for government funding, the probability of getting batteries with Lithium Metal anodes to work, and the probability of building safe Lithium-ion

Erin D. Baker; Haewon Chon; Jeffrey M. Keisler

2010-01-01

230

KELVIN: A Second Generation Land Vehicle 2002 Florida Conference on Recent Advances in Robotics  

E-print Network

KELVIN: A Second Generation Land Vehicle 2002 Florida Conference on Recent Advances in Robotics May: Autonomous Navigation, Robotics, Linux Abstract Kelvin is a four-wheeled land-based robotics research, and headlights. 2. The Mobile Platform 2.1 Frame Kelvin's frame, shown in Figure 1, is constructed of welded

Schwartz, Eric M.

231

77 FR 53199 - California State Motor Vehicle Pollution Control Standards; Advanced Clean Car Program; Request...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Advanced Clean Car program (ACC) which combines the control of smog and soot causing pollutants and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions...amendments to its low emission vehicle (LEV) program to address both smog forming pollutants and greenhouse gases, and amendments to...

2012-08-31

232

A numerical investigation on the efficiency of range extending systems using Advanced Vehicle Simulator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Series plug-in hybrid electric vehicles of varying engine configuration and battery capacity are modeled using Advanced Vehicle Simulator (ADVISOR). The performance of these vehicles is analyzed on the bases of energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions on the tank-to-wheel and well-to-wheel paths. Both city and highway driving conditions are considered during the simulation. When simulated on the well-to-wheel path, it is shown that the range extender with a Wankel rotary engine consumes less energy and emits fewer greenhouse gases compared to the other systems with reciprocating engines during many driving cycles. The rotary engine has a higher power-to-weight ratio and lower noise, vibration and harshness compared to conventional reciprocating engines, although performs less efficiently. The benefits of a Wankel engine make it an attractive option for use as a range extender in a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle.

Varnhagen, Scott; Same, Adam; Remillard, Jesse; Park, Jae Wan

2011-03-01

233

Clean Cities Guide to Alternative Fuel and Advanced Medium- and Heavy-Duty Vehicles (Book)  

SciTech Connect

Today's fleets are increasingly interested in medium-duty and heavy-duty vehicles that use alternative fuels or advanced technologies that can help reduce operating costs, meet emissions requirements, improve fleet sustainability, and support U.S. energy independence. Vehicle and engine manufacturers are responding to this interest with a wide range of options across a steadily growing number of vehicle applications. This guide provides an overview of alternative fuel power systems?including engines, microturbines, electric motors, and fuel cells?and hybrid propulsion systems. The guide also offers a list of individual medium- and heavy-duty vehicle models listed by application, along with associated manufacturer contact information, fuel type(s), power source(s), and related information.

Not Available

2013-08-01

234

Current status of environmental, health, and safety issues of nickel metal-hydride batteries for electric vehicles  

SciTech Connect

This report identifies important environment, health, and safety issues associated with nickel metal-hydride (Ni-MH) batteries and assesses the need for further testing and analysis. Among the issues discussed are cell and battery safety, workplace health and safety, shipping requirements, and in-vehicle safety. The manufacture and recycling of Ni-MH batteries are also examined. This report also overviews the ``FH&S`` issues associated with other nickel-based electric vehicle batteries; it examines venting characteristics, toxicity of battery materials, and the status of spent batteries as a hazardous waste.

Corbus, D.; Hammel, C.J.; Mark, J.

1993-08-01

235

Advanced electric propulsion system concept for electric vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Seventeen propulsion system concepts for electric vehicles were compared to determine the differences in components and battery pack to achieve the basic performance level. Design tradeoffs were made for selected configurations to find the optimum component characteristics required to meet all performance goals. The anticipated performance when using nickel-zinc batteries rather than the standard lead-acid batteries was also evaluated. The two systems selected for the final conceptual design studies included a system with a flywheel energy storage unit and a basic system that did not have a flywheel. The flywheel system meets the range requirement with either lead-acid or nickel-zinc batteries and also the acceleration of zero to 89 km/hr in 15 s. The basic system can also meet the required performance with a fully charged battery, but, when the battery approaches 20 to 30 percent depth of discharge, maximum acceleration capability gradually degrades. The flywheel system has an estimated life-cycle cost of $0.041/km using lead-acid batteries. The basic system has a life-cycle cost of $0.06/km. The basic system, using batteries meeting ISOA goals, would have a life-cycle cost of $0.043/km.

Raynard, A. E.; Forbes, F. E.

1979-01-01

236

Safety Changes in the US Vehicle Fleet since Model Year 1990, Based on NASS Data  

PubMed Central

Based on the National Automotive Sampling System Crashworthiness Data System since the 1988–1992 model years, there has been a reduction in the MAIS 3+ injury rate and the Mean HARM for all crash modes. The largest improvement in vehicle safety has been in rollovers. There was an increase in the rollover injury rate in the 1993–1998 model year period, but a reduction since then. When comparing vehicles of the model year 1993 to 1998 with later model vehicles, the most profound difference was the reduction of rollover frequency for SUV’s – down more than 20% when compared to other crash modes. When considering only model years since 2002 the rollover frequency reduction was nearly 40%. A 26% reduction in the rate of moderate and serious injuries for all drivers in rollovers was observed for the model years later than 1998. The overall belt use rate for drivers of late model vehicles with HARM weighted injuries was 62% - up from 54% in earlier model vehicles. However, in rollover crashes, the same belt use rate lagged at 54%. PMID:23169134

Eigen, Ana Maria; Digges, Kennerly; Samaha, Randa Radwan

2012-01-01

237

Development of Micro Air Reconnaissance Vehicle as a Test Bed for Advanced Sensors and Electronics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes the development of a Micro/Mini Air Reconnaissance Vehicle for advanced sensors and electronics at NASA Langley Research Center over the last year. This vehicle is expected to have a total weight of less than four pounds, a design velocity of 40 mph, an endurance of 15-20 minutes, and a maximum range of 5km. The vehicle has wings that are simple to detach yet retain the correct alignment. The upper fuselage surface has a quick release hatch used to access the interior and also to mount the varying propulsion systems. The sensor suite developed for this vehicle consists of a Pitot-static measurement system for determining air speed, an absolute pressure measurement for determining altitude, magnetic direction measurement, and three orthogonal gyros to determine body angular rates. Swarming GPS-guidance and in-flight maneuvering is discussed, as well as design and installation of some other advance sensors like MEMS microphones, infrared cameras, GPS, humidity sensors, and an ultrasonic sonar sensor. Also low cost, small size, high performance control and navigation system for the Micro Air Vehicle is discussed. At the end, laboratory characterization of different sensors, motors, propellers, and batteries will be discussed.

Shams, Qamar A.; Vranas, Thomas L.; Fox, Robert L.; Kuhn, Theodore R.; Ingham, John; Logan, Michael J.; Barnes, Kevin N.; Guenther, Benjamin F.

2002-01-01

238

Development of Pneumatic Aerodynamic Devices to Improve the Performance, Economics, and Safety of Heavy Vehicles  

SciTech Connect

Under contract to the DOE Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies, the Georgia Tech Research Institute (GTRI) is developing and evaluating pneumatic (blown) aerodynamic devices to improve the performance, economics, stability and safety of operation of Heavy Vehicles. The objective of this program is to apply the pneumatic aerodynamic aircraft technology previously developed and flight-tested by GTRI personnel to the design of an efficient blown tractor-trailer configuration. Recent experimental results obtained by GTRI using blowing have shown drag reductions of 35% on a streamlined automobile wind-tunnel model. Also measured were lift or down-load increases of 100-150% and the ability to control aerodynamic moments about all 3 axes without any moving control surfaces. Similar drag reductions yielded by blowing on bluff afterbody trailers in current US trucking fleet operations are anticipated to reduce yearly fuel consumption by more than 1.2 billion gallons, while even further reduction is possible using pneumatic lift to reduce tire rolling resistance. Conversely, increased drag and down force generated instantaneously by blowing can greatly increase braking characteristics and control in wet/icy weather due to effective ''weight'' increases on the tires. Safety is also enhanced by controlling side loads and moments caused on these Heavy Vehicles by winds, gusts and other vehicles passing. This may also help to eliminate the jack-knifing problem if caused by extreme wind side loads on the trailer. Lastly, reduction of the turbulent wake behind the trailer can reduce splash and spray patterns and rough air being experienced by following vehicles. To be presented by GTRI in this paper will be results developed during the early portion of this effort, including a preliminary systems study, CFD prediction of the blown flowfields, and design of the baseline conventional tractor-trailer model and the pneumatic wind-tunnel model.

Robert J. Englar

2000-06-19

239

A novel series connected batteries state of high voltage safety monitor system for electric vehicle application.  

PubMed

Batteries, as the main or assistant power source of EV (Electric Vehicle), are usually connected in series with high voltage to improve the drivability and energy efficiency. Today, more and more batteries are connected in series with high voltage, if there is any fault in high voltage system (HVS), the consequence is serious and dangerous. Therefore, it is necessary to monitor the electric parameters of HVS to ensure the high voltage safety and protect personal safety. In this study, a high voltage safety monitor system is developed to solve this critical issue. Four key electric parameters including precharge, contact resistance, insulation resistance, and remaining capacity are monitored and analyzed based on the equivalent models presented in this study. The high voltage safety controller which integrates the equivalent models and control strategy is developed. By the help of hardware-in-loop system, the equivalent models integrated in the high voltage safety controller are validated, and the online electric parameters monitor strategy is analyzed and discussed. The test results indicate that the high voltage safety monitor system designed in this paper is suitable for EV application. PMID:24194677

Jiaxi, Qiang; Lin, Yang; Jianhui, He; Qisheng, Zhou

2013-01-01

240

Modeling of dynamic vehicle-road interactions for safety-related road evaluation.  

PubMed

Usually, road safety is assessed by following adequate highway geometric design standards and can be controlled later by measurement and expertise. Nevertheless, interactions between vehicle dynamics and road characteristics cannot be simultaneously analyzed for these two means of safety evaluation. In this study, an analytical method based on road/vehicle physical interactions applied to road diagnosis is proposed. Vehicle "point" and "bicycle" models are used in this first approach. French highway geometric design standards and a statistical method are presented and evaluated on a real curve case. The proposed numerical criterion, for the "bicycle" model, is then compared to these two classical methods for the considered road section. Its advantages are that it takes into account several combined parameters, that road defects are precisely localized and that it provides hierarchically classified solutions to the road managers. After this comparison step, further improvements should be focused on the modeling of successive curves and on the improvement of the informations given to the road manager. PMID:20728624

Orfila, O; Coiret, A; Do, M T; Mammar, S

2010-11-01

241

Systems Safety, Reliability, and Risk Assessment. Task 4: Safety and Launch Vehicle Review Support  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report summarizes support provided by Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) to the NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). Work under this contract was performed in support of the Advanced Space Transportation Program and the Second Generation RLV Program Office.

2001-01-01

242

Advanced traffic management systems and high-occupancy-vehicle systems. Transportation research record  

SciTech Connect

;Contents: Distributed Approach to Real-Time Control of Complex Signalized Networks; MULTIBAND-96: A Program for Variable-Bandwidth Progression Optimization of Multiarterial Traffic Networks; Determination of Timings in Signal Systems with Traffic-Actuated Controllers; Combined Model for Signal Control and Route Choice in Urbn Traffic Networks; Multivariate Optimization Strategies for Real-Time Traffic Control Signals; Implementation Vision for Distributed Control of Traffic Signal Subsystems; Current Developments in SCOOT: Version 3; Estimating Impact of Signal Hardware Improvements; Guidelines for Actuated Controllers in Coordinated Systems; Evaluation of Bus Priority Signal Strategies in Ann Arbor, Michigan; NETSIM-Based Approach to Evaluation of Bus Preemption Strategies; Simulation-Based Methodology for Evaluation of High-Occupancy-Vehicle Facilities; Predicting High-Occupancy-Vehicle Facility Demand; Evaluation of High-Occupancy-Vehicle Lanes on Long Island Expressway; Effect on Congestion and Motorcycle Safety of Motorcycle Travel on High-Occupancy-Vehicle Facilities in Virginia; Development of Arterial High-Occupancy-Vehicle Land Enforcement Techniques; Multiple-Interval Freeway Traffic Flow Forecasting; New Methodology for Smoothing Freeway Loop Detector Data: Introduction to Digital Filtering; Evaluation of Compliance Rates and Travel Time Calculation for Automatic Alternative Route Guidance Systems on Freeways; Algorithm for Controlling Spillback from Ramp Meters; Systemwide Analysis of Freeway Improvements; Transferability of Freeway Incident Detection Algorithms; Deriving Incident Management Measures Using Incident Probability Models and Simulation; and I-880 Field Experiment: Data-Base Development and Incident Delay Estimation Procedures.

NONE

1996-12-31

243

Abstract--Inter-vehicle communication is a promising way to share and disseminate real-time and nearby safety  

E-print Network

. Similarly, this trend is now expanding to vehicles. The global positioning system (GPS) that integrates navigation information in the United States. Advanced telematic systems will only continue to grow1 Abstract-- Inter-vehicle communication is a promising way to share and disseminate real

Mease, Kenneth D.

244

Vehicle density based forwarding protocol for safety message broadcast in VANET.  

PubMed

In vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs), the medium access control (MAC) protocol is of great importance to provide time-critical safety applications. Contemporary multihop broadcast protocols in VANETs usually choose the farthest node in broadcast range as the forwarder to reduce the number of forwarding hops. However, in this paper, we demonstrate that the farthest forwarder may experience large contention delay in case of high vehicle density. We propose an IEEE 802.11-based multihop broadcast protocol VDF to address the issue of emergency message dissemination. To achieve the tradeoff between contention delay and forwarding hops, VDF adaptably chooses the forwarder according to the vehicle density. Simulation results show that, due to its ability to decrease the transmission collisions, the proposed protocol can provide significantly lower broadcast delay. PMID:25121125

Huang, Jiawei; Huang, Yi; Wang, Jianxin

2014-01-01

245

Vehicle Density Based Forwarding Protocol for Safety Message Broadcast in VANET  

PubMed Central

In vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs), the medium access control (MAC) protocol is of great importance to provide time-critical safety applications. Contemporary multihop broadcast protocols in VANETs usually choose the farthest node in broadcast range as the forwarder to reduce the number of forwarding hops. However, in this paper, we demonstrate that the farthest forwarder may experience large contention delay in case of high vehicle density. We propose an IEEE 802.11-based multihop broadcast protocol VDF to address the issue of emergency message dissemination. To achieve the tradeoff between contention delay and forwarding hops, VDF adaptably chooses the forwarder according to the vehicle density. Simulation results show that, due to its ability to decrease the transmission collisions, the proposed protocol can provide significantly lower broadcast delay. PMID:25121125

Huang, Jiawei; Wang, Jianxin

2014-01-01

246

Advanced transportation system study: Manned launch vehicle concepts for two way transportation system payloads to LEO  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of the Advanced Transportation System Study (ATSS) task area 1 study effort is to examine manned launch vehicle booster concepts and two-way cargo transfer and return vehicle concepts to determine which of the many proposed concepts best meets NASA's needs for two-way transportation to low earth orbit. The study identified specific configurations of the normally unmanned, expendable launch vehicles (such as the National Launch System family) necessary to fly manned payloads. These launch vehicle configurations were then analyzed to determine the integrated booster/spacecraft performance, operations, reliability, and cost characteristics for the payload delivery and return mission. Design impacts to the expendable launch vehicles which would be required to perform the manned payload delivery mission were also identified. These impacts included the implications of applying NASA's man-rating requirements, as well as any mission or payload unique impacts. The booster concepts evaluated included the National Launch System (NLS) family of expendable vehicles and several variations of the NLS reference configurations to deliver larger manned payload concepts (such as the crew logistics vehicle (CLV) proposed by NASA JSC). Advanced, clean sheet concepts such as an F-1A engine derived liquid rocket booster (LRB), the single stage to orbit rocket, and a NASP-derived aerospace plane were also included in the study effort. Existing expendable launch vehicles such as the Titan 4, Ariane 5, Energia, and Proton were also examined. Although several manned payload concepts were considered in the analyses, the reference manned payload was the NASA Langley Research Center's HL-20 version of the personnel launch system (PLS). A scaled up version of the PLS for combined crew/cargo delivery capability, the HL-42 configuration, was also included in the analyses of cargo transfer and return vehicle (CTRV) booster concepts. In addition to strictly manned payloads, two-way cargo transportation systems (CTRV's) were also examined. The study provided detailed design and analysis of the performance, reliability, and operations of these concepts. The study analyzed these concepts as unique systems and also analyzed several combined CTRV/booster configurations as integrated launch systems (such as for launch abort analyses). Included in the set of CTRV concepts analyzed were the medium CTRV, the integral CTRV (in both a pressurized and unpressurized configuration), the winged CTRV, and an attached cargo carrier for the PLS system known as the PLS caboose.

Duffy, James B.

1993-01-01

247

Reusable launch vehicles, enabling technology for the development of advanced upper stages and payloads  

SciTech Connect

In the near future there will be classes of upper stages and payloads that will require initial operation at a high-earth orbit to reduce the probability of an inadvertent reentry that could result in a detrimental impact on humans and the biosphere. A nuclear propulsion system, such as was being developed under the Space Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (SNTP) Program, is an example of such a potential payload. This paper uses the results of a reusable launch vehicle (RLV) study to demonstrate the potential importance of a Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) to test and implement an advanced upper stage (AUS) or payload in a safe orbit and in a cost effective and reliable manner. The RLV is a horizontal takeoff and horizontal landing (HTHL), two-stage-to-orbit (TSTO) vehicle. The results of the study shows that an HTHL is cost effective because it implements airplane-like operation, infrastructure, and flight operations. The first stage of the TSTO is powered by Rocket-Based-Combined-Cycle (RBCC) engines, the second stage is powered by a LOX/LH rocket engine. The TSTO is used since it most effectively utilizes the capability of the RBCC engine. The analysis uses the NASA code POST (Program to Optimize Simulated Trajectories) to determine trajectories and weight in high-earth orbit for AUS/advanced payloads. Cost and reliability of an RLV versus current generation expandable launch vehicles are presented.

Metzger, John D. [Northrop Grumman Corporation, Advanced Systems and Technology Organization, South Oyster Bay Road, Bethpage, New York 11714 (United States)

1998-01-15

248

Advanced transportation system studies. Technical area 2: Heavy lift launch vehicle development. Volume 2; Technical Results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Sections 10 to 13 of the Advanced Transportation System Studies final report are included in this volume. Section 10 contains a copy of an executive summary that was prepared by Lockheed Space Operations Company (LSOC) to document their support to the TA-2 contract during the first-year period of performance of the contract, May 1992 through May 1993. LSOC participated on the TA-2 contract as part of the concurrent engineering launch system definition team, and provided outstanding heavy lift launch vehicle (HLLV) ground operations requirements and concept assessments for Lockheed Missiles and Space Company (LMSC) through an intercompany work transfer as well as providing specific HLLV ground operations assessments at the direction of NASA KSC through KSC funding that was routed to the TA-2 contract. Section 11 contains a copy of a vehicle-independent, launch system health management requirements assessment. The purpose of the assessment was to define both health management requirements and the associated interfaces between a generic advanced transportation system launch vehicle and all related elements of the entire transportation system, including the ground segment. Section 12 presents the major TA-2 presentations provided to summarize the significant results and conclusions that were developed over the course of the contract. Finally, Section 13 presents the design and assessment report on the first lunar outpost heavy lift launch vehicle.

1995-01-01

249

Non-Traditional Flight Safety Systems and Integrated Vehicle Health Management Systems. Descriptions of Proposed and Existing Systems and Enabling Technologies and Verification Methods. Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper describes present and future flight safety systems (FSS) and integrated vehicle health management (IVHM) systems relevant to reusable launch vehicle (RLV) design and operation. FSS design and implementation for RLVs in the launch-regime will be...

M. Fudge, T. Stagliano, S. Tsiao

2003-01-01

250

A Customized Vision System for Tracking Humans Wearing Reflective Safety Clothing from Industrial Vehicles and Machinery  

PubMed Central

This article presents a novel approach for vision-based detection and tracking of humans wearing high-visibility clothing with retro-reflective markers. Addressing industrial applications where heavy vehicles operate in the vicinity of humans, we deploy a customized stereo camera setup with active illumination that allows for efficient detection of the reflective patterns created by the worker's safety garments. After segmenting reflective objects from the image background, the interest regions are described with local image feature descriptors and classified in order to discriminate safety garments from other reflective objects in the scene. In a final step, the trajectories of the detected humans are estimated in 3D space relative to the camera. We evaluate our tracking system in two industrial real-world work environments on several challenging video sequences. The experimental results indicate accurate tracking performance and good robustness towards partial occlusions, body pose variation, and a wide range of different illumination conditions. PMID:25264956

Mosberger, Rafael; Andreasson, Henrik; Lilienthal, Achim J.

2014-01-01

251

A customized vision system for tracking humans wearing reflective safety clothing from industrial vehicles and machinery.  

PubMed

This article presents a novel approach for vision-based detection and tracking of humans wearing high-visibility clothing with retro-reflective markers. Addressing industrial applications where heavy vehicles operate in the vicinity of humans, we deploy a customized stereo camera setup with active illumination that allows for efficient detection of the reflective patterns created by the worker's safety garments. After segmenting reflective objects from the image background, the interest regions are described with local image feature descriptors and classified in order to discriminate safety garments from other reflective objects in the scene. In a final step, the trajectories of the detected humans are estimated in 3D space relative to the camera. We evaluate our tracking system in two industrial real-world work environments on several challenging video sequences. The experimental results indicate accurate tracking performance and good robustness towards partial occlusions, body pose variation, and a wide range of different illumination conditions. PMID:25264956

Mosberger, Rafael; Andreasson, Henrik; Lilienthal, Achim J

2014-01-01

252

Conceptual frameworks for developing and comparing approaches to improve adolescent motor-vehicle safety.  

PubMed

This paper presents practical frameworks for developing and comparing approaches to improve adolescent motor-vehicle safety by merging concepts from the fields of developmental psychology and injury prevention and combining these with elements of a policy-analysis approach. Together, these models offer conceptual foundations for identifying intervention strategies to prevent crashes, reduce injuries in crashes, and reduce the long-term consequences of crashes and crash-related injury. In addition to helping generate ideas for interventions, the model can be used for making decisions about alternative interventions through consideration of value criteria such as effectiveness, cost, freedom, equity, stigmatization, preferences, and both technologic and political feasibility. Using these models, multidisciplinary groups concerned with youth development, engineering, law enforcement, education, and policy development can find common ground in addressing the complex issue of teen driving safety and develop, in a systematic and rational manner, approaches tailored to the circumstances and values of the settings in which they work. PMID:18702992

Runyan, Carol W; Yonas, Michael

2008-09-01

253

Advanced Infant Car Seat Would Increase Highway Safety  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An advanced infant car seat has been proposed to increase highway safety by reducing the incidence of crying, fussy behavior, and other child-related distractions that divert an adult driver s attention from driving. In addition to a conventional infant car seat with safety restraints, the proposed advanced infant car seat would include a number of components and subsystems that would function together as a comprehensive infant-care system that would keep its occupant safe, comfortable, and entertained, and would enable the driver to monitor the baby without having to either stop the car or turn around to face the infant during driving. The system would include a vibrator with bulb switch to operate; the switch would double as a squeeze toy that would make its own specific sound. A music subsystem would include loudspeakers built into the seat plus digital and analog circuitry that would utilize plug-in memory modules to synthesize music or a variety of other sounds. The music subsystem would include a built-in sound generator that could synthesize white noise or a human heartbeat to calm the baby to sleep. A second bulb switch could be used to control the music subsystem and would double as a squeeze toy that would make a distinct sound. An anti-noise sound-suppression system would isolate the baby from potentially disturbing ambient external noises. This subsystem would include small microphones, placed near the baby s ears, to detect ambient noise. The outputs of the microphone would be amplified and fed to the loudspeakers at appropriate amplitude and in a phase opposite that of the detected ambient noise, such that the net ambient sound arriving at the baby s ears would be almost completely cancelled. A video-camera subsystem would enable the driver to monitor the baby visually while continuing to face forward. One or more portable miniature video cameras could be embedded in the side of the infant car seat (see figure) or in a flip-down handle. The outputs of the video cameras would be transmitted by radio or infrared to a portable, miniature receiver/video monitor unit that would be attached to the dashboard of the car. The video-camera subsystem can also be used within transmission/reception range when the seat was removed from the car. The system would include a biotelemetric and tracking subsystem, which would include a Global Positioning System receiver for measuring its location. This subsystem would transmit the location of the infant car seat (even if the seat were not in a car) along with such biometric data as the baby s heart rate, perspiration rate, urinary status, temperature, and rate of breathing. Upon detecting any anomalies in the biometric data, this subsystem would send a warning to a paging device installed in the car or carried by the driver, so that the driver could pull the car off the road to attend to the baby. A motion detector in this subsystem would send a warning if the infant car seat were to be moved or otherwise disturbed unexpectedly while the infant was seated in it: this warning function, in combination with the position- tracking function, could help in finding a baby who had been kidnapped with the seat. Removable rechargeable batteries would enable uninterrupted functioning of all parts of the system while transporting the baby to and from the car. The batteries could be recharged via the cigarette-lighter outlet in the car or by use of an external AC-powered charger.

Dabney, Richard; Elrod, Susan

2004-01-01

254

A Variable Dynamic Testbed Vehicle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes the concept of a potential test vehicle for the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) that is designed to evaluate the dynamics, human factors, and safety aspects of advanced technologies in passenger class automobiles expected to be introduced as a result of the Intelligent Vehicle/Highway System (IVHS) Program. The Variable Dynamic Testbed Vehicle (VDTV) requirements were determined from the inputs of anticipated users and possible research needs of NHTSA. Design and implementation approaches are described, the benefits of the vehicle are discussed and costs for several options presented.

Marriott, A.

1995-01-01

255

The design and construction of electronic motor control and network interface hardware for advance concept urban mobility vehicles  

E-print Network

Over the past several years, the Smart Cities Group at MIT's Media Lab has engaged in research to develop several advanced concepts for vehicles to improve urban mobility. This research has focused on developing a modular ...

Morrissey, Bryan L. (Bryan Lawrence)

2008-01-01

256

Abstract--Software modules of an advanced vehicle can be updated using Remote Software Upload (RSU) techniques. The  

E-print Network

Abstract-- Software modules of an advanced vehicle can be updated using Remote Software Upload (RSU) techniques. The RSU employs infrastructure-based wireless communication technique where the software supplier sends the software to the targeted vehicle via a roadside Base Station (BS). However, security

Mahmud, Syed Masud

257

Car occupant safety in frontal crashes: a parameter study of vehicle mass, impact speed, and inherent vehicle protection  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new mathematical model was developed to estimate average injury and fatality rates in frontal car-to-car crashes for changes in vehicle fleet mass, impact speed distribution, and inherent vehicle protection. The estimates were calculated from injury\\/fatality risk data, delta-V distribution and collision probability of two vehicles, where delta-V depends on impact speed and mass of the colliding vehicles. The impact

Dagmar G. Buzeman; David C. Viano; Per Lövsund

1998-01-01

258

Motor Vehicle Safety Authorization Act of 1986. House of Representatives, Ninety-Ninth Congress, Second Session, September 17, 1986  

SciTech Connect

The House Committee on Energy and Commerce suggests several amendments to H.R. 2248, which authorizes National Highway Traffic Safety Administration appropriations for 1987-1988. The legislation addresses such safety issues as the requirement that dealers inform potential buyers of true odometer readings, tire registration, bumper strength, and defects. The report covers automobile recalls of the past decade, the need for safety standard equality certification for imports, and state safety inspection programs. Oversight hearings and findings of the committee also addressed mandatory seat belt use. The bill affects the National Traffic and Motor Vehicle Safety Act of 1966 and the Motor Vehicle Information and Cost Savings Act. The report notes several areas of compromise.

Not Available

1986-01-01

259

Working in light vehicles--a review and conceptual model for occupational health and safety.  

PubMed

Occupational light vehicle (OLV) use is the leading cause of work related traumatic deaths in Westernised countries. Previous research has focused primarily on narrow contexts of OLV-use such as corporate fleet vehicles. We have proposed a comprehensive systems model for OLV-use to provide a framework for identifying research needs and proposing policy and practice interventions. This model presents the worker as the locus of injury at the centre of work- and road-related determinants of injury. Using this model, we reviewed existing knowledge and found most studies focused only on company car drivers, neglecting OLV-users in non-traditional employment arrangements and those using other vehicle types. Environmental exposures, work design factors and risk and protective factors for the wider OLV-user population are inadequately researched. Neither road- nor work-related policy appropriately addresses OLV-use, and population surveillance relies largely on inadequate workers compensation insurance data. This review demonstrates that there are significant gaps in understanding the problem of OLV-use and a need for further research integrating public health, insurance and road safety responses. The model provides a framework for understanding the theory of OLV-use OHS and guidance for urgently needed intervention research, policy and practice. PMID:17854576

Stuckey, Rwth; Lamontagne, Anthony D; Sim, Malcolm

2007-09-01

260

Preliminary evaluation of regulatory and safety issues for sodium-sulfur batteries in electric vehicle applications  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy (DOE) Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Program is involved in the development and evaluation of sodium-sulfur energy storage batteries for electric vehicle (EV) applications. Laboratory testing of complete battery systems, to be followed by controlled in-vehicle testing and on-road usage, are expected to occur as components of the DOE program during the 1988--1990 time frame. Testing and operation of sodium-sulfur batteries at other DOE contractor facilities may also take place during this time frame. A number of regulatory and safety issues can affect the technical scope, schedule, and cost of the expected programmatic activities. This document describes these issues and requirements, provides a preliminary evaluation of their significance, and lists those critical items that may result from them. The actions needed to permit the conduct of a successful program at DOE contractor facilities are identified, and concerns that could affect the eventual commercialization potential of sodium-sulfur batteries are noted to the extent they are known.

Evans, D.R.; Henriksen, G.L.; Hunt, G.L.

1987-05-01

261

75 FR 22532 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Cargo Carrying Capacity  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...000 pounds and a vehicle capacity weight...modifications, these vehicles are unlikely to...likely that the vehicle's load-carrying...needs of handicapped drivers or passengers usually...to the unloaded vehicle weight of the vehicle...applies to used vehicles as well as new...

2010-04-29

262

Indiana Advanced Electric Vehicle Training and Education Consortium (I-AEVtec)  

SciTech Connect

The Indiana Advanced Electric Vehicle Training and Education Consortium (I-AEVtec) is an educational partnership between six universities and colleges in Indiana focused on developing the education materials needed to support electric vehicle technology. The I-AEVtec has developed and delivered a number of degree and certificate programs that address various aspects of electric vehicle technology, including over 30 new or significantly modified courses to support these programs. These courses were shared on the SmartEnergyHub. The I-AEVtec program also had a significant outreach to the community with particular focus on K12 students. Finally, the evGrandPrix was established which is a university/college student electric go-kart race, where the students get hands-on experience in designing, building and racing electric vehicles. The evGrandPrix now includes student teams from across the US as well as from Europe and it is currently being held on Opening Day weekend for the Indy500 at the Indianapolis Motor Speedway.

Caruthers, James; Dietz, J.; Pelter, Libby; Chen, Jie; Roberson, Glen; McGinn, Paul; Kizhanipuram, Vinodegopal

2013-01-31

263

78 FR 41436 - Proposed Revision to Treatment of Non-Safety Systems for Passive Advanced Light Water Reactors  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Non-Safety Systems for Passive Advanced Light Water Reactors AGENCY...Systems (RTNSS) for Passive Advanced Light Water Reactors...Rules, Announcements, and Directives Branch (RADB), Office of...Systems (RTNSS) for Passive Advanced Light Water...

2013-07-10

264

77 FR 62270 - Proposed Revision Treatment of Non-Safety Systems for Passive Advanced Light Water Reactors  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Non-Safety Systems for Passive Advanced Light Water Reactors AGENCY...Systems (RTNSS) for Passive Advanced Light Water Reactors...Rules, Announcements, and Directives Branch (RADB), Office of...Systems (RTNSS) for Passive Advanced Light Water...

2012-10-12

265

Structural weights analysis of advanced aerospace vehicles using finite element analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A conceptual/preliminary level structural design system has been developed for structural integrity analysis and weight estimation of advanced space transportation vehicles. The system includes a three-dimensional interactive geometry modeler, a finite element pre- and post-processor, a finite element analyzer, and a structural sizing program. Inputs to the system include the geometry, surface temperature, material constants, construction methods, and aerodynamic and inertial loads. The results are a sized vehicle structure capable of withstanding the static loads incurred during assembly, transportation, operations, and missions, and a corresponding structural weight. An analysis of the Space Shuttle external tank is included in this paper as a validation and benchmark case of the system.

Bush, Lance B.; Lentz, Christopher A.; Rehder, John J.; Naftel, J. Chris; Cerro, Jeffrey A.

1989-01-01

266

Advances in stent technologies and their effect on clinical efficacy and safety  

PubMed Central

The introduction of intracoronary stents represented a major advance in interventional cardiology. While bare metal stents set the benchmark for improved safety over angioplasty, intimal hyperplasia and subsequent restenosis were important limitations. First-generation drug-eluting stents demonstrated significant improvements in efficacy, but not necessarily safety, and further technologic developments have focused on optimizing both. Current advances and understanding in stent design continue to improve on these concepts. This review summarizes past and present technology with particular emphasis on the principles underlying the efficacy and safety of drug-eluting stents, and offers a glimpse into the next generations of stents aimed at treating symptomatic coronary artery disease. PMID:24940085

Nikam, Navin; Steinberg, Toby B; Steinberg, Daniel H

2014-01-01

267

Failure mode and effect analysis based on electric and electronic architectures of vehicles to support the safety lifecycle ISO\\/DIS 26262  

Microsoft Academic Search

The draft international standard under development ISO 26262 (Road Vehicles - Functional safety -) describes a safety lifecycle for road vehicles and thereby influences all parts of development, production, operation and decommissioning. Starting from 2011, all developments of new cars should be aligned to this standard. The rapid application and adaption of the ISO 26262 is mandatory to develop safe,

M. Hillenbrand; M. Heinz; N. Adler; Johannes Matheis; K. D. Muller-Glaser

2010-01-01

268

Graduate Automotive Technology Education (GATE) Program: Center of Automotive Technology Excellence in Advanced Hybrid Vehicle Technology at West Virginia University  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the technical and educational achievements of the Graduate Automotive Technology Education (GATE) Center at West Virginia University (WVU), which was created to emphasize Advanced Hybrid Vehicle Technology. The Center has supported the graduate studies of 17 students in the Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering and the Lane Department of Computer Science and Electrical Engineering. These students have addressed topics such as hybrid modeling, construction of a hybrid sport utility vehicle (in conjunction with the FutureTruck program), a MEMS-based sensor, on-board data acquisition for hybrid design optimization, linear engine design and engine emissions. Courses have been developed in Hybrid Vehicle Design, Mobile Source Powerplants, Advanced Vehicle Propulsion, Power Electronics for Automotive Applications and Sensors for Automotive Applications, and have been responsible for 396 hours of graduate student coursework. The GATE program also enhanced the WVU participation in the U.S. Department of Energy Student Design Competitions, in particular FutureTruck and Challenge X. The GATE support for hybrid vehicle technology enhanced understanding of hybrid vehicle design and testing at WVU and encouraged the development of a research agenda in heavy-duty hybrid vehicles. As a result, WVU has now completed three programs in hybrid transit bus emissions characterization, and WVU faculty are leading the Transportation Research Board effort to define life cycle costs for hybrid transit buses. Research and enrollment records show that approximately 100 graduate students have benefited substantially from the hybrid vehicle GATE program at WVU.

Nigle N. Clark

2006-12-31

269

Protecting You/Protecting Me: Effects of an Alcohol Prevention and Vehicle Safety Program on Elementary Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes an evaluation of Protecting You/Protecting Me (PY/PM), a classroom-based, alcohol-use prevention and vehicle safety program for elementary students in first through fifth grades developed by Mothers Against Drunk Driving. PY/PM lessons and activities focus on teaching children about (1) their brains (why their brain is…

Bell, Mary Lou; Kelley-Baker, Tara; Rider, Raamses; Ringwalt, Christopher

2005-01-01

270

Vehicle design and speed and pedestrian injury: Australia's involvement in the International Harmonised Research Activities Pedestrian Safety Expert Group  

Microsoft Academic Search

Australia is contributing to the International Harmonised Research Activities Pedestrian Safety Expert Group (IHRA PSEG) through research undertaken at the Road Accident Research Unit, and funded by the Commonwealth Department of Transport and Regional Services. The IHRA PSEG is charged with the development of test procedures for assessing the protection afforded by the vehicle to a pedestrian in the event

Robert Anderson; Jack McLean

271

Surgical technique: new advancements for expanding indications and safety  

Microsoft Academic Search

The technical issues discussed herein represent part of the panorama of innovative approaches proposed for the surgical treatment\\u000a of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC); in particular, the attention is focused on the recent advances in the field of planning\\u000a the surgical strategy and performing liver dissection via ultrasound guidance. It is described how recent technical \\u000a advances have allowed the range of scenarios

Guido Torzilli

2010-01-01

272

Advanced onboard storage concepts for natural gas-fueled automotive vehicles  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this study was the evaluation, both through experimentation and a literature review, of several advanced concepts for storing natural gas at reduced pressure. The advanced concepts included adsorption on high surface area carbon, adsorption in high porosity zeolite, storage in clathration compounds, and storage by dissolution in liquid solvents. Results indicated that high surface area carbons with high packing density were the best low pressure storage mediums. A simple mathematical model was used to compare adsorption storage on a state-of-the-art carbon with compression storage. The model indicated that a vehicle using adsorption storage of natural gas at 3.6 MPa will have 36% of the range, on the EPA city cycle, of a vehicle operating on a compression storage system having the same physical size and a peak storage pressure of 21 MPa. However, preliminary experiments and current literature suggest that the storage capacity of state-of-the-art carbons could be improved by as much as 50%, and that adsorption systems having a capacity equal to compression storage at 14 MPa are possible without exceeding a maximum pressure of 3.6 MPa.

Remick, R.J.; Elkins, R.H.; Camara, E.H.; Bulicz, T.

1984-06-01

273

Advanced onboard storage concepts for natural gas-fueled automotive vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The evaluation of several advanced concepts for storing natural gas at reduced pressure is presented. The advanced concepts include adsorption on high surface area carbon, adsorption in high porosity zeolite, storage in clathration compounds, and storage by dissolution in liquid solvents. High surface area carbons with high packing density are the best low pressure storage mediums. A simple mathematical model is used to compare adsorption storage on a state of the art carbon with compression storage. The model indicates that a vehicle using adsorption storage of natural gas at 3.6 MPa will have 36 percent of the range, on the EPA city cycle, of a vehicle operating on a compression storage system having the same physical size and a peak storage pressure of 21 MPa. Preliminary experiments and current literature suggest that the storage capacity of state of the art carbons could be improved by as much as 50 percent, and that adsorption systems having a capacity equal to compression storage at 14 MPa are possible without exceeding a maximum pressure of 3.6 MPa.

Remick, R. J.; Elkins, R. H.; Camara, E. H.; Bulicz, T.

1984-01-01

274

Study of advanced electric propulsion system concept using a flywheel for electric vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Advanced electric propulsion system concepts with flywheels for electric vehicles are evaluated and it is predicted that advanced systems can provide considerable performance improvement over existing electric propulsion systems with little or no cost penalty. Using components specifically designed for an integrated electric propulsion system avoids the compromises that frequently lead to a loss of efficiency and to inefficient utilization of space and weight. A propulsion system using a flywheel power energy storage device can provide excellent acceleration under adverse conditions of battery degradation due either to very low temperatures or high degrees of discharge. Both electrical and mechanical means of transfer of energy to and from the flywheel appear attractive; however, development work is required to establish the safe limits of speed and energy storage for advanced flywheel designs and to achieve the optimum efficiency of energy transfer. Brushless traction motor designs using either electronic commutation schemes or dc-to-ac inverters appear to provide a practical approach to a mass producible motor, with excellent efficiency and light weight. No comparisons were made with advanced system concepts which do not incorporate a flywheel.

Younger, F. C.; Lackner, H.

1979-01-01

275

Research and Development at the Center for Advanced Public Safety  

E-print Network

security as well as health and human services. This portfolio includes electronic traffic citation center at UA with the mission of developing software primarily in support of public safety, traffic traffic citations and crash reporting) within the information technology infrastructure for three states

Carver, Jeffrey C.

276

Current status of environmental, health, and safety issues of lithium ion electric vehicle batteries  

SciTech Connect

The lithium ion system considered in this report uses lithium intercalation compounds as both positive and negative electrodes and has an organic liquid electrolyte. Oxides of nickel, cobalt, and manganese are used in the positive electrode, and carbon is used in the negative electrode. This report presents health and safety issues, environmental issues, and shipping requirements for lithium ion electric vehicle (EV) batteries. A lithium-based electrochemical system can, in theory, achieve higher energy density than systems using other elements. The lithium ion system is less reactive and more reliable than present lithium metal systems and has possible performance advantages over some lithium solid polymer electrolyte batteries. However, the possibility of electrolyte spills could be a disadvantage of a liquid electrolyte system compared to a solid electrolyte. The lithium ion system is a developing technology, so there is some uncertainty regarding which materials will be used in an EV-sized battery. This report reviews the materials presented in the open literature within the context of health and safety issues, considering intrinsic material hazards, mitigation of material hazards, and safety testing. Some possible lithium ion battery materials are toxic, carcinogenic, or could undergo chemical reactions that produce hazardous heat or gases. Toxic materials include lithium compounds, nickel compounds, arsenic compounds, and dimethoxyethane. Carcinogenic materials include nickel compounds, arsenic compounds, and (possibly) cobalt compounds, copper, and polypropylene. Lithiated negative electrode materials could be reactive. However, because information about the exact compounds that will be used in future batteries is proprietary, ongoing research will determine which specific hazards will apply.

Vimmerstedt, L.J.; Ring, S.; Hammel, C.J.

1995-09-01

277

TransAtlas: A U.S. Map of Fuels and Vehicles Data from the Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles (AFDC)  

DOE Data Explorer

Data stored in the Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (AFDC) can provide insight to policymakers, entrepreneurs, fuel users, and other parties interested in reducing petroleum consumption. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory analyzes transportation-related data and identifies trends related to alternative fuels and vehicles. These analyses are posted in the AFDC as technical reports and Excel spreadsheets that can be manipulated by outside users. To provide the most robust collection of information possible, this section also includes links to data analyses from outside the AFDC. These sources are noted in each file. There are also interactive map applications and some PDF documents.

278

75 FR 7370 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Door Locks and Door Retention Components  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...the FRE did not include vehicle structural changes...the earlier model year vehicles tested at VRTC failed...more recent model year vehicles, which had the addition...are not aware of any vehicle requiring significant...warning system to alert the driver when the door is...

2010-02-19

279

Mission analysis and guidance, navigation, and control design for rendezvous and docking phase of advanced reentry vehicle mission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Advanced Reentry Vehicle (ARV) belongs to the family of vehicles designed to perform rendezvous and docking (RvD) with the International space station (ISS) [1]. Differently from its predecessor ATV (Automated Transfer Vehicle), the ARV will transport a reentry capsule, equipped with a heatshield and able to bring back cargo, experiments, or, as a possible future development, even crew, being this latter scenario very attracting in view of the Space Shuttle retirement. GMV, as subcontractor of EADS-Astrium Germany, is in charge of the RvD and departure mission analysis and GNC (Guidance, Navigation, and Control) design of ARV mission. This paper will present the main outcomes of the study.

Strippoli, L.; Colmenarejo, P.; Strauch, H.

2013-12-01

280

TS-IRSST Research Chair on Advanced Materials and Personal Protective Equipment Used in Occupational Safety and Health  

E-print Network

in Occupational Safety and Health Profile sought: The ideal candidate is an expert in advanced materials, and has of occupational safety and health would be an asset. Recruitment Conditions Application deadline: September 30

Québec, Université du

281

78 FR 16051 - Vehicle/Track Interaction Safety Standards; High-Speed and High Cant Deficiency Operations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...The rule is based on the results of simulation studies designed to identify track geometry...performance standards in light of advanced simulations that were developed to support the rulemaking...arrived at through the results of computer simulations of vehicle/track dynamics,...

2013-03-13

282

Space transfer vehicle concepts and requirements study. Volume 2, book 4: Integrated advanced technology development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Space Transfer Vehicle (STV) program provides both an opportunity and a requirement to increase our upper stage capabilities with the development and applications of new technologies. Issues such as man rating, space basing, reusability, and long lunar surface storage times drive the need for new technology developments and applications. In addition, satisfaction of mission requirements such as lunar cargo delivery capability and lunar landing either require new technology development or can be achieved in a more cost-effective manner with judicious applications of advanced technology. During the STV study, advanced technology development requirements and plans have been addressed by the Technology/Advanced Development Working Group composed of NASA and contractor representatives. This report discusses the results to date of this working group. The first section gives an overview of the technologies that have potential or required applications for the STV and identifies those technologies baselined for the STV. Figures are provided that list the technology categories and show the priority placed on those technology categories for either the space-based or ground-based options. The second section covers the plans and schedules for incorporating the technologies into the STV program.

Weber, Gary A.

1991-01-01

283

40 CFR 1037.615 - Hybrid vehicles and other advanced technologies.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...This section applies for hybrid vehicles with regenerative braking, vehicles equipped with Rankine-cycle engines...emission credits for hybrid vehicles that include regenerative braking (or the equivalent) and energy storage...

2012-07-01

284

AN ADVANCED TOOL FOR APPLIED INTEGRATED SAFETY MANAGEMENT  

SciTech Connect

WESKEM, LLC's Environmental, Safety and Health (ES&H) Department had previously assessed that a lack of consistency, poor communication and using antiquated communication tools could result in varying operating practices, as well as a failure to capture and disseminate appropriate Integrated Safety Management (ISM) information. To address these issues, the ES&H Department established an Activity Hazard Review (AHR)/Activity Hazard Analysis (AHA) process for systematically identifying, assessing, and controlling hazards associated with project work activities during work planning and execution. Depending on the scope of a project, information from field walkdowns and table-top meetings are collected on an AHR form. The AHA then documents the potential failure and consequence scenarios for a particular hazard. Also, the AHA recommends whether the type of mitigation appears appropriate or whether additional controls should be implemented. Since the application is web based, the information is captured into a single system and organized according to the >200 work activities already recorded in the database. Using the streamlined AHA method improved cycle time from over four hours to an average of one hour, allowing more time to analyze unique hazards and develop appropriate controls. Also, the enhanced configuration control created a readily available AHA library to research and utilize along with standardizing hazard analysis and control selection across four separate work sites located in Kentucky and Tennessee. The AHR/AHA system provides an applied example of how the ISM concept evolved into a standardized field-deployed tool yielding considerable efficiency gains in project planning and resource utilization. Employee safety is preserved through detailed planning that now requires only a portion of the time previously necessary. The available resources can then be applied to implementing appropriate engineering, administrative and personal protective equipment controls in the field.

Potts, T. Todd; Hylko, James M.; Douglas, Terence A.

2003-02-27

285

Setting an agenda for advancing young worker safety in the U.S. and Canada.  

PubMed

Scholars and practitioners from multiple perspectives, including developmental science, sociology, business, medicine, and public health, have considered the implications of employment for young people. We summarize a series of meetings designed to synthesize information from these perspectives and derive recommendations to guide research, practice, and policy with a focus on young worker safety and health. During the first three meetings, participants from the United States and Canada considered invited white papers addressing developmental issues, public health data and findings, as well as programmatic advances and evaluation needs. At the final meeting, the participants recommended both research and policy directions to advance understanding and improve young worker safety. PMID:22547854

Runyan, Carol W; Lewko, John; Rauscher, Kimberly

2012-01-01

286

Safety impacts due to the incompatibility of SUVs, minivans, and pickup trucks in two-vehicle collisions.  

PubMed

This research sets out to estimate the effects of vehicle incompatibility on the risk of death or major injury to drivers involved in two-vehicle collisions. Based on data for 2,999,395 drivers, logistic regression was used to model the risk of driver death or major injury (defined has being hospitalized). Our analyses show that pickup trucks, minivans and sport utility vehicles (SUVs) are more aggressive than cars for the driver of the other vehicle and more protective for their own drivers. The effect of the pickups is more pronounced in terms of aggressivity. The point estimates are comparable to those in the Toy and Hammitt study [Toy, E.L., Hammitt, J.K., 2003. Safety impacts of SUVs, minivans, and pickup trucks in two-vehicle crashes. Risk Analysis 23, 641-650], but, in contrast to that study, we are now able to establish that a greater number of these effects are statistically significant with a larger sample size. Like vehicle mass and type, other characteristics of drivers and the circumstances of the collision influence the driver's condition after impact. Male drivers, older drivers, drivers who are not wearing safety belts, collisions occurring in a higher speed zone and head-on collisions significantly increase the risk of death. Except for the driver's sex, all of these categories are also associated with an increased risk of death or of being hospitalized after being involved in a two-vehicle collision. For this risk, a significant increase is associated with female drivers. PMID:19068305

Fredette, Marc; Mambu, Lema Sikoti; Chouinard, Aline; Bellavance, François

2008-11-01

287

Evaluating the impact of advanced vehicle and fuel technologies in U.S. light duty vehicle fleet  

E-print Network

The unrelenting increase in oil use by the U.S. light-duty vehicle (LDV) fleet presents an extremely challenging energy and environmental problem. A variety of propulsion technologies and fuels have the promise to reduce ...

Bandivadekar, Anup P

2008-01-01

288

Nuclear safety  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Topics dealing with nuclear safety are addressed which include the following: general safety requirements; safety design requirements; terrestrial safety; SP-100 Flight System key safety requirements; potential mission accidents and hazards; key safety features; ground operations; launch operations; flight operations; disposal; safety concerns; licensing; the nuclear engine for rocket vehicle application (NERVA) design philosophy; the NERVA flight safety program; and the NERVA safety plan.

Buden, D.

1991-01-01

289

Current status of environmental, health, and safety issues of lithium polymer electric vehicle batteries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lithium solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) batteries are being investigated by researchers worldwide as a possible energy source for future electric vehicles (EV's). One of the main reasons for interest in lithium SPE battery systems is the potential safety features they offer as compared to lithium battery systems using inorganic and organic liquid electrolytes. However, the development of lithium SPE batteries is still in its infancy, and the technology is not envisioned to be ready for commercialization for several years. Because the research and development (R&D) of lithium SPE battery technology is of a highly competitive nature, with many companies both in the United States and abroad pursuing R&D efforts, much of the information concerning specific developments of lithium SPE battery technology is proprietary. This report is based on information available only through the open literature (i.e., information available through library searches). Furthermore, whereas R&D activities for lithium SPE cells have focused on a number of different chemistries, for both electrodes and electrolytes, this report examines the general environmental, health, and safety (EH&S) issues common to many lithium SPE chemistries. However, EH&S issues for specific lithium SPE cell chemistries are discussed when sufficient information exists. Although lithium batteries that do not have a SPE are also being considered for EV applications, this report focuses only on those lithium battery technologies that utilize the SPE technology. The lithium SPE battery technologies considered in this report may contain metallic lithium or nonmetallic lithium compounds (e.g., lithium intercalated carbons) in the negative electrode.

Corbus, D.; Hammel, C. J.

1995-02-01

290

Enabling Vehicular Safety Applications over LTE Seiya Kato, Matti Hiltunen, Kaustubh Joshi, and Richard Schlichting  

E-print Network

Assistance Systems (ADAS) for improving vehicular safety are increasingly network based, with approaches that use vehicle to vehicle (V2V) and vehicle to infrastructure (V2I) communication. Most current proposals next generation Advanced Driving Assistance Systems (ADAS) for vehicular safety augment car sensors

Fisher, Kathleen

291

Fostering Innovation, Advancing Patient Safety: The Kidney Health Initiative  

PubMed Central

Summary To respond to the serious and underrecognized epidemic of kidney disease in the United States, the US Food and Drug Administration and the American Society of Nephrology have founded the Kidney Health Initiative—a public–private partnership designed to create a collaborative environment in which the US Food and Drug Administration and the greater kidney community can interact to optimize the evaluation of drugs, devices, biologics, and food products. The Kidney Health Initiative will bring together all the necessary stakeholders, including patients, regulators, industry, health care providers, academics, and other governmental agencies, to improve patient safety and foster innovation. This initiative is intended to enable the kidney community as a whole to provide the right drug, device, or biologic for administration to the right patient at the right time by fostering partnerships that will facilitate development and delivery of those products and addressing challenges that currently impede these goals. PMID:23744001

Archdeacon, Patrick; Winkelmayer, Wolfgang C.; Falk, Ronald J.; Roy-Chaudhury, Prabir

2013-01-01

292

Fostering innovation, advancing patient safety: the kidney health initiative.  

PubMed

To respond to the serious and underrecognized epidemic of kidney disease in the United States, the US Food and Drug Administration and the American Society of Nephrology have founded the Kidney Health Initiative-a public-private partnership designed to create a collaborative environment in which the US Food and Drug Administration and the greater kidney community can interact to optimize the evaluation of drugs, devices, biologics, and food products. The Kidney Health Initiative will bring together all the necessary stakeholders, including patients, regulators, industry, health care providers, academics, and other governmental agencies, to improve patient safety and foster innovation. This initiative is intended to enable the kidney community as a whole to provide the right drug, device, or biologic for administration to the right patient at the right time by fostering partnerships that will facilitate development and delivery of those products and addressing challenges that currently impede these goals. PMID:23744001

Archdeacon, Patrick; Shaffer, Rachel N; Winkelmayer, Wolfgang C; Falk, Ronald J; Roy-Chaudhury, Prabir

2013-09-01

293

Advanced Transportation System Studies Technical Area 2 (TA-2) Heavy Lift Launch Vehicle Development Contract. Volume 2; Technical Results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of the Advanced Transportation System Studies (ATSS) Technical Area 2 (TA-2) Heavy Lift Launch Vehicle Development contract was to provide advanced launch vehicle concept definition and analysis to assist NASA in the identification of future launch vehicle requirements. Contracted analysis activities included vehicle sizing and performance analysis, subsystem concept definition, propulsion subsystem definition (foreign and domestic), ground operations and facilities analysis, and life cycle cost estimation. This document is Volume 2 of the final report for the contract. It provides documentation of selected technical results from various TA-2 analysis activities, including a detailed narrative description of the SSTO concept assessment results, a user's guide for the associated SSTO sizing tools, an SSTO turnaround assessment report, an executive summary of the ground operations assessments performed during the first year of the contract, a configuration-independent vehicle health management system requirements report, a copy of all major TA-2 contract presentations, a copy of the FLO launch vehicle final report, and references to Pratt & Whitney's TA-2 sponsored final reports regarding the identification of Russian main propulsion technologies.

1995-01-01

294

Introduction: Aims and Requirements of Future Aerospace Vehicles. Chapter 1  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The goals and system-level requirements for the next generation aerospace vehicles emphasize safety, reliability, low-cost, and robustness rather than performance. Technologies, including new materials, design and analysis approaches, manufacturing and testing methods, operations and maintenance, and multidisciplinary systems-level vehicle development are key to increasing the safety and reducing the cost of aerospace launch systems. This chapter identifies the goals and needs of the next generation or advanced aerospace vehicle systems.

Rodriguez, Pedro I.; Smeltzer, Stanley S., III; McConnaughey, Paul (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

295

Motor Vehicle Safety Defect Recall Campaigns - Detailed Reports from April 1, 1971 to June 30, 1971.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The document is comprised of correspondence from vehicle manufacturers to the Department of Transportation, dealers, and owners concerning the recall of vehicles with possible defects. The manufacturers involved are: American Motors; Boise Cascade Recreat...

1971-01-01

296

PON-10-603 Advanced Medium-and Heavy-Duty Vehicle Technologies Pre-Commercial Demonstrations Questions and Answers  

E-print Network

PON-10-603 Advanced Medium- and Heavy-Duty Vehicle Technologies Pre-Commercial Demonstrations-for-profit technology entity who will be responsible for administering the block grant and coordinating projects-for-profit technology entities might include, but are not limited to: CalETC CALSTART California Biodiesel Alliance

297

Advanced weigh-in-motion system for weighing vehicles at high speed  

SciTech Connect

A state-of-the-art, Advanced Weigh-In-Motion (WIM) system has been designed, installed, and tested on the west bound side of Interstate I-75/I-40 near the Knox County Weigh Station. The project is a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and International Road Dynamics, Inc. (IRD) sponsored by the Office of Uranium Programs, Facility and Technology Management Division of the Department of Energy under CRADA No. ORNL95-0364. ORNL, IRD, the Federal Highway Administration, the Tennessee Department of Safety and the Tennessee Department of Transportation have developed a National High Speed WIM Test Facility for test and evaluation of high-speed WIM systems. The WIM system under evaluation includes a Single Load Cell WIM scale system supplied and installed by IRD. ORNL developed a stand-alone, custom data acquisition system, which acquires the raw signals from IRD`s in-ground single load cell transducers. Under a separate contract with the Federal Highway Administration, ORNL designed and constructed a laboratory scale house for data collection, analysis and algorithm development. An initial advanced weight-determining algorithm has been developed. The new advanced WIM system provides improved accuracy and can reduce overall system variability by up to 30% over the existing high accuracy commercial WIM system.

Beshears, D.L.; Muhs, J.D.; Scudiere, M.B. [and others

1998-02-01

298

Advanced transportation system studies technical area 2(TA-2): Heavy lift launch vehicle development. volume 1; Executive summary  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of the TA-2 contract was to provide advanced launch vehicle concept definition and analysis to assist NASA in the identification of future launch vehicle requirements. Contracted analysis activities included vehicle sizing and performance analysis, subsystem concept definition, propulsion subsystem definition (foreign and domestic), ground operations and facilities analysis, and life cycle cost estimation. This document is part of the final report for the TA-2 contract. The final report consists of three volumes: Volume 1 is the Executive Summary, Volume 2 is Technical Results, and Volume 3 is Program Cost Estimates. The document-at-hand, Volume 1, provides a summary description of the technical activities that were performed over the entire contract duration, covering three distinct launch vehicle definition activities: heavy-lift (300,000 pounds injected mass to low Earth orbit) launch vehicles for the First Lunar Outpost (FLO), medium-lift (50,000-80,000 pounds injected mass to low Earth orbit) launch vehicles, and single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO) launch vehicles (25,000 pounds injected mass to a Space Station orbit).

McCurry, J.

1995-01-01

299

Suggested method for evaluating the safety and durability of vehicle LNG containment systems. Final report, December 1992-December 1993  

SciTech Connect

The report describes a series of tests that could be conducted which will indicate an ability of an LNG vehicle tank to withstand forces encountered in (1) over-the-road operations, (2) truck coupling, (3) denting, and (4) 30 mph impact. These operating conditions are the ones thought by the NFPA 57 committee to be the ones of greatest concern, from a safety viewpoint.

Ripling, E.J.; Crosley, P.B.; Geiger, R.J.

1994-05-01

300

Advanced reactors and associated fuel cycle facilities: safety and environmental impacts.  

PubMed

The safety and environmental impacts of new technology and fuel cycle approaches being considered in current U.S. nuclear research programs are contrasted to conventional technology options in this paper. Two advanced reactor technologies, the sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR) and the very high temperature gas-cooled reactor (VHTR), are being developed. In general, the new reactor technologies exploit inherent features for enhanced safety performance. A key distinction of advanced fuel cycles is spent fuel recycle facilities and new waste forms. In this paper, the performance of existing fuel cycle facilities and applicable regulatory limits are reviewed. Technology options to improve recycle efficiency, restrict emissions, and/or improve safety are identified. For a closed fuel cycle, potential benefits in waste management are significant, and key waste form technology alternatives are described. PMID:21399407

Hill, R N; Nutt, W M; Laidler, J J

2011-01-01

301

Intelligent Vehicle Health Management  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As a part of the overall goal of developing Integrated Vehicle Health Management systems for aerospace vehicles, the NASA Faculty Fellowship Program (NFFP) at Marshall Space Flight Center has performed a pilot study on IVHM principals which integrates researched IVHM technologies in support of Integrated Intelligent Vehicle Management (IIVM). IVHM is the process of assessing, preserving, and restoring system functionality across flight and ground systems (NASA NGLT 2004). The framework presented in this paper integrates advanced computational techniques with sensor and communication technologies for spacecraft that can generate responses through detection, diagnosis, reasoning, and adapt to system faults in support of INM. These real-time responses allow the IIVM to modify the affected vehicle subsystem(s) prior to a catastrophic event. Furthermore, the objective of this pilot program is to develop and integrate technologies which can provide a continuous, intelligent, and adaptive health state of a vehicle and use this information to improve safety and reduce costs of operations. Recent investments in avionics, health management, and controls have been directed towards IIVM. As this concept has matured, it has become clear the INM requires the same sensors and processing capabilities as the real-time avionics functions to support diagnosis of subsystem problems. New sensors have been proposed, in addition, to augment the avionics sensors to support better system monitoring and diagnostics. As the designs have been considered, a synergy has been realized where the real-time avionics can utilize sensors proposed for diagnostics and prognostics to make better real-time decisions in response to detected failures. IIVM provides for a single system allowing modularity of functions and hardware across the vehicle. The framework that supports IIVM consists of 11 major on-board functions necessary to fully manage a space vehicle maintaining crew safety and mission objectives: Guidance and Navigation; Communications and Tracking; Vehicle Monitoring; Information Transport and Integration; Vehicle Diagnostics; Vehicle Prognostics; Vehicle mission Planning; Automated Repair and Replacement; Vehicle Control; Human Computer Interface; and Onboard Verification and Validation. Furthermore, the presented framework provides complete vehicle management which not only allows for increased crew safety and mission success through new intelligence capabilities, but also yields a mechanism for more efficient vehicle operations. The representative IVHM technologies for computer platform using heterogeneous communication, 3) coupled electromagnetic oscillators for enhanced communications, 4) Linux-based real-time systems, 5) genetic algorithms, 6) Bayesian Networks, 7) evolutionary algorithms, 8) dynamic systems control modeling, and 9) advanced sensing capabilities. This paper presents IVHM technologies developed under NASA's NFFP pilot project and the integration of these technologies forms the framework for IIVM.

Paris, Deidre E.; Trevino, Luis; Watson, Michael D.

2005-01-01

302

29 CFR 1915.93 - Motor vehicle safety equipment, operation and maintenance.  

...Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS FOR SHIPYARD EMPLOYMENT... (ii) Installing crosswalks and traffic control devices such as stop...

2014-07-01

303

Mission Statement "to save lives, reduce injuries and economic loss, to administer Ohio's motor vehicle laws and to preserve the safety  

E-print Network

. Charles, Director x Administration x Bureau of Motor Vehicles x Emergency Management Agency 1970 WestMission Statement "to save lives, reduce injuries and economic loss, to administer Ohio's motor vehicle laws and to preserve the safety and well being of all citizens with the most cost

Moore, Paul A.

304

40 CFR 1037.615 - Hybrid vehicles and other advanced technologies.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...as defined in 40 CFR 86.1803), vehicle service class, aerodynamic drag, and other relevant factors not directly related...as defined in 40 CFR 86.1803), vehicle service class, aerodynamic drag, and other relevant factors not directly...

2013-07-01

305

Reactor Accident Analysis Methodology for the Advanced Test Reactor Critical Facility Documented Safety Analysis Upgrade  

SciTech Connect

The regulatory requirement to develop an upgraded safety basis for a DOE nuclear facility was realized in January 2001 by issuance of a revision to Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations Section 830 (10 CFR 830).1 Subpart B of 10 CFR 830, “Safety Basis Requirements,” requires a contractor responsible for a DOE Hazard Category 1, 2, or 3 nuclear facility to either submit by April 9, 2001 the existing safety basis which already meets the requirements of Subpart B, or to submit by April 10, 2003 an upgraded facility safety basis that meets the revised requirements.1 10 CFR 830 identifies Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Regulatory Guide 1.70, “Standard Format and Content of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants”2 as a safe harbor methodology for preparation of a DOE reactor documented safety analysis (DSA). The regulation also allows for use of a graded approach. This report presents the methodology that was developed for preparing the reactor accident analysis portion of the Advanced Test Reactor Critical Facility (ATRC) upgraded DSA. The methodology was approved by DOE for developing the ATRC safety basis as an appropriate application of a graded approach to the requirements of 10 CFR 830.

Gregg L. Sharp; R. T. McCracken

2003-06-01

306

Reactor Accident Analysis Methodology for the Advanced Test Reactor Critical Facility Documented Safety Analysis Upgrade  

SciTech Connect

The regulatory requirement to develop an upgraded safety basis for a DOE Nuclear Facility was realized in January 2001 by issuance of a revision to Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations Section 830 (10 CFR 830). Subpart B of 10 CFR 830, ''Safety Basis Requirements,'' requires a contractor responsible for a DOE Hazard Category 1, 2, or 3 nuclear facility to either submit by April 9, 2001 the existing safety basis which already meets the requirements of Subpart B, or to submit by April 10, 2003 an upgraded facility safety basis that meets the revised requirements. 10 CFR 830 identifies Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Regulatory Guide 1.70, ''Standard Format and Content of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants'' as a safe harbor methodology for preparation of a DOE reactor documented safety analysis (DSA). The regulation also allows for use of a graded approach. This report presents the methodology that was developed for preparing the reactor accident analysis portion of the Advanced Test Reactor Critical Facility (ATRC) upgraded DSA. The methodology was approved by DOE for developing the ATRC safety basis as an appropriate application of a graded approach to the requirements of 10 CFR 830.

Sharp, G.L.; McCracken, R.T.

2003-05-13

307

Collision safety of a hard-shell low-mass vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low-mass vehicles and in particular low-mass electric vehicles as produced today in very small quantities are in general not designed for crashworthiness in collisions. Particular problems of compact low-mass cars are: reduced length of the car front, low mass compared to other vehicles, and heavy batteries in the case of an electric car. With the intention of studying design improvements,

Robert Kaeser; Felix H. Walz; Anton Brunner

1994-01-01

308

Magnetometer and differential carrier phase GPS-aided INS for advanced vehicle control  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the design, analysis, implementation, and experimental results of a triple redundancy navigation system incorporating magnetometer, inertial, and carrier phase differential Global Positioning System (GPS) measurements. The navigation system is able to accurately estimate vehicle attitude (including yaw) as long as the vehicle velocity is not zero. The motivating application was lateral vehicle control for intelligent highway systems.

Yunchun Yang; Jay A. Farrell

2003-01-01

309

Thermal Management of Batteries in Advanced Vehicles Using PhaseChange Materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) are promising technologies to help reduce the amount of petroleum consumed for transportation. In both HEVs and PHEVs, the battery pack is a key component to enabling their fuel savings potential. The battery is also one of the most expensive components in the vehicle. One of the most significant factors

Gi-Heon Kim; Jeffrey Gonder; Jason Lustbader; Ahmad Pesaran

310

Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project Safety Advancement Field Effort (SAFE) Program  

SciTech Connect

In 1992, the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project experienced several health and safety related incidents at active remediation project sites. As a result, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) directed the Technical Assistance Contractor (TAC) to establish a program increasing the DOE`s overall presence at operational remediation sites to identify and minimize risks in operations to the fullest extent possible (Attachments A and B). In response, the TAC, in cooperation with the DOE and the Remedial Action Contractor (RAC), developed the Safety Advancement Field Effort (SAFE) Program.

Not Available

1994-02-01

311

Personnel Safety System for the beamlines at the Advanced Photon Source  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Personnel Safety System (PSS) at the Advanced Photon Source is a high reliability, fail-safe, redundant, engineered safety system that provides personnel access control to prevent inadvertent entry into experimental stations when hazardous radiation conditions exist and warns personnel of changes in safe operating conditions inside these stations. Single fault tolerant access control is provided by two independent interlock ``chains'' implemented via programmable logic controllers (PLCs). Reduction of common mode failures is accomplished by different hardware and software platforms for the two chains. The system design is presented.

Hawkins, J.; Seaver, C.; Stein, J.; Stoffel, J.; Friedman, N.

1996-09-01

312

Advances in Liposuction: Five Key Principles with Emphasis on Patient Safety and Outcomes  

PubMed Central

Summary: Since Illouz’s presentation of a technique for lipoplasty at the 1982 Annual Meeting of the American Society of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgeons, liposuction has become one of the most commonly performed aesthetic surgery procedures. The evolution of liposuction has seen refinements in technique and improvement of patient safety-related standards of care. Based on long-term experience with body contouring surgery, 5 principles of advanced liposuction are presented: preoperative evaluation and planning, intraoperative monitoring—safety measures, the role of wetting solutions and fluid resuscitation, circumferential contouring and complication prevention, and outcomes measurement.

Tabbal, Geo N.; Ahmad, Jamil; Lista, Frank

2013-01-01

313

Advances in coupled safety modeling using systems analysis and high-fidelity methods.  

SciTech Connect

The potential for a sodium-cooled fast reactor to survive severe accident initiators with no damage has been demonstrated through whole-plant testing in EBR-II and FFTF. Analysis of the observed natural protective mechanisms suggests that they would be characteristic of a broad range of sodium-cooled fast reactors utilizing metal fuel. However, in order to demonstrate the degree to which new, advanced sodium-cooled fast reactor designs will possess these desired safety features, accurate, high-fidelity, whole-plant dynamics safety simulations will be required. One of the objectives of the advanced safety-modeling component of the Reactor IPSC is to develop a science-based advanced safety simulation capability by utilizing existing safety simulation tools coupled with emerging high-fidelity modeling capabilities in a multi-resolution approach. As part of this integration, an existing whole-plant systems analysis code has been coupled with a high-fidelity computational fluid dynamics code to assess the impact of high-fidelity simulations on safety-related performance. With the coupled capabilities, it is possible to identify critical safety-related phenomenon in advanced reactor designs that cannot be resolved with existing tools. In this report, the impact of coupling is demonstrated by evaluating the conditions of outlet plenum thermal stratification during a protected loss of flow transient. Outlet plenum stratification was anticipated to alter core temperatures and flows predicted during natural circulation conditions. This effect was observed during the simulations. What was not anticipated, however, is the far-reaching impact that resolving thermal stratification has on the whole plant. The high temperatures predicted at the IHX inlet due to thermal stratification in the outlet plenum forces heat into the intermediate system to the point that it eventually becomes a source of heat for the primary system. The results also suggest that flow stagnation in the intermediate system is possible, raising questions about the effectiveness of the intermediate decay heat removal systems in the design that was evaluated. Existing tools do not predict flow stagnation. This work has demonstrated that with a proper coupling approach, a high-fidelity CFD tool can be used to resolve the important flow and temperature distributions throughout a plant while still maintaining the whole-plant safety analysis capabilities of a systems analysis code.

Fanning, T. H.; Thomas, J. W.; Nuclear Engineering Division

2010-05-31

314

Using advanced manufacturing to produce unmanned aerial vehicles: a feasibility study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper reports on a feasibility study to explore the impact of advanced manufacturing on the production and maintenance of a 3D printed, unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) in theatre. Specifically, this report focuses on fused deposition modeling (FDM), the selective deposition of a molten thermoplastic. FDM is already a forward deployed technology, primarily used for printing custom tools and replacement parts. The authors ask if it is feasible to expand the printers' capacity to produce aerial platforms; the reduction in logistics and labor could significantly decrease costs per unit and enable far more platform customization and specialized deployment scenarios than are available in existing aircraft. The University of Virginia and The MITRE Corporation designed and built a prototype, 3D printed UAV for use as an aerial sensor platform. This report • Discusses the printed aerial platform, summarizes the design process, and compares printing methods • Describes the benefits and limitations to selecting FDM printers as the technology both for deployment as well as UAV design • Concludes with the current state and future expectations for FDM printing technologies relevant to UAV production. Our findings suggest that although 3D printing is not yet entirely field-ready, many of its advantages can already be realized.

Easter, Steven; Turman, Jonathan; Sheffler, David; Balazs, Michael; Rotner, Jonathan

2013-05-01

315

Integrated Optimization of Airframe Design and Flight Trajectory for Advanced Space Transportation Vehicle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Authors have been attempting to develop a multidisciplinary design optimization tool for a large-scale system using Genetic Algorithm (GA), and to apply this tool to the integrated optimization problem of the airframe design and its flight trajectory for an advanced space transportation vehicle that is a spaceplane. The results of the latest calculation for the problem above obtained by the developed tool showed that airframes (solutions) converged on four areas in the solution space and sensitivity of design variables of the airframe shape was remarkably different in each convergence area. Although high-ranking solutions having good value of the performance index have various airframe configurations, those flight trajectories hardly changed. The best solution showed that it is necessary to reduce the weights of airframe components and to improve the performance of air-breathing engine for realizing a feasible airframe size. It is suggested that this tool is absolutely useful for searching a solution at the conceptual designing phase of a spaceplane.

Motohashi, Kazuhiro; Yoshida, Hiroaki; Yamaguchi, Katsuhito; Ishikawa, Yoshio

316

Analysis of the Relationship Between Vehicle Weight/Size and Safety, and Implications for Federal Fuel Economy Regulation  

SciTech Connect

This report analyzes the relationship between vehicle weight, size (wheelbase, track width, and their product, footprint), and safety, for individual vehicle makes and models. Vehicle weight and footprint are correlated with a correlation coefficient (R{sup 2}) of about 0.62. The relationship is stronger for cars (0.69) than for light trucks (0.42); light trucks include minivans, fullsize vans, truck-based SUVs, crossover SUVs, and pickup trucks. The correlation between wheelbase and track width, the components of footprint, is about 0.61 for all light vehicles, 0.62 for cars and 0.48 for light trucks. However, the footprint data used in this analysis does not vary for different versions of the same vehicle model, as curb weight does; the analysis could be improved with more precise data on footprint for different versions of the same vehicle model. Although US fatality risk to drivers (driver fatalities per million registered vehicles) decreases as vehicle footprint increases, there is very little correlation either for all light vehicles (0.01), or cars (0.07) or trucks (0.11). The correlation between footprint and fatality risks cars impose on drivers of other vehicles is also very low (0.01); for trucks the correlation is higher (0.30), with risk to others increasing as truck footprint increases. Fatality risks reported here do not account for differences in annual miles driven, driver age or gender, or crash location by vehicle type or model. It is difficult to account for these factors using data on national fatal crashes because the number of vehicles registered to, for instance, young males in urban areas is not readily available by vehicle type or model. State data on all police-reported crashes can be used to estimate casualty risks that account for miles driven, driver age and gender, and crash location. The number of vehicles involved in a crash can act as a proxy of the number of miles a given vehicle type, or model, is driven per year, and is a preferable unit of exposure to a serious crash than the number of registered vehicles. However, because there are relatively few fatalities in the states providing crash data, we calculate casualty risks, which are the sum of fatalities and serious or incapacitating injuries, per vehicle involved in a crash reported to the police. We can account for driver age/gender and driving location effects by excluding from analysis crashes (and casualties) involving young males and the elderly, and occurring in very rural or very urban counties. Using state data on all police-reported crashes in five states, we find that excluding crashes involving young male and elderly drivers has little effect on casualty risk; however, excluding crashes that occurred in the most rural and most urban counties (based on population density) increases casualty risk for all vehicle types except pickups. This suggests that risks for pickups are overstated unless they account for the population density of the county in which the crashes occur. After removing crashes involving young males and elderly drivers, and those occurring in the most rural and most urban counties, we find that casualty risk in all light-duty vehicles tends to increase with increasing weight or footprint; however, the correlation (R{sup 2}) between casualty risk and vehicle weight is 0.31, while the correlation with footprint is 0.23. These relationships are stronger for cars than for light trucks. The correlation between casualty risk in frontal crashes and light-duty vehicle wheelbase is 0.12, while the correlation between casualty risk in left side crashes and track width is 0.36. We calculated separately the casualty risks vehicles impose on drivers of the other vehicles with which they crash. The correlation between casualty risk imposed by light trucks on drivers of other vehicles and light truck footprint is 0.15, while the correlation with light truck footprint is 0.33; risk imposed on others increases as light truck weight or footprint increases. Our analysis indicates that, after excluding crashes involving young m

Wenzel, Thomas P.

2010-03-02

317

Benchmarking and accident characteristics of flat-fronted commercial vehicles with respect to pedestrian safety  

Microsoft Academic Search

The information about pedestrian accidents and kinematics involving commercial vehicles is not properly understood. In general the total accident scenarios with heavy vehicles are unique in the sense that one has a very strong structure impacting a very soft pedestrian. This makes the problem complex and the solution requires the development of a new description of accident kinematics. This study

G K Chinnaswamy; E C Chirwa; S K Nammi; S Nowpada; T Chen; M Mao

2007-01-01

318

Enhancing vehicle safety management in training deployments : an application of system dynamics  

E-print Network

Organization Sierra-Tango is employing a systematic and methodical safety framework to manage risks in all their operational and training activities. While this safety system has shown itself to be reasonably effective in ...

Lim, Kelvin F. H. (Kelvin Fang Hui)

2008-01-01

319

Evaluating vehicle telematics system by using a novel MCDM techniques with dependence and feedback  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the advanced integration of communications, information and vehicle technologies, Vehicle Telematics Systems (VTS), have been initiated for satisfying consumers’ needs with respect to automobile movement. Importantly, VTS enables a vehicle to become a multifunction mobile-services platform. Cars are now designed not only for transportation, but also to provide value-added services covering navigation, safety, security, information, communications and entertainment. Drivers

Chia-Li Lin; Meng-Shu Hsieh; Gwo-Hshiung Tzeng

2010-01-01

320

Development of methodologies for ensuring structural safety of gas turbines and launch vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The research presented in this dissertation involves two distinct areas. In both cases, optimization techniques provided an important tool to achieve the goal of ensuring structural integrity and safety of gas turbine and launch vehicle systems. In the first area, a novel testing methodology has been developed to assess turbine engine materials fatigue strength. The idea is to accumulate fatigue energy on a base-excited plate specimen at high frequency resonant modes and to complete a fatigue test in a few hours at very low cost. The methodology consists of: (1) a topological design procedure, incorporating a finite element model, to characterize the shape of the specimens for ensuring the required stress state/pattern, (2) a vibration feedback empirical procedure for achieving the high cycle fatigue experiments with variable-amplitude loading, and (3) a fatigue strength implementation scheme for calculating effective stresses and effective number of cycles to failure. The performance of the methodology is demonstrated by the experimental results from steel, 6061-T6 aluminum, and Ti-6Al-4V plate specimens subjected to fully reversed bending for both uniaxial and biaxial stress states. Furthermore, a technique has been developed to produce residual stress enabling vibration-based fatigue testing at various stress ratios. Additionally, this vibration-based fatigue method has the advantage of being able to produce a fatigue crack in the test specimen while it is still in the initiation stage. In the second area, an optimization procedure has been developed to uniquely and efficiently determine the "best" local geometry design of a new composite ChamberCore structure. This procedure is based on minimization of the total mass of a single composite ChamberCore, subject to a set of design and stress constraints. The stress constraints are obtained in closed-form based on the composite box-beam model for various composite lamination designs and loading conditions. The optimization problem statement is constructed and then solved using the VMCON optimization program. As a supplement to the above sizing/geometry optimization the application of topology optimization to the ChamberCore geometry has been investigated. These two techniques, sizing optimization and topology optimization, provide an avenue for achieving an optimized ChamberCore structure.

George, Thomas Joe, Jr.

321

Galerkin CFD solvers for use in a multi-disciplinary suite for modeling advanced flight vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work extends existing Galerkin CFD solvers for use in a multi-disciplinary suite. The suite is proposed as a means of modeling advanced flight vehicles, which exhibit strong coupling between aerodynamics, structural dynamics, controls, rigid body motion, propulsion, and heat transfer. Such applications include aeroelastics, aeroacoustics, stability and control, and other highly coupled applications. The suite uses NASA STARS for modeling structural dynamics and heat transfer. Aerodynamics, propulsion, and rigid body dynamics are modeled in one of the five CFD solvers below. Euler2D and Euler3D are Galerkin CFD solvers created at OSU by Cowan (2003). These solvers are capable of modeling compressible inviscid aerodynamics with modal elastics and rigid body motion. This work reorganized these solvers to improve efficiency during editing and at run time. Simple and efficient propulsion models were added, including rocket, turbojet, and scramjet engines. Viscous terms were added to the previous solvers to create NS2D and NS3D. The viscous contributions were demonstrated in the inertial and non-inertial frames. Variable viscosity (Sutherland's equation) and heat transfer boundary conditions were added to both solvers but not verified in this work. Two turbulence models were implemented in NS2D and NS3D: Spalart-Allmarus (SA) model of Deck, et al. (2002) and Menter's SST model (1994). A rotation correction term (Shur, et al., 2000) was added to the production of turbulence. Local time stepping and artificial dissipation were adapted to each model. CFDsol is a Taylor-Galerkin solver with an SA turbulence model. This work improved the time accuracy, far field stability, viscous terms, Sutherland?s equation, and SA model with NS3D as a guideline and added the propulsion models from Euler3D to CFDsol. Simple geometries were demonstrated to utilize current meshing and processing capabilities. Air-breathing hypersonic flight vehicles (AHFVs) represent the ultimate application of the suite. The current models are accurate at low supersonic speed and reasonable for engineering approximation at hypersonic speeds. Improvements to extend the models fully into the hypersonic regime are given in the Recommendations section.

Moffitt, Nicholas J.

322

The Advanced Re-Entry Vehicle (ARV) a Development Step from ATV Toward Manned Transportation Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Advanced Re-entry Vehicle (ARV) programme has been undertaken by Europe with the objective to contribute to the preparation of a future European crew transportation system, while providing a valuable logistic support to the ISS through an operational cargo return system. This development would allow: - the early acquisition of critical technologies; - the design, development and testing of elements suitable for the follow up human rated transportation system. These vehicles should also serve future LEO infrastructures and exploration missions. With the aim to satisfy the above objectives a team composed by major European industries and led by EADS Astrium Space Transportation is currently conducting the phase A of the programme under contract with the European Space Agency (ESA). Two vehicle versions are being investigated: a Cargo version, transporting cargo only to/from the ISS, and a Crew version, which will allow the transfer of both crew and cargo to/from the ISS. The ARV Cargo version, in its present configuration, is composed of three modules. The Versatile Service Module (VSM) provides to the system the propulsion/GNC for orbital manoeuvres and attitude control and the orbital power generation. Its propulsion system and GNC shall be robust enough to allow its use for different launch stacks and different LEO missions in the future. The Un-pressurised Cargo Module (UCM) provides the accommodation for about 3000 kg of un-pressurised cargo and is to be sufficiently flexible to ensure the transportation of: - orbital infrastructure components (ORU's); - scientific / technological experiments; - propellant for re-fuelling, re-boost (and deorbiting) of the ISS. The Re-entry Module (RM) provides a pressurized volume to accommodate active/passive cargo (2000 kg upload/1500 kg download). It is conceived as an expendable conical capsule with spherical heat- hield, interfacing with the new docking standard of the ISS, i.e. it carries the IBDM docking system, on a dedicated adapter. Its thermo-mechanical design, GNC, descent & landing systems take into account its future evolution for crew transportation. The ARV Crew version is also composed of three main modules: - an Integrated Resource Module (IRM) providing the main propulsion and power functions during the on-orbit phases of the mission; - a Re-entry Module (RM) providing the re-entry function and a pressurized environment for four crew members and about 250 kg of passive / active cargo; - a Crew Escape System (CES) providing the function of emergency separation of the RM from the launcher (in case of failure of this latter). The paper presents an overview of the ARV Cargo and Crew versions requirements derived from the above objectives, their mission scenarios, system architectures and performances. The commonality aspects between the ARV Cargo version and future transportation systems (including also the ARV Crew version and logistic carriers) are also highlighted.

Bottacini, M.; Berthe, P.; Vo, X.; Pietsch, K.

2011-08-01

323

1997 hybrid electric vehicle specifications  

SciTech Connect

The US DOE sponsors Advanced Vehicle Technology competitions to help educate the public and advance new vehicle technologies. For several years, DOE has provided financial and technical support for the American Tour de Sol. This event showcases electric and hybrid electric vehicles in a road rally across portions of the northeastern United States. The specifications contained in this technical memorandum apply to vehicles that will be entered in the 1997 American Tour de Sol. However, the specifications were prepared to be general enough for use by other teams and individuals interested in developing hybrid electric vehicles. The purpose of the specifications is to ensure that the vehicles developed do not present a safety hazard to the teams that build and drive them or to the judges, sponsors, or public who attend the competitions. The specifications are by no means the definitive sources of information on constructing hybrid electric vehicles - as electric and hybrid vehicles technologies advance, so will the standards and practices for their construction. In some cases, the new standards and practices will make portions of these specifications obsolete.

Sluder, S.; Larsen, R.; Duoba, M.

1996-10-01

324

76 FR 43825 - Launch Safety: Lightning Criteria for Expendable Launch Vehicles  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...and lightning triggered by the flight of an expendable launch vehicle through or near an electrified environment in or near a cloud. These changes also increase launch availability and implement changes already adopted by the United States Air Force....

2011-07-22

325

76 FR 23255 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Lamps, Reflective Devices, and Associated Equipment  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Standard (FMVSS) No. 108 (49 CFR 571.108). The petitions are denied...1200 New Jersey Avenue, SE., West Building, Washington, DC 20590 (Telephone...proposed rulemaking concerning 49 CFR 571.108 (Federal Motor Vehicle...

2011-04-26

326

76 FR 78 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard; Engine Control Module Speed Limiter Device  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...appropriate tolerance to accommodate variations in manufacturing, wear, and maintenance throughout the lifecycle of the vehicle. For...for maximum speed, tire size, and drive axle and transmission gear ratio information. [[Page 80

2011-01-03

327

78 FR 9623 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Air Brake Systems  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...the stopping distance data that EMA listed in Appendix...requirement. Vehicle B test data was only provided at...were conducted, EMA's data does not show how...term ``PFC'' (peak coefficient of friction) from the 0.9...

2013-02-11

328

76 FR 77183 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Theft Protection and Rollaway Prevention  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...business manufacturers of passenger vehicles subject to the proposed requirements. These small U.S. businesses, which include Tesla, manufacture specialty passenger cars which serve niche markets. I hereby certify that this proposed rule would not...

2011-12-12

329

Environmental, health, and safety issues of sodium-sulfur batteries for electric and hybrid vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recycling and disposal of spent sodium-sulfur (Na\\/S) batteries are important issues that must be addressed as part of the commercialization process of Na\\/S battery-powered electric vehicles. The use of Na\\/S batteries in electric vehicles will result in significant environmental benefits, and the disposal of spent batteries should not detract from those benefits. In the United States, waste disposal is regulated

Corbus

1992-01-01

330

Performance Advances of HTS Maglev Vehicle System in Three Essential Aspects  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to put the practice of high temperature superconducting (HTS) Maglev vehicle technology into people's life, the interaction between high temperature superconductor (HTSC) and permanent magnet guideway (PMG) as the basic model of HTS Maglev vehicle was carefully investigated and enhanced from three essential aspects, i.e., bulk HTSC material, PMG field and bulk HTSC magnetization. The maglev experiments were

Zigang Deng; Jiasu Wang; Jun Zheng; Hua Jing; Jing Li; Wei Liu; Ya Zhang; Suyu Wang

2009-01-01

331

40 CFR 86.1866-12 - CO2 credits for advanced technology vehicles.  

...the proportion of electric operation of a vehicle that is derived from electricity that is generated from sources that are not onboard the vehicle, as specified by this paragraph (a). (1) Model years 2012 through 2016: The use of zero (0)...

2014-07-01

332

Accounting for the Variation of Driver Aggression in the Simulation of Conventional and Advanced Vehicles  

SciTech Connect

Hybrid electric vehicles, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, and battery electric vehicles offer the potential to reduce both oil imports and greenhouse gases, as well as to offer a financial benefit to the driver. However, assessing these potential benefits is complicated by several factors, including the driving habits of the operator. We focus on driver aggression, i.e., the level of acceleration and velocity characteristic of travel, to (1) assess its variation within large, real-world drive datasets, (2) quantify its effect on both vehicle efficiency and economics for multiple vehicle types, (3) compare these results to those of standard drive cycles commonly used in the industry, and (4) create a representative drive cycle for future analyses where standard drive cycles are lacking.

Neubauer, J.; Wood, E.

2013-01-01

333

Collision safety of a hard-shell low-mass vehicle.  

PubMed

Low-mass vehicles and in particular low-mass electric vehicles as produced today in very small quantities are in general not designed for crashworthiness in collisions. Particular problems of compact low-mass cars are: reduced length of the car front, low mass compared to other vehicles, and heavy batteries in the case of an electric car. With the intention of studying design improvements, three frontal crash tests were run last year: the first one with a commercial, lightweight electric car; the second with a reinforced version of the same car; and the last one with a car based on a different structural design with a "hard-shell" car body. Crash tests showed that the latter solution made better use of the small zone available for continuous energy absorption. The paper discusses further the problem of frontal collisions between vehicles of different weight and, in particular, the side collision. A side-collision test was run with the hard-shell vehicle following the ECE lateral-impact test procedure at 50 km/h and led to results for the EuroSID1-dummy well below current injury tolerance criteria. PMID:8011053

Kaeser, R; Walz, F H; Brunner, A

1994-06-01

334

Collision safety of a hard-shell low-mass vehicle  

SciTech Connect

Low-mass vehicles and in particular low-mass electric vehicles as produced today in very small quantities are in general not designed for crashworthiness in collisions. Particular problems of compact low-mass cars are: reduced length of the car front, low mass compared to other vehicles, and heavy batteries in the case of an electric car. With the intention of studying design improvements, three frontal crash tests were run last year: the first one with a commercial, lightweight electric car; the second with a reinforced version of the same car; and the last one with a car based on a different structural design with a `hard-shell` car body. Crash tests showed that the latter solution made better use of the small zone available for continuous energy absorption. The paper discusses further the problem of frontal collisions between vehicles of different weight and, in particular, the side collision. A side-collision test was run with the hard-shell vehicle following the ECE lateral-impact test procedure at 50 km/h and led to results for the EuroSIDI-dummy well below current injury tolerance criteria.

Kaeser, R.; Walz, F.H.; Brunner, A.

1994-06-01

335

Updating United States Advanced Battery Consortium and Department of Energy battery technology targets for battery electric vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Battery electric vehicles (BEVs) offer significant potential to reduce the nation's consumption of petroleum based products and the production of greenhouse gases however, their widespread adoption is limited largely by the cost and performance limitations of modern batteries. With recent growth in efforts to accelerate BEV adoption (e.g. the Department of Energy's (DOE) EV Everywhere Grand Challenge) and the age of existing BEV battery technology targets, there is sufficient motivation to re-evaluate the industry's technology targets for battery performance and cost. Herein we document the analysis process that supported the selection of the United States Advanced Battery Consortium's (USABC) updated BEV battery technology targets. Our technology agnostic approach identifies the necessary battery performance characteristics that will enable the vehicle level performance required for a commercially successful, mass market full BEV, as guided by the workgroup's OEM members. The result is an aggressive target, implying that batteries need to advance considerably before BEVs can be both cost and performance competitive with existing petroleum powered vehicles.

Neubauer, Jeremy; Pesaran, Ahmad; Bae, Chulheung; Elder, Ron; Cunningham, Brian

2014-12-01

336

GRI workshop on LNG vehicle technology, economics, and safety issues: Focus-group recommendations summary. Topical report, April 29 and 30, 1992  

SciTech Connect

GRI organized and conducted the Workshop on LNG Vehicle Technology, Economics, and Safety Issues on April 29 and 30, 1992, in Houston, Texas. The workshop included various presentations, a tour of Houston Metro (LNG bus project) facilities, and focus group discussions. The report documents the recommendations generated by the focus group. There were five separate focus groups with an average of ten members each. They met for 2-1/2 hours to discuss LNG vehicle issues and evolve recommendations for GRI R and D. Fifty-three recommendations were generated and prioritized (through voting) by the focus groups. The report consolidates these recommendations. Recommendations relative to the LNG fuel composition issue received the most votes, followed by consolidated recommendations pertaining to gas venting elimination, safety codes, and odorants or leak detectors. Component development recommendations (in order of votes) included the refueling nozzle, fuel level gage, refueling pump and meter, vehicle pump/regulator/vaporizer, and vehicle tank.

Not Available

1992-07-07

337

Sipping fuel and saving lives: increasing fuel economy withoutsacrificing safety  

SciTech Connect

The public, automakers, and policymakers have long worried about trade-offs between increased fuel economy in motor vehicles and reduced safety. The conclusion of a broad group of experts on safety and fuel economy in the auto sector is that no trade-off is required. There are a wide variety of technologies and approaches available to advance vehicle fuel economy that have no effect on vehicle safety. Conversely, there are many technologies and approaches available to advance vehicle safety that are not detrimental to vehicle fuel economy. Congress is considering new policies to increase the fuel economy of new automobiles in order to reduce oil dependence and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The findings reported here offer reassurance on an important dimension of that work: It is possible to significantly increase the fuel economy of motor vehicles without compromising their safety. Automobiles on the road today demonstrate that higher fuel economy and greater safety can co-exist. Some of the safest vehicles have higher fuel economy, while some of the least safe vehicles driven today--heavy, large trucks and SUVs--have the lowest fuel economy. At an October 3, 2006 workshop, leading researchers from national laboratories, academia, auto manufacturers, insurance research industry, consumer and environmental groups, material supply industries, and the federal government agreed that vehicles could be designed to simultaneously improve safety and fuel economy. The real question is not whether we can realize this goal, but the best path to get there. The experts' studies reveal important new conclusions about fuel economy and safety, including: (1) Vehicle fuel economy can be increased without affecting safety, and vice versa; (2) Reducing the weight and height of the heaviest SUVs and pickup trucks will simultaneously increase both their fuel economy and overall safety; and (3) Advanced materials can decouple size from mass, creating important new possibilities for increasing both fuel economy and safety without compromising functionality.

Gordon, Deborah; Greene, David L.; Ross, Marc H.; Wenzel, Tom P.

2007-06-11

338

The Eyeball ROV : an underwater Remotely Operated Vehicle featuring advances in rotational actuation, communication, and localization  

E-print Network

The design for a spherical Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV) with a camera, called the Eyeball ROV due to motions similar to the human eye, is presented in this thesis. The ROV features an actuation scheme that utilizes a ...

Rust, Ian Charles

2011-01-01

339

Advanced valve-regulated lead-acid batteries for hybrid vehicle applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Future vehicle applications require the development of reliable and long life batteries operating under high-rate partial-state-of-charge (HRPSoC) working conditions. Work presented in this paper deals with the study of different design parameters, manufacturing process and charging conditions of spiral wound valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) batteries, in order to improve their reliability and cycle life for hybrid vehicle applications.Test results show that

M. L. Soria; F. Trinidad; J. M. Lacadena; A. Sánchez; J. Valenciano

2007-01-01

340

What Every Technician Must Know: Safety First with Hybrid & Electric Vehicles  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page provides a 2011 presentation on hybrid and electric vehicle technology program by Scott Rill and Janna Oakes of Arapahoe Community College, for ATEEC/CSM's Sustainable Energy Education and Training (SEET) Technology Workshop for high school and community college energy technology instructors. This resource is free to download. Users must first create a login with ATEEC's website to access the file.

Oakes, Janna; Rill, Scott

2013-08-14

341

78 FR 15920 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Tire Selection and Rims  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Standards; Tire Selection and Rims AGENCY...rulemaking process, see the...Recreational Vehicle Industry Association...the National Automotive Sampling...products and processes, such as...product, process or material...Society of Automotive Engineers...110 Tire selection and rims...

2013-03-13

342

Evaluation of an Active Safety Light using Virtual Test Drive within Vehicle in the Loop  

Microsoft Academic Search

Driving at night time increases the risk of accidents because the driver's perception is reduced to the limited area of the environment which is illuminated by the car's head lights. In the study presented in this paper, the tool Vehicle in the Loop (VIL) is used the first time to research the potential of a new light function. VIL is

Yvonne Laschinsky; Kilian von Neumann-Cosel; Mark Gonter; Christian Wegwerth; Rolf Dubitzky; A. Knoll

2010-01-01

343

Safety Requirements for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) in Future Civil Airspace  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper addresses topics concerning the development of future Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) so that they can operate safely within the community of the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO). Studies by the Defense Science Board; the Office of Science and Technology; Government Accountability Office; and the Congressional Research Service: Library of Congress; have all

Robert Loh; Yi Bian; Tim Roe

2006-01-01

344

49 CFR 575.301 - Vehicle Labeling of Safety Rating Information.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...section. (2) The label must depict the star ratings for that vehicle as reported to...Rated” or “To Be Rated,” the star graphic indicating each rating, as...and symbols on the label (including the star graphic specified in paragraph...

2010-10-01

345

Importance of the Natural Terrestrial Environment with Regard to Advanced Launch Vehicle Design and Development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The terrestrial environment is an important forcing function in the design and development of the launch vehicle. The scope of the terrestrial environment includes the following phenomena: Winds; Atmospheric Thermodynamic Models and Properties; Thermal Radiation; U.S. and World Surface Environment Extremes; Humidity; Precipitation, Fog, and Icing; Cloud Characteristics and Cloud Cover Models; Atmospheric Electricity; Atmospheric Constituents; Vehicle Engine Exhaust and Toxic Chemical Release; Occurrences of Tornadoes and Hurricanes; Geological Hazards, and Sea States. One must remember that the flight profile of any launch vehicle is in the terrestrial environment. Terrestrial environment definitions are usually limited to information below 90 km. Thus, a launch vehicle's operations will always be influenced to some degree by the terrestrial environment with which it interacts. As a result, the definition of the terrestrial environment and its interpretation is one of the key launch vehicle design and development inputs. This definition is a significant role, for example, in the areas of structures, control systems, trajectory shaping (performance), aerodynamic heating and take off/landing capabilities. The launch vehicle's capabilities which result from the design, in turn, determines the constraints and flight opportunities for tests and operations.

Pearson, S. D.; Vaughan, W. W.; Batts, G. W.; Jasper, G. L.

1996-01-01

346

Development of Production-Intent Plug-In Hybrid Vehicle Using Advanced Lithium-Ion Battery Packs with Deployment to a Demonstration Fleet  

SciTech Connect

The primary goal of this project was to speed the development of one of the first commercially available, OEM-produced plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV). The performance of the PHEV was expected to double the fuel economy of the conventional hybrid version. This vehicle program incorporated a number of advanced technologies, including advanced lithium-ion battery packs and an E85-capable flex-fuel engine. The project developed, fully integrated, and validated plug-in specific systems and controls by using GM’s Global Vehicle Development Process (GVDP) for production vehicles. Engineering Development related activities included the build of mule vehicles and integration vehicles for Phases I & II of the project. Performance data for these vehicles was shared with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The deployment of many of these vehicles was restricted to internal use at GM sites or restricted to assigned GM drivers. Phase III of the project captured the first half or Alpha phase of the Engineering tasks for the development of a new thermal management design for a second generation battery module. The project spanned five years. It included six on-site technical reviews with representatives from the DOE. One unique aspect of the GM/DOE collaborative project was the involvement of the DOE throughout the OEM vehicle development process. The DOE gained an understanding of how an OEM develops vehicle efficiency and FE performance, while balancing many other vehicle performance attributes to provide customers well balanced and fuel efficient vehicles that are exciting to drive. Many vehicle content and performance trade-offs were encountered throughout the vehicle development process to achieve product cost and performance targets for both the OEM and end customer. The project team completed two sets of PHEV development vehicles with fully integrated PHEV systems. Over 50 development vehicles were built and operated for over 180,000 development miles. The team also completed four GM engineering development Buy-Off rides/milestones. The project included numerous engineering vehicle and systems development trips including extreme hot, cold and altitude exposure. The final fuel economy performance demonstrated met the objectives of the PHEV collaborative GM/DOE project. Charge depletion fuel economy of twice that of the non-PHEV model was demonstrated. The project team also designed, developed and tested a high voltage battery module concept that appears to be feasible from a manufacturability, cost and performance standpoint. The project provided important product development and knowledge as well as technological learnings and advancements that include multiple U.S. patent applications.

None

2013-09-29

347

76 FR 23254 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Lamps, Reflective Devices, and Associated Equipment  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Traffic Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 571 [Docket No. NHTSA-2011-0052] Federal...1200 New Jersey Avenue, SE., West Building, Washington, DC 20590 (Telephone...1200 New Jersey Avenue, SE., West Building, Washington, DC 20590...

2011-04-26

348

75 FR 68663 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Rear Impact Guards; Rear Impact Protection; Technical...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Guards; Rear Impact Protection; Technical Report, on the Effectiveness of Underride...ACTION: Request for comments on technical report...announces NHTSA's publication of a Technical Report, its existing Safety...

2010-11-08

349

75 FR 51521 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Air Brake Systems; Technical Report on the Effectiveness...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Standards; Air Brake Systems; Technical Report on the Effectiveness of Antilock...ACTION: Request for comments on technical report...announces NHTSA's publication of a Technical Report its existing Safety...

2010-08-20

350

75 FR 68664 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Child Restraint Systems; Booster Seat Effectiveness...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...ACTION: Request for comments on technical report...announces NHTSA's publication of a Technical Report on its existing Safety Standard...2011. ADDRESSES: Report: The technical report is available on the...

2010-11-08

351

Safety Assessment of Two Advanced Ferritic Steel Molten Salt Blanket Design Concepts  

SciTech Connect

In this article we explore some of the safety issues associated with two advanced ferritic steel (AFS) molten salt blanket designs from the Advanced Power Extraction (APEX) design study. In particular, we examine radiological inventories, decay heat, waste disposal ratings, and toxic chemical inventories of these design concepts. In addition, we predict the thermal response of these blanket designs during accident conditions, and the mobilization of the radiological inventories and site boundary dose from the release of this mobilized material during a worst-case confinement-boundary-bypass accident. The molten salts being proposed for these blanket concepts are Flibe and Flinabe, and the structural material is a nano-composite strengthened ferritic steel alloy called 12YWT. The estimated dose at the site boundary is less than the no-evacuation limit of 10 mSv for a ground level release during worst-case weather conditions if plant isolation occurs within five days.

B. J. Merrill; M. Sawan; C.P.C. Wong; R. E. Nygren; L. C. Cadwallader; S. Malang; D.-K. Sze

2004-11-01

352

14 CFR Appendix A to Part 417 - Flight Safety Analysis Methodologies and Products for a Launch Vehicle Flown With a Flight Safety...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...vehicle's flight path, position and velocity, where all vehicle aerodynamic parameters...of a launch vehicle's position and velocity as a function of winds and performance...Gravitational parameter; (vi) Angular velocity of the Earth at the equator; and...

2010-01-01

353

14 CFR Appendix A to Part 417 - Flight Safety Analysis Methodologies and Products for a Launch Vehicle Flown With a Flight Safety...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...vehicle's flight path, position and velocity, where all vehicle aerodynamic parameters...of a launch vehicle's position and velocity as a function of winds and performance...Gravitational parameter; (vi) Angular velocity of the Earth at the equator; and...

2011-01-01

354

14 CFR Appendix A to Part 417 - Flight Safety Analysis Methodologies and Products for a Launch Vehicle Flown With a Flight Safety...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...vehicle's flight path, position and velocity, where all vehicle aerodynamic parameters...of a launch vehicle's position and velocity as a function of winds and performance...Gravitational parameter; (vi) Angular velocity of the Earth at the equator; and...

2013-01-01

355

14 CFR Appendix A to Part 417 - Flight Safety Analysis Methodologies and Products for a Launch Vehicle Flown With a Flight Safety...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...vehicle's flight path, position and velocity, where all vehicle aerodynamic parameters...of a launch vehicle's position and velocity as a function of winds and performance...Gravitational parameter; (vi) Angular velocity of the Earth at the equator; and...

2012-01-01

356

14 CFR Appendix A to Part 417 - Flight Safety Analysis Methodologies and Products for a Launch Vehicle Flown With a Flight Safety...  

...vehicle's flight path, position and velocity, where all vehicle aerodynamic parameters...of a launch vehicle's position and velocity as a function of winds and performance...Gravitational parameter; (vi) Angular velocity of the Earth at the equator; and...

2014-01-01

357

Accounting for the Variation of Driver Aggression in the Simulation of Conventional and Advanced Vehicles (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect

This presentation discusses a method of accounting for realistic levels of driver aggression to higher-level vehicle studies, including the impact of variation in real-world driving characteristics (acceleration and speed) on vehicle energy consumption and different powertrains (e.g., conventionally powered vehicles versus electrified drive vehicles [xEVs]). Aggression variation between drivers can increase fuel consumption by more than 50% or decrease it by more than 20% from average. The normalized fuel consumption deviation from average as a function of population percentile was found to be largely insensitive to powertrain. However, the traits of ideal driving behavior are a function of powertrain. In conventional vehicles, kinetic losses dominate rolling resistance and aerodynamic losses. In xEVs with regenerative braking, rolling resistance and aerodynamic losses dominate. The relation of fuel consumption predicted from real-world drive data to that predicted by the industry-standard HWFET, UDDS, LA92, and US06 drive cycles was not consistent across powertrains, and varied broadly from the mean, median, and mode of real-world driving. A drive cycle synthesized by NREL's DRIVE tool accurately and consistently reproduces average real-world for multiple powertrains within 1%, and can be used to calculate the fuel consumption effects of varying levels of driver aggression.

Neubauer, J.; Wood, E.

2013-05-01

358

All-Terrain Vehicles (ATVs) On The Road: A Serious Traffic Safety and Public Health Concern  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives. On-road all-terrain vehicle (ATV) crashes are a frequent occurrence that disproportionately impact rural communities. These crashes occur despite most states having laws restricting on-road ATV use. A number of overall risk factors for ATV-related injuries have been identified (e.g., lack of helmet, carrying passengers). However, few studies have determined the relative contribution of these and other factors to on-road

Gerene M. Denning; Charles A. Jennissen; Karisa K. Harland; David G. Ellis; Christopher T. Buresh

2012-01-01

359

Technology assessments of advanced energy storage systems for electric and hybrid vehicles  

SciTech Connect

Flywheels, hydropneumatic accumulators (in vehicles with a hydrostatic powertrain), and superconducting magnets were assessed as candidate technologies for recovering braking energy and averaging power demands in electric and hybrid vehicles. The technologies were also assessed for their suitability for fulfilling the entire energy storage requirement in vehicles. The scope of the technology assessments included the current state-of-the-art and developments anticipated within the next few years in the US and abroad. Key individuals and companies currently working on each technology contributed technical information to the study. Some of these individuals and companies are nearing the pre-production prototype stage with systems suitable for automobiles. Several have constructed systems using similar technology for other applications, including satellites and industrial equipment.

Not Available

1993-04-30

360

Design and Transient Analysis of Passive Safety Cooling Systems for Advanced Nuclear Reactors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Pebble Bed Advanced High Temperature Reactor (PB-AHTR) is a pebble fueled, liquid salt cooled, high temperature nuclear reactor design that can be used for electricity generation or other applications requiring the availability of heat at elevated temperatures. A stage in the design evolution of this plant requires the analysis of the plant during a variety of potential transients to understand the primary and safety cooling system response. This study focuses on the performance of the passive safety cooling system with a dual purpose, to assess the capacity to maintain the core at safe temperatures and to assist the design process of this system to achieve this objective. The analysis requires the use of complex computational tools for simulation and verification using analytical solutions and comparisons with experimental data. This investigation builds upon previous detailed design work for the PB-AHTR components, including the core, reactivity control mechanisms and the intermediate heat exchanger, developed in 2008. In addition the study of this reference plant design employs a wealth of auxiliary information including thermal-hydraulic physical phenomena correlations for multiple geometries and thermophysical properties for the constituents of the plant. Finally, the set of performance requirements and limitations imposed from physical constrains and safety considerations provide with a criteria and metrics for acceptability of the design. The passive safety cooling system concept is turned into a detailed design as a result from this study. A methodology for the design of air-cooled passive safety systems was developed and a transient analysis of the plant, evaluating a scrammed loss of forced cooling event was performed. Furthermore, a design optimization study of the passive safety system and an approach for the validation and verification of the analysis is presented. This study demonstrates that the resulting point design responds properly to the transient event and maintains the core and reactor components at acceptable temperatures within allowable safety margins. It is also demonstrated that the transition from steady full-power, forced-cooling mode to steady decay-heat, natural-circulation mode is stable, predictable and well characterized.

Galvez, Cristhian

361

AVID - A design system for technology studies of advanced transportation concepts. [Aerospace Vehicle Interactive Design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The basic AVID (Aerospace Vehicle Interactive Design) is a general system for conceptual and preliminary design currently being applied to a broad range of future space transportation and spacecraft vehicle concepts. AVID hardware includes a minicomputer allowing rapid designer interaction. AVID software includes (1) an executive program and communication data base which provide the automated capability to couple individual programs, either individually in an interactive mode or chained together in an automatic sequence mode; and (2) the individual technology and utility programs which provide analysis capability in areas such as graphics, aerodynamics, propulsion, flight performance, weights, sizing, and costs.

Wilhite, A. W.; Rehder, J. J.

1979-01-01

362

Minimum Heating Re-Entry Trajectories for Advanced Hypersonic Launch Vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Optimal re-entry trajectories are generated for reusable launch vehicles which minimize: (1) the heat absorbed at the vehicle surface, (2) the lower surface temperature, and (3) the heat absorbed by the internal structure. The approach uses the energy state approximation technique and a finite control volume heat transfer code coupled to a flight path integration code. These trajectories are compared to the optimal re-entry trajectory minimizing the integrated convective heat rate to determine which trajectory produces the minimum internal structural temperatures for a given thermal protection system. Three different thermal protection systems are considered: tile, blanket, and metallic.

Windhorst, Robert

1997-01-01

363

77 FR 19132 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Bus Emergency Exits and Window Retention and Release  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Safety Standards; Bus Emergency Exits and Window Retention and Release AGENCY: National...applications that are required to open a window or roof emergency exit. Third, in response...Exterior Handle) III. Figure 3D IV. Window or Roof Emergency Exit Release V....

2012-03-30

364

77 FR 70914 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Side Impact Protection  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 571 [Docket No. NHTSA-2010-0032...New Jersey Avenue SE., West Building, Washington, DC 20590. SUPPLEMENTARY...impact protection,'' 49 CFR 571.214. On September 11, 2007...authority citation for 49 CFR Part 571, by changing the citation...

2012-11-28

365

76 FR 49532 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Electronic Stability Control; Technical Report on the...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Electronic Stability Control Systems for Cars and LTVs AGENCY: National Highway Traffic...stability control (ESC) for passenger cars and LTVs (light trucks and vans). Safety...involved in a fatal crash. For passenger cars, the reductions are 5 percent and 23...

2011-08-10

366

75 FR 50958 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Motorcoach Definition; Occupant Crash Protection  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...indicate that the safety need for seat belts on large...risks particular to their needs, and to decide...the European Union, Australia and Japan, NHTSA has...Order 12988, ``Civil Justice Reform'' (61 FR 4729...to suit the public's needs? Are the...

2010-08-18

367

NASA advanced-aeronautics design solar-powered remotely piloted vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Environmental problems such as the depletion of the ozone layer and air pollution demand a change in traditional means of propulsion that is sensitive to the ecology. Solar powered propulsion is a favorable alternative that is both ecologically harmless as well as cost effective. Integration of solar energy into designs ranging from futuristic vehicles to heating is beneficial to society.

D. S. Elario; N. H. Guillmette; G. S. Lind; J. D. Webster; M. J. Ferreira; G. C. Konstantakis; D. L. Marshall; C. L. Windt

1991-01-01

368

Advanced Technologies for Light-Duty Vehicles (released in AEO2006)  

EIA Publications

A fundamental concern in projecting the future attributes of light-duty vehicles-passenger cars, sport utility vehicles, pickup trucks, and minivans-is how to represent technological change and the market forces that drive it. There is always considerable uncertainty about the evolution of existing technologies, what new technologies might emerge, and how consumer preferences might influence the direction of change. Most of the new and emerging technologies expected to affect the performance and fuel use of light-duty vehicles over the next 25 years are represented in the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS); however, the potential emergence of new, unforeseen technologies makes it impossible to address all the technology options that could come into play. The previous section of Issues in Focus discussed several potential technologies that currently are not represented in NEMS. This section discusses some of the key technologies represented in NEMS that are expected to be implemented in light-duty vehicles over the next 25 years.

2006-01-01

369

Thermal Management of Batteries in Advanced Vehicles Using Phase-Change Materials (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect

This Powerpoint presentation examines battery thermal management using PCM and concludes excellent performance in limiting peak temperatures at short period extensive battery use; although, vehicle designers will need to weigh the potential increase in mass and cost associated with adding PCM against the anticipated benefits.

Kim, G.-H.; Gonder, J.; Lustbader, J.; Pesaran, A.

2007-12-01

370

Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program Risk Informed Safety Margin Characterization (RISMC) Advanced Test Reactor Demonstration Case Study  

SciTech Connect

Safety is central to the design, licensing, operation, and economics of Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs). Consequently, the ability to better characterize and quantify safety margin holds the key to improved decision making about LWR design, operation, and plant life extension. A systematic approach to characterization of safety margins and the subsequent margins management options represents a vital input to the licensee and regulatory analysis and decision making that will be involved. The purpose of the RISMC Pathway R&D is to support plant decisions for risk-informed margins management with the aim to improve economics, reliability, and sustain safety of current NPPs. Goals of the RISMC Pathway are twofold: (1) Develop and demonstrate a risk-assessment method coupled to safety margin quantification that can be used by NPP decision makers as part of their margin recovery strategies. (2) Create an advanced “RISMC toolkit” that enables more accurate representation of NPP safety margin. This report describes the RISMC methodology demonstration where the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) was used as a test-bed for purposes of determining safety margins. As part of the demonstration, we describe how both the thermal-hydraulics and probabilistic safety calculations are integrated and used to quantify margin management strategies.

Curtis Smith; David Schwieder; Cherie Phelan; Anh Bui; Paul Bayless

2012-08-01

371

Intelligent vehicle\\/highway systems in action  

Microsoft Academic Search

The author reports on intelligent vehicle\\/highway systems (IVHS) projects. These projects are developed to improve traffic efficiency and safety. Included in this article is a description of California's Program on Advanced Technology for the Highway (PATH). PATH is developing a program of roadway electrification, in which electric cars and buses would be powered through and electrical conduction embedded in the

1990-01-01

372

77 FR 29247 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Occupant Crash Protection  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...certified to meet these advanced air bag requirements before December...1 and S9.2, and the air bag warning label requirements...protection systems, such as air bags, that contain explosive materials...requirements for Specification 39 non-reusable (non-refillable)...

2012-05-17

373

Hemispherical eye sensor in micro aerial vehicles using advanced pinhole imaging system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper addresses key issues regarding the feasibility of providing micro unmanned air vehicles (micro-UAVs) with a miniature hemispherical eye using the latest CMOS sensor technology. Key specifications of the visual system of such visually guided drones are low power consumption, adaptive resolution and sensitivity, packaging and manufacturing complexity, ultra-wide field-of-view (FOV), lightness and small overall size. We describe a

Christel-Loic Tisse; H. Durrant-Whyte

2005-01-01

374

Recent Advances in LOX / LH2 Propulsion System for Reusable Vehicle Testing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The third-generation vehicle RVT#3 equipped with a pressure-fed engine, which had upgraded in terms of durability enhancement and a LH2 tank of composite material, successfully performed in repeated flight operation tests; and the vehicle reached its maximum flying altitude of 42m in October 2003. The next step for demonstrating entire sequence of full-scale operation is to put a turbopump-fed system into propulsion system. From a result of primary system analysis, we decided to build an expander-cycle engine by diverting a pair of turbopumps, which had built for another research program, to the present study. A combustion chamber with long cylindrical portion adapted to the engine cycle was also newly made. Two captive firing tests have been conducted with two different thrust control methods, following the component tests of combustor and turbopumps separately conducted. A considerable technical issues recognized in the tests were the robustness enhancement of shaft seal design, the adjustment of shaft stiffness, and start-up operation adapted to the specific engine system. Experimental study of GOX/GH2 RCS thrusters have also been started as a part of a conceptual study of the integration of the propulsion system associated with simplification and reliability improvement of the vehicle system.

Tokudome, Shinichiro; Naruo, Yoshihiro; Yagishita, Tsuyoshi; Nonaka, Satoshi; Shida, Maki; Mori, Hatsuo; Nakamura, Takeshi

375

Advanced launch vehicle upper stages using liquid propulsion and metallized propellants  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Metallized propellants are liquid propellants with a metal additive suspended in a gelled fuel or oxidizer. Typically, aluminum particles are the metal additives. These propellants provide increase in the density and/or the specific impulse of the propulsion system. Using metallized propellants for volume- and mass-constrained upper stages can deliver modest increases in performance for Low Earth Orbit to Geosynchronous Earth Orbit and other Earth orbital transfer missions. Metallized propellants, however, can enable very fast planetary missions with a single-stage upper stage system. Trade studies comparing metallized propellant stage performance with non-metallized upper stages and the Inertial Upper Stage are presented. These upper stages are both one- and two-stage vehicles that provide the added energy to send payloads to altitudes and onto trajectories that are unattainable with only the launch vehicle. The stage designs are controlled by the volume and the mass constraints of the Space Transportation System and Space Transportation System-Cargo launch vehicles. The influences of the density and specific impulse increases enabled by metallized propellants are examined for a variety of different stage and propellant combinations.

Palaszewski, B. A.

1990-01-01

376

Environmental, health, and safety issues of sodium-sulfur batteries for electric and hybrid vehicles  

SciTech Connect

Recycling and disposal of spent sodium-sulfur (Na/S) batteries are important issues that must be addressed as part of the commercialization process of Na/S battery-powered electric vehicles. The use of Na/S batteries in electric vehicles will result in significant environmental benefits, and the disposal of spent batteries should not detract from those benefits. In the United States, waste disposal is regulated under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Understanding these regulations will help in selecting recycling and disposal processes for Na/S batteries that are environmentally acceptable and cost effective. Treatment processes for spent Na/S battery wastes are in the beginning stages of development, so a final evaluation of the impact of RCRA regulations on these treatment processes is not possible. The objectives of tills report on battery recycling and disposal are as follows: Provide an overview of RCRA regulations and requirements as they apply to Na/S battery recycling and disposal so that battery developers can understand what is required of them to comply with these regulations; Analyze existing RCRA regulations for recycling and disposal and anticipated trends in these regulations and perform a preliminary regulatory analysis for potential battery disposal and recycling processes. This report assumes that long-term Na/S battery disposal processes will be capable of handling large quantities of spent batteries. The term disposal includes treatment processes that may incorporate recycling of battery constituents. The environmental regulations analyzed in this report are limited to US regulations. This report gives an overview of RCRA and discusses RCRA regulations governing Na/S battery disposal and a preliminary regulatory analysis for Na/S battery disposal.

Corbus, D.

1992-09-01

377

Safety, usability, and independence for wheelchair-seated drivers and front-row passengers of private vehicles: a qualitative research study.  

PubMed

A survey and observational study was conducted with 29 people who remain seated in their wheelchair when driving (21) or riding as a front-row passenger (8) in their personal vehicle. Each subject was observed and surveyed in their own personal vehicle that has been modified for use by occupants seated in wheelchairs. Our survey obtained responses on issues related to occupant restraint (seat belt) system usage, wheelchair securement device usage, and perception of personal safety while riding in a vehicle. Usability and accessibility issues related to seat belt and automated (docking) wheelchair securement technology were revealed, suggesting that wheelchair-seated occupants travel with a higher risk of serious injury in vehicle crashes than front-row occupants seated in original equipment manufacturer (OEM) vehicle seats and using OEM seat belts. Study results also indicate the need for improved torso support for many wheelchair-seated drivers to maintain a posture that allows for effective vehicle control. Study results demonstrate the need for innovative passive restraint technologies that provide postural support during normal vehicle operation and improved occupant restraint during crash conditions for people who drive while seated in their wheelchairs. PMID:23761005

van Roosmalen, Linda; Ritchie Orton, Nichole; Schneider, Lawrence

2013-01-01

378

Mechanical design of a missteered beam safety monitor at the Advanced Photon Source  

SciTech Connect

A missteered beam safety monitor (MBSM) has been designed to protect the accelerator ring of the Advanced Photon Source against incursions of the missteered synchrotron radiation. When the orbit of the particle beam in the accelerator shifts out of its safety limits, the photon beam from the bending magnet will pass through the square apertures on the cooled mask of the MBSM and will heat up a very thin tungsten wire (0.025 mm in diameter) behind the mask. Acting as a resistance thermometer, the electrical resistance of the tungsten wire increases proportionally with temperature rise. As soon as the electrical resistance of the tungsten wire reaches a preset point, a signal is triggered immediately to dump the particle beam in the accelerator. The tungsten wire is inclined to the photon beam at 4.5 degrees in the vertical direction to prevent it from being overheated by the high power photon beam. Detailed mechanical design and thermal analysis are presented. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

Chang, J.; Shu, D.; Decker, G.; Nian, T.; Kuzay, T.; Lumpkin, A.; Wang, X. [Experimental Facilities Division, Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)] [Experimental Facilities Division, Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)

1996-09-01

379

The JRC-ITU approach to the safety of advanced nuclear fuel cycles  

SciTech Connect

The JRC-ITU safety studies of advanced fuels and cycles adopt two main axes. First the full exploitation of still available and highly relevant knowledge and samples from past fuel preparation and irradiation campaigns (complementing the limited number of ongoing programmes). Secondly, the shift of focus from simple property measurement towards the understanding of basic mechanisms determining property evolution and behaviour of fuel compounds during normal, off-normal and accident conditions. The final objective of the second axis is the determination of predictive tools applicable to systems and conditions different from those from which they were derived. State of the art experimental facilities, extensive networks of partnerships and collaboration with other organizations worldwide, and a developing programme for training and education are essential in this approach. This strategy has been implemented through various programs and projects. The SUPERFACT programme constitutes the main body of existing knowledge on the behavior in-pile of MOX fuel containing minor actinides. It encompassed all steps of a closed fuel cycle. Another international project investigating the safety of a closed cycle is METAPHIX. In this case a U-Pu19-Zr10 metal alloy containing Np, Am and Cm constitutes the fuel. 9 test pins have been prepared and irradiated. In addition to the PIE (Post Irradiation Examination), pyrometallurgical separation of the irradiated fuel has been performed, to demonstrate all the steps of a multiple recycling closed cycle and characterize their safety relevant aspects. Basic studies like thermodynamic fuel properties, fuel-cladding-coolant interactions have also been carried out at JRC-ITU.

Fanghaenel, T.; Rondinella, V.V.; Somers, J.; Konings, R.; Erdmann, N.; Uffelen, P. van; Glatz, J.P. [European Commission, Joint Research Centre - JRC, Institute for Transuranium Elements - ITU, Postfach 2340, 76125 Karlsruhe (Germany)

2013-07-01

380

Advanced Manufacturing at the Marshall Space Flight Center and Application to Ares I and Ares V Launch Vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

There are various aspects of advanced manufacturing technology development at the field centers of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). The Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has been given the assignment to lead the National Center for Advanced Manufacturing (NCAM) at MSFC and pursue advanced development and coordination with other federal agencies for NASA. There are significant activities at the Marshall Center as well as at the Michoud Assembly Facility (MAF) in New Orleans which we operate in conjunction with the University of New Orleans. New manufacturing processes in metals processing, component development, welding operations, composite manufacturing and thermal protection system material and process development will be utilized in the manufacturing of the United States two new launch vehicles, the Ares I and the Ares V. An overview of NCAM will be presented as well as some of the development activities and manufacturing that are ongoing in Ares Upper Stage development. Some of the tools and equipment produced by Italian owned companies and their application in this work will be mentioned.

Carruth, Ralph

2008-01-01

381

Design of the Electronic Brake Pressure Modulator Using a Direct Adaptive Fuzzy Controller in Commercial Vehicles for the Safety of Braking in Fail  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the brake systems, it is important to reduce the rear brake pressure in order to secure the safety of the vehicle in braking. So, there was some research that reduced and controlled the rear brake pressure exactly like a L. S. P. V and a E. L. S. P. V. However, the previous research has some weaknesses: the L. S. P. V is a mechanical system and its brake efficiency is lower than the efficiency of E. L. S. P. V. But, the cost of E. L. S. P. V is very higher so its application to the vehicle is very difficult. Additionally, when a fail appears in the circuit which controls the valves, the fail results in some wrong operation of the valves. But, the previous researchers didn't take the effect of fail into account. Hence, the efficiency of them is low and the safety of the vehicle is not confirmed. So, in this paper we develop a new economical pressure modulator that exactly controls brake pressure and confirms the safety of the vehicle in any case using a direct adaptive fuzzy controller.

Kim, Hunmo

382

Assessment of modular construction for safety-related structures at advanced nuclear power plants  

SciTech Connect

Modular construction techniques have been successfully used in a number of industries, both domestically and internationally. Recently, the use of structural modules has been proposed for advanced nuclear power plants. The objective in utilizing modular construction is to reduce the construction schedule, reduce construction costs, and improve the quality of construction. This report documents the results of a program which evaluated the proposed use of modular construction for safety-related structures in advanced nuclear power plant designs. The program included review of current modular construction technology, development of licensing review criteria for modular construction, and initial validation of currently available analytical techniques applied to concrete-filled steel structural modules. The program was conducted in three phases. The objective of the first phase was to identify the technical issues and the need for further study in order to support NRC licensing review activities. The two key findings were the need for supplementary review criteria to augment the Standard Review Plan and the need for verified design/analysis methodology for unique types of modules, such as the concrete-filled steel module. In the second phase of this program, Modular Construction Review Criteria were developed to provide guidance for licensing reviews. In the third phase, an analysis effort was conducted to determine if currently available finite element analysis techniques can be used to predict the response of concrete-filled steel modules.

Braverman, J.; Morante, R.; Hofmayer, C.

1997-03-01

383

NASA/USRA advanced space design program: The laser powered interorbital vehicle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A preliminary design is presented for a low-thrust Laser Powered Interorbital Vehicle (LPIV) intended for cargo transportation between an earth space station and a lunar base. The LPIV receives its power from two iodide laser stations, one orbiting the earth and the other located on the surface of the moon. The selected mission utilizes a spiral trajectory, characteristic of a low-thrust spacecraft, requiring 8 days for a lunar rendezvous and an additional 9 days for return. The ship's configuration consists primarily of an optical train, two hydrogen plasma engines, a 37.1 m box beam truss, a payload module, and fuel tanks. The total mass of the vehicle fully loaded is 63300 kg. A single plasma, regeneratively cooled engine design is incorporated into the two 500 N engines. These are connected to the spacecraft by turntables which allow the vehicle to thrust tangentially to the flight path. Proper collection and transmission of the laser beam to the thrust chambers is provided through the optical train. This system consists of the 23 m diameter primary mirror, a convex parabolic secondary mirror, a beam splitter and two concave parabolic tertiary mirrors. The payload bay is capable of carrying 18000 kg of cargo. The module is located opposite the primary mirror on the main truss. Fuel tanks carrying a maximum of 35000 kg of liquid hydrogen are fastened to tracks which allow the tanks to be moved perpendicular to the main truss. This capability is required to prevent the center of mass from moving out of the thrust vector line. The laser beam is located and tracked by means of an acquisition, pointing and tracking system which can be locked onto the space-based laser station. Correct orientation of the spacecraft with the laser beam is maintained by control moment gyros and reaction control rockets. Additionally an aerobrake configuration was designed to provide the option of using the atmospheric drag in place of propulsion for a return trajectory.

1989-01-01

384

Environmentally Responsible Aviation N plus 2 Advanced Vehicle Concepts NRA Status  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Environmentally Responsible Aviation Project (ERA) has a NASA Research Announcement (NRA) that is performing a systems study and conceptual design. The purpose of the systems study is to determine possible configurations that are capable of simultaneously meeting NASA's Subsonic N+2 Metrics for reducing Noise, Emissions and Fuel Burn. The conceptual design portion of the contract is to perform a conceptual design ofa Subscale Testbed Vehicle to demonstrate and test both the configuration and the technologies that are required to allow that configuration to meet the goals. This briefing is an update on the status of that NRA presented to the Turbo Expo conference in June 2011.

Mangelsdorf, Mark F.

2011-01-01

385

49 CFR 1.95 - Delegations to the National Highway Traffic Safety Administrator.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...dispenser requirements; and (10) Section 248(a) [42 U.S.C. 17054(a)], relating to biofuels distribution and advanced biofuels infrastructure. (k) Carry out the functions and exercise the motor vehicle safety authority...

2013-10-01

386

49 CFR 1.95 - Delegations to the National Highway Traffic Safety Administrator.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...dispenser requirements; and (10) Section 248(a) [42 U.S.C. 17054(a)], relating to biofuels distribution and advanced biofuels infrastructure. (k) Carry out the functions and exercise the motor vehicle safety authority...

2012-10-01

387

Role of Process Control in Improving Space Vehicle Safety A Space Shuttle External Tank Example  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Developing a safe and reliable space vehicle requires good design and good manufacturing, or in other words "design it right and build it right". A great design can be hard to build or manufacture mainly due to difficulties related to quality. Specifically, process control can be a challenge. As a result, the system suffers from low quality which leads to low reliability and high system risk. The Space Shuttle has experienced some of those cases, but has overcome these difficulties through extensive redesign efforts and process enhancements. One example is the design of the hot gas temperature sensor on the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME), which resulted in failure of the sensor in flight and led to a redesign of the sensor. The most recent example is the Space Shuttle External Tank (ET) Thermal Protection System (TPS) reliability issues that contributed to the Columbia accident. As a result, extensive redesign and process enhancement activities have been performed over the last two years to minimize the sensitivities and difficulties of the manual TPS application process.

Safie, Fayssal M.; Nguyen, Son C.; Burleson, Keith W.

2006-01-01

388

Orbit Transfer Vehicle (OTV) advanced expander cycle engine point design study. Task 7: Engine data summary  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A performance optimized engine system design for a man-rated advanced LOX/hydrogen expander cycle engine was investigated. The data are presented in tables, figures, and drawings. The following categories of data for the advanced expander cycle engine are presented: engine operating specification and pressure schedule; engine system layout drawing; major component layout drawings, including thrust chamber and nozzle, extendible nozzle actuating mechanism and seal, LOX turbopump, LOX boost pump, hydrogen turbopump, hydrogen boost pump, and propellant control valves; engine performance and service life prediction; engine weight; and engine envelope. The data represent updates based upon current results from the design and analyses tasks performed under contract. Futher iterations in the designs and data can be expected as the advanced expander cycle engine design matures.

Christensen, K. L.

1980-01-01

389

Fieldcrest Cannon, Inc. Advanced Technical Preparation. Statistical Process Control (SPC). Safety Section: Modules 1-3. Instructor Book.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

These three modules, which were developed for use by instructors in a manufacturing firm's advanced technical preparation program, contain the materials required to present the safety section of the plant's adult-oriented, job-specific competency-based training program. The 3 modules contain 12 lessons on the following topics: lockout/tagout…

Averitt, Sallie D.

390

Abstract--To increase driving safety, many researcher works on Advanced Driving Assistance Systems (ADAS) have been  

E-print Network

Abstract--To increase driving safety, many researcher works on Advanced Driving Assistance Systems/or geometrical truth of lanes. In the second case, evaluation uses virtual data and simulated images. The first one has automatic labeling clustering but a realistic virtual environment is required and more

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

391

Seminar Center for Advanced Vehicle Technologies Thursday, 04/29 -2:00pm  

E-print Network

introduction of new feature of advanced energy management directly into the storage system. The benefits The Role and Future of Power Electronics in Energy Storage Systems John M. Miller, PE, Ph.D. Technical. This paper is focused on what is being referred to now as the hybridized battery. Hybridized energy storage

Carver, Jeffrey C.

392

Orbit Transfer Vehicle (OTV) advanced expander cycle engine point design study. Volume 1: Executive summary  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objective of the study was to generate the system design of a performance-optimized, advanced LOX/hydrogen expander cycle space engine. The engine requirements are summarized, and the development and operational experience with the expander cycle RL10 engine were reviewed. The engine development program is outlined.

1981-01-01

393

Surface Catalytic Efficiency of Advanced Carbon Carbon Candidate Thermal Protection Materials for SSTO Vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The catalytic efficiency (atom recombination coefficients) for advanced ceramic thermal protection systems was calculated using arc-jet data. Coefficients for both oxygen and nitrogen atom recombination on the surfaces of these systems were obtained to temperatures of 1650 K. Optical and chemical stability of the candidate systems to the high energy hypersonic flow was also demonstrated during these tests.

Stewart, David A.

1996-01-01

394

Assessment of advanced thermal management systems for micro-hybrid trucks and heavy duty diesel vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Advanced thermal management systems (ATMS) have the potential to increase the life of the vehiclepsilas engine and cooling system components as well as decrease fuel consumption and carbon emissions. This paper presents for the first time, an overview of several ATMS topologies and provides a critical assessment as to their power saving potential. Four systems have been modeled using a

Nikolaos Staunton; Volker Pickert; R. Maughan

2008-01-01

395

Modeling the Behaviour of an Advanced Material Based Smart Landing Gear System for Aerospace Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The last two decades have seen a substantial rise in the use of advanced materials such as polymer composites for aerospace structural applications. In more recent years there has been a concerted effort to integrate materials, which mimic biological functions (referred to as smart materials) with polymeric composites. Prominent among smart materials are shape memory alloys, which possess both actuating

Byji Varughese; G. N. Dayananda; M. Subba Rao

2008-01-01

396

An analysis of driving and working hour on commercial motor vehicle driver safety using naturalistic data collection.  

PubMed

Current hours-of-service (HOS) regulations prescribe limits to commercial motor vehicle (CMV) drivers' operating hours. By using naturalistic-data-collection, researchers were able to assess activities performed in the 14-h workday and the relationship between safety-critical events (SCEs) and driving hours, work hours, and breaks. The data used in the analyses were collected in the Naturalistic Truck Driving Study and included 97 drivers and about 735,000 miles of continuous driving data. An assessment of the drivers' workday determined that, on average, drivers spent 66% of their shift driving, 23% in non-driving work, and 11% resting. Analyses evaluating the relationship between driving hours (i.e., driving only) and SCE risk found a time-on-task effect across hours, with no significant difference in safety outcomes between 11th driving hour and driving hours 8, 9 or 10. Analyses on work hours (i.e., driving in addition to non-driving work) found that risk of being involved in an SCE generally increased as work hours increased. This suggests that time-on-task effects may not be related to driving hours alone, but implies an interaction between driving hours and work hours: if a driver begins the day with several hours of non-driving work, followed by driving that goes deep into the 14-h workday, SCE risk was found to increase. Breaks from driving were found to be beneficial in reducing SCEs (during 1-h window after a break) and were effective in counteracting the negative effects of time-on-task. PMID:22818778

Soccolich, Susan A; Blanco, Myra; Hanowski, Richard J; Olson, Rebecca L; Morgan, Justin F; Guo, Feng; Wu, Shih-Ching

2013-09-01

397

How Past Loss of Control Accidents May Inform Safety Cases for Advanced Control Systems on Commercial Aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes five loss of control accidents involving commercial aircraft, and derives from those accidents three principles to consider when developing a potential safety case for an advanced flight control system for commercial aircraft. One, among the foundational evidence needed to support a safety case is the availability to the control system of accurate and timely information about the status and health of relevant systems and components. Two, an essential argument to be sustained in the safety case is that pilots are provided with adequate information about the control system to enable them to understand the capabilities that it provides. Three, another essential argument is that the advanced control system will not perform less safely than a good pilot.

Holloway, C. M.; Johnson, C. W.

2008-01-01

398

Electric and hybrid vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study of the energy utilization of gasoline and battery-electric powered special purpose vehicles is discussed along with the impact of electric cars on national energy consumption, the development of electric vehicles in Japan, the applicability of safety standards to electric and hybrid-vehicles, and crashworthiness tests on two electric vehicles. Aspects of energy storage are explored, taking into account a

L. J. Jacovides; E. P. Cornell; R. Kirk

1981-01-01

399

A Wi-Fi\\/GPS integrated system for urban vehicle positioning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Providing an anytime, ubiquitous and reliable vehicular positioning system plays a key role in increasing road safety and transportation efficiency. Although the Global Positioning System (GPS) has been widely used in vehicle navigation, urban vehicle positioning is still a challenge because of the unavailability of GPS in dense metropolitan areas. To solve this problem, an advanced integration of Wi-Fi and

Henghui Lu; Sheng Zhang; Yuhan Dong; Xiaokang Lin

2010-01-01

400

Metals emitted from heavy-duty diesel vehicles equipped with advanced PM and NO X emission controls  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Emission factors for elemental metals were determined from several heavy-duty diesel vehicles (HDDV) of 1998-2007 vintage, operating with advanced PM and/or NO X emissions control retrofits on a heavy-duty chassis dynamometer, under steady state cruise, transient, and idle conditions. The emission control retrofits included diesel particulate filters (DPF): catalyzed and uncatalyzed, passive and active prototype vanadium- or zeolite-based selective catalytic reduction (SCR) systems, and a catalyzed DPF fitted on a hybrid diesel electric drive vehicle. The prototype SCR systems in combination with DPF retrofits are of particular interest because they represent the expected emissions controls for compliance with PM and NO X regulations in 2010. PM samples from a full-exhaust dilution tunnel were collected on bulk filters, and on a Personal Cascade Impactor Sampler (PCIS) for total and water-soluble elemental analysis. All the DPFs significantly reduced emissions of total trace elements (>85% and >95% for cruise and for the Urban Dynamometer Driving Schedule (UDDS), respectively). However, we observed differences in the post-retrofit metals emissions due to driving cycle effects (i.e., exhaust temperature) and type of retrofit. In general, the metals emissions over cruise conditions (which leads to higher exhaust temperatures) were substantially different from the emissions over a transient cycle or while idling. For instance, during cruise, we observed higher levels of platinum (1.1 ± 0.6-4.2 ± 3.6 ng km -1) for most of the retrofit-equipped vehicle tests compared to the baseline configuration (0.3 ± 0.1 ng km -1). The vanadium-based DPF + SCR vehicle during cruise operation exhibited emissions of vanadium (562 ± 265 ng km -1) and titanium (5841 ± 3050 ng km -1), suggesting the possible release of actual SCR wash-coat (V 2O 5/TiO 2) from the catalyst under the higher temperatures characteristic of cruise operation. The vanadium emissions exhibited a bi-modal mass size distribution, with modes at <0.25 ?m and 1.0-2.5 ?m size ranges for the vanadium-based SCR system. For the DPF + SCR systems, a greater fraction of the metal emissions from the zeolite-based system is water-soluble compared to emissions from the vanadium-based system.

Hu, Shaohua; Herner, Jorn D.; Shafer, Martin; Robertson, William; Schauer, James J.; Dwyer, Harry; Collins, John; Huai, Tao; Ayala, Alberto

401

Advanced engine study for mixed-mode orbit-transfer vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Engine design, performance, weight and envelope data were established for three mixed-mode orbit-transfer vehicle engine candidates. Engine concepts evaluated are the tripropellant, dual-expander and plug cluster. Oxygen, RP-1 and hydrogen are the propellants considered for use in these engines. Theoretical performance and propellant properties were established for bipropellant and tripropellant mixes of these propellants. RP-1, hydrogen and oxygen were evaluated as coolants and the maximum attainable chamber pressures were determined for each engine concept within the constraints of the propellant properties and the low cycle thermal fatigue (300 cycles) requirement. The baseline engine design and component operating characteristics are determined at a thrust level of 88,964N (20,000 lbs) and a thrust split of 0.5. The parametric data is generated over ranges of thrust and thrust split of 66.7 to 400kN (15 to 90 klb) and 0.4 to 0.8, respectively.

Mellish, J. A.

1978-01-01

402

Advanced Usage of Vehicle Sketch Pad for CFD-Based Conceptual Design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Conceptual design is the most fluid phase of aircraft design. It is important to be able to perform large scale design space exploration of candidate concepts that can achieve the design intent to avoid more costly configuration changes in later stages of design. This also means that conceptual design is highly dependent on the disciplinary analysis tools to capture the underlying physics accurately. The required level of analysis fidelity can vary greatly depending on the application. Vehicle Sketch Pad (VSP) allows the designer to easily construct aircraft concepts and make changes as the design matures. More recent development efforts have enabled VSP to bridge the gap to high-fidelity analysis disciplines such as computational fluid dynamics and structural modeling for finite element analysis. This paper focuses on the current state-of-the-art geometry modeling for the automated process of analysis and design of low-boom supersonic concepts using VSP and several capability-enhancing design tools.

Ordaz, Irian; Li, Wu

2013-01-01

403

78 FR 42153 - Decision That Certain Nonconforming Motor Vehicles Are Eligible for Importation  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Vehicle Safety Standards. Vehicle Eligibility Number For Subject Vehicles: The importer of a vehicle admissible under any final...vehicle is eligible for entry. Vehicle eligibility numbers assigned to vehicles admissible under this...

2013-07-15

404

Motor Vehicle Safety Defect Recall Campaigns-Detailed Reports from July 1, 1971 to September 30, 1971.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The document is comprised of correspondence from vehicle manufacturers to the Department of Transportation, dealers, and owners concerning the recall of vehicles with possible defects. The manufacturers involved are: American Motors; Autocar Trucks; Boise...

1971-01-01

405

Design, fabrication and test of graphite/polyimide composite joints and attachments for advanced aerospace vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design and evaluation of built-up attachments and bonded joint concepts for use at elevated temperatures is documented. Joint concept screening, verification of GR/PI material, fabrication of design allowables panels, definition of test matrices, and analysis of bonded and bolted joints are among the tasks completed. The results provide data for the design and fabrication of lightly loaded components for advanced space transportation systems and high speed aircraft.

Koumal, D. E.

1979-01-01

406

Research and development of advanced lead-acid batteries for electric vehicle propulsion  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose was to develop an advanced lead-acid battery based on the concept of forced flow of electrolyte through porous electrodes for enhanced battery performance. The objectives were: specific energy of 42 Wh\\/kg, energy density of 70 Wh\\/l, and cycle life of 100 cycles. Accomplishments were: 35 flow-through cells with reduced construction time, higher fiber content in the positive active

M. G. Andrew; D. E. Bowman

1987-01-01

407

ANL's electric vehicle battery activities for USABC. [US Advanced Battery Consortium (USABC)  

SciTech Connect

The Electrochemical Technology Program at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) provides advanced battery R D; technology transfer to industry; technical analyses, assessments, modeling, and databases; and independent testing and post-test analyses of advanced batteries. These capabilities and services are being offered to the US Advanced Battery Consortium (USABC) and Cooperative Research and Development Agreements (CRADA) are being negotiated for USABC-sponsored work at ANL. A small portion of DOE's cost share for USABC projects has been provided to ANL to continue R D and testing activities on key technologies that were previously supported directly by DOE. This report summarizes progress on these USABC projects during the period of April I through September 30, 1992. In this report, the objective, background, technical progress, and status are described for each task. The work is organized into the following task areas: 1.0 Lithium/Sulfide Batteries; 2.0 Nickel/Metal Hydride Support 3.0 EV Battery Performance and Life Evaluation.

Not Available

1992-01-01

408

Optimal Design of Integrated Systems Health Management (ISHM) Systems for improving safety in NASA's Exploration Vehicles: A Two-Level Multidisciplinary Design Approach  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Integrated Vehicle Health Management (ISHM) systems are used to detect, assess, and isolate functional failures in order to improve safety of space systems such as Orbital Space Planes (OSPs). An ISHM system, as a whole, consists of several subsystems that monitor different components of an OSP including: Spacecraft, Launch Vehicle, Ground Control, and the International Space Station. In this research, therefore, we propose a new methodology to design and optimize ISHM as a distributed system with multiple disciplines (that correspond to different subsystems of OSP safety). A paramount amount of interest has been given in the literature to the multidisciplinary design optimization of problems with such architecture (as will be reviewed in the full paper).

Mehr, Ali Farhang; Tumer, Irem; Barszcz, Eric

2005-01-01

409

Comparing patient safety in rural hospitals by bed count. In: Advances in patient safety: From research to implementation  

E-print Network

Objectives: Patient safety is an important national issue. To date, there has been little attention paid to patient safety in rural hospitals, which make up nearly half of all U.S. hospitals. Information is needed to target interventions for improving patient safety. Our objective was to determine how patient safety rates, offered services, and patient mix vary by bed count among rural hospitals. Methods: Using the 2000 Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP) National Inpatient Sample (NIS), we calculated mean observed and risk-adjusted rates for 19 rural hospital patient safety indicators (PSIs), according to bed count. Rates were risk-adjusted for patient sex, age-gender interactions, comorbidities, and diagnosis-related group (DRG) clusters. We classified HCUP hospitals by actual bed counts—obtained from the AHA Annual Hospital Survey—rather than using the preclassified hospital bed size variable in the HCUP dataset (which differs by region). We examined by bed count the offered services and patient types treated by rural hospitals. T-tests and chi-square tests were used to determine statistically

Stephenie L. Loux; Susan M. C. Payne; Astrid Knott

410

Commercial Motor Vehicle Brake Assessment Tools  

E-print Network

Commercial Motor Vehicle Brake Assessment Tools Commercial Motor Vehicle Roadside Technology Corridor Safety Technology Showcase October 14, 2010 Commercial Motor Vehicle Roadside Technology Corridor #12;Overview · Commercial Motor Vehicle (CMV) Air Brake System · North American Standard Level-1

411

Advanced axial field D.C. motor development for electric passenger vehicle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A wound-field axial-flux dc motor was developed for an electric vehicle drive system. The motor is essentially an axial-flux version of the classical Gramme-ring winding motor, but the active conductors are recessed into slots cut into the two opposite faces of the laminated tape-wound core ring. Three motors were built and tested in the program. The second (functional) model was a six-pole machine which weighed 88.5 kg. It developed 16.9 km (33.0 hp), and a max speed of 4800 rpm. Full load efficiency was 92% and predicted SAE D-cycle efficiency was 88%. The last engineering) model was a 4-pole machine with compoles, allowing a weight reduction to 45 kg (100 lbs.) while addressing some manufacturability problems. The engineering model was rated at 13.2 kw (17.6 hp) at 3000 rpm, with a peak power of 19.8 km (26.4 hp) and a max speed of 7200 rpm. Initial test results on this motor showed poor commutation and efficiency; the program was terminated without resolution of these problems.

Jones, W. J.

1982-01-01

412

Parametric Analysis of a Hover Test Vehicle using Advanced Test Generation and Data Analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Large complex aerospace systems are generally validated in regions local to anticipated operating points rather than through characterization of the entire feasible operational envelope of the system. This is due to the large parameter space, and complex, highly coupled nonlinear nature of the different systems that contribute to the performance of the aerospace system. We have addressed the factors deterring such an analysis by applying a combination of technologies to the area of flight envelop assessment. We utilize n-factor (2,3) combinatorial parameter variations to limit the number of cases, but still explore important interactions in the parameter space in a systematic fashion. The data generated is automatically analyzed through a combination of unsupervised learning using a Bayesian multivariate clustering technique (AutoBayes) and supervised learning of critical parameter ranges using the machine-learning tool TAR3, a treatment learner. Covariance analysis with scatter plots and likelihood contours are used to visualize correlations between simulation parameters and simulation results, a task that requires tool support, especially for large and complex models. We present results of simulation experiments for a cold-gas-powered hover test vehicle.

Gundy-Burlet, Karen; Schumann, Johann; Menzies, Tim; Barrett, Tony

2009-01-01

413

Aerodynamics of road vehicles  

SciTech Connect

This introduction to aerodynamic aspects of motor vehicle design will be of use both to vehicle designers and students of automobile engineering. Content covers vehicle systems, ventilation and aerodynamic design to reduce drag and increase stability of cars, commercial vehicles and PSVs. Topics considered include automobile aerodynamics; some fundamentals of fluid mechanics; performance of cars and light vans; aerodynamic drag of passenger cars; driving stability in sidewinds; operation, safety and comfort; high-performance vehicle aerodynamics; commercial vehicles; engine cooling systems; heating, ventilation and air conditioning of motor vehicles; wind tunnels for automobile aerodynamics; measuring and testing techniques; and numerical methods for computation of flow around road vehicles.

Hucho, W.H.

1987-01-01

414

Improving Safety and Reliability of Space Auxiliary Power Units  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Auxiliary Power Units (APU's) play a critical role in space vehicles. On the space shuttle, APU's provide the hydraulic power for the aerodynamic control surfaces, rocket engine gimballing, landing gear, and brakes. Future space vehicles, such as the Reusable Launch Vehicle, will also need APU's to provide electrical power for flight control actuators and other vehicle subsystems. Vehicle designers and mission managers have identified safety, reliability, and maintenance as the primary concerns for space APU's. In 1997, the NASA Lewis Research Center initiated an advanced technology development program to address these concerns.

Viterna, Larry A.

1998-01-01

415

Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation Waste Integrated Performance and Safety Codes (NEAMS Waste IPSC).  

SciTech Connect

The objective of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation Waste Integrated Performance and Safety Codes (NEAMS Waste IPSC) is to provide an integrated suite of computational modeling and simulation (M&S) capabilities to quantitatively assess the long-term performance of waste forms in the engineered and geologic environments of a radioactive-waste storage facility or disposal repository. Achieving the objective of modeling the performance of a disposal scenario requires describing processes involved in waste form degradation and radionuclide release at the subcontinuum scale, beginning with mechanistic descriptions of chemical reactions and chemical kinetics at the atomic scale, and upscaling into effective, validated constitutive models for input to high-fidelity continuum scale codes for coupled multiphysics simulations of release and transport. Verification and validation (V&V) is required throughout the system to establish evidence-based metrics for the level of confidence in M&S codes and capabilities, including at the subcontiunuum scale and the constitutive models they inform or generate. This Report outlines the nature of the V&V challenge at the subcontinuum scale, an approach to incorporate V&V concepts into subcontinuum scale modeling and simulation (M&S), and a plan to incrementally incorporate effective V&V into subcontinuum scale M&S destined for use in the NEAMS Waste IPSC work flow to meet requirements of quantitative confidence in the constitutive models informed by subcontinuum scale phenomena.

Schultz, Peter Andrew

2011-12-01

416

Potential use of advanced process control for safety purposes during attack of a process plant.  

PubMed

Many refineries and commodity chemical plants employ advanced process control (APC) systems to improve throughputs and yields. These APC systems utilize empirical process models for control purposes and enable operation closer to constraints than can be achieved with traditional PID regulatory feedback control. Substantial economic benefits are typically realized from the addition of APC systems. This paper considers leveraging the control capabilities of existing APC systems to minimize the potential impact of a terrorist attack on a process plant (e.g., petroleum refinery). Two potential uses of APC are described. The first is a conventional application of APC and involves automatically moving the process to a reduced operating rate when an attack first begins. The second is a non-conventional application and involves reconfiguring the APC system to optimize safety rather than economics. The underlying intent in both cases is to reduce the demands on the operator to allow focus on situation assessment and optimal response planning. An overview of APC is provided along with a brief description of the modifications required for the proposed new applications of the technology. PMID:16298048

Whiteley, James R

2006-03-17

417

Safety of high speed ground transportation systems: Safety of advanced braking concepts for high speed ground transportation systems. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this study is to develop qualitative and quantitative information on the various braking strategies used in high-speed ground transportation systems in support of the Federal Railroad Administration (FRA). The approach employed in this study is composed of two steps: first, build a technical understanding of the various braking strategies, and second, perform a safety analysis for each system. The systems considered in this study include seven operating high-speed rail transportation systems and three existing magnetic levitation systems. The principal technique used in the system safety analysis is Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA), an inductive approach to identifying system failure modes that depends on a thorough understanding of the system design and operation. Key elements derived from the system safety analysis are the fault-tolerant and fail-safe characteristics of the braking systems. The report concludes with recommended guidance on the structure of potential future regulations governing high-speed rail braking systems.

Wagner, D.P.; Ahlbeck, D.R.; Luedeke, J.F.; Cook, S.D.; Dielman, M.A.

1995-09-01

418

Modeling the Behaviour of an Advanced Material Based Smart Landing Gear System for Aerospace Vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The last two decades have seen a substantial rise in the use of advanced materials such as polymer composites for aerospace structural applications. In more recent years there has been a concerted effort to integrate materials, which mimic biological functions (referred to as smart materials) with polymeric composites. Prominent among smart materials are shape memory alloys, which possess both actuating and sensory functions that can be realized simultaneously. The proper characterization and modeling of advanced and smart materials holds the key to the design and development of efficient smart devices/systems. This paper focuses on the material characterization; modeling and validation of the model in relation to the development of a Shape Memory Alloy (SMA) based smart landing gear (with high energy dissipation features) for a semi rigid radio controlled airship (RC-blimp). The Super Elastic (SE) SMA element is configured in such a way that it is forced into a tensile mode of high elastic deformation. The smart landing gear comprises of a landing beam, an arch and a super elastic Nickel-Titanium (Ni-Ti) SMA element. The landing gear is primarily made of polymer carbon composites, which possess high specific stiffness and high specific strength compared to conventional materials, and are therefore ideally suited for the design and development of an efficient skid landing gear system with good energy dissipation characteristics. The development of the smart landing gear in relation to a conventional metal landing gear design is also dealt with.

Varughese, Byji; Dayananda, G. N.; Rao, M. Subba

2008-07-01

419

Modeling the Behaviour of an Advanced Material Based Smart Landing Gear System for Aerospace Vehicles  

SciTech Connect

The last two decades have seen a substantial rise in the use of advanced materials such as polymer composites for aerospace structural applications. In more recent years there has been a concerted effort to integrate materials, which mimic biological functions (referred to as smart materials) with polymeric composites. Prominent among smart materials are shape memory alloys, which possess both actuating and sensory functions that can be realized simultaneously. The proper characterization and modeling of advanced and smart materials holds the key to the design and development of efficient smart devices/systems. This paper focuses on the material characterization; modeling and validation of the model in relation to the development of a Shape Memory Alloy (SMA) based smart landing gear (with high energy dissipation features) for a semi rigid radio controlled airship (RC-blimp). The Super Elastic (SE) SMA element is configured in such a way that it is forced into a tensile mode of high elastic deformation. The smart landing gear comprises of a landing beam, an arch and a super elastic Nickel-Titanium (Ni-Ti) SMA element. The landing gear is primarily made of polymer carbon composites, which possess high specific stiffness and high specific strength compared to conventional materials, and are therefore ideally suited for the design and development of an efficient skid landing gear system with good energy dissipation characteristics. The development of the smart landing gear in relation to a conventional metal landing gear design is also dealt with.

Varughese, Byji; Dayananda, G. N.; Rao, M. Subba [National Aerospace Laboratories, P.B. No: 1779, Airport Road, Bangalore-560017 (India)

2008-07-29

420

Research and development of advanced lead-acid batteries for electric vehicle propulsion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose was to develop an advanced lead-acid battery based on the concept of forced flow of electrolyte through porous electrodes for enhanced battery performance. The objectives were: specific energy of 42 Wh/kg, energy density of 70 Wh/l, and cycle life of 100 cycles. Accomplishments were: 35 flow-through cells with reduced construction time, higher fiber content in the positive active materials (PAM) with increased strength by a factor of 3, high-density PAM for increased life without utilization losses, confirmation of solid-state relaxation theory, methods for measuring permeability, 31 cycles achieved in C-450, oxygen recombination in many test cells, electrolyte reservoir can be below the top of the cells, and completed designs for positive and negative flow-through grids and for the injection molds to produce the grid/plastic laminates.

Andrew, M. G.; Bowman, D. E.

1987-04-01

421

A Public-Private Consortium Advances Cardiac Safety Evaluation: Achievements of the HESI Cardiac Safety Technical Committee  

EPA Science Inventory

The evaluation of cardiovascular side-effects is a critical element in the development of all new drugs and chemicals. Cardiac safety issues have been and continue to be a major cause of attrition and withdrawal due to Adverse Drug Reactions (ADRs) in pharmaceutical drug developm...

422

Advanced Concepts for Pressure-Channel Reactors: Modularity, Performance and Safety  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Based on an analysis of the development of advanced concepts for pressure-tube reactor technology, we adapt and adopt the pressure-tube reactor advantage of modularity, so that the subdivided core has the potential for optimization of the core, safety, fuel cycle and thermal performance independently, while retaining passive safety features. In addition, by adopting supercritical water-cooling, the logical developments from existing supercritical turbine technology and “steam” systems can be utilized. Supercritical and ultra-supercritical boilers and turbines have been operating for some time in coal-fired power plants. Using coolant outlet temperatures of about 625°C achieves operating plant thermal efficiencies in the order of 45-48%, using a direct turbine cycle. In addition, by using reheat channels, the plant has the potential to produce low-cost process heat, in amounts that are customer and market dependent. The use of reheat systems further increases the overall thermal efficiency to 55% and beyond. With the flexibility of a range of plant sizes suitable for both small (400 MWe) and large (1400 MWe) electric grids, and the ability for co-generation of electric power, process heat, and hydrogen, the concept is competitive. The choice of core power, reheat channel number and exit temperature are all set by customer and materials requirements. The pressure channel is a key technology that is needed to make use of supercritical water (SCW) in CANDU®1 reactors feasible. By optimizing the fuel bundle and fuel channel, convection and conduction assure heat removal using passive-moderator cooling. Potential for severe core damage can be almost eliminated, even without the necessity of activating the emergency-cooling systems. The small size of containment structure lends itself to a small footprint, impacts economics and building techniques. Design features related to Canadian concepts are discussed in this paper. The main conclusion is that development of SCW pressure-channel nuclear reactors is feasible and significant benefits can be expected over other thermal-energy systems.

Duffey, Romney B.; Pioro, Igor L.; Kuran, Sermet

423

Evaluating the Effects of Transient Faults on Vehicle Dynamic Performance in Automotive Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current automotive systems are integrating more and more electronic components in the handling and performance areas, for supporting advanced comfort and safety features. The effects of component or network failures raise serious concerns about the overall vehicle stability and safety. This paper proposes a methodology for analyzing at the system level (taking into account both mechanical and electronic components) the

Fulvio Corno; Matteo Sonza Reorda; S. Tosato; F. Esposito

2004-01-01

424

Design, fabrication and test of graphite/polyimide composite joints and attachments for advanced aerospace vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results of an experimental program to develop several types of graphite/polyimide (GR/PI) bonded and bolted joints for lightly loaded flight components for advanced space transportation systems and high speed aircraft are presented. Tasks accomplished include: a literature survey; design of static discriminator specimens; design allowables testing; fabrication of test panels and specimens; small specimen testing; and standard joint testing. Detail designs of static discriminator specimens for each of the four major attachment types are presented. Test results are given for the following: (1) transverse tension of Celion 3000/PMR-15 laminate; (2) net tension of a laminate for both a loaded and unloaded bolt hole; (3) comparative testing of bonded and co-cured doublers along with pull-off tests of single and double bonded angles; (4) single lap shear tests, transverse tension and coefficient of thermal expansion tests of A7F (LARC-13 amide-imide modified) adhesive; and (5) tension tests of standard single lap, double lap, and symmetric step lap bonded joints. Also, included are results of a finite element analysis of a single lap bonded composite joint.

Barclay, D. L.

1980-01-01

425

49 CFR 575.301 - Vehicle labeling of safety rating information (applicable unless a vehicle is subject to § 575.302).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...section. (2) The label must depict the star ratings for that vehicle as reported to...Rated” or “To Be Rated,” the star graphic indicating each rating, as...and symbols on the label (including the star graphic specified in paragraph...

2013-10-01

426

49 CFR 575.301 - Vehicle labeling of safety rating information (applicable unless a vehicle is subject to § 575.302).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...section. (2) The label must depict the star ratings for that vehicle as reported to...Rated” or “To Be Rated,” the star graphic indicating each rating, as...and symbols on the label (including the star graphic specified in paragraph...

2012-10-01

427

49 CFR 575.301 - Vehicle labeling of safety rating information (applicable unless a vehicle is subject to § 575.302).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...section. (2) The label must depict the star ratings for that vehicle as reported to...Rated” or “To Be Rated,” the star graphic indicating each rating, as...and symbols on the label (including the star graphic specified in paragraph...

2011-10-01

428

Study of the suit inflation effect on crew safety during landing using a full-pressure IVA suit for new-generation reentry space vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, manned space capsules have been recognized as beneficial and reasonable human space vehicles again. The Dragon capsule already achieved several significant successes. The Orion capsule is going to be sent to a high-apogee orbit without crews for experimental purposes in September 2014. For such human-rated space capsules, the study of acceleration impacts against the human body during splashdown is essential to ensure the safety of crews. Moreover, it is also known that wearing a full pressure rescue suit significantly increases safety of a crew, compared to wearing a partial pressure suit. This is mainly because it enables the use of a personal life support system independently in addition to that which installed in the space vehicle. However, it is unclear how the inflation of the full pressure suit due to pressurization affects the crew safety during splashdown, especially in the case of the new generation manned space vehicles. Therefore, the purpose of this work is to investigate the effect of the suit inflation on crew safety against acceleration impact during splashdown. For this objective, the displacements of the safety harness in relation with the suit, a human surrogate, and the crew seats during pressurizing the suit in order to determine if the safety and survivability of a crew can be improved by wearing a full pressure suit. For these tests, the DL/H-1 full pressure IVA suit, developed by Pablo de Leon and Gary L. Harris, will be used. These tests use image analysis techniques to determine the displacements. It is expected, as a result of these tests, that wearing a full pressure suit will help to mitigate the impacts and will increase the safety and survivability of a crew during landing since it works as a buffer to mitigate impact forces during splashdown. This work also proposes a future plan for sled test experiments using a sled facility such as the one in use by the Civil Aerospace Medical Institute (CAMI) for experimental validation of the work presented as part of this thesis.

Wataru, Suzuki

429

Safety.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses safety issues in science, including: allergic reactions to peanuts used in experiments; explosions in lead/acid batteries; and inspection of pressure vessels, such as pressure cookers or model steam engines. (MKR)

Education in Science, 1996

1996-01-01

430

Providing the Basis for Innovative Improvements in Advanced LWR Reactor Passive Safety Systems Design: An Educational R&D Project  

SciTech Connect

This project characterizes typical two-phase stratified flow conditions in advanced water reactor horizontal pipe sections, following activation of passive cooling systems. It provides (1) a means to educate nuclear engineering students regarding the importance of two-phase stratified flow in passive cooling systems to the safety of advanced reactor systems and (2) describes the experimental apparatus and process to measure key parameters essential to consider when designing passive emergency core cooling flow paths that may encounter this flow regime. Based on data collected, the state of analysis capabilities can be determined regarding stratified flow in advanced reactor systems and the best paths forward can be identified to ensure that the nuclear industry can properly characterize two-phase stratified flow in passive emergency core cooling systems.

Brian G. Williams; Jim C. P. Liou; Hiral Kadakia; Bill Phoenix; Richard R. Schultz

2007-02-27

431

Leveraging Intelligent Vehicle Technologies to Maximize Fuel Economy (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect

Advancements in vehicle electronics, along with communication and sensing technologies, have led to a growing number of intelligent vehicle applications. Example systems include those for advanced driver information, route planning and prediction, driver assistance, and crash avoidance. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory is exploring ways to leverage intelligent vehicle systems to achieve fuel savings. This presentation discusses several potential applications, such as providing intelligent feedback to drivers on specific ways to improve their driving efficiency, and using information about upcoming driving to optimize electrified vehicle control strategies for maximum energy efficiency and battery life. The talk also covers the potential of Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) and related technologies to deliver significant fuel savings in addition to providing safety and convenience benefits.

Gonder, J.

2011-11-01

432

IMPLICATIONS OF CELLULAR TELEPHONY TO TRAFFIC SAFETY  

Microsoft Academic Search

This extensive growth of cellular telephone use around the world is due to the tremendous and rapid advances in the field of wireless communications. Moreover, the societal pressures for increased efficiency, and an improved sense of safety associated with the availability of a cell phone contributed to a dramatic increase in cellular telephone use by drivers in vehicles. It is

Virginia P. Sisiopiku

433

The Evolution of Flexible Insulation as Thermal Protection Systems for Reusable Launch Vehicles: AFRSI (Advanced Flexible Reusable Surface Insulation) to CRI (Conformal Reusable Insulation)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This viewgraph presentation gives an overview of the evolution of flexible insulation as a thermal protection system for reusable launch vehicles, Advanced Flexible Reusable Surface Insulation (AFRSI) to Conformal Reusable Insulation (CRI). Details are given on the approved use of AFRIS on the Shuttle Orbiter in June 1980, the first flight of AFRIS on STS-6, windward blanket development, composite flexible blanket insulation, and flight demonstrations.

Rezin, Marc; Oka, Kris; Arnold, Jim (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

434

Postmarket safety in Canada: are significant therapeutic advances and biologics less safe than other drugs? A cohort study  

PubMed Central

Objectives Examine the probability of new active substances (NASs) approved in Canada between 1 January 1997 and 31 March 2012 acquiring a serious postmarket safety warning. Design Cohort study. Data sources Annual reports of the Therapeutic Products Directorate and the Biologic and Genetic Therapies Directorate; evaluations of therapeutic innovation from the Patented Medicine Prices Review Board and Prescrire International; MedEffect Canada website. Interventions Postmarket regulatory safety warning or withdrawal from market due to safety reasons. Primary and secondary outcome measures Compare the probability of acquiring a postmarket safety warning in Canada in four different groups of drugs: (1) traditional medications versus biologics; (2) medications that offer significant new therapeutic benefits versus those that do not. Determine how well the type of review that an NAS received from Health Canada predicted the product's postmarket therapeutic value. Results The probability of a traditional NAS acquiring a serious safety warning and/or being withdrawn was 29.9% (95% CI 21.8% to 40.2%) vs 27.3% (95% CI 18.2% to 39.7%) for an NAS of biological origin (p=0.47, log-rank test). For medications that were significant therapeutic advances the probability was 40.2% (95% CI 24.5% to 60.9%) vs 33.9% (95% CI 26.4% to 42.7%) for those that were not (p=0.18, log-rank test). Health Canada was 77.4% accurate in predicting the therapeutic importance of an NAS. Conclusions There was no difference in postmarket regulatory safety action between traditional medications and biologics and no difference between drugs with significant therapeutic benefits and those without. Although these results draw on Canadian data, they are likely to be relevant internationally. Further research should assess whether the current level of premarket safety evaluation is acceptable. PMID:24549164

Lexchin, Joel

2014-01-01

435

Evaluation of the safety and usability of touch gestures in operating in-vehicle information systems with visual occlusion.  

PubMed

Nowadays, many automobile manufacturers are interested in applying the touch gestures that are used in smart phones to operate their in-vehicle information systems (IVISs). In this study, an experiment was performed to verify the applicability of touch gestures in the operation of IVISs from the viewpoints of both driving safety and usability. In the experiment, two devices were used: one was the Apple iPad, with which various touch gestures such as flicking, panning, and pinching were enabled; the other was the SK EnNavi, which only allowed tapping touch gestures. The participants performed the touch operations using the two devices under visually occluded situations, which is a well-known technique for estimating load of visual attention while driving. In scrolling through a list, the flicking gestures required more time than the tapping gestures. Interestingly, both the flicking and simple tapping gestures required slightly higher visual attention. In moving a map, the average time taken per operation and the visual attention load required for the panning gestures did not differ from those of the simple tapping gestures that are used in existing car navigation systems. In zooming in/out of a map, the average time taken per pinching gesture was similar to that of the tapping gesture but required higher visual attention. Moreover, pinching gestures at a display angle of 75° required that the participants severely bend their wrists. Because the display angles of many car navigation systems tends to be more than 75°, pinching gestures can cause severe fatigue on users' wrists. Furthermore, contrary to participants' evaluation of other gestures, several participants answered that the pinching gesture was not necessary when operating IVISs. It was found that the panning gesture is the only touch gesture that can be used without negative consequences when operating IVISs while driving. The flicking gesture is likely to be used if the screen moving speed is slower or if the car is in heavy traffic. However, the pinching gesture is not an appropriate method of operating IVISs while driving in the various scenarios examined in this study. PMID:24231034

Kim, Huhn; Song, Haewon

2014-05-01

436

49 CFR 240.115 - Criteria for consideration of prior safety conduct as a motor vehicle operator.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...conduct as a motor vehicle operator. 240.115 Section 240.115 Transportation Other Regulations Relating...CERTIFICATION OF LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERS Component Elements of the Certification Process § 240.115 Criteria for consideration of prior...

2010-10-01

437

14 CFR Appendix C to Part 417 - Flight Safety Analysis Methodologies and Products for an Unguided Suborbital Launch Vehicle Flown...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...parameter; (vii) Rotation angular velocity; (viii) Gravitational harmonic constants...gravitational parameter, rotation angular velocity, gravitational harmonic constants...depiction must show total launch vehicle velocity as a function of time,...

2013-01-01

438

14 CFR Appendix C to Part 417 - Flight Safety Analysis Methodologies and Products for an Unguided Suborbital Launch Vehicle Flown...  

...parameter; (vii) Rotation angular velocity; (viii) Gravitational harmonic constants...gravitational parameter, rotation angular velocity, gravitational harmonic constants...depiction must show total launch vehicle velocity as a function of time,...

2014-01-01

439

14 CFR Appendix C to Part 417 - Flight Safety Analysis Methodologies and Products for an Unguided Suborbital Launch Vehicle Flown...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...parameter; (vii) Rotation angular velocity; (viii) Gravitational harmonic constants...gravitational parameter, rotation angular velocity, gravitational harmonic constants...depiction must show total launch vehicle velocity as a function of time,...

2012-01-01

440

14 CFR Appendix C to Part 417 - Flight Safety Analysis Methodologies and Products for an Unguided Suborbital Launch Vehicle Flown...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...parameter; (vii) Rotation angular velocity; (viii) Gravitational harmonic constants...gravitational parameter, rotation angular velocity, gravitational harmonic constants...depiction must show total launch vehicle velocity as a function of time,...

2010-01-01

441

14 CFR Appendix C to Part 417 - Flight Safety Analysis Methodologies and Products for an Unguided Suborbital Launch Vehicle Flown...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...parameter; (vii) Rotation angular velocity; (viii) Gravitational harmonic constants...gravitational parameter, rotation angular velocity, gravitational harmonic constants...depiction must show total launch vehicle velocity as a function of time,...

2011-01-01

442

C A M B R I D G E U N I V E R S I T Y E N G I N E E R I N G D E P A R T M E N T CAMBRIDGE VEHICLE DYNAMICS  

E-print Network

vehicle dynamics and suspension design, including the problems of vehicle safety, productivity, ride research group investigating the dynamics of heavy commercial vehicles, their suspension components, and their effects on roads and bridges. An increasing amount of work is being concentrated on the design of advanced

443

Vehicle System Dynamics Vol. 46, Supplement, 2008, 315  

E-print Network

Vehicle System Dynamics Vol. 46, Supplement, 2008, 3­15 Collision model for vehicle motion-impact vehicle dynamics and the development of enhanced vehicle safety systems. Keywords: vehicle collision model; 4-DOF vehicle dynamics model; post-impact vehicle states 1. Introduction Vehicle collision mechanics

Peng, Huei

444

Adaptations of advanced safety and reliability techniques to petroleum and other industries  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The underlying philosophy of the general approach to failure reduction and control is presented. Safety and reliability management techniques developed in the industries which have participated in the U.S. space and defense programs are described along with adaptations to nonaerospace activities. The examples given illustrate the scope of applicability of these techniques. It is indicated that any activity treated as a 'system' is a potential user of aerospace safety and reliability management techniques.

Purser, P. E.

1974-01-01

445

Recent Advances in Near-Net-Shape Fabrication of Al-Li Alloy 2195 for Launch Vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recent applications in launch vehicles use 2195 processed to Super Lightweight Tank specifications. Potential benefits exist by tailoring heat treatment and other processing parameters to the application. Assess the potential benefits and advocate application of Al-Li near-net-shape technologies for other launch vehicle structural components. Work with manufacturing and material producers to optimize Al-Li ingot shape and size for enhanced near-net-shape processing. Examine time dependent properties of 2195 critical for reusable applications.

Wagner, John; Domack, Marcia; Hoffman, Eric

2007-01-01

446

Structural sensor testing for space vehicle applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Boeing Company is funded by Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) to perform research and development activities on Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) and Assessment Techniques for Advanced Aerospace Vehicles. This effort includes two SHM aspects, i.e., on-board sensors and ground based NDE techniques. The first aspect focuses on prototyping a SHM system that integrates several different types of sensors to generate structural health information based on real-time or near real-time sensor data. The second aspect focuses on a ground system that provides a linkage between the on-board sensors and ground based NDE techniques with a prototype system capable of rapidly gathering and interpreting structural health information. They can be viewed as two parts of a SHM system that are complimentary to one another. Developing such an SHM system is intended to help advance aerospace vehicle's safety and reliability, satisfy the required turnaround time, reduce cost and cycle time in design, operation and maintenance. The primary vehicle platform considered for this program is the Space Operation Vehicle (SOV)1, a future high speed vehicle. The baseline vehicle description will be used to determine system requirements for a SHM/NDE system and to evaluate candidate technologies throughout the technology down select process. This paper will discuss an evaluation test in which candidate sensors and NDE methods are applied to space structure components tested at a simulated flight load environment.

Huang, Jerry; Rose, John; Gordon, Jason; Boucher, Robert

2005-05-01

447

Side Impact Fixed-Pole Crash Testing of the NHTSA (National Highway Traffic Safety Administration) Modified Vehicle.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A series of car-to-fixed pole crash tests was performed. The test vehicles were 2-door Volkswagen Rabbits. Three crashes were performed to select a test condition which represented a serious-to-fatal chest injury producing highway accident. The fourth cra...

D. T. Willke, M. W. Monk

1985-01-01

448

A comparison of the factors influencing the safety of work-related drivers in work and personal vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is some evidence to suggest that people who drive for work purposes engage in less safe driving practices than other drivers. This issue was examined by surveying 204 people who drive for work purposes, from four different organisations. It was predicted that work-related drivers would report more unsafe driving behaviours in a work vehicle in comparison to their personal

Sharon Newnam; Will Murray

449

75 FR 25927 - Vehicle/Track Interaction Safety Standards; High-Speed and High Cant Deficiency Operations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...proposal is based on the results of simulation studies designed to identify track geometry...arrived at through the results of computer simulations of vehicle/track dynamics, consideration...conditions allowed for each class of track. Simulation studies have been performed using...

2010-05-10

450

49 CFR 575.302 - Vehicle labeling of safety rating information (compliance required for model year 2012 and later...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...section. (2) The label must depict the star ratings for that vehicle as reported to...Rated” or “To Be Rated,” the star graphic indicating each rating, as well...and symbols on the label (including the star graphic specified in paragraph...

2013-10-01

451

49 CFR 575.302 - Vehicle labeling of safety rating information (compliance required for model year 2012 and later...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...section. (2) The label must depict the star ratings for that vehicle as reported to...Rated” or “To Be Rated,” the star graphic indicating each rating, as well...and symbols on the label (including the star graphic specified in paragraph...

2012-10-01

452

49 CFR 575.302 - Vehicle labeling of safety rating information (compliance required for model year 2012 and later...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...section. (2) The label must depict the star ratings for that vehicle as reported to...Rated” or “To Be Rated,” the star graphic indicating each rating, as well...and symbols on the label (including the star graphic specified in paragraph...

2011-10-01

453

Video Technology to Advance Safety in the Operating Room and Perioperative Environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Video is a powerful medium and is underused for patient safety in several areas: education, real-time consultation, process improvement, research, and workflow coordina- tion. We illustrate this point through an overview of uses of video in health care by the authors and others in several institutions. These uses were in the context of team work training, operating room coordination, tech-

Yan Xiao; Stephen Schimpff; Colin Mackenzie; Ronald Merrell; Eileen Entin; Roger Voigt; Bruce Jarrell

454

Waste management to improve food safety and security for health advancement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Economic growth inevitably influences the food chain. Growing demand with changes in lifestyle and health consciousness encourage use of packaged and pre-prepared foods. The needs of environmental protection from waste generated are largely overlooked, and a lack of knowledge about the impact on the environment and its health effects constitute food security\\/safety problems. Food production and waste generation directly affect

Angela Yu-Chen Lin; Susana Tzy-Ying Huang; Mark L Wahlqvist

2009-01-01

455

Advanced silver zinc battery development for the SRB and ET range safety subsystems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This document presents in viewgraph format the design and development of silver zinc (AgZn) batteries for the solid rocket booster (SRB) and external tank (ET) range safety subsystems. Various engineering techniques, including composite separator systems, new electrode processing techniques, and new restraint techniques, were used to meet difficult requirements.

Adamedes, Zoe

1994-01-01

456

Research in advanced power systems for mining health and safety. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Systems analytical techniques have been formulated and applied to quantitatively assess the relative safety merits of four shuttle car power systems for use in underground coal mines. Results from two techniques, forced decision analysis and fault tree analysis suggest the open cycle diesel to be the most desirable of the power systems studied, with the closed cycle diesel being next,

E. S. Chaplin; R. E. Anderson; J. J. Shore; J. L. Smith; D. M. Jassowski

1972-01-01

457

49 CFR 240.111 - Individual's duty to furnish data on prior safety conduct as motor vehicle operator.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...QUALIFICATION AND CERTIFICATION OF LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERS Component Elements of the Certification Process § 240.111 Individual's...Register, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, 1200 New Jersey Avenue, SE., Washington, DC 20590 in...

2011-10-01

458

49 CFR 240.111 - Individual's duty to furnish data on prior safety conduct as motor vehicle operator.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...QUALIFICATION AND CERTIFICATION OF LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERS Component Elements of the Certification Process § 240.111 Individual's...Register, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, 1200 New Jersey Avenue, SE., Washington, DC 20590 in...

2010-10-01

459

49 CFR 240.111 - Individual's duty to furnish data on prior safety conduct as motor vehicle operator.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...QUALIFICATION AND CERTIFICATION OF LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERS Component Elements of the Certification Process § 240.111 Individual's...Register, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, 1200 New Jersey Avenue, SE., Washington, DC 20590 in...

2013-10-01

460

49 CFR 240.111 - Individual's duty to furnish data on prior safety conduct as motor vehicle operator.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...QUALIFICATION AND CERTIFICATION OF LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERS Component Elements of the Certification Process § 240.111 Individual's...Register, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, 1200 New Jersey Avenue, SE., Washington, DC 20590 in...

2012-10-01

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