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1

Advanced Range Safety System for High Energy Vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The advanced range safety system project is a collaboration between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and the United States Air Force to develop systems that would reduce costs and schedule for safety approval for new classes of unmanned high-energy vehicles. The mission-planning feature for this system would yield flight profiles that satisfy the mission requirements for the user while providing an increased quality of risk assessment, enhancing public safety. By improving the speed and accuracy of predicting risks to the public, mission planners would be able to expand flight envelopes significantly. Once in place, this system is expected to offer the flexibility of handling real-time risk management for the high-energy capabilities of hypersonic vehicles including autonomous return-from-orbit vehicles and extended flight profiles over land. Users of this system would include mission planners of Space Launch Initiative vehicles, space planes, and other high-energy vehicles. The real-time features of the system could make extended flight of a malfunctioning vehicle possible, in lieu of an immediate terminate decision. With this improved capability, the user would have more time for anomaly resolution and potential recovery of a malfunctioning vehicle.

Claxton, Jeffrey S.; Linton, Donald F.

2002-01-01

2

System safety engineering in the development of advanced surface transportation vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Applications of system safety engineering to the development of advanced surface transportation vehicles are described. As a pertinent example, the paper describes a safety engineering efforts tailored to the particular design and test requirements of the Tracked Air Cushion Research Vehicle (TACRV). The test results obtained from this unique research vehicle provide significant design data directly applicable to the development of future tracked air cushion vehicles that will carry passengers in comfort and safety at speeds up to 300 miles per hour.

Arnzen, H. E.

1971-01-01

3

Advanced Chassis Control Systems for Vehicle Handling and Active Safety  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper chassis controls for vehicle handling and active safety have been reviewed. In particular, we have observed the effectiveness and limit of 4WS and DYC. It is pointed out that DYC is more effective in vehicle motion with larger side-slip and\\/or higher lateral acceleration and taking the nonlinearity of tire and vehicle dynamics into consideration is essential for

YOSHIMI FURUKAWA; MASATO ABE

1997-01-01

4

Current status of environmental, health, and safety issues of electrochemical capacitors for advanced vehicle applications  

SciTech Connect

Electrochemical capacitors are a candidate for traction power assists in hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). Other advanced automotive applications, while not the primary focus of current development efforts, are also possible. These include load leveling high-energy batteries, power conditioning electronics, electrically hated catalysts, electric power steering, and engine starter power. Higher power and longer cycle life are expected for electrochemical capacitors than for batteries. Evaluation of environmental, health, and safety (EH and S) issues of electrochemical capacitors is an essential part of the development and commercialization of electrochemical capacitors for advanced vehicles. This report provides an initial EH and S assessment. This report presents electrochemical capacitor electrochemistry, materials selection, intrinsic material hazards, mitigation of those hazards, environmental requirements, pollution control options, and shipping requirements. Most of the information available for this assessment pertains to commercial devices intended for application outside the advanced vehicle market and to experiment or prototype devices. Electrochemical capacitors for power assists in HEVs are not produced commercially now. Therefore, materials for advanced vehicle electrochemical capacitors may change, and so would the corresponding EH and S issues. Although changes are possible, this report describes issues for likely electrochemical capacitor designs.

Vimmerstedt, L.J.; Hammel, C.J.

1997-04-01

5

Advanced Aerodynamic Devices to Improve the Performance, Economics, Handling, and Safety of Heavy Vehicles  

SciTech Connect

Research is being conducted at the Georgia Tech Research Institute (GTRI) to develop advanced aerodynamic devices to improve the performance, economics, stability, handling and safety of operation of Heavy Vehicles by using previously-developed and flight-tested pneumatic (blown) aircraft technology. Recent wind-tunnel investigations of a generic Heavy Vehicle model with blowing slots on both the leading and trailing edges of the trailer have been conducted under contract to the DOE Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies. These experimental results show overall aerodynamic drag reductions on the Pneumatic Heavy Vehicle of 50% using only 1 psig blowing pressure in the plenums, and over 80% drag reductions if additional blowing air were available. Additionally, an increase in drag force for braking was confirmed by blowing different slots. Lift coefficient was increased for rolling resistance reduction by blowing only the top slot, while downforce was produced for traction increase by blowing only the bottom. Also, side force and yawing moment were generated on either side of the vehicle, and directional stability was restored by blowing the appropriate side slot. These experimental results and the predicted full-scale payoffs are presented in this paper, as is a discussion of additional applications to conventional commercial autos, buses, motor homes, and Sport Utility Vehicles.

Robert J. Englar

2001-05-14

6

Advanced Technology Vehicle Testing  

SciTech Connect

The light-duty vehicle transportation sector in the United States depends heavily on imported petroleum as a transportation fuel. The Department of Energy’s Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA) is testing advanced technology vehicles to help reduce this dependency, which would contribute to the economic stability and homeland security of the United States. These advanced technology test vehicles include internal combustion engine vehicles operating on 100% hydrogen (H2) and H2CNG (compressed natural gas) blended fuels, hybrid electric vehicles, neighborhood electric vehicles, urban electric vehicles, and electric ground support vehicles. The AVTA tests and evaluates these vehicles with closed track and dynamometer testing methods (baseline performance testing) and accelerated reliability testing methods (accumulating lifecycle vehicle miles and operational knowledge within 1 to 1.5 years), and in normal fleet environments. The Arizona Public Service Alternative Fuel Pilot Plant and H2-fueled vehicles are demonstrating the feasibility of using H2 as a transportation fuel. Hybrid, neighborhood, and urban electric test vehicles are demonstrating successful applications of electric drive vehicles in various fleet missions. The AVTA is also developing electric ground support equipment (GSE) test procedures, and GSE testing will start during the fall of 2003. All of these activities are intended to support U.S. energy independence. The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory manages these activities for the AVTA.

James Francfort

2003-11-01

7

Advanced Technology Vehicle Testing  

SciTech Connect

The goal of the U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA) is to increase the body of knowledge as well as the awareness and acceptance of electric drive and other advanced technology vehicles (ATV). The AVTA accomplishes this goal by testing ATVs on test tracks and dynamometers (Baseline Performance testing), as well as in real-world applications (Fleet and Accelerated Reliability testing and public demonstrations). This enables the AVTA to provide Federal and private fleet managers, as well as other potential ATV users, with accurate and unbiased information on vehicle performance and infrastructure needs so they can make informed decisions about acquiring and operating ATVs. The ATVs currently in testing include vehicles that burn gaseous hydrogen (H2) fuel and hydrogen/CNG (H/CNG) blended fuels in internal combustion engines (ICE), and hybrid electric (HEV), urban electric, and neighborhood electric vehicles. The AVTA is part of DOE's FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies Program.

James Francfort

2004-06-01

8

Vehicle Safety. Managing Liability Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This monograph discusses the safety of vehicles owned, leased, maintained, and operated by colleges and universities. First, the risks by colleges and universities is discussed. First, the risks associated with college vehicles are outlined, including the liability that comes with staff/faculty and student drivers and such special concerns as…

Newby, Deborah, Ed.

9

Review and recent advances in battery health monitoring and prognostics technologies for electric vehicle (EV) safety and mobility  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As hybrid and electric vehicle technologies continue to advance, car manufacturers have begun to employ lithium ion batteries as the electrical energy storage device of choice for use in existing and future vehicles. However, to ensure batteries are reliable, efficient, and capable of delivering power and energy when required, an accurate determination of battery performance, health, and life prediction is necessary. This paper provides a review of battery prognostics and health management (PHM) techniques, with a focus on major unmet needs in this area for battery manufacturers, car designers, and electric vehicle drivers. A number of approaches are presented that have been developed to monitor battery health status and performance, as well as the evolution of prognostics modeling methods. The goal of this review is to render feasible and cost effective solutions for dealing with battery life issues under dynamic operating conditions.

Rezvanizaniani, Seyed Mohammad; Liu, Zongchang; Chen, Yan; Lee, Jay

2014-06-01

10

5-Star Safety Ratings: 2011-Newer Vehicles  

MedlinePLUS

... Star Safety Ratings. Shop Smart for a Safer Car, SUV, Mini-Van or Light Truck In the ... safety ratings. 2011-Newer Vehicle Ratings Comparing Newer Cars Safety ratings for 2011 and newer vehicles should ...

11

Aspects of Ecological Safety Providing during Deployment and Operation of the Advanced Khrunichev's Launch Vehicles at Plesetsk Spaceport  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

concerned, besides technical problems, with a necessity to provide an ecological safety of adjacent territories what is foreseen by the current Russian legislation. The paper contains a description of requirements and features of the family's launchers operation as well as of experience, which was gained during passing of ecological certification by the current Khrunichev's "Rockot" small launch vehicle. "Rockot" was the first Russian launcher to gain the certificate of ecological safety. was taken into a consideration during the development of the "Baikal" reusable fly-back booster intended for a use as options for first stages of small launchers and strap-ons of medium/heavy launchers. Technological solutions and concepts, which were laid down in the design of "Baikal" in order to achieve this goal, are described. The conclusions, which confirm the adopted technological and conceptual solutions, are given.

Kuzin, A. I.; Motorny, E. I.

2002-01-01

12

Vehicle Size and Driver Perceptions of Safety  

Microsoft Academic Search

A sample of 496 car and sport utility vehicle (SUV) drivers responded to questionnaires that examined attitudes toward vehicle size and safety. The aim of this research is to determine whether drivers perceive larger vehicles to be safer and whether this concern for safety motivates drivers to purchase SUVs. Alternatively, non–safety influences are also examined, including environmental concern, vehicle power,

J. A. Thomas; D. Walton

2008-01-01

13

Vehicle Battery Safety Roadmap Guidance  

SciTech Connect

The safety of electrified vehicles with high capacity energy storage devices creates challenges that must be met to assure commercial acceptance of EVs and HEVs. High performance vehicular traction energy storage systems must be intrinsically tolerant of abusive conditions: overcharge, short circuit, crush, fire exposure, overdischarge, and mechanical shock and vibration. Fail-safe responses to these conditions must be designed into the system, at the materials and the system level, through selection of materials and safety devices that will further reduce the probability of single cell failure and preclude propagation of failure to adjacent cells. One of the most important objectives of DOE's Office of Vehicle Technologies is to support the development of lithium ion batteries that are safe and abuse tolerant in electric drive vehicles. This Roadmap analyzes battery safety and failure modes of state-of-the-art cells and batteries and makes recommendations on future investments that would further DOE's mission.

Doughty, D. H.

2012-10-01

14

Advanced Vehicle Testing and Evaluation  

SciTech Connect

The objective of the United States (U.S.) Department of Energy?s (DOEs) Advanced Vehicle Testing and Evaluation (AVTE) project was to provide test and evaluation services for advanced technology vehicles, to establish a performance baseline, to determine vehicle reliability, and to evaluate vehicle operating costs in fleet operations. Vehicles tested include light and medium-duty vehicles in conventional, hybrid, and all-electric configurations using conventional and alternative fuels, including hydrogen in internal combustion engines. Vehicles were tested on closed tracks and chassis dynamometers, as well as operated on public roads, in fleet operations, and over prescribed routes. All testing was controlled by procedures developed specifically to support such testing. Testing and evaluations were conducted in the following phases: ? Development of test procedures, which established testing procedures; ? Baseline performance testing, which established a performance baseline; ? Accelerated reliability testing, which determined vehicle reliability; ? Fleet testing, used to evaluate vehicle economics in fleet operation, and ? End of test performance evaluation. Test results are reported by two means and posted by Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to their website: quarterly progress reports, used to document work in progress; and final test reports. This final report documents work conducted for the entirety of the contract by the Clarity Group, Inc., doing business as ECOtality North America (ECOtality). The contract was performed from 1 October 2005 through 31 March 2013. There were 113 light-duty on-road (95), off-road (3) and low speed (15) vehicles tested.

Garetson, Thomas

2013-03-31

15

How important is vehicle safety in the new vehicle purchase process?  

PubMed

Whilst there has been a significant increase in the amount of consumer interest in the safety performance of privately owned vehicles, the role that it plays in consumers' purchase decisions is poorly understood. The aims of the current study were to determine: how important vehicle safety is in the new vehicle purchase process; what importance consumers place on safety options/features relative to other convenience and comfort features, and how consumers conceptualise vehicle safety. In addition, the study aimed to investigate the key parameters associated with ranking 'vehicle safety' as the most important consideration in the new vehicle purchase. Participants recruited in Sweden and Spain completed a questionnaire about their new vehicle purchase. The findings from the questionnaire indicated that participants ranked safety-related factors (e.g., EuroNCAP (or other) safety ratings) as more important in the new vehicle purchase process than other vehicle factors (e.g., price, reliability etc.). Similarly, participants ranked safety-related features (e.g., advanced braking systems, front passenger airbags etc.) as more important than non-safety-related features (e.g., route navigation systems, air-conditioning etc.). Consistent with previous research, most participants equated vehicle safety with the presence of specific vehicle safety features or technologies rather than vehicle crash safety/test results or crashworthiness. The key parameters associated with ranking 'vehicle safety' as the most important consideration in the new vehicle purchase were: use of EuroNCAP, gender and education level, age, drivers' concern about crash involvement, first vehicle purchase, annual driving distance, person for whom the vehicle was purchased, and traffic infringement history. The findings from this study are important for policy makers, manufacturers and other stakeholders to assist in setting priorities with regard to the promotion and publicity of vehicle safety features for particular consumer groups (such as younger consumers) in order to increase their knowledge regarding vehicle safety and to encourage them to place highest priority on safety in the new vehicle purchase process. PMID:18460367

Koppel, Sjaanie; Charlton, Judith; Fildes, Brian; Fitzharris, Michael

2008-05-01

16

Introduction to LNG vehicle safety. Topical report  

SciTech Connect

Basic information on the characteristics of liquefied natural gas (LNG) is assembled in this report to provide an overview of safety issues and practices for the use of LNG vehicles. This document is intended for those planning or considering the use of LNG vehicles, including vehicle fleet owners and operators, public transit officials and boards, local fire and safety officials, manufacturers and distributors, and gas industry officials. Safety issues and mitigation measures that should be considered for candidate LNG vehicle projects are addressed.

Bratvold, D.; Friedman, D.; Chernoff, H.; Farkhondehpay, D.; Comay, C.

1994-03-01

17

Privacy on the Roads: How the Design of New Vehicle Safety Communication Technologies Impact Drivers' \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent advances in wireless technologies have led to the development of intelligent, in-vehicle safety applications designed to share information about the actions of nearby vehicles, potential road hazards, and ultimately predict dangerous scenarios or imminent collisions. These vehicle safety communication (VSC) technologies rely on the creation of autonomous, self-organizing, wireless communication networks connecting vehicles with roadside infrastructure and with each

Michael Zimmer

18

ADVANCED UNDERGROUND VEHICLE POWER AND CONTROL FUELCELL MINE LOCOMOTIVE  

E-print Network

ADVANCED UNDERGROUND VEHICLE POWER AND CONTROL FUELCELL MINE LOCOMOTIVE Arnold R. Miller, David L powered locomotive, an underground mining haulage vehicle, was developed and is presently undergoing metal-hydride storage, the four-ton locomotive has un- dergone safety risk assessment and preliminary

19

Carlsbad Area Office vehicle safety program  

SciTech Connect

The Carlsbad Area Office (CAO) Vehicle Safety Program (VSP) establishes the minimum requirements for CAO personnel to safely operate government vehicles and provides direction to effectively reduce the number of vehicle accidents, reduce the severity of vehicle accidents, and minimize vehicular property damage. This Program covers the operations of Government Services Administration (GSA) vehicles, rental or leased vehicles, and special purpose vehicles used at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in the performance of work. Additionally, this Program encourages CAO employees to use safe driving habits while operating their privately owned vehicles, motorcycles, or bicycles, or, as pedestrians, to be aware of the hazards associated with traffic in and around CAO facilities. Vehicle safety is a shared responsibility in this organization. At anytime a CAO employee witnesses an unsafe act relating to the operation of a motor vehicle, it is their responsibility to notify their Team Leader (TL) or Assistant Manager (AM), or contact the CAO Safety and Occupational Health Manager (SOHM). Employees are encouraged to participate in the Carlsbad Area Office Federal Employees Safety Committee (FESC) activities and goals in order to address vehicle safety concerns. The FESC is designed to be a forum for all federal employees to improve the health and safety of the organization. The VSP is an effective method of ensuring the health and safety of CAO employees during the operation of government vehicles. The human resources of the CAO are the most valuable assets of this organization and any lost manhours are difficult to replace. Safe driving habits and defensive driving methods should always be practiced to preserve the health and safety of all employees.

NONE

1996-12-01

20

Aspects of Ecological Safety Providing during Deployment and Operation of the Advanced Khrunichev's Launch Vehicles at Plesetsk Spaceport  

Microsoft Academic Search

concerned, besides technical problems, with a necessity to provide an ecological safety of adjacent territories what is foreseen by the current Russian legislation. The paper contains a description of requirements and features of the family's launchers operation as well as of experience, which was gained during passing of ecological certification by the current Khrunichev's \\

A. I. Kuzin; E. I. Motorny

2002-01-01

21

All-Terrain Vehicle (ATV) Safety (For Parents)  

MedlinePLUS

... the Flu Pregnancy Precautions Checkups: What to Expect All-Terrain Vehicle (ATV) Safety KidsHealth > Parents > First Aid & Safety > Safety Away From Home > All-Terrain Vehicle (ATV) Safety Print A A A ...

22

Teaching Technology by Assessing Vehicle Safety  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

According to the National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, motor vehicle crashes are the leading cause of death among Americans aged 2-34. Many states have adopted periodic motor vehicle inspection (PMVI) to ensure the safety of the highways, and states that have adopted PMVI report a reduction in highway fatalities. Deaths and injuries…

Lazaros, Edward J.

2012-01-01

23

5-Star Safety Ratings: 1990-2010 Vehicles  

MedlinePLUS

... Star Safety Ratings. Shop Smart for a Safer Car, SUV, Mini-Van or Light Truck In the ... compare safety ratings. 1990-2010 Vehicle Ratings Comparing Cars Safety ratings for 1990-2010 vehicles should not ...

24

10 CFR 611.3 - Advanced technology vehicle.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-01-01 false Advanced technology vehicle. 611.3 Section...ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY VEHICLES MANUFACTURER ASSISTANCE...General § 611.3 Advanced technology vehicle. In order to...

2014-01-01

25

10 CFR 611.3 - Advanced technology vehicle.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 false Advanced technology vehicle. 611.3 Section...ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY VEHICLES MANUFACTURER ASSISTANCE...General § 611.3 Advanced technology vehicle. In order to...

2011-01-01

26

10 CFR 611.3 - Advanced technology vehicle.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Advanced technology vehicle. 611.3 Section...ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY VEHICLES MANUFACTURER ASSISTANCE...General § 611.3 Advanced technology vehicle. In order to...

2013-01-01

27

10 CFR 611.3 - Advanced technology vehicle.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 false Advanced technology vehicle. 611.3 Section...ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY VEHICLES MANUFACTURER ASSISTANCE...General § 611.3 Advanced technology vehicle. In order to...

2012-01-01

28

10 CFR 611.3 - Advanced technology vehicle.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Advanced technology vehicle. 611.3 Section...ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY VEHICLES MANUFACTURER ASSISTANCE...General § 611.3 Advanced technology vehicle. In order to...

2010-01-01

29

Feasibility of advanced vehicle control systems (AVCS) for transit buses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the course of developing automated vehicle-roadway systems, opportunities to deploy vehicle control systems art intermediate stages of development may emerge. Some of these systems may provide a significant efficiency or safety enhancement to existing operations with manually driven vehicles. Under certain circumstances, transit buses provide an ideal testbed for such systems. The work presented here represents a feasibility study for the application of advanced vehicle control systems (AVCS) to transit bus operations. The paper explores past and present research relevant to automatic control for buses and recommends specific operations which could be better performed by AVCS- assisted or controlled vehicles. A survey of feasible technologies for the guidance and control of the buses is also presented.

Larsen, Robert

1997-01-01

30

Need for Speed: Motorized Vehicle Safety for Children  

MedlinePLUS

... Children Safety & Prevention Listen Need for Speed: Motorized Vehicle Safety for Children Article Body Although children cannot ... the driver's seat of other types of motorized vehicles. Most commonly, these youngsters are driving tractors, lawn ...

31

Hybrid and Electric Advanced Vehicle Systems Simulation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Predefined components connected to represent wide variety of propulsion systems. Hybrid and Electric Advanced Vehicle System (HEAVY) computer program is flexible tool for evaluating performance and cost of electric and hybrid vehicle propulsion systems. Allows designer to quickly, conveniently, and economically predict performance of proposed drive train.

Beach, R. F.; Hammond, R. A.; Mcgehee, R. K.

1985-01-01

32

29 CFR 500.102 - Applicability of vehicle safety standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Motor Vehicle Safety and Insurance for Transportation of Migrant...standards. (a) Any passenger automobile or station wagon used...vehicle, other than a passenger automobile or station wagon, used...vehicle, other than a passenger automobile or station wagon,...

2010-07-01

33

29 CFR 500.102 - Applicability of vehicle safety standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Motor Vehicle Safety and Insurance for Transportation of Migrant...standards. (a) Any passenger automobile or station wagon used...vehicle, other than a passenger automobile or station wagon, used...vehicle, other than a passenger automobile or station wagon,...

2011-07-01

34

29 CFR 500.102 - Applicability of vehicle safety standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Motor Vehicle Safety and Insurance for Transportation of Migrant...standards. (a) Any passenger automobile or station wagon used...vehicle, other than a passenger automobile or station wagon, used...vehicle, other than a passenger automobile or station wagon,...

2013-07-01

35

29 CFR 500.102 - Applicability of vehicle safety standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... Motor Vehicle Safety and Insurance for Transportation of Migrant...standards. (a) Any passenger automobile or station wagon used...vehicle, other than a passenger automobile or station wagon, used...vehicle, other than a passenger automobile or station wagon,...

2014-07-01

36

29 CFR 500.102 - Applicability of vehicle safety standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Motor Vehicle Safety and Insurance for Transportation of Migrant...standards. (a) Any passenger automobile or station wagon used...vehicle, other than a passenger automobile or station wagon, used...vehicle, other than a passenger automobile or station wagon,...

2012-07-01

37

Advanced orbit transfer vehicle propulsion system study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A reuseable orbit transfer vehicle concept was defined and subsequent recommendations for the design criteria of an advanced LO2/LH2 engine were presented. The major characteristics of the vehicle preliminary design include a low lift to drag aerocapture capability, main propulsion system failure criteria of fail operational/fail safe, and either two main engines with an attitude control system for backup or three main engines to meet the failure criteria. A maintenance and servicing approach was also established for the advanced vehicle and engine concepts. Design tradeoff study conclusions were based on the consideration of reliability, performance, life cycle costs, and mission flexibility.

Cathcart, J. A.; Cooper, T. W.; Corringrato, R. M.; Cronau, S. T.; Forgie, S. C.; Harder, M. J.; Mcallister, J. G.; Rudman, T. J.; Stoneback, V. W.

1985-01-01

38

Ventilation control for improved cabin air quality and vehicle safety  

Microsoft Academic Search

Motor vehicles are a prime pollution source. In certain circumstances, the vehicle's exhaust may enter the vehicle cabin causing driver discomfort and adverse health effects. As a result, driver reflexes decrease and fatigue may be exhibited. Oxygen depletion due to vehicle occupant breathing can also threaten vehicle safety. Cabin air filters and ventilation control are capable of improving passenger comfort,

Kosmas Galatsis; W. Wlodarski; Yongxiang Li; K. Kalantar-zadeh

2001-01-01

39

Reachability Calculations for Vehicle Safety during Manned/Unmanned Vehicle Interaction  

E-print Network

Reachability Calculations for Vehicle Safety during Manned/Unmanned Vehicle Interaction Jerry Ding for refining or designing protocols for multi-UAV and/or manned vehicle interaction. The mathematical

Sastry, S. Shankar

40

Advanced Vehicle Concepts and Implications for NextGen  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report presents the results of a major NASA study of advanced vehicle concepts and their implications for the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen). Comprising the efforts of dozens of researchers at multiple institutions, the analyses presented here cover a broad range of topics including business-case development, vehicle design, avionics, procedure design, delay, safety, environmental impacts, and metrics. The study focuses on the following five new vehicle types: Cruise-efficient short takeoff and landing (CESTOL) vehicles Large commercial tiltrotor aircraft (LCTRs) Unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) Very light jets (VLJs) Supersonic transports (SST). The timeframe of the study spans the years 2025-2040, although some analyses are also presented for a 3X scenario that has roughly three times the number of flights as today. Full implementation of NextGen is assumed.

Blake, Matt; Smith, Jim; Wright, Ken; Mediavilla Ricky; Kirby, Michelle; Pfaender, Holger; Clarke, John-Paul; Volovoi, Vitali; Dorbian, Christopher; Ashok, Akshay; Reynolds, Tom; Waitz, Ian; Hileman, James; Arunachalam, Sarav; Hedrick, Matt; Vempati, Lakshmi; Laroza, Ryan; denBraven, Wim; Henderson, Jeff

2010-01-01

41

Cost and Economics for Advanced Launch Vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Market sensitivity and weight-based cost estimating relationships are key drivers in determining the financial viability of advanced space launch vehicle designs. Due to decreasing space transportation budgets and increasing foreign competition, it has become essential for financial assessments of prospective launch vehicles to be performed during the conceptual design phase. As part of this financial assessment, it is imperative to understand the relationship between market volatility, the uncertainty of weight estimates, and the economic viability of an advanced space launch vehicle program. This paper reports the results of a study that evaluated the economic risk inherent in market variability and the uncertainty of developing weight estimates for an advanced space launch vehicle program. The purpose of this study was to determine the sensitivity of a business case for advanced space flight design with respect to the changing nature of market conditions and the complexity of determining accurate weight estimations during the conceptual design phase. The expected uncertainty associated with these two factors drives the economic risk of the overall program. The study incorporates Monte Carlo simulation techniques to determine the probability of attaining specific levels of economic performance when the market and weight parameters are allowed to vary. This structured approach toward uncertainties allows for the assessment of risks associated with a launch vehicle program's economic performance. This results in the determination of the value of the additional risk placed on the project by these two factors.

Whitfield, Jeff

1998-01-01

42

Advanced wiring technique and hardware application: Airplane and space vehicle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An advanced wiring system is described which achieves the safety/reliability required for present and future airplane and space vehicle applications. Also, present wiring installation techniques and hardware are analyzed to establish existing problem areas. An advanced wiring system employing matrix interconnecting unit, plug to plug trunk bundles (FCC or ribbon cable) is outlined, and an installation study presented. A planned program to develop, lab test and flight test key features of these techniques and hardware as a part of the SST technology follow-on activities is discussed.

Ernst, H. L.; Eichman, C. D.

1972-01-01

43

Recycling readiness of advanced batteries for electric vehicles  

SciTech Connect

Maximizing the reclamation/recycle of electric-vehicle (EV) batteries is considered to be essential for the successful commercialization of this technology. Since the early 1990s, the US Department of Energy has sponsored the ad hoc advanced battery readiness working group to review this and other possible barriers to the widespread use of EVs, such as battery shipping and in-vehicle safety. Regulation is currently the main force for growth in EV numbers and projections for the states that have zero-emission vehicle (ZEV) programs indicate about 200,000 of these vehicles would be offered to the public in 2003 to meet those requirements. The ad hoc Advanced Battery Readiness Working Group has identified a matrix of battery technologies that could see use in EVs and has been tracking the state of readiness of recycling processes for each of them. Lead-acid, nickel/metal hydride, and lithium-ion are the three EV battery technologies proposed by the major automotive manufacturers affected by ZEV requirements. Recycling approaches for the two advanced battery systems on this list are partly defined, but could be modified to recover more value from end-of-life batteries. The processes being used or planned to treat these batteries are reviewed, as well as those being considered for other longer-term technologies in the battery recycling readiness matrix. Development efforts needed to prepare for recycling the batteries from a much larger EV population than exists today are identified.

Jungst, R.G.

1997-09-01

44

Vehicle safety telemetry for automated highways  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The emphasis in current, automatic vehicle testing and diagnosis is primarily centered on the proper operation of the engine. Lateral and longitudinal guidance technologies, including speed control and headway sensing for collision avoidance, are reviewed. The principal guidance technique remains the buried wire. Speed control and headway sensing, even though they show the same basic elements in braking and fuel systems, are proceeding independently. The applications of on-board electronic and microprocessor techniques were investigated; each application (emission control, spark advance, or anti-slip braking) is being treated as an independent problem is proposed. A unified bus system of distributed processors for accomplishing the various functions and testing required for vehicles equipped to use automated highways.

Hansen, G. R.

1977-01-01

45

Advanced vehicle systems assessment. Volume 3: Systems assessment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The systems analyses integrate the advanced component and vehicle characteristics into conceptual vehicles with identical performance (for a given application) and evaluates the vehicles in typical use patterns. Initial and life-cycle costs are estimated and compared to conventional reference vehicles with comparable technological advances, assuming the vehicles will be in competition in the early 1990s. Electric vans, commuter vehicles, and full-size vehicles, in addition to electric/heat-engine hybrid and fuel-cell powered vehicles, are addressed in terms of performance and economics. System and subsystem recommendations for vans and two-passenger commuter vehicles are based on the economic analyses in this volume.

Hardy, K.

1985-01-01

46

Motor Vehicle Safety - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus  

MedlinePLUS

... Motor Vehicle Safety - Multiple Languages Arabic (???????) Bosnian (Bosanski) Chinese - Simplified (????) Chinese - Traditional (????) French (français) ... ??????? - ??????? Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Bosnian (Bosanski) Safety with Car Seats and Booster Seats Bezbjednost ...

47

76 FR 2631 - Certification; Importation of Vehicles and Equipment Subject to Federal Safety, Bumper, and Theft...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...purchase or sale of motor vehicles or motor vehicle equipment. We also propose...purchase or sale of motor vehicles or motor vehicle equipment. These offenses...and 593 Imports, Motor Vehicle Safety, Motor Vehicles, Reporting and...

2011-01-14

48

76 FR 53072 - Certification; Importation of Vehicles and Equipment Subject to Federal Safety, Bumper, and Theft...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...purchase, or sale of motor vehicles or motor vehicle equipment. The amendments...purchase, or sale of motor vehicles or motor vehicle equipment. These offenses...and 593 Imports, Motor vehicle safety, Motor vehicles, Reporting and...

2011-08-25

49

Recycling of Advanced Batteries for Electric Vehicles  

SciTech Connect

The pace of development and fielding of electric vehicles is briefly described and the principal advanced battery chemistries expected to be used in the EV application are identified as Ni/MH in the near term and Li-ion/Li-polymer in the intermediate to long term. The status of recycling process development is reviewed for each of the two chemistries and future research needs are discussed.

JUNGST,RUDOLPH G.

1999-10-06

50

77 FR 51731 - All-Terrain Vehicle Safety Summit  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...CPSC-2012-0048] 16 CFR Chapter II All-Terrain Vehicle Safety Summit AGENCY...announcing its intent to hold a Summit on all-terrain vehicle (ATV) safety. The Summit...should register by September 14, 2012; all other individuals who wish to attend...

2012-08-27

51

Launch vehicle flight control augmentation using smart materials and advanced composites (CDDF Project 93-05)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Marshall Space Flight Center has a rich heritage of launch vehicles that have used aerodynamic surfaces for flight stability such as the Saturn vehicles and flight control such as on the Redstone. Recently, due to aft center-of-gravity locations on launch vehicles currently being studied, the need has arisen for the vehicle control augmentation that is provided by these flight controls. Aerodynamic flight control can also reduce engine gimbaling requirements, provide actuator failure protection, enhance crew safety, and increase vehicle reliability, and payload capability. In the Saturn era, NASA went to the Moon with 300 sq ft of aerodynamic surfaces on the Saturn V. Since those days, the wealth of smart materials and advanced composites that have been developed allow for the design of very lightweight, strong, and innovative launch vehicle flight control surfaces. This paper presents an overview of the advanced composites and smart materials that are directly applicable to launch vehicle control surfaces.

Barret, C.

1995-01-01

52

Mitsubishi iMiEV: An Electric Mini-Car in NREL's Advanced Technology Vehicle Fleet (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect

This fact sheet highlights the Mitsubishi iMiEV, an electric mini-car in the advanced technology vehicle fleet at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). In support of the U.S. Department of Energy's fast-charging research efforts, NREL engineers are conducting charge and discharge performance testing on the vehicle. NREL's advanced technology vehicle fleet features promising technologies to increase efficiency and reduce emissions without sacrificing safety or comfort. The fleet serves as a technology showcase, helping visitors learn about innovative vehicles that are available today or are in development. Vehicles in the fleet are representative of current, advanced, prototype, and emerging technologies.

Not Available

2011-10-01

53

Hybrid and plug-in hybrid electric vehicle performance testing by the US Department of Energy Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA), part of the U.S. Department of Energy's FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies Program, has conducted testing of advanced technology vehicles since August 1995 in support of the AVTA goal to provide benchmark data for technology modeling, and vehicle development programs. The AVTA has tested full size electric vehicles, urban electric vehicles, neighborhood electric vehicles, and

Donald Karner; James Francfort

2007-01-01

54

Advanced control design for hybrid turboelectric vehicle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The new environment standards are a challenge and opportunity for industry and government who manufacture and operate urban mass transient vehicles. A research investigation to provide control scheme for efficient power management of the vehicle is in progress. Different design requirements using functional analysis and trade studies of alternate power sources and controls have been performed. The design issues include portability, weight and emission/fuel efficiency of induction motor, permanent magnet and battery. A strategic design scheme to manage power requirements using advanced control systems is presented. It exploits fuzzy logic, technology and rule based decision support scheme. The benefits of our study will enhance the economic and technical feasibility of technological needs to provide low emission/fuel efficient urban mass transit bus. The design team includes undergraduate researchers in our department. Sample results using NASA HTEV simulation tool are presented.

Abban, Joseph; Norvell, Johnesta; Momoh, James A.

1995-08-01

55

Millimeter wave safety warning system for in-vehicle signing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Georgia Tech Research Institute (GTRI) has developed a millimeter wave safety warning system for in-vehicle signing for use in the nation's Intelligent Transportation System (ITS, formerly IVHS). The Safety Warning System TU (SWS) utilizes a homodyne radar that operates at 24.1 GHz as both a radar and a system to transmit highway safety messages. The warning message is received by

G. Greneker

1998-01-01

56

Predicting Production Costs for Advanced Aerospace Vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

For early design concepts, the conventional approach to cost is normally some kind of parametric weight-based cost model. There is now ample evidence that this approach can be misleading and inaccurate. By the nature of its development, a parametric cost model requires historical data and is valid only if the new design is analogous to those for which the model was derived. Advanced aerospace vehicles have no historical production data and are nowhere near the vehicles of the past. Using an existing weight-based cost model would only lead to errors and distortions of the true production cost. This paper outlines the development of a process-based cost model in which the physical elements of the vehicle are soared according to a first-order dynamics model. This theoretical cost model, first advocated by early work at MIT, has been expanded to cover the basic structures of an advanced aerospace vehicle. Elemental costs based on the geometry of the design can be summed up to provide an overall estimation of the total production cost for a design configuration. This capability to directly link any design configuration to realistic cost estimation is a key requirement for high payoff MDO problems. Another important consideration in this paper is the handling of part or product complexity. Here the concept of cost modulus is introduced to take into account variability due to different materials, sizes, shapes, precision of fabrication, and equipment requirements. The most important implication of the development of the proposed process-based cost model is that different design configurations can now be quickly related to their cost estimates in a seamless calculation process easily implemented on any spreadsheet tool.

Bao, Han P.; Samareh, J. A.; Weston, R. P.

2002-01-01

57

76 FR 11418 - Rear Visibility; Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard, Rearview Mirrors; Federal Motor Vehicle...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Safety Standard, Low-Speed Vehicles; Phase-in...FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: For non-legal issues...vehicles, buses, and low-speed vehicles rated at 10...third column, the third line of S6.2(a) contains...third column, the third line of S6.2(b)...

2011-03-02

58

A SURVEY OF UNDERWATER VEHICLE NAVIGATION: RECENT ADVANCES AND  

E-print Network

A SURVEY OF UNDERWATER VEHICLE NAVIGATION: RECENT ADVANCES AND NEW CHALLENGES James C. Kinsey Ryan Preprint of: J. C. Kinsey, R. M. Eustice, and L. L. Whitcomb. A survey of underwater vehicle navigation

Whitcomb, Louis L.

59

Advanced APS Impacts on Vehicle Payloads  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Advanced auxiliary propulsion system (APS) technology has the potential to both, increase the payload capability of earth-to-orbit (ETO) vehicles by reducing APS propellant mass, and simplify ground operations and logistics by reducing the number of fluids on the vehicle and eliminating toxic, corrosive propellants. The impact of integrated cryogenic APS on vehicle payloads is addressed. In this system, launch propulsion system residuals are scavenged from integral launch propulsion tanks for use in the APS. Sufficient propellant is preloaded into the APS to return to earth with margin and noncomplete scavenging assumed. No propellant conditioning is required by the APS, but ambient heat soak is accommodated. High temperature rocket materials enable the use of the unconditioned hydrogen/oxygen in the APS and are estimated to give APS rockets specific impulse of up to about 444 sec. The payload benefits are quantified and compared with an uprated monomethyl hydrazine/nitrogen tetroxide system in a conservative fashion, by assuming a 25.5 percent weight growth for the hydrogen/oxygen system and a 0 percent weight growth for the uprated system. The combination and scavenging and high performance gives payload impacts which are highly mission specific. A payload benefit of 861 kg (1898 lbm) was estimated for a Space Station Freedom rendezvous mission and 2099 kg (4626 lbm) for a sortie mission, with payload impacts varying with the amount of launch propulsion residual propellants. Missions without liquid propellant scavenging were estimated to have payload penalties, however, operational benefits were still possible.

Schneider, Steven J.; Reed, Brian D.

1989-01-01

60

Safety and mission capabilities of manned launch vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we compare and discuss the safety of vertical launched manned spacecraft: capsules as well as winged vehicles. As examples we use HERMES and a manned capsule suitable for ARIANE 5. In the calculations we use ARIANE 5 as launcher for the compared vehicles. The installation of safety and rescue systems like ejection seats or rescue capsules always leads to additional weight and usually causes a reduction of payload capability. Due to relatively low launching rates it is hard to obtain exact safety data of manned space vehicles and launchers. Therefore we discuss the relative safety gains of different rescue systems by investigating their properties, such as mission capabilities, weight and operational aspects. We also consider the advantages of these rescue systems for the safety of manned spacecraft. The main criterion of our comparison is the payload that each type of manned vehicle is able to transport in LEO under nearly equal safety conditions during ascent - i.e., by installing comparable rescue systems. Capsules offer a better payload capability then winged launch vehicles. The advantages of winged launch vehicles must be paid for by essential loss of margins for additional safety equipment. Operational aspects like mision abort during ascent and payload accommodation are also included in this comparison.

Utz, H.; Hornik, A.; Sax, H.; Loetzerich, K.

61

Passenger vehicle safety in Australasia for different driver groups.  

PubMed

Vehicle fleets in developed countries have benefitted from improved technology and regulation leading to safer vehicles. Nevertheless, for various reasons the public do not necessarily choose particular makes and models of cars according to their safety performance. This study aimed to identify areas for potential crashworthiness improvement in the Australasian fleets by studying the distribution of these fleets according to vehicle age and estimated crashworthiness. We used an existing database that encompassed the vast majority of the crash fleets studied, with existing estimates of crashworthiness generated by the Australasian Used Car Safety Ratings project. There were clear tendencies for older and younger people to be driving less safe vehicles that were also generally older. Given that older drivers are more fragile, and hence more liable to be injured in crashes, and younger drivers have a greater propensity to crash, it is clearly undesirable that these driver groups have the least crashworthy vehicles. Some suggestions are made to encourage safer vehicle choices. PMID:21376855

Keall, Michael D; Newstead, Stuart

2011-05-01

62

Advanced missions safety. Volume 1: Executive summary  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Three separate studies were performed under the general category of advanced missions safety. Each dealt with a separate issue, was a self-contained effort, and was independent of the other two studies. The studies are titled: (1) space shuttle rescue capability, (2) experiment safety, and (3) emergency crew transfer. A separate discussion of each study is presented.

1972-01-01

63

75 FR 50958 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Motorcoach Definition; Occupant Crash Protection  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...as it captures vehicles that we have...definition applies to vehicles that are not...Federal motor vehicle safety standards...the commercial drivers' license...safety, Motor vehicles, and Tires...FEDERAL MOTOR VEHICLE SAFETY STANDARDS...including the driver), and at...

2010-08-18

64

Advanced Research with Autonomous Unmanned Aerial Vehicles Patrick Doherty  

E-print Network

Advanced Research with Autonomous Unmanned Aerial Vehicles Patrick Doherty Department of Computer Abstract The emerging area of intelligent unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) research has shown rapid for the development and integration of distributed AI technologies. The WITAS1 Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Project

Doherty, Patrick

65

Advanced hybrid vehicle propulsion system study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results are presented of a study of an advanced heat engine/electric automotive hybrid propulsion system. The system uses a rotary stratified charge engine and ac motor/controller in a parallel hybrid configuration. The three tasks of the study were (1) parametric studies involving five different vehicle types, (2) design trade-off studies to determine the influence of various vehicle and propulsion system paramaters on system performance fuel economy and cost, and (3) a conceptual design establishing feasibility at the selected approach. Energy consumption for the selected system was .034 1/km (61.3 mpg) for the heat engine and .221 kWh/km (.356 kWh/mi) for the electric power system over a modified J227 a schedule D driving cycle. Life cycle costs were 7.13 cents/km (11.5 cents/mi) at $2/gal gasoline and 7 cents/kWh electricity for 160,000 km (100,000 mi) life.

Schwarz, R.

1982-01-01

66

Advances in safety by design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New technologies that are used on remediation sites rarely undergo testing for safety and health-related impacts on the workforce and the community. A user friendly safety and health assessment tool for design evaluation can help assure the safety for operators and the public. The system involves identifying a number of technology elements, the hazards associated with them, potential human injuries associated with the technologies, and the way they were designed. The system suggests recommendations for controlling the hazards and evaluates the interaction of technology elements. During the first year, the system was prototyped to a small existing technology of very limited scope. It showed that design for safety can indeed be possible using computer-systems. The focus of the second year has been to expand the system to accommodate 10 commonly used pieces of technologies. The system was developed to be a work-in-progress design aid.

Akladios, Magdy; McMullin, Dianne; Becker, Paul E.; Gopalakrishnan, Bhaskaran; Carr, Michael; Lobo, Paul

2000-10-01

67

Millimeter wave safety warning system for in-vehicle signing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Georgia Tech Research Institute (GTRI) has developed a millimeter wave safety warning system for in vehicle signing that is soon to be tested for applicability for use in the nation's Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) (formerly IVHS). The Safety Warning System TM (SWS) utilizes a homodyne radar that operates at 24.1 GHz as both a radar and a system to transmit

G. Greneker

1997-01-01

68

Achievable safety of driverless ground vehicles Rodrigo Benenson  

E-print Network

, France michel.parent@inria.fr Abstract--Safety is an important issue of driverless car. Yet, most current guarantees can be given and how to achieve them. I. INTRODUCTION Driverless cars are an interesting roboticsAchievable safety of driverless ground vehicles Rodrigo Benenson INRIA Rocquencourt / Mines Paris

Boyer, Edmond

69

Advanced vehicle systems assessment. Volume 4: Supporting analyses  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Volume 4 (Supporting Analyses) is part of a five-volume report, Advanced Vehicle Systems Assessment. Thirty-nine individuals, knowledgeable in advanced technology, were interviewed to obtain their preferences. Rankings were calculated for the eight groups they represented, using multiplicative and additive utility models. The four topics for consideration were: (1) preferred range for various battery technologies; (2) preferred battery technology for each of a variety of travel ranges; (3) most promising battery technology, vehicle range combination; and (4) comparison of the most preferred electric vehicle with the methanol-fuled, spark-ignition engine vehicle and with the most preferred of the hybrid vehicles.

Hardy, K.

1985-01-01

70

Safety Issues with Hydrogen as a Vehicle Fuel  

SciTech Connect

This report is an initial effort to identify and evaluate safety issues associated with the use of hydrogen as a vehicle fuel in automobiles. Several forms of hydrogen have been considered: gas, liquid, slush, and hydrides. The safety issues have been discussed, beginning with properties of hydrogen and the phenomenology of hydrogen combustion. Safety-related operating experiences with hydrogen vehicles have been summarized to identify concerns that must be addressed in future design activities and to support probabilistic risk assessment. Also, applicable codes, standards, and regulations pertaining to hydrogen usage and refueling have been identified and are briefly discussed. This report serves as a safety foundation for any future hydrogen safety work, such as a safety analysis or a probabilistic risk assessment.

Cadwallader, Lee Charles; Herring, James Stephen

1999-10-01

71

Safety Issues with Hydrogen as a Vehicle Fuel  

SciTech Connect

This report is an initial effort to identify and evaluate safety issues associated with the use of hydrogen as a vehicle fuel in automobiles. Several forms of hydrogen have been considered: gas, liquid, slush, and hydrides. The safety issues have been discussed, beginning with properties of hydrogen and the phenomenology of hydrogen combustion. Safety-related operating experiences with hydrogen vehicles have been summarized to identify concerns that must be addressed in future design activities and to support probabilistic risk assessment. Also, applicable codes, standards, and regulations pertaining to hydrogen usage and refueling have been identified and are briefly discussed. This report serves as a safety foundation for any future hydrogen safety work, such as a safety analysis or a probabilistic risk assessment.

L. C. Cadwallader; J. S. Herring

1999-09-01

72

Hybrid Electic Vehicle (HEV) Safety Considerations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This module consists of a presentation and lab both concerning HEV safety and were developed to enhance automotive courses with HEV technologies through a seed grant from the CAAT. Some safety considerations discussed are wire sheathing color, safety gloves, insulated tools, multimeters, high voltage disabling procedures, and HEV smart keys. The lab will familiarize technicians with the safety precautions associated with working on HEVs such as dealing with high voltage and isolating these potentially dangerous circuits.

2013-04-11

73

Hydrogen Safety Monitoring on Challenge X Vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 2006, seventeen Universities across the United States competed in the United States Department of Energy's “Challenge X,” a project based on reengineering a General Motors Equinox vehicle to minimize energy consumption and emissions while meeting or exceeding the performance of the original vehicle. The team from Texas Tech University used National Instruments CompactRIO Programmable Automation Controller (PACs) and the

Stephen Barrett

2009-01-01

74

The Relationship between Vehicle Weight/Size and Safety  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Light-duty vehicles account for about 20% of US CO2 emissions. However, new vehicle fuel economy standards have not been significantly tightened since they were first enacted three decades ago. A historical impediment to imposing tougher fuel economy standards has been the long-standing perception that reducing the mass of a car or truck would make it more dangerous to its occupants in a crash. One often hears that this perception is dictated by "simple physics:" that, all else being equal, you are at greater risk in a lighter vehicle than in a heavier one. Our research on driver fatality risk has found that, when it comes to vehicle safety, all else is never equal. Vehicle mass is not the most important variable in determining occupant safety, not even in frontal crashes between two vehicles. You are at no greater risk driving an average car than you are driving a much heavier (and less fuel efficient) truck-based SUV. And larger and heavier truck-based SUVs and pickups impose enormous risks on car occupants. We summarize the most recent research on the interplay between vehicle weight, size and safety, and what the implications are for new state and federal standards to reduce vehicle CO2 emissions.

Wenzel, Tom; Ross, Marc

2008-09-01

75

National Highway Traffic Safety Administration: Vehicle and Equipment Information  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The National Highway Transportation Safety Administration makes it easy to track down the safety reliability records of automobiles with their newly redesigned web site. The Vehicle and Equipment page offers information on safety problems and issues, testing results, regulations and standards, and research and development. Of particular interest are searchable databases on recalls, technical service bulletins, consumer complaints, and compliance investigations; each search retrieves information specific to the make, model, and year the user enters. The vehicle owners' questionnaire can be used to submit a report of car defects that the NHTSA should investigate.

76

Safety and mission capabilities of manned launch vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The safety of vertical launched manned spacecraft, including capsules and winged vehicles, is discussed using Hermes and a manned capsule suitable for Ariane 5 as examples. The relative safety gains of different rescue systems are assessed by analyzing their properties, such as mission capabilities, weight, and operational aspects. The advantages of these rescue systems are also considered from the standpoint of the safety of manned spacecraft. The evaluation also includes such operational spects as mission abort during ascent and payload accommodation.

Utz, H.; Hornik, A.; Sax, H.; Loetzerich, K.

1992-08-01

77

ADVISOR: a systems analysis tool for advanced vehicle modeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides an overview of Advanced Vehicle Simulator (ADVISOR)—the US Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) ADVISOR written in the MATLAB\\/Simulink environment and developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. ADVISOR provides the vehicle engineering community with an easy-to-use, flexible, yet robust and supported analysis package for advanced vehicle modeling. It is primarily used to quantify the fuel economy, the performance,

T. Markel; A. Brooker; T. Hendricks; V. Johnson; K. Kelly; B. Kramer; M O’Keefe; S. Sprik; K. Wipke

2002-01-01

78

Advances in fuel cell vehicle design  

Microsoft Academic Search

Factors such as global warming, dwindling fossil fuel reserves, and energy security concerns combine to indicate that a replacement for the internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicle is needed. Fuel cell vehicles have the potential to address the problems surrounding the ICE vehicle without imposing any significant restrictions on vehicle performance, driving range, or refuelling time. Though there are currently some

Jennifer Bauman

2008-01-01

79

VEHICLE-TO-VEHICLE AND ROADSIDE SENSOR COMMUNICATION FOR ENHANCED ROAD SAFETY  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a hybrid ITS safety architecture that combines vehicle-to-vehicle communication and vehicle-to-roadside sensor communication. Opposed to dedicated roadside units, which require major investments for purchase, installation and maintenance, roadside wireless sensor and networking technology represents a cost-effective solution and can leverage the deployment of the system as a whole. Among the various services of the hybrid communication system, the

Andreas Festag; Alban Hessler; Roberto Baldessari; Wenhui Zhang; Dirk Westhoff

80

10 CFR 611.202 - Advanced Technology Vehicle Manufacturing Facility Award Program.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-01-01 false Advanced Technology Vehicle Manufacturing Facility Award... ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY VEHICLES MANUFACTURER ASSISTANCE PROGRAM...Funding Awards § 611.202 Advanced Technology Vehicle Manufacturing Facility...

2010-01-01

81

10 CFR 611.202 - Advanced Technology Vehicle Manufacturing Facility Award Program.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-01-01 false Advanced Technology Vehicle Manufacturing Facility Award... ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY VEHICLES MANUFACTURER ASSISTANCE PROGRAM...Funding Awards § 611.202 Advanced Technology Vehicle Manufacturing Facility...

2012-01-01

82

10 CFR 611.202 - Advanced Technology Vehicle Manufacturing Facility Award Program.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-01-01 false Advanced Technology Vehicle Manufacturing Facility Award... ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY VEHICLES MANUFACTURER ASSISTANCE PROGRAM...Funding Awards § 611.202 Advanced Technology Vehicle Manufacturing Facility...

2013-01-01

83

10 CFR 611.202 - Advanced Technology Vehicle Manufacturing Facility Award Program.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-01-01 false Advanced Technology Vehicle Manufacturing Facility Award... ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY VEHICLES MANUFACTURER ASSISTANCE PROGRAM...Funding Awards § 611.202 Advanced Technology Vehicle Manufacturing Facility...

2011-01-01

84

10 CFR 611.202 - Advanced Technology Vehicle Manufacturing Facility Award Program.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... 2014-01-01 false Advanced Technology Vehicle Manufacturing Facility Award... ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY VEHICLES MANUFACTURER ASSISTANCE PROGRAM...Funding Awards § 611.202 Advanced Technology Vehicle Manufacturing Facility...

2014-01-01

85

Achievable safety of driverless ground vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract—Safety is an important issue of driverless car. Yet, most current approaches fail to ensure safety even in a fully informed situation. In this paper we,discuss how,the safety criteria apply when the robot uses its on board sensors to evolve in a environment populated with static and moving obstacles. The sensors can only provide a partial and uncertain knowledge of

Rodrigo Benenson; Thierry Fraichard; Michel Parent

2008-01-01

86

Advanced technologies for rocket single-stage-to-orbit vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

A single-stage-to-orbit vertical takeoff\\/horizontal landing rocket vehicle was studied to determine the benefits of advanced technology. Advanced technologies that were included in the study were variable mixture ratio oxygen\\/hydrogen rocket engines and materials, structures, and subsystem technologies currently being developed in the National Aero-Space Plane Program. The application of advanced technology results in an 85 percent reduction in vehicle dry

Alan W. Wilhite; Lance B. Bush; Christopher I. Cruz; Roger A. Lepsch; W. Douglas Morris; Douglas O. Stanley; Kathryn E. Wurster

1991-01-01

87

Advanced structures technology and aircraft safety  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA research and development on advanced aeronautical structures technology related to flight safety is reviewed. The effort is categorized as research in the technology base and projects sponsored by the Aircraft Energy Efficiency (ACEE) Project Office. Base technology research includes mechanics of composite structures, crash dynamics, and landing dynamics. The ACEE projects involve development and fabrication of selected composite structural components for existing commercial transport aircraft. Technology emanating from this research is intended to result in airframe structures with improved efficiency and safety.

Mccomb, H. G., Jr.

1983-01-01

88

Advanced vehicle systems assessment. Volume 5: Appendices  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An appendix to the systems assessment for the electric hybrid vehicle project is presented. Included are battery design, battery cost, aluminum vehicle construction, IBM PC computer programs and battery discharge models.

Hardy, K.

1985-01-01

89

Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity: High-Percentage Hydrogen/CNG Blend, Ford F-150 -- Operating Summary  

SciTech Connect

Over the past two years, Arizona Public Service, a subsidiary of Pinnacle West Capital Corporation, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity, tested four gaseous fuel vehicles as part of its alternative fueled vehicle fleet. One vehicle operated initially using compressed natural gas (CNG) and later a blend of CNG and hydrogen. Of the other three vehicles, one was fueled with pure hydrogen and two were fueled with a blend of CNG and hydrogen. The three blended-fuel vehicles were originally equipped with either factory CNG engines or factory gasoline engines that were converted to run CNG fuel. The vehicles were variously modified to operate on blended fuel and were tested using 15 to 50% blends of hydrogen (by volume). The pure-hydrogen-fueled vehicle was converted from gasoline fuel to operate on 100% hydrogen. All vehicles were fueled from the Arizona Public Service’s Alternative Fuel Pilot Plant, which was developed to dispense gaseous fuels, including CNG, blends of CNG and hydrogen, and pure hydrogen with up to 99.9999% purity. The primary objective of the test was to evaluate the safety and reliability of operating vehicles on hydrogen and blended hydrogen fuel, and the interface between the vehicles and the hydrogen fueling infrastructure. A secondary objective was to quantify vehicle emissions, cost, and performance. Over a total of 40,000 fleet test miles, no safety issues were found. Also, significant reductions in emissions were achieved by adding hydrogen to the fuel. This report presents the results of 4,695 miles of testing for one of the blended fuel vehicles, a Ford F-150 pickup truck, operating on up to 50% hydrogen–50% CNG fuel.

Don Karner; Francfort, James Edward

2003-01-01

90

Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity: Low-Percentage Hydrogen/CNG Blend, Ford F-150 -- Operating Summary  

SciTech Connect

Over the past two years, Arizona Public Service, a subsidiary of Pinnacle West Capital Corporation, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity, tested four gaseous fuel vehicles as part of its alternative fueled vehicle fleet. One vehicle operated initially using compressed natural gas (CNG) and later a blend of CNG and hydrogen. Of the other three vehicles, one was fueled with pure hydrogen and two were fueled with a blend of CNG and hydrogen. The three blended-fuel vehicles were originally equipped with either factory CNG engines or factory gasoline engines that were converted to run CNG fuel. The vehicles were variously modified to operate on blended fuel and were tested using 15 to 50% blends of hydrogen (by volume). The pure-hydrogen-fueled vehicle was converted from gasoline fuel to operate on 100% hydrogen. All vehicles were fueled from the Arizona Public Service’s Alternative Fuel Pilot Plant, which was developed to dispense gaseous fuels, including CNG, blends of CNG and hydrogen, and pure hydrogen with up to 99.9999% purity The primary objective of the test was to evaluate the safety and reliability of operating vehicles on hydrogen and blended hydrogen fuel, and the interface between the vehicles and the hydrogen fueling infrastructure. A secondary objective was to quantify vehicle emissions, cost, and performance. Over a total of 40,000 fleet test miles, no safety issues were found. Also, significant reductions in emissions were achieved by adding hydrogen to the fuel. This report presents results of 16,942 miles of testing for one of the blended fuel vehicles, a Ford F-150 pickup truck, operating on up to 30% hydrogen/70% CNG fuel.

Karner, D.; Francfort, James Edward

2003-01-01

91

Advanced Wireless Power Transfer Vehicle and Infrastructure Analysis (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect

This presentation discusses current research at NREL on advanced wireless power transfer vehicle and infrastructure analysis. The potential benefits of E-roadway include more electrified driving miles from battery electric vehicles, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, or even properly equipped hybrid electric vehicles (i.e., more electrified miles could be obtained from a given battery size, or electrified driving miles could be maintained while using smaller and less expensive batteries, thereby increasing cost competitiveness and potential market penetration). The system optimization aspect is key given the potential impact of this technology on the vehicles, the power grid and the road infrastructure.

Gonder, J.; Brooker, A.; Burton, E.; Wang, J.; Konan, A.

2014-06-01

92

Ares I Integrated Vehicle System Safety Team  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Complex systems require integrated analysis teams which sometimes are divided into subsystem teams. Proper division of the analysis in to subsystem teams is important. Safety analysis is one of the most difficult aspects of integration.

Wetherholt, Jon; McNairy, Lisa; Shackelford, Carla

2009-01-01

93

Chapter 15 -Motor Vehicle Maintenance Safety Rules  

E-print Network

and protective clothing shall also be worn. 2. Mechanics shall not wear loose clothing around rotating equipment. Employees shall not use defective electrical or mechanical shop equipment or hand tools. All automotive shop capacity recommended by the manufacturer. Employees shall not remain in vehicles being lifted by hydraulic

94

Robust flight design for an advanced launch system vehicle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Current launch vehicle trajectory design philosophies are generally based on maximizing payload capability. This approach results in an expensive trajectory design process for each mission. Two concepts of robust flight design have been developed to significantly reduce this cost: Standardized Trajectories and Command Multiplier Steering (CMS). These concepts were analyzed for an Advanced Launch System (ALS) vehicle, although their applicability is not restricted to any particular vehicle. Preliminary analysis has demonstrated the feasibility of these concepts at minimal loss in payload capability.

Dhand, Sanjeev K.; Wong, Kelvin K.

1991-01-01

95

Hydrogen safety monitoring on Challenge X vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 2006, 17 Universities across the U.S. competed in the US Department of Energy's ¿Challenge X,¿ a project based on reengineering a GM Equinox to minimize energy consumption and emissions while meeting or exceeding the performance of the original vehicle. The team from Texas Tech University used National Instruments CompactRIO Programmable Automation Controller (PACs) and the LabVIEW Real-Time Operating System

J. Hines; S. Barrett

2009-01-01

96

Alternative Fuel and Advanced Vehicle Tools (AFAVT), AFDC (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect

The Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Web site offers a collection of calculators, interactive maps, and informational tools to assist fleets, fuel providers, and others looking to reduce petroleum consumption in the transportation sector.

Not Available

2010-01-01

97

Advanced vehicle systems assessment. Volume 2: Subsystems assessment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Volume 2 (Subsystems Assessment) is part of a five-volume report entitled Advanced Vehicle Systems Assessment. Volume 2 presents the projected performance capabilities and cost characteristics of applicable subsystems, considering an additional decade of development. Subsystems of interest include energy storage and conversion devices as well as the necessary powertrain components and vehicle subsystems. Volume 2 also includes updated battery information based on the assessment of an independent battery review board (with the aid of subcontractor reports on advanced battery characteristics).

Hardy, K.

1985-01-01

98

Natural Gas Vehicle Cylinder Safety, Training and Inspection Project  

SciTech Connect

Under the auspices of the National Energy Technology Laboratory and the US Department of Energy, the Clean Vehicle Education Foundation conducted a three-year program to increase the understanding of the safe and proper use and maintenance of vehicular compressed natural gas (CNG) fuel systems. High-pressure fuel systems require periodic inspection and maintenance to insure safe and proper operation. The project addressed the needs of CNG fuel containers (cylinders) and associated high-pressure fuel system components related to existing law, codes and standards (C&S), available training and inspection programs, and assured coordination among vehicle users, public safety officials, fueling station operators and training providers. The program included a public and industry awareness campaign, establishment and administration of a cylinder inspector certification training scholarship program, evaluation of current safety training and testing practices, monitoring and investigation of CNG vehicle incidents, evaluation of a cylinder recertification program and the migration of CNG vehicle safety knowledge to the nascent hydrogen vehicle community.

Hank Seiff

2008-12-31

99

Advanced protection technology for ground combat vehicles.  

PubMed

Just as highway drivers use radar detectors to attempt to stay ahead of police armed with the latest radar technology, the Armed Forces are locked in a spiral to protect combat vehicles and their crews against the latest threats in both the contemporary operating environment and the anticipated operating environment (ie, beyond 2020). In response to bigger, heavier, or better-protected vehicles, adversaries build and deploy larger explosive devices or bombs. However, making improvements to combat vehicles is much more expensive than deploying larger explosives. In addition, demand is increasing for lighter-weight vehicles capable of rapid deployment. Together, these two facts give the threat a clear advantage in the future. To protect vehicles and crews, technologies focusing on detection and hit avoidance, denial of penetration, and crew survivability must be combined synergistically to provide the best chance of survival on the modern battlefield. PMID:22865132

Bosse, Timothy G

2012-01-01

100

Toyota Prius Plug-In HEV: A Plug-In Hybrid Electric Car in NREL's Advanced Technology Vehicle Fleet (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect

This fact sheet highlights the Toyota Prius plug-in HEV, a plug-in hybrid electric car in the advanced technology vehicle fleet at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). In partnership with the University of Colorado, NREL uses the vehicle for grid-integration studies and for testing new hardware and charge-management algorithms. NREL's advanced technology vehicle fleet features promising technologies to increase efficiency and reduce emissions without sacrificing safety or comfort. The fleet serves as a technology showcase, helping visitors learn about innovative vehicles that are available today or are in development. Vehicles in the fleet are representative of current, advanced, prototype, and emerging technologies.

Not Available

2011-10-01

101

Advanced propulsion system concept for hybrid vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A series hybrid system, utilizing a free piston Stirling engine with a linear alternator, and a parallel hybrid system, incorporating a kinematic Stirling engine, are analyzed for various specified reference missions/vehicles ranging from a small two passenger commuter vehicle to a van. Parametric studies for each configuration, detail tradeoff studies to determine engine, battery and system definition, short term energy storage evaluation, and detail life cycle cost studies were performed. Results indicate that the selection of a parallel Stirling engine/electric, hybrid propulsion system can significantly reduce petroleum consumption by 70 percent over present conventional vehicles.

Bhate, S.; Chen, H.; Dochat, G.

1980-01-01

102

Advances in hypersonic vehicle synthesis with application to studies of advanced thermal protection system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report summarizes the work entitled 'Advances in Hypersonic Vehicle Synthesis with Application to Studies of Advanced Thermal Protection Systems.' The effort was in two areas: (1) development of advanced methods of trajectory and propulsion system optimization; and (2) development of advanced methods of structural weight estimation. The majority of the effort was spent in the trajectory area.

Ardema, Mark D.

1995-01-01

103

Attitudes of commercial motor vehicle drivers towards safety belts.  

PubMed

Despite the fact that Hawaii has one of the highest seat belt use rates for passenger vehicles in the United States, and has had a mandatory seat belt use law since the 1980s, studies have shown that commercial motor vehicles (CMV) seat belt use rates are low. To better understand this phenomenon, a comprehensive survey of commercial vehicle drivers was conducted in Hawaii to ascertain attitudes and self-reported behaviors regarding seat belt use. A total of 791 drivers responded to a written questionnaire implemented at weigh stations and distributed to various trucking firms and transport centers. Approximately 67% reported that they use seat belts "always" when driving a CMV (commercial motor vehicle), yet when asked how often do other CMV drivers use seat belts, only 31% responded "always." Interestingly, 86% of these same drivers reported that they use seat belts "always" when driving a personal vehicle. The major reason cited for non-use of belts was "frequent stops/inconvenience" (29%), and "not safety conscious" (23%). Notably, the self-reported use of safety belts is highest among operators of vans (88% said "always"), followed by buses (87% said "always") and lowest among truck drivers (only 60% said "always"). In this paper, some of the differences between self-reported users and non-users are explored and a multivariate logit model was developed to predict the odds of belt use as a function of various factors. PMID:17920831

Kim, Karl; Yamashita, Eric Y

2007-11-01

104

First Responder Safety Training for Electric and Hybrid Vehicles  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This module was created to educate first responders on the hazards of electric, hybrid, fuel cell, and other alternative fuel vehicles applying to collisions, fires, floods, and more. These materials were used in a four hour first responders training workshop developed by START (specialized training in advanced rescue techniques) and funded by the CAAT.

2013-04-11

105

Advancing Pedestrian Safety at Rail Grade Crossings Paul Metaxatos and P.S. Sriraj  

E-print Network

Advancing Pedestrian Safety at Rail Grade Crossings Paul Metaxatos and P.S. Sriraj Urban1 2 Contrary to the declining number of fatalities due to train-vehicle collisions at highway-3 rail grade crossings, the number of pedestrian and bicycle fatalities at highway- and4 pathway-rail grade

Illinois at Chicago, University of

106

76 FR 55859 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards No. 121; Air Brake Systems  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard...newly-manufactured vehicles equipped with...agency require a driver-controllable...increase in two-vehicle rear end crashes...the striking vehicle. However, this...mph, allowing drivers to disable the...altogether on heavy vehicles. The...

2011-09-09

107

40 CFR 1037.615 - Hybrid vehicles and other advanced technologies.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Hybrid vehicles and other advanced technologies. 1037.615 Section 1037.615... Hybrid vehicles and other advanced technologies. (a) This section applies...part 1036. (b) Generate advanced technology emission credits for hybrid...

2013-07-01

108

Improved Range Safety Analysis for Space Vehicles Using Range Safety Template Toolkit  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper discusses an alternative to traditional methodologies for space launch and re-entry vehicle range safety analysis using the Range Safety Template Toolkit (RSTT), developed by Australia's Defense Science and Technology Organization (DSTO) in partnership with Aerospace Concepts Pty Ltd. RSTT offers rapid generation of mission-specific safety templates that comply with internationally-recognized standards for range risk criteria. Compared to some traditional methods, RSTT produces more accurate assessments of risk to personnel and infrastructure. This provides range operators with greater confidence in the range safety products, enhancing their ability to rigorously manage safety on their ranges. RSTT also offers increased precision of risk analysis and iteration of mission design allowing greater flexibility in planning range operations with rapid feedback on the safety impact of mission changes. These concepts are explored through examples involving a suborbital sounding rocket, demonstrating how traditional range safety assumptions may be reassessed using the RSTT robust probabilistic methodology.

Tisato, J.; Vuletich, I.; Brett, M.; Williams, W.; Wilson, S.

2012-01-01

109

ADVANCES IN PRECISION NAVIGATION OF UNDERWATER VEHICLES  

E-print Network

-situ calibration of the alignment rotation matrix between Doppler sonar and attitude sensors. Two new methods are developed employing inertial data, depth data, and Doppler sonar data to perform align- ment calibration improving the attitude estimation based on low-cost inertial sensors. Based on the vehicle frame velocity

Whitcomb, Louis L.

110

Advanced propulsion system for hybrid vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A number of hybrid propulsion systems were evaluated for application in several different vehicle sizes. A conceptual design was prepared for the most promising configuration. Various system configurations were parametrically evaluated and compared, design tradeoffs performed, and a conceptual design produced. Fifteen vehicle/propulsion systems concepts were parametrically evaluated to select two systems and one vehicle for detailed design tradeoff studies. A single hybrid propulsion system concept and vehicle (five passenger family sedan)were selected for optimization based on the results of the tradeoff studies. The final propulsion system consists of a 65 kW spark-ignition heat engine, a mechanical continuously variable traction transmission, a 20 kW permanent magnet axial-gap traction motor, a variable frequency inverter, a 386 kg lead-acid improved state-of-the-art battery, and a transaxle. The system was configured with a parallel power path between the heat engine and battery. It has two automatic operational modes: electric mode and heat engine mode. Power is always shared between the heat engine and battery during acceleration periods. In both modes, regenerative braking energy is absorbed by the battery.

Norrup, L. V.; Lintz, A. T.

1980-01-01

111

Continuously variable transmission: Assessment of applicability to advance electric vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A brief historical account of the evolution of continuously variable transmissions (CVT) for automotive use is given. The CVT concepts which are potentially suitable for application with electric and hybrid vehicles are discussed. The arrangement and function of several CVT concepts are cited along with their current developmental status. The results of preliminary design studies conducted on four CVT concepts for use in advanced electric vehicles are discussed.

Loewenthal, S. H.; Parker, R. J.

1981-01-01

112

Safety operation experiment for M-V launch vehicle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Safety Operation Experiment was executed using the SO-520 motor which is the simulation motor of the 1st stage of the M-V launch vehicle. Since 1970, the Institute of Space and Astronautical Science has successfully launched twenty scientific satellites by the Mu Launch Vehicle, which is a solid fueled launch vehicle, and the M-V, the next generation of Mu family, is under development. In the launching phase, there is a possibility of the destruction of the launch vehicle by the command from the ground station when the hazardous situation would be foreseen. That is usually called the Safety Operation (SO). SO-520 Motor was ignited and, after thirteen seconds, the chamber was split by the linear-shaped charge installed on the symmetrical position of the motor case in parallel. The distribution of the scattered solid propellant was measured where the ballistic coefficient is a parameter, and the blast, acoustic, elastic, and seismic waves were measured. The experiment was optically monitored and recorded. Analytical method for predicting the maximum range of the scattered propellant fragments was presented and it was confirmed that it is a useful method for that purpose.

Nakajima, T.; Hinada, M.; Akiba, R.; Kohno, M.; Matogawa, Y.; Ishii, N.

1991-10-01

113

Advanced continuously variable transmissions for electric and hybrid vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A brief survey of past and present continuously variable transmissions (CVT) which are potentially suitable for application with electric and hybrid vehicles is presented. Discussion of general transmission requirements and benefits attainable with a CVT for electric vehicle use is given. The arrangement and function of several specific CVT concepts are cited along with their current development status. Lastly, the results of preliminary design studies conducted under a NASA contract for DOE on four CVT concepts for use in advanced electric vehicles are reviewed.

Loewenthal, S. H.

1980-01-01

114

Advanced Guidance and Control Project for Reusable Launch Vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The goals of this project are to significantly reduce the time and cost associated with guidance and control design for reusable launch vehicles, and to increase their safety and reliability. Success will lead to reduced cycle times during vehicle design and to reduced costs associated with flying to new orbits, with new payloads, and with modified vehicles. Success will also lead to more robustness to unforeseen circumstances in flight thereby enhancing safety and reducing risk. There are many guidance and control methods available that hold some promise for improvement in the desired areas. Investigators are developing a representative set of independent guidance and control methods for this project. These methods are being incorporated into a high-fidelity off is being conducted across a broad range of flight requirements. The guidance and control methods that perform the best will have demonstrated the desired qualities.

Hanson, John M.

2000-01-01

115

Advanced Research with Autonomous Unmanned Aerial Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The emerging area of intelligent unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) research has shown rapid development in recent years and offers a great number of research challenges for artifi-cial intelligence and knowledge representation. Much pre-vious research has focused on low-level control capability with the goal of developing controllers which support the autonomous flight of a UAV from one way-point to another. The

Patrick Doherty

2004-01-01

116

Advanced propulsion systems for urban rail vehicles  

SciTech Connect

This book is in two parts. Part I reviews the performance characteristics, the significant advantages and disadvantages, and the deployment of hardware in revenue service for the advanced traction systems developed as a result of recent advances in semiconductor technology. Part II investigates the electromagnetic compatibility of chopper and inverter drives with telephone, radio and television circuits and with the in-house data transmission equipment.

Nene, V.D.

1985-01-01

117

Fuel Properties Database from the Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (AFDC)  

DOE Data Explorer

This database contains information on advanced petroleum and non-petroleum based fuels, as well as key data on advanced compression ignition fuels. Included are data on physical, chemical, operational, environmental, safety, and health properties. These data result from tests conducted according to standard methods (mostly American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM). The source and test methods for each fuel data set are provided with the information. The database can be searched in various ways and can output numbers or explanatory text. Heavy vehicle chassis emission data are also available for some fuels.

118

Automated Mixed Traffic Vehicle (AMTV) technology and safety study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Technology and safety related to the implementation of an Automated Mixed Traffic Vehicle (AMTV) system are discussed. System concepts and technology status were reviewed and areas where further development is needed are identified. Failure and hazard modes were also analyzed and methods for prevention were suggested. The results presented are intended as a guide for further efforts in AMTV system design and technology development for both near term and long term applications. The AMTV systems discussed include a low speed system, and a hybrid system consisting of low speed sections and high speed sections operating in a semi-guideway. The safety analysis identified hazards that may arise in a properly functioning AMTV system, as well as hardware failure modes. Safety related failure modes were emphasized. A risk assessment was performed in order to create a priority order and significant hazards and failure modes were summarized. Corrective measures were proposed for each hazard.

Johnston, A. R.; Peng, T. K. C.; Vivian, H. C.; Wang, P. K.

1978-01-01

119

Advanced electromagnetic methods for aerospace vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

High- and low-frequency methods to analyze various radiation elements located on aerospace vehicles with combinations of conducting, nonconducting, and energy absorbing surfaces and interfaces. The focus was on developing fundamental concepts, techniques, and algorithms which would remove some of the present limitations in predicting radiation characteristics of antennas on complex aerospace vehicles. In order to accomplish this, the following subjects were examined: (1) the development of techniques for rigorous analysis of surface discontinuities of metallic and nonmetallic surfaces using the equivalent surface impedance concept and Green's function; (2) the effects of anisotropic material on antenna radiation patterns through the use of an equivalent surface impedance concept which is incorporated into the existing numerical electromagnetics computer codes; and (3) the fundamental concepts of precipitation static (P-Static), such as formulations and analytical models. A computer code was used to model the P-Static process on a simple structure. Measurement techniques were also developed to characterized the electrical properties at microwave frequencies. Samples of typical materials used in airframes were tested and the results are included.

Balanis, Constantine A.; Choi, Jachoon; El-Sharawy, El-Budawy; Hashemi-Yeganeh, Shahrokh; Birtcher, Craig R.

1990-01-01

120

A comparison of safety belt use between commercial and noncommercial light-vehicle occupants.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to conduct an observational survey of safety belt use to determine the use rate of commercial versus noncommercial light-vehicle occupants. Observations were conducted on front-outboard vehicle occupants in eligible commercial and noncommercial vehicles in Michigan (i.e.. passenger cars, vans/minivans, sport-utility vehicles, and pickup trucks). Commercial vehicles that did not fit into one of the four vehicle type categories, such as tractor-trailers, buses, or heavy trucks, were not included in the survey. The study found that the restraint use rate for commercial light-vehicle occupants was 55.8% statewide. The statewide safety belt use rate for commercial light-vehicles was significantly lower than the rate of 71.2% for noncommercial light-vehicles. The safety belt use rate for commercial vehicles was also significantly different as a function of region, vehicle type, seating position, age group, and road type. The results provide important preliminary data about safety belt use in commercial versus noncommercial light-vehicles and indicate that further effort is needed to promote safety belt use in the commercial light-vehicle occupant population. The study also suggests that additional research is required in order to develop effective programs that address low safety belt use in the commercial light-vehicle occupant population. PMID:11939357

Eby, David W; Fordyce, Tiffani A; Vivoda, Jonathon M

2002-05-01

121

Advanced Vehicle Technology Analysis and Evaluation Team  

E-print Network

Validation PSAT-PRO HIL Control Software PSATPSAT--PROPRO HIL Control SoftwareHIL Control Software AnalysisNational Impacts Analysis (EERE)Analysis (EERE) #12;4 Past Projects · Development of map-based and engineering attributes · MATLAB/Simulink environment Lab Testing · Advanced Powertrain Research Facility · Re

122

Advanced batteries for electrically powered underwater vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electric propulsion systems have numerous benefits for unmanned, untethered submersibles. However, the low energy density and low specific energy of conventional batteries have made electric systems large and heavy. Four advanced battery technologies, currently under development at Gould, are substantially smaller and lighter than conventional batteries having equivalent power and energy capabilities. Rechargeable high temperature lithium alloy-iron sulfide cells which

S. Specht

1987-01-01

123

Improving Safety for Driverless City Vehicles: Real-Time Communication and Decision Making  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper elaborates on the Cybercars-2 Wireless Communication Framework for driverless city vehicles, which is used for Vehicle-to-Vehicle and Vehicle-to-Infrastructure communication. The developed framework improves the safety and efficiency of driverless city vehicles. Furthermore, this paper also elaborates on the vehicle control software architecture. On-road tests of both the communication framework and its application for real-time decision making show that

Andrei Furda; Laurent Bouraoui; Michel Parent; Ljubo Vlacic

2010-01-01

124

Ejection safety for advanced fighter helmets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The old saying, `Safety is paramount.' was never more true than it is in the area of ejection safety for high-speed fighter aircraft. The fighter aircraft of today has been designed to endure tremendous structural loading during dogfight or evasive maneuvers. It can fly faster, turn quicker, stay in the air longer (with in-flight refuel) and carry more bombs than its predecessor. Because of human physiological limits, the human has become the weak link in today's fighter aircraft. The fighter pilot must endure and function with peak performance in conditions that are much worse than anything the majority of us will ever encounter. When these conditions reach a point that human endurance is exceeded, devices such as anti-g suits and positive pressure breathing apparatus help the fighter pilot squeeze out that extra percentage of strength necessary to outperform the opponent. As fighter aircraft become more sophisticated, helmet trackers, helmet displays and noise cancellation devices are being added to the helmet. Yet the fighter pilot's helmet must remain lightweight and be aesthetically appealing, while still offering ballistic protection. It must function with existing life support equipment such as the Combined Advanced Technology Enhanced Design g-Ensemble (COMBAT-EDGE). It must not impede the pilot's ability to perform any action necessary to accomplish the planned mission. The helmet must protect the pilot during the harsh environment of ejection. When the pilot's only resort is to pull the handle and initiate the ejection sequence, the helmet becomes his salvation or instant death. This paper discusses the safety concerns relative to the catapult phase of ejecting from a high-speed fighter while wearing an advanced fighter helmet.

Wiley, Larry L.; Brown, Randall W.; MacMillan, Robert T.

1995-05-01

125

innovati nAdvanced Heat Transfer Technologies Increase Vehicle  

E-print Network

, converters, and inverters that condition the flow of electrical power between the battery and the electric for demonstration and testing. This test vehicle's battery is being recharged by a photovoltaic system on NREL's campus. Tomorrow's plug-in hybrids will depend heavily on advanced batteries and reliable, cost

126

Advanced Underground Vehicle Power and Control Fuelcell Mine Locomotive  

E-print Network

Advanced Underground Vehicle Power and Control Fuelcell Mine Locomotive U.S. Department of Energy Street, Suite 2131 Denver, CO 80293 #12;FOUR-TON MINE LOCOMOTIVE Reno, Nevada ­ November 2002 #12;LOCOMOTIVE PROJECT PARTNERS CANMET ­ Underground testing Fuelcell Propulsion Institute ­ Industry oversight

127

Advanced Plug-in Electric Vehicle Travel and Charging  

E-print Network

Advanced Plug-in Electric Vehicle Travel and Charging Behavior UC Davis Plug-in Hybrid and Electric household travel dynamics. How is the PEV used compared to other cars? EVMT impacts? · Determine charging/needs, Important destinations, HOV usage · Home and work charging infrastructure · Electricity prices · Purchase

California at Davis, University of

128

Auxiliary propulsion technology for advanced Earth-to-orbit vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The payload which can be delivered to orbit by advanced Earth-to-Orbit vehicles is significantly increased by advanced subsystem technology. Any weight which can be saved by advanced subsystem design can be converted to payload at Main Engine Cut Off (MECO) given the same launch vehicle performance. The auxiliary propulsion subsystem and the impetus for the current hydrogen/oxygen technology program is examined. A review of the auxiliary propulsion requirements of advanced Earth-to-Orbit (ETO) vehicles and their proposed missions is given first. Then the performance benefits of hydrogen/oxygen auxiliary propulsion are illustrated using current shuttle data. The proposed auxiliary propulsion subsystem implementation includes liquid hydrogen/liquid oxygen (LH2/LO2) primary Reaction Control System (RCS) engines and gaseous hydrogen/gaseous oxygen (GH2/GO2) vernier RCS engines. A distribution system for the liquid cryogens to the engines is outlined. The possibility of providing one dual-phase engine that can operate on either liquid or gaseous propellants is being explored, as well as the simultaneous firing of redundant primary RCS thrusters to provide Orbital Maneuvering System (OMS) level impulse. Scavenging of propellants from integral main engine tankage is proposed to utilize main engine tank residuals and to combine launch vehicle and subsystem reserves.

Schneider, Steven J.

1987-01-01

129

Results of advanced battery technology evaluations for electric vehicle applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Advanced battery technology evaluations are performed under simulated electric-vehicle operating conditions at the Analysis and Diagnostic Laboratory (ADL) of Argonne National Laboratory. The ADL results provide insight into those factors that limit battery performance and life. The ADL facilities include a test laboratory to conduct battery experimental evaluations under simulated application conditions and a post-test analysis laboratory to determine, in

W. H. Deluca; K. R. Gillie; J. E. Kulaga; J. A. Smaga; A. F. Tummillo; C. E. Webster

1992-01-01

130

A Plan for Advanced Guidance and Control Technology for 2nd Generation Reusable Launch Vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Advanced guidance and control (AG&C) technologies are critical for meeting safety/reliability and cost requirements for the next generation of reusable launch vehicle (RLV). This becomes clear upon examining the number of expendable launch vehicle failures in the recent past where AG&C technologies would have saved a RLV with the same failure mode, the additional vehicle problems where this technology applies, and the costs associated with mission design with or without all these failure issues. The state-of-the-art in guidance and control technology, as well as in computing technology, is at the point where we can took to the possibility of being able to safely return a RLV in any situation where it can physically be recovered. This paper outlines reasons for AG&C, current technology efforts, and the additional work needed for making this goal a reality.

Hanson, John M.; Fogle, Frank (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

131

Advanced electromagnetic methods for aerospace vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Advanced Helicopter Electromagnetics (AHE) Industrial Associates Program continues its research on variety of main topics identified and recommended by the Advisory Task Force of the program. The research activities center on issues that advance technology related to helicopter electromagnetics. While most of the topics are a continuation of previous works, special effort has been focused on some of the areas due to recommendations from the last annual conference. The main topics addressed in this report are: composite materials, and antenna technology. The area of composite materials continues getting special attention in this period. The research has focused on: (1) measurements of the electrical properties of low-conductivity materials; (2) modeling of material discontinuity and their effects on the scattering patterns; (3) preliminary analysis on interaction of electromagnetic fields with multi-layered graphite fiberglass plates; and (4) finite difference time domain (FDTD) modeling of fields penetration through composite panels of a helicopter.

Balanis, Constantine A.; Sun, Weimin; El-Sharawy, El-Budawy; Aberle, James T.; Birtcher, Craig R.; Peng, Jian; Tirkas, Panayiotis A.

1992-01-01

132

76 FR 53102 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Denial of Petition for Rulemaking; School Buses  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...bus'' is a motor vehicle, except a trailer...school buses with a gross vehicle weight rating (GVWR...Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard (FMVSS...shoulder belts to these vehicles. Large school buses...often with a teenage driver. When alternative...

2011-08-25

133

77 FR 37477 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Glazing Materials  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...motor vehicles and motor vehicles equipment. S2. Purpose...transparency in motor vehicle windows for driver visibility, and to...being thrown through the vehicle windows in collisions...multipurpose passenger vehicles, trucks, buses,...

2012-06-21

134

Rules of the Road for Transporting Children--Guidelines for Developing a Motor Vehicle Safety Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses safety issues for child care centers that provide transportation for children. Notes the importance of vehicle usage and control, driver qualifications, vehicle maintenance, child securement, accident procedures, and driver education and training. (JPB)

Hooker, Bruce; Gearhart, Kentin

1999-01-01

135

Advanced electromagnetic methods for aerospace vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Advanced Helicopter Electromagnetics is centered on issues that advance technology related to helicopter electromagnetics. Progress was made on three major topics: composite materials; precipitation static corona discharge; and antenna technology. In composite materials, the research has focused on the measurements of their electrical properties, and the modeling of material discontinuities and their effect on the radiation pattern of antennas mounted on or near material surfaces. The electrical properties were used to model antenna performance when mounted on composite materials. Since helicopter platforms include several antenna systems at VHF and UHF bands, measuring techniques are being explored that can be used to measure the properties at these bands. The effort on corona discharge and precipitation static was directed toward the development of a new two dimensional Voltage Finite Difference Time Domain computer program. Results indicate the feasibility of using potentials for simulating electromagnetic problems in the cases where potentials become primary sources. In antenna technology the focus was on Polarization Diverse Conformal Microstrip Antennas, Cavity Backed Slot Antennas, and Varactor Tuned Circular Patch Antennas. Numerical codes were developed for the analysis of two probe fed rectangular and circular microstrip patch antennas fed by resistive and reactive power divider networks.

Balanis, Constantine A.; El-Sharawy, El-Budawy; Hashemi-Yeganeh, Shahrokh; Aberle, James T.; Birtcher, Craig R.

1991-01-01

136

ADVISOR: a systems analysis tool for advanced vehicle modeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper provides an overview of Advanced Vehicle Simulator (ADVISOR)—the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) ADVISOR written in the MATLAB/Simulink environment and developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. ADVISOR provides the vehicle engineering community with an easy-to-use, flexible, yet robust and supported analysis package for advanced vehicle modeling. It is primarily used to quantify the fuel economy, the performance, and the emissions of vehicles that use alternative technologies including fuel cells, batteries, electric motors, and internal combustion engines in hybrid (i.e. multiple power sources) configurations. It excels at quantifying the relative change that can be expected due to the implementation of technology compared to a baseline scenario. ADVISOR's capabilities and limitations are presented and the power source models that are included in ADVISOR are discussed. Finally, several applications of the tool are presented to highlight ADVISOR's functionality. The content of this paper is based on a presentation made at the 'Development of Advanced Battery Engineering Models' workshop held in Crystal City, Virginia in August 2001.

Markel, T.; Brooker, A.; Hendricks, T.; Johnson, V.; Kelly, K.; Kramer, B.; O'Keefe, M.; Sprik, S.; Wipke, K.

137

An advanced unmanned vehicle for remote applications  

SciTech Connect

An autonomous mobile robotic capability is critical to developing remote work applications for hazardous environments. A few potential applications include humanitarian demining and ordnance neutralization, extraterrestrial science exploration, and hazardous waste cleanup. The ability of the remote platform to sense and maneuver within its environment is a basic technology requirement which is currently lacking. This enabling technology will open the door for force multiplication and cost effective solutions to remote operations. The ultimate goal of this work is to develop a mobile robotic platform that can identify and avoid local obstacles as it traverses from its current location to a specified destination. This goal directed autonomous navigation scheme uses the Global Positioning System (GPS) to identify the robot`s current coordinates in space and neural network processing of LADAR range images for local obstacle detection and avoidance. The initial year funding provided by this LDRD project has developed a small exterior mobile robotic development platform and a fieldable version of Sandia`s Scannerless Range Imager (SRI) system. The robotic testbed platform is based on the Surveillance And Reconnaissance ground Equipment (SARGE) robotic vehicle design recently developed for the US DoD. Contingent upon follow-on funding, future enhancements will develop neural network processing of the range map data to traverse unstructured exterior terrain while avoiding obstacles. The SRI will provide real-time range images to a neural network for autonomous guidance. Neural network processing of the range map data will allow real-time operation on a Pentium based embedded processor board.

Pletta, J.B.; Sackos, J.

1998-03-01

138

Control definition study for advanced vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The low speed, high angle of attack flight mechanics of an advanced, canard-configured, supersonic tactical aircraft designed with moderate longitudinal relaxed static stability (Static Margin, SM = 16% C sub W at M = 0.4) was investigated. Control laws were developed for the longitudinal axis (""G'' or maneuver and angle of attack command systems) and for the lateral/directional axes. The performance of these control laws was examined in engineering simulation. A canard deflection/rate requirement study was performed as part of the ""G'' command law evaluation at low angles of attack. Simulated coupled maneuvers revealed the need for command limiters in all three aircraft axes to prevent departure from controlled flight. When modified with command/maneuver limiters, the control laws were shown to be adequate to prevent aircraft departure during aggressive air combat maneuvering.

Lapins, M.; Martorella, R. P.; Klein, R. W.; Meyer, R. C.; Sturm, M. J.

1983-01-01

139

An economic study of an advanced technology supersonic cruise vehicle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A description is given of the methods used and the results of an economic study of an advanced technology supersonic cruise vehicle. This vehicle was designed for a maximum range of 4000 n.mi. at a cruise speed of Mach 2.7 and carrying 292 passengers. The economic study includes the estimation of aircraft unit cost, operating cost, and idealized cash flow and discounted cash flow return on investment. In addition, it includes a sensitivity study on the effects of unit cost, manufacturing cost, production quantity, average trip length, fuel cost, load factor, and fare on the aircraft's economic feasibility.

Smith, C. L.; Williams, L. J.

1975-01-01

140

Adaptive Modeling, Engineering Analysis and Design of Advanced Aerospace Vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes initial progress towards the development and enhancement of a set of software tools for rapid adaptive modeling, and conceptual design of advanced aerospace vehicle concepts. With demanding structural and aerodynamic performance requirements, these high fidelity geometry based modeling tools are essential for rapid and accurate engineering analysis at the early concept development stage. This adaptive modeling tool was used for generating vehicle parametric geometry, outer mold line and detailed internal structural layout of wing, fuselage, skin, spars, ribs, control surfaces, frames, bulkheads, floors, etc., that facilitated rapid finite element analysis, sizing study and weight optimization. The high quality outer mold line enabled rapid aerodynamic analysis in order to provide reliable design data at critical flight conditions. Example application for structural design of a conventional aircraft and a high altitude long endurance vehicle configuration are presented. This work was performed under the Conceptual Design Shop sub-project within the Efficient Aerodynamic Shape and Integration project, under the former Vehicle Systems Program. The project objective was to design and assess unconventional atmospheric vehicle concepts efficiently and confidently. The implementation may also dramatically facilitate physics-based systems analysis for the NASA Fundamental Aeronautics Mission. In addition to providing technology for design and development of unconventional aircraft, the techniques for generation of accurate geometry and internal sub-structure and the automated interface with the high fidelity analysis codes could also be applied towards the design of vehicles for the NASA Exploration and Space Science Mission projects.

Mukhopadhyay, Vivek; Hsu, Su-Yuen; Mason, Brian H.; Hicks, Mike D.; Jones, William T.; Sleight, David W.; Chun, Julio; Spangler, Jan L.; Kamhawi, Hilmi; Dahl, Jorgen L.

2006-01-01

141

Advanced electromagnetic methods for aerospace vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Advanced Helicopter Electromagnetics (AHE) Industrial Associates Program has continuously progressed with its research effort focused on subjects identified and recommended by the Advisory Task Force of the program. The research activities in this reporting period have been steered toward practical helicopter electromagnetic problems, such as HF antenna problems and antenna efficiencies, recommended by the AHE members at the annual conference held at Arizona State University on 28-29 Oct. 1992 and the last biannual meeting held at the Boeing Helicopter on 19-20 May 1993. The main topics addressed include the following: Composite Materials and Antenna Technology. The research work on each topic is closely tied with the AHE Consortium members' interests. Significant progress in each subject is reported. Special attention in the area of Composite Materials has been given to the following: modeling of material discontinuity and their effects on towel-bar antenna patterns; guidelines for composite material modeling by using the Green's function approach in the NEC code; measurements of towel-bar antennas grounded with a partially material-coated plate; development of 3-D volume mesh generator for modeling thick and volumetric dielectrics by using FD-TD method; FDTD modeling of horn antennas with composite E-plane walls; and antenna efficiency analysis for a horn antenna loaded with composite dielectric materials.

Balanis, Constantine A.; Sun, Weimin; El-Sharawy, El-Budawy; Aberle, James T.; Birtcher, Craig R.; Peng, Jian; Tirkas, Panayiotis A.; Kokotoff, David; Zavosh, Frank

1993-01-01

142

Advanced electromagnetic methods for aerospace vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Advanced Helicopter Electromagnetics (AHE) Industrial Associates Program has fruitfully completed its fourth year. Under the support of the AHE members and the joint effort of the research team, new and significant progress has been achieved in the year. Following the recommendations by the Advisory Task Force, the research effort is placed on more practical helicopter electromagnetic problems, such as HF antennas, composite materials, and antenna efficiencies. In this annual report, the main topics to be addressed include composite materials and antenna technology. The research work on each topic has been driven by the AHE consortium members' interests and needs. The remarkable achievements and progresses in each subject is reported respectively in individual sections of the report. The work in the area of composite materials includes: modeling of low conductivity composite materials by using Green's function approach; guidelines for composite material modeling by using the Green's function approach in the NEC code; development of 3-D volume mesh generator for modeling thick and volumetric dielectrics by using FD-TD method; modeling antenna elements mounted on a composite Comanche tail stabilizer; and antenna pattern control and efficiency estimate for a horn antenna loaded with composite dielectric materials.

Balanis, Constantine A.; Sun, Weimin; El-Sharawy, El-Budawy; Aberle, James T.; Birtcher, Craig R.; Peng, Jian; Tirkas, Panayiotis A.; Andrew, William V.; Kokotoff, David; Zavosh, Frank

1993-01-01

143

Advancing Autonomous Operations for Deep Space Vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Starting in Jan 2012, the Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Autonomous Mission Operations (AMO) Project began to investigate the ability to create and execute "single button" crew initiated autonomous activities [1]. NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) designed and built a fluid transfer hardware test-bed to use as a sub-system target for the investigations of intelligent procedures that would command and control a fluid transfer test-bed, would perform self-monitoring during fluid transfers, detect anomalies and faults, isolate the fault and recover the procedures function that was being executed, all without operator intervention. In addition to the development of intelligent procedures, the team is also exploring various methods for autonomous activity execution where a planned timeline of activities are executed autonomously and also the initial analysis of crew procedure development. This paper will detail the development of intelligent procedures for the NASA MSFC Autonomous Fluid Transfer System (AFTS) as well as the autonomous plan execution capabilities being investigated. Manned deep space missions, with extreme communication delays with Earth based assets, presents significant challenges for what the on-board procedure content will encompass as well as the planned execution of the procedures.

Haddock, Angie T.; Stetson, Howard K.

2014-01-01

144

76 FR 11417 - Public Workshop and Hearing for Rear Visibility; Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard, Rearview...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...gross vehicle weight, as specified in the Cameron Gulbransen Kids Transportation Safety Act of 2007 (75 FR 76186). NHTSA's...effective ways of meeting the mandate in the Cameron Gulbransen Kids Transportation Safety Act. Technical Workshop Procedures...

2011-03-02

145

Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity: Low-Percentage Hydrogen/CNG Blend Ford F-150 Operating Summary - January 2003  

SciTech Connect

Over the past two years, Arizona Public Service, a subsidiary of Pinnacle West Capital Corporation, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity, tested four gaseous fuel vehicles as part of its alternative fueled vehicle fleet. One vehicle operated initially using compressed natural gas (CNG) and later a blend of CNG and hydrogen. Of the other three vehicles, one was fueled with pure hydrogen and two were fueled with a blend of CNG and hydrogen. The three blended-fuel vehicles were originally equipped with either factory CNG engines or factory gasoline engines that were converted to run CNG fuel. The vehicles were variously modified to operate on blended fuel and were tested using 15 to 50% blends of hydrogen (by volume). The pure-hydrogen-fueled vehicle was converted from gasoline fuel to operate on 100% hydrogen. All vehicles were fueled from the Arizona Public Service's Alternative Fuel Pilot Plant, which was developed to dispense gaseous fuels, including CNG, blends of CNG and hydrogen, and pure hydrogen with up to 99.9999% purity. The primary objective of the test was to evaluate the safety and reliability of operating vehicles on hydrogen and blended hydrogen fuel, and the interface between the vehicles and the hydrogen fueling infrastructure. A secondary objective was to quantify vehicle emissions, cost, and performance. Over a total of 40,000 fleet test miles, no safety issues were found. Also, significant reductions in emissions were achieved by adding hydrogen to the fuel. This report presents results of 16,942 miles of testing for one of the blended fuel vehicles, a Ford F-150 pickup truck, operating on up to 30% hydrogen/70% CNG fuel.

Karner, D.; Francfort, J.E.

2003-01-22

146

Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity: High-Percentage Hydrogen/CNG Blend Ford F-150 Operating Summary - January 2003  

SciTech Connect

Over the past two years, Arizona Public Service, a subsidiary of Pinnacle West Capital Corporation, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity, tested four gaseous fuel vehicles as part of its alternative fueled vehicle fleet. One vehicle operated initially using compressed natural gas (CNG) and later a blend of CNG and hydrogen. Of the other three vehicles, one was fueled with pure hydrogen and two were fueled with a blend of CNG and hydrogen. The three blended-fuel vehicles were originally equipped with either factory CNG engines or factory gasoline engines that were converted to run CNG fuel. The vehicles were variously modified to operate on blended fuel and were tested using 15 to 50% blends of hydrogen (by volume). The pure-hydrogen-fueled vehicle was converted from gasoline fuel to operate on 100% hydrogen. All vehicles were fueled from the Arizona Public Service's Alternative Fuel Pilot Plant, which was developed to dispense gaseous fuels, including CNG, blends of CNG and hydrogen, and pure hydrogen with up to 99.9999% purity. The primary objective of the test was to evaluate the safety and reliability of operating vehicles on hydrogen and blended fuel, and the interface between the vehicles and the hydrogen fueling infrastructure. A secondary objective was to quantify vehicle emissions, cost, and performance. Over a total of 40,000 fleet test miles, no safety issues were found. Also, significant reductions in emissions were achieved by adding hydrogen to the fuel. This report presents the results of 4,695 miles of testing for one of the blended fuel vehicles, a Ford F-150 pickup truck, operating on up to 50% hydrogen-50% CNG fuel.

Karner, D.; Francfort, J.E.

2003-01-22

147

77 FR 30765 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Electronic Stability Control Systems for Heavy Vehicles  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...For light vehicles, the focus...assist the driver in preventing the vehicle from leaving...when light vehicles run off the...for light vehicles equipped with...communicate to the driver the condition...malfunctioning vehicle system...

2012-05-23

148

78 FR 55137 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Ejection Mitigation  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...made an allowance for vehicles with partitions or...separate areas of the vehicle with designated seating...positions (namely the driver's area) from areas of the vehicle without designated...rear cargo area). Vehicles with...

2013-09-09

149

ADVANCED REACTOR SAFETY PROGRAM – STAKEHOLDER INTERACTION AND FEEDBACK  

SciTech Connect

In the Spring of 2013, we began discussions with our industry stakeholders on how to upgrade our safety analysis capabilities. The focus of these improvements would primarily be on advanced safety analysis capabilities that could help the nuclear industry analyze, understand, and better predict complex safety problems. The current environment in the DOE complex is such that recent successes in high performance computer modeling could lead the nuclear industry to benefit from these advances, as long as an effort to translate these advances into realistic applications is made. Upgrading the nuclear industry modeling analysis capabilities is a significant effort that would require substantial participation and coordination from all industry segments: research, engineering, vendors, and operations. We focus here on interactions with industry stakeholders to develop sound advanced safety analysis applications propositions that could have a positive impact on industry long term operation, hence advancing the state of nuclear safety.

Spencer, Benjamin W; Huang, Hai

2014-08-01

150

Driver perceptions of the safety implications of quiet electric vehicles.  

PubMed

Previous research on the safety implications of quiet electric vehicles (EVs) has mostly focused on pedestrians' acoustic perception of EVs, and suggests that EVs are more difficult for pedestrians to hear and, therefore, compromise traffic safety. The two German field studies presented here examine the experiences of 70 drivers with low noise emissions of EVs and the drivers' long-term evaluation of the issue. Participants were surveyed via interviews and questionnaires before driving an EV for the first time, after 3 months of driving, and in the first study, again after 6 months. Based on participants' reports, a catalogue of safety-relevant incidents was composed in Study 1. The catalogue revealed that low noise-related critical incidents only rarely occur, and mostly take place in low-speed environments. The degree of hazard related to these incidents was rated as low to medium. In Study 1, driver concern for vulnerable road users as a result of low noise diminished with increasing driving experience, while perceived comfort due to this feature increased. These results were replicated in Study 2. In the second study, it was additionally examined, if drivers adjust their perceived risk of harming other road users over time. Results show that the affective assessment of risk also decreased with increased driving experience. Based on individual experience, drivers adjust their evaluation of noise-related hazards, suggesting that dangers associated with low noise emissions might be less significant than previously expected. PMID:23727553

Cocron, Peter; Krems, Josef F

2013-09-01

151

Advanced Guidance and Control Methods for Reusable Launch Vehicles: Test Results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

There are a number of approaches to advanced guidance and control (AG&C) that have the potential for achieving the goals of significantly increasing reusable launch vehicle (RLV) safety/reliability and reducing the cost. In this paper, we examine some of these methods and compare the results. We briefly introduce the various methods under test, list the test cases used to demonstrate that the desired results are achieved, show an automated test scoring method that greatly reduces the evaluation effort required, and display results of the tests. Results are shown for the algorithms that have entered testing so far.

Hanson, John M.; Jones, Robert E.; Krupp, Don R.; Fogle, Frank R. (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

152

Advances in Safety, Reliability and Risk Management -Proceedings of the European Safety and Reliability Conference, ESREL 2011 -European Safety and Reliability Conference: Advances in Safety, Reliability and  

E-print Network

Advances in Safety, Reliability and Risk Management - Proceedings of the European Safety, Reliability and Risk Management, ESREL 2011, Troyes : France (2011) In France, more than 99% of failed is global risk management. This allows analysis of the major risks faced by the busi- ness (loss

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

153

Level Crossing Crash Taxonomy for Connected Vehicle Safety August 5, 2014  

E-print Network

1 Level Crossing Crash Taxonomy for Connected Vehicle Safety Research August 5, 2014 Volpe-Rail Intersection Crash Taxonomy For Connected Vehicle Safety Research Office of Research and Development Washington, DC 20590 Focus on level crossing- highway intersection Research products Crash Taxonomy Concept

Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, University of

154

Vehicle Data for Alternative Fuel Vehicles (AFVs) and Hybrid Fuel Vehicles (HEVs) from the Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (AFCD)  

DOE Data Explorer

The AFDC provides search capabilities for many different models of both light-duty and heavy-duty vehicles. Engine and transmission type, fuel and class, fuel economy and emission certification are some of the facts available. The search will also help users locate dealers in their areas and do cost analyses. Information on alternative fuel vehicles and on advanced technology vehicles, along with calculators, resale and conversion information, links to incentives and programs such as Clean Cities, and dozens of fact sheets and publications make this section of the AFDC a valuable resource for car buyers.

155

The Role of Situation Awareness in Assuring Safety of Autonomous Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Assuring safety of autonomous vehicles operating in an open environment requires reliable situation awareness, action planning\\u000a and prediction of actions of other vehicles and objects. Factors that also have to be considered are certainty and completeness\\u000a of available information and trust in information sources and other entities. The paper discusses the problem of autonomous\\u000a vehicle safety assurance and proposes dynamic

Andrzej Wardzinski

2006-01-01

156

Recovery Act - Sustainable Transportation: Advanced Electric Drive Vehicle Education Program  

SciTech Connect

The collective goals of this effort include: 1) reach all facets of this society with education regarding electric vehicles (EV) and plug–in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV), 2) prepare a workforce to service these advanced vehicles, 3) create web–based learning at an unparalleled level, 4) educate secondary school students to prepare for their future and 5) train the next generation of professional engineers regarding electric vehicles. The Team provided an integrated approach combining secondary schools, community colleges, four–year colleges and community outreach to provide a consistent message (Figure 1). Colorado State University Ventures (CSUV), as the prime contractor, plays a key program management and co–ordination role. CSUV is an affiliate of Colorado State University (CSU) and is a separate 501(c)(3) company. The Team consists of CSUV acting as the prime contractor subcontracted to Arapahoe Community College (ACC), CSU, Motion Reality Inc. (MRI), Georgia Institute of Technology (Georgia Tech) and Ricardo. Collaborators are Douglas County Educational Foundation/School District and Gooru (www.goorulearning.org), a nonprofit web–based learning resource and Google spin–off.

Caille, Gary

2013-12-13

157

Battery Technology for Electric and Hybrid Vehicles: Expert Views about Prospects for Advancement.  

E-print Network

Battery Technology for Electric and Hybrid Vehicles: Expert Views about Prospects for Advancement of an expert elicitation on the prospects for advances in battery technology for electric and hybrid vehicles approach to achieving these reductions is through electric, hybrid, or plug-in hybrid vehicles. One

Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

158

78 FR 2797 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Minimum Sound Requirements for Hybrid and Electric Vehicles  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...testing the vehicle in the scenarios...The test drivers found that...for some vehicles during the...involving ICE vehicles in which...pedestrian and the driver share responsibility...pedestrian vehicle collisions...to quiet vehicles to owners...quiet for a driver's own vehicle. We...

2013-01-14

159

Large-Scale Spacecraft Fire Safety Experiments in ISS Resupply Vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Our understanding of the fire safety risk in manned spacecraft has been limited by the small scale of the testing we have been able to conduct in low-gravity. Fire growth and spread cannot be expected to scale linearly with sample size so we cannot make accurate predictions of the behavior of realistic scale fires in spacecraft based on the limited low-g testing to date. As a result, spacecraft fire safety protocols are necessarily very conservative and costly. Future crewed missions are expected to be longer in duration than previous exploration missions outside of low-earth orbit and accordingly, more complex in terms of operations, logistics, and safety. This will increase the challenge of ensuring a fire-safe environment for the crew throughout the mission. Based on our fundamental uncertainty of the behavior of fires in low-gravity, the need for realistic scale testing at reduced gravity has been demonstrated. To address this concern, a spacecraft fire safety research project is underway to reduce the uncertainty and risk in the design of spacecraft fire safety systems by testing at nearly full scale in low-gravity. This project is supported by the NASA Advanced Exploration Systems Program Office in the Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate. The activity of this project is supported by an international topical team of fire experts from other space agencies to maximize the utility of the data and to ensure the widest possible scrutiny of the concept. The large-scale space flight experiment will be conducted on three missions; each in an Orbital Sciences Corporation Cygnus vehicle after it has deberthed from the ISS. Although the experiment will need to meet rigorous safety requirements to ensure the carrier vehicle does not sustain damage, the absence of a crew allows the fire products to be released into the cabin. The tests will be fully automated with the data downlinked at the conclusion of the test before the Cygnus vehicle reenters the atmosphere. The international topical team is collaborating with the NASA team in the definition of the experiment requirements and performing supporting analysis, experimentation and technology development.

Ruff, Gary A.; Urban, David

2013-01-01

160

Advanced Heating and Cooling Systems in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource was developed through a seed grant from the CAAT and discusses the advanced air conditioning systems placed in HEVs and safety precautions to follow when servicing them. These systems are high voltage A/C compressors and the components controlling them (A/C ECU, HV ECU, and Converter Control Circuit). Safety precautions discussed include Class 0 insulated gloves, insulated tools, color coding of wire looms to indicate voltage, CAT III and IV multimeter use, and properly disabling high voltage circuits. For educators looking to modify current courses, a syllabus is included with highlighted fields where HEV systems and safety were incorporated into an existing automotive heating and cooling course at Lewis and Clark Community College.

2013-04-11

161

Analysis of quasi-hybrid solid rocket booster concepts for advanced earth-to-orbit vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A study was conducted to assess the feasibility of quasi-hybrid solid rocket boosters for advanced Earth-to-orbit vehicles. Thermochemical calculations were conducted to determine the effect of liquid hydrogen addition, solids composition change plus liquid hydrogen addition, and the addition of an aluminum/liquid hydrogen slurry on the theoretical performance of a PBAN solid propellant rocket. The space shuttle solid rocket booster was used as a reference point. All three quasi-hybrid systems theoretically offer higher specific impulse when compared with the space shuttle solid rocket boosters. However, based on operational and safety considerations, the quasi-hybrid rocket is not a practical choice for near-term Earth-to-orbit booster applications. Safety and technology issues pertinent to quasi-hybrid rocket systems are discussed.

Zurawski, Robert L.; Rapp, Douglas C.

1987-01-01

162

14 CFR 417.233 - Analysis for an unguided suborbital launch vehicle flown with a wind weighting safety system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...unguided suborbital launch vehicle flown with a wind weighting safety system. 417.233...unguided suborbital launch vehicle flown with a wind weighting safety system. For each launch...unguided suborbital launch vehicle flown with a wind weighting safety system, in...

2014-01-01

163

14 CFR 417.233 - Analysis for an unguided suborbital launch vehicle flown with a wind weighting safety system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...unguided suborbital launch vehicle flown with a wind weighting safety system. 417.233...unguided suborbital launch vehicle flown with a wind weighting safety system. For each launch...unguided suborbital launch vehicle flown with a wind weighting safety system, in...

2010-01-01

164

14 CFR 417.233 - Analysis for an unguided suborbital launch vehicle flown with a wind weighting safety system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...unguided suborbital launch vehicle flown with a wind weighting safety system. 417.233...unguided suborbital launch vehicle flown with a wind weighting safety system. For each launch...unguided suborbital launch vehicle flown with a wind weighting safety system, in...

2011-01-01

165

14 CFR 417.233 - Analysis for an unguided suborbital launch vehicle flown with a wind weighting safety system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...unguided suborbital launch vehicle flown with a wind weighting safety system. 417.233...unguided suborbital launch vehicle flown with a wind weighting safety system. For each launch...unguided suborbital launch vehicle flown with a wind weighting safety system, in...

2012-01-01

166

14 CFR 417.233 - Analysis for an unguided suborbital launch vehicle flown with a wind weighting safety system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...unguided suborbital launch vehicle flown with a wind weighting safety system. 417.233...unguided suborbital launch vehicle flown with a wind weighting safety system. For each launch...unguided suborbital launch vehicle flown with a wind weighting safety system, in...

2013-01-01

167

Hybrid and electric advanced vehicle systems (heavy) simulation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A computer program to simulate hybrid and electric advanced vehicle systems (HEAVY) is described. It is intended for use early in the design process: concept evaluation, alternative comparison, preliminary design, control and management strategy development, component sizing, and sensitivity studies. It allows the designer to quickly, conveniently, and economically predict the performance of a proposed drive train. The user defines the system to be simulated using a library of predefined component models that may be connected to represent a wide variety of propulsion systems. The development of three models are discussed as examples.

Hammond, R. A.; Mcgehee, R. K.

1981-01-01

168

Technology in Motion Vehicle (TMV) To promote truck and bus safety programs and  

E-print Network

Technology in Motion Vehicle (TMV) Goal To promote truck and bus safety programs and technologies messages at multiple venues Demonstrate proven and emerging safety technologies to state and motor carrier stakeholders Promote deployment of safety technologies by fleets and state MCSAP agencies Evaluate program

169

A multi-dimensional construct of commercial motor vehicle operators' attitudes toward safety regulations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to develop a measurement scale to assess over-the-road commercial motor vehicle operators' attitudes toward safety regulations. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A literature review of the current USA motor carrier safety literature and general safety literature is conducted to determine the existence of a construct and measurement scale suitable for assessing truck drivers' attitudes toward

Matthew A. Douglas; Stephen M. Swartz

2009-01-01

170

41 CFR 102-34.250 - Do Federal employees in Government motor vehicles have to use all safety devices and follow all...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...employees in Government motor vehicles have to use all safety devices and follow all safety guidelines? 102-34.250 Section 102-34...employees in Government motor vehicles have to use all safety devices and follow all safety...

2010-07-01

171

76 FR 45436 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Electric-Powered Vehicles; Electrolyte Spillage and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...electrical isolation for vehicles without continuous...isolation if the vehicle had continuous monitoring...isolation during vehicle operation. We required...visible from the driver's designated seating...stacks in fuel cell vehicles where the coolant...conductivity during vehicle service and...

2011-07-29

172

75 FR 33515 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Electric-Powered Vehicles; Electrolyte Spillage and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...viability of fuel cell vehicles for the agency to...a new fuel cell vehicle to exhibit...a warning to the driver if electrical isolation...seconds after the vehicle crashes. The commenters...be when the test vehicle comes to rest...prove that their vehicles are...

2010-06-14

173

Increasing the Fuel Economy and Safety of New Light-DutyVehicles  

SciTech Connect

One impediment to increasing the fuel economy standards forlight-duty vehicles is the long-standing argument that reducing vehiclemass to improve fuel economy will inherently make vehicles less safe.This technical paper summarizes and examines the research that is citedin support of this argument, and presents more recent research thatchallenges it. We conclude that the research claiming that lightervehicles are inherently less safe than heavier vehicles is flawed, andthat other aspects of vehicle design are more important to the on-roadsafety record of vehicles. This paper was prepared for a workshop onexperts in vehicle safety and fuel economy, organized by the William andFlora Hewlett Foundation, to discuss technologies and designs that can betaken to simultaneously improve vehicle safety and fuel economy; theworkshop was held in Washington DC on October 3, 2006.

Wenzel, Tom; Ross, Marc

2006-09-18

174

Lng vehicle technology, economics, and safety assessment. Final report, April 1991-June 1993  

SciTech Connect

Liquid natural gas (LNG) is an attractive transportation fuel because of its high heating value and energy density (i.e. Btu/lb and Btu/gal), clean burning characteristics, relatively low cost ($/Btu), and domestic availability. This research evaluated LNG vehicle and refueling system technology, economics, and safety. Prior and current LNG vehicle projects were studied to identify needed technology improvements. Life-cycle cost analyses considered various LNG vehicle and fuel supply options. Safety records, standards, and analysis methods were reviewed. The LNG market niche is centrally fueled heavy-duty fleet vehicles with high fuel consumption. For these applications, fuel cost savings can amortize equipment capital costs.

Powars, C.A.; Moyer, C.B.; Lowell, D.D.

1994-02-01

175

Advanced aeroservoelastic stabilization techniques for hypersonic flight vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Advanced high performance vehicles, including Single-Stage-To-Orbit (SSTO) hypersonic flight vehicles, that are statically unstable, require higher bandwidth flight control systems to compensate for the instability resulting in interactions between the flight control system, the engine/propulsion dynamics, and the low frequency structural modes. Military specifications, such as MIL-F-9490D and MIL-F-87242, tend to limit treatment of structural modes to conventional gain stabilization techniques. The conventional gain stabilization techniques, however, introduce low frequency effective time delays which can be troublesome from a flying qualities standpoint. These time delays can be alleviated by appropriate blending of gain and phase stabilization techniques (referred to as Hybrid Phase Stabilization or HPS) for the low frequency structural modes. The potential of using HPS for compensating structural mode interaction was previously explored. It was shown that effective time delay was significantly reduced with the use of HPS; however, the HPS design was seen to have greater residual response than a conventional gain stablized design. Additional work performed to advance and refine the HPS design procedure, to further develop residual response metrics as a basis for alternative structural stability specifications, and to develop strategies for validating HPS design and specification concepts in manned simulation is presented. Stabilization design sensitivity to structural uncertainties and aircraft-centered requirements are also assessed.

Chan, Samuel Y.; Cheng, Peter Y.; Myers, Thomas T.; Klyde, David H.; Magdaleno, Raymond E.; Mcruer, Duane T.

1992-01-01

176

Aeronautical technology 2000: A projection of advanced vehicle concepts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Aeronautics and Space Engineering Board (ASEB) of the National Research Council conducted a Workshop on Aeronautical Technology: a Projection to the Year 2000 (Aerotech 2000 Workshop). The panels were asked to project advances in aeronautical technologies that could be available by the year 2000. As the workshop was drawing to a close, it became evident that a more comprehensive investigation of advanced air vehicle concepts than was possible in the limited time available at the workshop would be valuable. Thus, a special panel on vehicle applications was organized. In the course of two meetings, the panel identified and described representative types of aircraft judged possible with the workshop's technology projections. These representative aircraft types include: military aircraft; transport aircraft; rotorcraft; extremely high altitude aircraft; and transatmospheric aircraft. Improvements in performance, efficiency, and operational characteristics possible through the application of the workshop's year 2000 technology projections were discussed. The subgroups also identified the technologies considered essential and enhancing or supporting to achieve the projected aircraft improvements.

1985-01-01

177

Spatial multibody modeling and vehicle dynamics analysis of advanced vehicle technologies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The US Army vision, announced in October of 1999, encompasses people, readiness, and transformation. The goal of the Army vision is to transition the entire Army into a force that is strategically responsive and dominant at every point of the spectrum of operations. The transformation component will be accomplished in three ways: the Objective Force, the Legacy (current) Force, and the Interim Force. The objective force is not platform driven, but rather the focus is on achieving capabilities that will operate as a "system of systems." As part of the Objective Force, the US Army plans to begin production of the Future Combat System (FCS) in FY08 and field the first unit by FY10 as currently defined in the FCS solicitation(1). As part of the FCS program, the Future Tactical Truck System (FTTS) encompasses all US Army tactical wheeled vehicles and its initial efforts will focus only on the heavy class. The National Automotive Center (NAC) is using modeling and simulation to demonstrate the feasibility and operational potential of advanced commercial and military technologies with application to new and existing tactical vehicles and to describe potential future vehicle capabilities. This document will present the results of computer-based, vehicle dynamics performance assessments of FTTS concepts with such features as hybrid power sources, active suspensions, skid steering, and in-hub electric drive motors. Fully three-dimensional FTTS models are being created using commercially available modeling and simulation methodologies such as ADAMS and DADS and limited vehicle dynamics validation studies are will be performed.

Letherwood, Michael D.; Gunter, David D.; Gorsich, David J.; Udvare, Thomas B.

2004-08-01

178

Advanced underground Vehicle Power and Control: The locomotive Research Platform  

SciTech Connect

Develop a fuelcell mine locomotive with metal-hydride hydrogen storage. Test the locomotive for fundamental limitations preventing successful commercialization of hydride fuelcells in underground mining. During Phase 1 of the DOE-EERE sponsored project, FPI and its partner SNL, completed work on the development of a 14.4 kW fuelcell power plant and metal-hydride energy storage. An existing battery-electric locomotive with similar power requirements, minus the battery module, was used as the base vehicle. In March 2001, Atlas Copco Wagner of Portland, OR, installed the fuelcell power plant into the base vehicle and initiated integration of the system into the vehicle. The entire vehicle returned to Sandia in May 2001 for further development and integration. Initial system power-up took place in December 2001. A revision to the original contract, Phase 2, at the request of DOE Golden Field Office, established Vehicle Projects LLC as the new prime contractor,. Phase 2 allowed industry partners to conduct surface tests, incorporate enhancements to the original design by SNL, perform an extensive risk and safety analysis, and test the fuelcell locomotive underground under representative production mine conditions. During the surface tests one of the fuelcell stacks exhibited reduced power output resulting in having to replace both fuelcell stacks. The new stacks were manufactured with new and improved technology resulting in an increase of the gross power output from 14.4 kW to 17 kW. Further work by CANMET and Hatch Associates, an engineering consulting firm specializing in safety analysis for the mining industry, both under subcontract to Vehicle Projects LLC, established minimum requirements for underground testing. CANMET upgraded the Programmable Logic Control (PLC) software used to monitor and control the fuelcell power plant, taking into account locomotive operator's needs. Battery Electric, a South Africa manufacturer, designed and manufactured (at no cost to the project) a new motor controller capable of operating the higher rpm motor and different power characteristics of the fuelcells. In early August 2002, CANMET, with the technical assistance of Nuvera Fuel Cells and Battery Electric, installed the new PLC software, installed the new motor controller, and installed the new fuelcell stacks. After minor adjustments, the fuelcell locomotive pulled its first fully loaded ore cars on a surface track. The fuelcell-powered locomotive easily matched the battery powered equivalent in its ability to pull tonnage and equaled the battery-powered locomotive in acceleration. The final task of Phase 2, testing the locomotive underground in a production environment, occurred in early October 2002 in a gold mine. All regulatory requirements to allow the locomotive underground were completed and signed off by Hatch Associates prior to going underground. During the production tests, the locomotive performed flawlessly with no failures or downtime. The actual tests occurred during a 2-week period and involved moving both gold ore and waste rock over a 1,000 meter track. Refueling, or recharging, of the metal-hydride storage took place on the surface. After each shift, the metal-hydride storage module was removed from the locomotive, transported to surface, and filled with hydrogen from high-pressure tanks. The beginning of each shift started with taking the fully recharged metal-hydride storage module down into the mine and re-installing it onto the locomotive. Each 8 hour shift consumed approximately one half to two thirds of the onboard hydrogen. This indicates that the fuelcell-powered locomotive can work longer than a similar battery-powered locomotive, which operates about 6 hours, before needing a recharge.

Vehicle Projects LLC

2003-01-28

179

Advanced metallic thermal protection systems for reusable launch vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Metallic thermal protection systems are a key technology that may help achieve the goal of reducing the cost of space access. A study was performed to develop an understanding of the key factors that govern the performance of metallic thermal protection systems for reusable launch vehicles. Multi-disciplinary background information was assembled and reviewed critically to provide a basis for development of improved metallic thermal protection systems. The fundamentals of aerodynamic heating were reviewed and applied to the development of thermal protection systems. General approaches to thermal protection were categorized and critiqued. The high temperature materials used for thermal protection systems (TPS), including insulations, structural materials, and coatings were reviewed. The history of metallic TPS from early pre-Shuttle concepts to current concepts for a reusable launch vehicle was reviewed for the first time. A current advanced metallic TPS concept was presented and systematically analyzed to discover the most important factors governing the thermal performance of metallic TPS. A large number of relevant factors that influence the thermal analysis and thermal performance of metallic TPS were identified and quantified. Detailed finite element computational models were developed for predicting the thermal performance of variations of the advanced metallic TPS concept mounted on a simple, unstiffened structure. The computational models were also used, in an automated iterative procedure, for sizing the metallic TPS to maintain the structure below a specified temperature limit. A statistical sensitivity analysis method, based on orthogonal matrix techniques used in robust design, was used to quantify and rank the relative importance of the various modeling and design factors considered in this study. Results from this study identify factors that have the most potential to improve metallic TPS performance. The thermal properties of the underlying vehicle structure were found to have a major impact on the thickness and mass of metallic TPS required to protect the structure, leading to the conclusion that the structure and TPS should be designed concurrently. Improved insulation properties were also shown to reduce the required thickness and mass of TPS. Including some heat loss from the structural skin to the interior of a vehicle was found to decrease significantly the required TPS thickness and mass. These results provide a basis for guiding the direction of future research in metallic TPS.

Blosser, Max Leon

2000-10-01

180

Advanced missions safety. Volume 2: Technical discussion, Part 2: Experiment safety, guidelines  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A technical analysis of a portion of the advanced missions safety study is presented. The potential hazards introduced when experimental equipment is carried aboard the Earth Orbit Shuttle are identified. Safety guidelines and requirements for eliminating or reducing these hazards are recommended.

Hinton, M. G., Jr.

1972-01-01

181

Vehicle cabin air quality monitor using gas sensors for improved safety  

Microsoft Academic Search

A vehicle cabin air quality monitor using carbon monoxide (CO) and oxygen (O2) gas sensors has been designed, developed and on-road tested. The continuous monitoring of oxygen and carbon monoxide provides added vehicle safety as alarms could be set off when dangerous gas concentrations are reached, preventing driver fatigue, drowsiness, and exhaust gas suicides. CO concentrations of 30 ppm and

K. Galatsis; W. Wlodarski; Y. X. Li; K. Kalantar-zadeh

2000-01-01

182

The Effect of Automobile Safety on Vehicle Type Choice: An Empirical Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An analysis was made of the extent to which the safety characteristics of new vehicles affect consumer purchase decisions. Using an extensive data set that combines vehicle data collected by the Automobile Club of Southern California Target Car Program with the responses from a national household survey of new car buyers, a statistical model of…

McCarthy, Patrick S.

183

Development of Pneumatic Aerodynamic Devices to Improve the Performance, Economics, and Safety of Heavy Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Under contract to the DOE Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies, the Georgia Tech Research Institute (GTRI) is developing and evaluating pneumatic (blown) aerodynamic devices to improve the performance, economics, stability and safety of operation of Heavy Vehicles. The objective of this program is to apply the pneumatic aerodynamic aircraft technology previously developed and flight-tested by GTRI personnel to the design

Robert J. Englar

2000-01-01

184

Reducing Safety Flaring through Advanced Control  

E-print Network

pressure required changes in C3/C4 make-up gas usage. These changes led, in turn, to some instability in the fuel gas system that sometimes required purge to the safety flare system to stabilize. As the composition of the fuel gas supply changed, so did its...

Hokanson, D.; Lehman, K.; Matsumoto, S.; Takai, N.; Takase, F.

2010-01-01

185

Survey of Advanced Booster Options for Potential Shuttle Derivative Vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A never-ending major goal for the Space Shuttle program is to continually improve flight safety, as long as this launch system remains in operational service. One of the options to improve system safety and to enhance vehicle performance as well, that has been seriously studied over the past several decades, is to replace the existing strap-on four segment solid rocket boosters (SRB's) with more capable units. A number of booster upgrade options have been studied in some detail, ranging from five segment solids through hybrids and a wide variety of liquid strap-ons (both pressure and pump fed with various propellants); all the way to a completely reusable liquid fly back booster (complete with air breathing engines for controlled landing and return). All of these possibilities appear to offer improvements in varying degrees; and each has their strengths and weaknesses from both programmatic and technical points of view. The most beneficial booster upgrade/design, if the shuttle program were to continue long enough to justify the required investment, would be an approach that greatly increased both vehicle and crew safety. This would be accomplished by increasing the minimum range/minimum altitude envelope that would readily allow abort to orbit (ATO), possibly even to zero/zero, and possibly reduce or eliminate the Return to Launch Site (RTLS) and even the Trans Atlantic Landing (TAL) abort mode requirements. This paper will briefly survey and discuss all of the various booster'upgrade options studied previously, and compare their relative attributes. The survey will explicitly discuss, in summary comparative form, options that include: five segment solids; several hybrid possibilities; pressure and/or pump-fed liquids using either LO2/kerosene, H2O/kerosene and LO2/J2, any of which could be either fully expendable, partly or fully reusable; and finally a fully reusable liquid fly back booster system, with a number of propellant and propulsion system options. Performance and configuration comparison illustrations and tables will be included to provide a comprehensive survey for the paper.

Sackheim, Robert L.; Ryan, Richard; Threet, Ed; Kennedy, James W. (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

186

Advanced Control Surface Seal Development for Future Space Vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA s Glenn Research Center (GRC) has been developing advanced high temperature structural seals since the late 1980's and is currently developing seals for future space vehicles as part of the Next Generation Launch Technology (NGLT) program. This includes control surface seals that seal the edges and hinge lines of movable flaps and elevons on future reentry vehicles. In these applications, the seals must operate at temperatures above 2000 F in an oxidizing environment, limit hot gas leakage to protect underlying structures, endure high temperature scrubbing against rough surfaces, and remain flexible and resilient enough to stay in contact with sealing surfaces for multiple heating and loading cycles. For this study, three seal designs were compared against the baseline spring tube seal through a series of compression tests at room temperature and 2000 F and flow tests at room temperature. In addition, canted coil springs were tested as preloaders behind the seals at room temperature to assess their potential for improving resiliency. Addition of these preloader elements resulted in significant increases in resiliency compared to the seals by themselves and surpassed the performance of the baseline seal at room temperature. Flow tests demonstrated that the seal candidates with engineered cores had lower leakage rates than the baseline spring tube design. However, when the seals were placed on the preloader elements, the flow rates were higher as the seals were not compressed as much and therefore were not able to fill the groove as well. High temperature tests were also conducted to asses the compatibility of seal fabrics against ceramic matrix composite (CMC) panels anticipated for use in next generation launch vehicles. These evaluations demonstrated potential bonding issues between the Nextel fabrics and CMC candidates.

DeMange, J. J.; Dunlap, P. H., Jr.; Steinetz, B. M.

2004-01-01

187

Advanced Control System Increases Helicopter Safety  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

With support and funding from a Phase II NASA SBIR project from Ames Research Center, Hoh Aeronautics Inc. (HAI), of Lomita, California, produced HeliSAS, a low-cost, lightweight, attitude-command-attitude-hold stability augmentation system (SAS) for civil helicopters and unmanned aerial vehicles. HeliSAS proved itself in over 160 hours of flight testing and demonstrations in a Robinson R44 Raven helicopter, a commercial helicopter popular with news broadcasting and police operations. Chelton Flight Systems, of Boise, Idaho, negotiated with HAI to develop, market, and manufacture HeliSAS, now available as the Chelton HeliSAS Digital Helicopter Autopilot.

2008-01-01

188

Specification of advanced safety modeling requirements (Rev. 0).  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy's Global Nuclear Energy Partnership has lead to renewed interest in liquid-metal-cooled fast reactors for the purpose of closing the nuclear fuel cycle and making more efficient use of future repository capacity. However, the U.S. has not designed or constructed a fast reactor in nearly 30 years. Accurate, high-fidelity, whole-plant dynamics safety simulations will play a crucial role by providing confidence that component and system designs will satisfy established design limits and safety margins under a wide variety of operational, design basis, and beyond design basis transient conditions. Current modeling capabilities for fast reactor safety analyses have resulted from several hundred person-years of code development effort supported by experimental validation. The broad spectrum of mechanistic and phenomenological models that have been developed represent an enormous amount of institutional knowledge that needs to be maintained. Complicating this, the existing code architectures for safety modeling evolved from programming practices of the 1970s. This has lead to monolithic applications with interdependent data models which require significant knowledge of the complexities of the entire code in order for each component to be maintained. In order to develop an advanced fast reactor safety modeling capability, the limitations of the existing code architecture must be overcome while preserving the capabilities that already exist. To accomplish this, a set of advanced safety modeling requirements is defined, based on modern programming practices, that focuses on modular development within a flexible coupling framework. An approach for integrating the existing capabilities of the SAS4A/SASSYS-1 fast reactor safety analysis code into the SHARP framework is provided in order to preserve existing capabilities while providing a smooth transition to advanced modeling capabilities. In doing this, the advanced fast reactor safety models will target leadership-class computing architectures for massively-parallel high-fidelity computations while providing continued support for rapid prototyping using modest fidelity computations on multiple-core desktop platforms.

Fanning, T. H.; Tautges, T. J.

2008-06-30

189

NASA technical advances in aircraft occupant safety  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A NASA program to improve aircraft safety is discussed in terms of three areas of concentration: unexpected turbulence encounters, fire, and crash impact. To provide warning of clear air turbulence (CAT) so that the pilot can take evasive action, a laser Doppler system is described, which functions by measuring backscatter frequency radiation occurring in aerosols ahead of the aircraft. The system was found able to detect CAT, but at shorter than optimal ranges (10 km as opposed to 32 km). Fire safety has focused on both the early detection of fires through improved sensing methods, and on the development of fire-retardant materials, i.e., intumescent char-forming protective coatings. Crashworthiness is discussed in terms of the development of a survivable crash envelope and improved seat and restraint systems. To evaluate an aircraft for crashworthiness, finite-element computer programs are currently being developed which analyze both aircraft structural configurations and the intrinsic strength of aircraft materials.

Enders, J. H.

1978-01-01

190

NREL - Advanced Vehicles and Fuels Basics - Center for Transportation Technologies and Systems 2010  

SciTech Connect

We can improve the fuel economy of our cars, trucks, and buses by designing them to use the energy in fuels more efficiently. Researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) are helping the nation achieve these goals by developing transportation technologies like: advanced vehicle systems and components; alternative fuels; as well as fuel cells, hybrid electric, and plug-in hybrid vehicles. For a text version of this video visit http://www.nrel.gov/learning/advanced_vehicles_fuels.html

None

2010-01-01

191

NREL - Advanced Vehicles and Fuels Basics - Center for Transportation Technologies and Systems 2010  

ScienceCinema

We can improve the fuel economy of our cars, trucks, and buses by designing them to use the energy in fuels more efficiently. Researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) are helping the nation achieve these goals by developing transportation technologies like: advanced vehicle systems and components; alternative fuels; as well as fuel cells, hybrid electric, and plug-in hybrid vehicles. For a text version of this video visit http://www.nrel.gov/learning/advanced_vehicles_fuels.html

None

2013-05-29

192

Setting initial targets in vehicle side impact safety design using regression-based modeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

The performance of a vehicle in a side impact safety assessment test can be influenced by a number of parameters which can be categorized under structural, packaging, and restraint system-related areas. One way of setting design variable targets in initial stages for desirable side impact safety performance is to use reliable regression-based relations developed with the aid of test data.

A Deb; K S Cheruvu

2007-01-01

193

Passive Safety Features in Advanced Nuclear Power Plant Design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For implementation of advance passive safety features in future nuclear power plant design, a passive safety system has been proposed and its response has been observed for Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA) in the cold leg of a reactor coolant system. In a transient simulation the performance of proposed system is validated against existing safety injection system for a reference power plant of 325 MWe. The existing safety injection system is a huge system and consists of many active components including pumps, valves, piping and Instrumentation and Control (I&C). A good running of the active components of this system is necessary for its functionality as high head safety injection system under design basis accidents. Using reactor simulation technique, the proposed passive safety injection system and existing safety injection system are simulated and tested for their performance under large break LOCA for the same boundary conditions. Critical thermal hydraulic parameters of both the systems are presented graphically and discussed. The results obtained are approximately the same in both the cases. However, the proposed passive safety injection system is a better choice for such type of reactors due to reduction in components with improved safety.

Tahir, M.; Chughtai, I. R.; Aslam, M.

2013-03-01

194

32 CFR 636.33 - Vehicle safety inspection criteria.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...reflectors on the rear. Motorcycles will have one red reflector...requirement does not apply to any motorcycle or motor-driven cycle manufactured...every vehicle, except motorcycles, will be equipped with operable...thirty-seconds of an inch. (14) Suspension Systems—no vehicle...

2011-07-01

195

32 CFR 636.33 - Vehicle safety inspection criteria.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...reflectors on the rear. Motorcycles will have one red reflector...requirement does not apply to any motorcycle or motor-driven cycle manufactured...every vehicle, except motorcycles, will be equipped with operable...thirty-seconds of an inch. (14) Suspension Systems—no vehicle...

2014-07-01

196

32 CFR 636.33 - Vehicle safety inspection criteria.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...reflectors on the rear. Motorcycles will have one red reflector...requirement does not apply to any motorcycle or motor-driven cycle manufactured...every vehicle, except motorcycles, will be equipped with operable...thirty-seconds of an inch. (14) Suspension Systems—no vehicle...

2013-07-01

197

32 CFR 636.33 - Vehicle safety inspection criteria.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...reflectors on the rear. Motorcycles will have one red reflector...requirement does not apply to any motorcycle or motor-driven cycle manufactured...every vehicle, except motorcycles, will be equipped with operable...thirty-seconds of an inch. (14) Suspension Systems—no vehicle...

2010-07-01

198

32 CFR 636.33 - Vehicle safety inspection criteria.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...reflectors on the rear. Motorcycles will have one red reflector...requirement does not apply to any motorcycle or motor-driven cycle manufactured...every vehicle, except motorcycles, will be equipped with operable...thirty-seconds of an inch. (14) Suspension Systems—no vehicle...

2012-07-01

199

Advanced hydrogen/methanol utilization technology demonstration. Phase II: Hydrogen cold start of a methanol vehicle  

SciTech Connect

This is the Phase 11 Final Report on NREL Subcontract No. XR-2-11175-1 {open_quotes}Advanced Hydrogen/Methane Utilization Demonstration{close_quotes} between the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Alternative Fuels Utilization Program, Golden, Colorado and Hydrogen Consultants, Inc. (HCI), Littleton, Colorado. Mr. Chris Colucci was NREL`s Technical Monitor. Colorado State University`s (CSU) Engines and Energy Conversion Laboratory was HCI`s subcontractor. Some of the vehicle test work was carried out at the National Center for Vehicle Emissions Control and Safety (NCVECS) at CSU. The collaboration of the Colorado School of Mines is also gratefully acknowledged. Hydrogen is unique among alternative fuels in its ability to burn over a wide range of mixtures in air with no carbon-related combustion products. Hydrogen also has the ability to burn on a catalyst, starting from room temperature. Hydrogen can be made from a variety of renewable energy resources and is expected to become a widely used energy carrier in the sustainable energy system of the future. One way to make a start toward widespread use of hydrogen in the energy system is to use it sparingly with other alternative fuels. The Phase I work showed that strong affects could be achieved with dilute concentrations of hydrogen in methane (11). Reductions in emissions greater than the proportion of hydrogen in the fuel provide a form of leverage to stimulate the early introduction of hydrogen. Per energy unit or per dollar of hydrogen, a greater benefit is derived than simply displacing fossil-fueled vehicles with pure hydrogen vehicles.

NONE

1995-05-01

200

Ares-I-X Vehicle Preliminary Range Safety Malfunction Turn Analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ares-I-X is the designation given to the flight test version of the Ares-I rocket (also known as the Crew Launch Vehicle - CLV) being developed by NASA. As part of the preliminary flight plan approval process for the test vehicle, a range safety malfunction turn analysis was performed to support the launch area risk assessment and vehicle destruct criteria development processes. Several vehicle failure scenarios were identified which could cause the vehicle trajectory to deviate from its normal flight path, and the effects of these failures were evaluated with an Ares-I-X 6 degrees-of-freedom (6-DOF) digital simulation, using the Program to Optimize Simulated Trajectories Version 2 (POST2) simulation framework. The Ares-I-X simulation analysis provides output files containing vehicle state information, which are used by other risk assessment and vehicle debris trajectory simulation tools to determine the risk to personnel and facilities in the vicinity of the launch area at Kennedy Space Center (KSC), and to develop the vehicle destruct criteria used by the flight test range safety officer. The simulation analysis approach used for this study is described, including descriptions of the failure modes which were considered and the underlying assumptions and ground rules of the study, and preliminary results are presented, determined by analysis of the trajectory deviation of the failure cases, compared with the expected vehicle trajectory.

Beaty, James R.; Starr, Brett R.; Gowan, John W., Jr.

2008-01-01

201

Vehicle state estimation for advanced vehicle motion control using novel lateral tire force sensors  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, new real-time methods for the lateral vehicle velocity and roll angle estimation are presented. Lateral tire forces, obtained from a multi-sensing hub (MSHub) unit, are used to estimate lateral vehicle velocity and a roll angle. In order to estimate lateral vehicle velocity, the recursive least square (RLS) algorithm is utilized based on a linear vehicle model and

Kanghyun Nam; Sehoon Oh; Hiroshi Fujimoto; Yoichi Hori

2011-01-01

202

Environmental, health, and safety issues of sodium-sulfur batteries for electric and hybrid vehicles. Volume 4, In-vehicle safety  

SciTech Connect

This report is the last of four volumes that identify and assess the environmental, health, and safety issues that may affect the commercial-scale use of sodium-sulfur (Na/S) battery technology as the energy source in electric and hybrid vehicles. The reports are intended to help the Electric and Hybrid Propulsion Division of the Office of Transportation Technologies in the US Department of Energy (DOE/EHP) determine the direction of its research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) program for Na/S battery technology. The reports review the status of Na/S battery RD&D and identify potential hazards and risks that may require additional research or that may affect the design and use of Na/S batteries. This volume covers the in-vehicle safety issues of electric vehicles powered by Na/S batteries. The report is based on a review of the literature and on discussions with experts at DOE, national laboratories and agencies, and private industry. It has three major goals: (1) to identify the unique hazards associated with electric vehicle (EV) use; (2) to describe the existing standards, regulations, and guidelines that are or could be applicable to these hazards; and (3) to discuss the adequacy of the existing requirements in addressing the safety concerns of EVs.

Mark, J.

1992-11-01

203

Int. J. Heavy Vehicle Systems, Vol. x, No. x, xxxx 1 Copyright 200x Inderscience Enterprises Ltd.  

E-print Network

-9100 Director, Advanced Vehicle Dynamics Laboratory, Center for Vehicle Systems and Safety, Virginia Polytechnic Mechanical Engineering Department, Advanced Vehicle Dynamics Laboratory, Center for Vehicle Systems Faculty for three years. Since Sept. 2004 she has been the Director of the Advanced Vehicle Dynamics

Sandu, Adrian

204

Analysis of Aviation Safety Reporting System Incident Data Associated With the Technical Challenges of the Vehicle Systems Safety Technology Project  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This analysis was conducted to support the Vehicle Systems Safety Technology (VSST) Project of the Aviation Safety Program (AVsP) milestone VSST4.2.1.01, "Identification of VSST-Related Trends." In particular, this is a review of incident data from the NASA Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS). The following three VSST-related technical challenges (TCs) were the focus of the incidents searched in the ASRS database: (1) Vechicle health assurance, (2) Effective crew-system interactions and decisions in all conditions; and (3) Aircraft loss of control prevention, mitigation, and recovery.

Withrow, Colleen A.; Reveley, Mary S.

2014-01-01

205

Advanced components for electric and hybrid electric vehicles. Workshop proceedings  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is a key period in the development of electric and hybrid electric vehicles. The landmark 1990 legislation in California requires that 2 percent of new automobiles be zero emission vehicles in 1998, rising to 10 percent in the year 2005. This can only be met by electric vehicles. The purpose of the workshop was to concentrate on the technologies

K. L. Stricklett; A. H. Cookson; R. W. Bartholomew; T. Leedy

1994-01-01

206

Enhancing the NASA Expendable Launch Vehicle Payload Safety Review Process Through Program Activities  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The safety review process for NASA spacecraft flown on Expendable Launch Vehicles (ELVs) has been guided by NASA-STD 8719.8, Expendable Launch Vehicle Payload Safety Review Process Standard. The standard focused primarily on the safety approval required to begin pre-launch processing at the launch site. Subsequent changes in the contractual, technical, and operational aspects of payload processing, combined with lessons-learned supported a need for the reassessment of the standard. This has resulted in the formation of a NASA ELV Payload Safety Program. This program has been working to address the programmatic issues that will enhance and supplement the existing process, while continuing to ensure the safety of ELV payload activities.

Palo, Thomas E.

2007-01-01

207

HFE safety reviews of advanced nuclear power plant control rooms  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Advanced control rooms (ACR's) will utilize human-system interface (HSI) technologies that may have significant implications for plant safety in that they will affect the operator's overall role and means of interacting with the system. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) reviews the human factors engineering (HFE) aspects of HSI's to ensure that they are designed to good HFE principles and support performance and reliability in order to protect public health and safety. However, the only available NRC guidance was developed more than ten years ago, and does not adequately address the human performance issues and technology changes associated with ACR's. Accordingly, a new approach to ACR safety reviews was developed based upon the concept of 'convergent validity'. This approach to ACR safety reviews is described.

Ohara, John

1994-01-01

208

RISMC ADVANCED SAFETY ANALYSIS WORKING PLAN – FY 2015 – FY 2019  

SciTech Connect

SUMMARY In this report, the Advanced Safety Analysis Program (ASAP) objectives and value proposition is described. ASAP focuses on modernization of nuclear power safety analysis (tools, methods and data); implementing state-of-the-art modeling techniques (which include, for example, enabling incorporation of more detailed physics as they become available); taking advantage of modern computing hardware; and combining probabilistic and mechanistic analyses to enable a risk informed safety analysis process. The modernized tools will maintain the current high level of safety in our nuclear power plant fleet, while providing an improved understanding of safety margins and the critical parameters that affect them. Thus, the set of tools will provide information to inform decisions on plant modifications, refurbishments, and surveillance programs, while improving economics. The set of tools will also benefit the design of new reactors, enhancing safety per unit cost of a nuclear plant. As part of the discussion, we have identified three sets of stakeholders, the nuclear industry, the Department of Energy (DOE), and associated oversight organizations. These three groups would benefit from ASAP in different ways. For example, within the DOE complex, the possible applications that are seen include the safety of experimental reactors, facility life extension, safety-by-design in future generation advanced reactors, and managing security for the storage of nuclear material. This report provides information in five areas: 1. A value proposition (“why is this important?”) that will make the case for stakeholder’s use of the ASAP research and development (R&D) products. 2. An identification of likely end users and pathway to adoption of enhanced tools by the end-users. 3. A proposed set of practical and achievable “use case” demonstrations. 4. A proposed plan to address ASAP verification and validation (V&V) needs. 5. A proposed schedule for the multi-year ASAP.

Szilard, Ronaldo H; Smith, Curtis L

2014-09-01

209

The Advanced Light Source (ALS) Radiation Safety System. Revised  

SciTech Connect

The Advanced Light Source (ALS) at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) is a 1.5 Gev synchrotron light source facility consisting of a 120 kev electron gun, 50 Mev linear accelerator, 1.5 Gev booster synchrotron, 200 meter circumference electron storage ring, and many photon beamline transport systems for research. Figure 1. ALS floor plan. Pairs of neutron and gamma radiation monitors are shown as dots numbered from 1 to 12. The Radiation Safety System for the ALS has been designed and built with a primary goal of providing protection against inadvertent personnel exposure to gamma and neutron radiation and, secondarily, to enhance the electrical safety of select magnet power supplies.

Ritchie, A.L.; Oldfather, D.E.; Lindner, A.F.

1993-08-01

210

NASA Expendable Launch Vehicle (ELV) Payload Safety Review Process  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Issues addressed by this program: (1) Complicated roles and responsibilities associated with multi-partner projects (2) Working relationships and communications between all organizations involved in the payload safety process (3) Consistent interpretation and implementation of safety requirements from one project to the rest (4) Consistent implementation of the Tailoring Process (5) Clearly defined NASA decision-making-authority (6) Bring Agency-wide perspective to each ElV payload project. Current process requires a Payload Safety Working Group (PSWG) for eac payload with representatives from all involved organizations.

Starbus, Calvert S.; Donovan, Shawn; Dook, Mike; Palo, Tom

2007-01-01

211

19 CFR 12.80 - Federal motor vehicle safety standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...cannot be licensed for use on the public roads is considered to be imported for the purpose...manufactured primarily for use on the public roads and is not a “motor vehicle” as defined...section may be licensed for use on the public roads for a period not to exceed 1 year...

2010-04-01

212

Development of advanced driver assistance systems with vehicle hardware-in-the-loop simulations  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a new method for the design and validation of advanced driver assistance systems (ADASs). With vehicle hardware-in-the-loop (VEHIL) simulations, the development process, and more specifically the validation phase, of intelligent vehicles is carried out safer, cheaper, and is more manageable. In the VEHIL laboratory, a full-scale ADAS-equipped vehicle is set up in a hardware-in-the-loop simulation environment, where

Olaf Gietelink; Jeroen Ploeg; Bart De Schutter; Michel Verhaegen

2006-01-01

213

Advancing electric-vehicle development with pure-lead-tin battery technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electric-vehicle (EV) development continues to make solid progress towards extending vehicle range, reliability and ease of use, aided significantly by technological advances in vehicle systems. There is, however, a widespread misconception that current battery technologies are not capable of meeting even the minimum user requirements that would launch EVs into daily use. Existing pure-lead-tin technology is moving EVs out of

W. A. O'Brien; R. B. Stickel; G. J. May

1997-01-01

214

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles: Resources for Fleet Managers (Clean Cities) (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect

A discussion of the tools and resources on the Clean Cities, Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center, and the FuelEconomy.gov Web sites that can help vehicle fleet managers make informed decisions about implementing strategies to reduce gasoline and diesel fuel use.

Brennan, A.

2011-04-01

215

Advanced Crew Rescue Vehicle/Personnel Launch System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Advanced Crew Rescue Vehicle (ACRV) will be an essential element of the Space Station to respond to three specific missions, all of which have occurred during the history space exploration by the U.S. and the Soviets: (1) Mission DRM-1: Return of disabled crew members during medical emergencies; (2) Mission DRM-2: Return of crew members from accidents or as a result of failures of Space Station systems; and (3) Mission DRM-3: Return of crew members during interruption of Space Shuttle launches. The ACRV will have the ability to transport up to eight astronauts during a 24-hour mission. Not only would the ACRV serve as a lifeboat to provide transportation back to Earth, but it would also be available as a immediately available safe refuge in case the Space Station were severely damaged by space debris or other catastrophe. Upon return to Earth, existing world-wide search and rescue assets operated by the Coast Guard and Department of Defense would be able to retrieve personnel returned to Earth via the ACRV. The operational approach proposed for the ACRV is tailored to satisfying mission requirements for simplicity of operation (no piloting skills or specially trained personnel are required), continuous availability, high reliability and affordability. By using proven systems as the basis for many critical ACRV systems, the ACRV program is more likely to achieve each of these mission requirements. Nonetheless, the need for the ACRV to operate reliably with little preflight preparation after, perhaps, 5 to 10 years in orbit imposes challenges not faced by any previous space system of this complexity. Specific concerns exist regarding micrometeoroid impacts, battery life, and degradation of recovery parachutes while in storage.

Craig, Jerry W.

1993-01-01

216

Fuel-cycle greenhouse gas emissions impacts of alternative transportation fuels and advanced vehicle technologies.  

SciTech Connect

At an international conference on global warming, held in Kyoto, Japan, in December 1997, the United States committed to reduce its greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by 7% over its 1990 level by the year 2012. To help achieve that goal, transportation GHG emissions need to be reduced. Using Argonne's fuel-cycle model, I estimated GHG emissions reduction potentials of various near- and long-term transportation technologies. The estimated per-mile GHG emissions results show that alternative transportation fuels and advanced vehicle technologies can help significantly reduce transportation GHG emissions. Of the near-term technologies evaluated in this study, electric vehicles; hybrid electric vehicles; compression-ignition, direct-injection vehicles; and E85 flexible fuel vehicles can reduce fuel-cycle GHG emissions by more than 25%, on the fuel-cycle basis. Electric vehicles powered by electricity generated primarily from nuclear and renewable sources can reduce GHG emissions by 80%. Other alternative fuels, such as compressed natural gas and liquefied petroleum gas, offer limited, but positive, GHG emission reduction benefits. Among the long-term technologies evaluated in this study, conventional spark ignition and compression ignition engines powered by alternative fuels and gasoline- and diesel-powered advanced vehicles can reduce GHG emissions by 10% to 30%. Ethanol dedicated vehicles, electric vehicles, hybrid electric vehicles, and fuel-cell vehicles can reduce GHG emissions by over 40%. Spark ignition engines and fuel-cell vehicles powered by cellulosic ethanol and solar hydrogen (for fuel-cell vehicles only) can reduce GHG emissions by over 80%. In conclusion, both near- and long-term alternative fuels and advanced transportation technologies can play a role in reducing the United States GHG emissions.

Wang, M. Q.

1998-12-16

217

An assessment of research and development leadership in advanced batteries for electric vehicles  

SciTech Connect

Due to the recently enacted California regulations requiring zero emission vehicles be sold in the market place by 1998, electric vehicle research and development (R&D) is accelerating. Much of the R&D work is focusing on the Achilles` heel of electric vehicles -- advanced batteries. This report provides an assessment of the R&D work currently underway in advanced batteries and electric vehicles in the following countries: Denmark, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Russia, and the United Kingdom. Although the US can be considered one of the leading countries in terms of advanced battery and electric vehicle R&D work, it lags other countries, particularly France, in producing and promoting electric vehicles. The US is focusing strictly on regulations to promote electric vehicle usage while other countries are using a wide variety of policy instruments (regulations, educational outreach programs, tax breaks and subsidies) to encourage the use of electric vehicles. The US should consider implementing additional policy instruments to ensure a domestic market exists for electric vehicles. The domestic is the largest and most important market for the US auto industry.

Bruch, V.L.

1994-02-01

218

Responses to Questions and Answers Advanced Vehicle Technology Manufacturing Solicitation  

E-print Network

identified in Attachment B. #12;3 8. What is meant on Page 3 by "...the agreement will end before be the lead agency for our project. Who should we approach to confirm this and what documentation do we need the first commercially available vehicle will be sold?" You state clearly that for complete vehicle

219

Development of advanced Lithium-ion battery for underwater vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electric power storage is an important technology for all equipments of underwater vehicles however environmental pressure is high, the temperature is 5 degrees Celsius or less, and conditions are unsuitable for many chemical reactions in the deep sea. Battery capacity is mainly dependent on its mass; this means that the cruising range of underwater vehicles is proportional to the mass

T. Hyakudome; H. Yoshida; S. Ishibashi; T. Sawa; M. Nakamura

2011-01-01

220

Advanced Reactor Safety Research Division. Quarterly progress report, April 1-June 30, 1980  

SciTech Connect

The Advanced Reactor Safety Research Programs Quarterly Progress Report describes current activities and technical progress in the programs at Brookhaven National Laboratory sponsored by the USNRC Division of Reactor Safety Research. The projects reported each quarter are the following: HTGR safety evaluation, SSC Code Development, LMFBR Safety Experiments, and Fast Reactor Safety Code Validation.

Romano, A.J.

1980-01-01

221

Developing SAE Safety Standards for Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Vehicles (FCVs)  

E-print Network

-warning and shutdowns Isolation and containment of stored hydrogen is required to practice fault management on hydrogen components and parts that form the primary pressure boundary for stored hydrogen Container Vessel ContainerDeveloping SAE Safety Standards for Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Vehicles (FCVs) Polymer and Composite

222

Commercial Vehicle Safety Alliance (CVSA)/Department of Energy (DOE) cooperative agreement final report  

SciTech Connect

This S and T product is a culmination of the activities, including research of the Commercial Vehicle Safety Alliance (CVSA) in developing and implementing inspection procedures and the out-of-service criteria for states and tribes to use when inspecting HRCQ and Transuranic shipments of radioactive materials. The report also contains the results of a pilot study to test the procedures.

Slavich, Antoinette; Daust, James E.

1999-10-01

223

Development of methodologies for ensuring structural safety of gas turbines and launch vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The research presented in this dissertation involves two distinct areas. In both cases, optimization techniques provided an important tool to achieve the goal of ensuring structural integrity and safety of gas turbine and launch vehicle systems. In the first area, a novel testing methodology has been developed to assess turbine engine materials fatigue strength. The idea is to accumulate fatigue

Thomas Joe George Jr.

2002-01-01

224

NREL's emulation tool helps manufacturers ensure the safety and reliability of electric vehicle batteries.  

E-print Network

batteries. Battery safety is key to the acceptance and penetration of electrified vehicles challenging failure mechanisms of lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries--a battery internal short circuit (ISC). When battery internal shorts occur, they tend to surface without warning and usually after the cell has been

225

Advanced vehicle concepts systems and design analysis studies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The work conducted by the ELORET Institute under this Cooperative Agreement includes the modeling of hypersonic propulsion systems and the evaluation of hypersonic vehicles in general and most recently hypersonic waverider vehicles. This work in hypersonics was applied to the design of a two-stage to orbit launch vehicle which was included in the NASA Access to Space Project. Additional research regarded the Oblique All-Wing (OAW) Project at NASA ARC and included detailed configuration studies of OAW transport aircraft. Finally, work on the modeling of subsonic and supersonic turbofan engines was conducted under this research program.

Waters, Mark H.; Huynh, Loc C.

1994-01-01

226

Advanced Robotics for In-Space Vehicle Processing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An analysis of spaceborne vehicle processing is described. Generic crew-EVA tasks are presented for a specific vehicle, the orbital maneuvering vehicle (OMV), with general implications to other on-orbit vehicles. The OMV is examined with respect to both servicing and maintenance. Crew-EVA activities are presented by task and mapped to a common set of generic crew-EVA primitives to identify high-demand areas for telerobot services. Similarly, a set of telerobot primitives is presented that can be used to model telerobot actions for alternative telerobot reference configurations. The telerobot primitives are tied to technologies and used for composting telerobot operations for an automated refueling scenario. Telerobotics technology issues and design accomodation guidelines (hooks and scars) for the Space Station Freedom are described.

Smith, Jeffrey H.; Estus, Jay; Heneghan, Cate; Bosley, John

1990-01-01

227

78 FR 13853 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Denial of Petition for Rulemaking; Vehicle Rollover...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...rollover at any speed. Mr. Schramm has applied to patent a device he believes will enable vehicles to meet his requested standard...this new standard FMVSS No. 140, ``Anti-Roll Steering.'' He supplied regulatory text for the requested FMVSS No. 140,...

2013-03-01

228

Design for Reliability and Safety Approach for the New NASA Launch Vehicle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The United States National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is in the midst of a space exploration program intended for sending crew and cargo to the international Space Station (ISS), to the moon, and beyond. This program is called Constellation. As part of the Constellation program, NASA is developing new launch vehicles aimed at significantly increase safety and reliability, reduce the cost of accessing space, and provide a growth path for manned space exploration. Achieving these goals requires a rigorous process that addresses reliability, safety, and cost upfront and throughout all the phases of the life cycle of the program. This paper discusses the "Design for Reliability and Safety" approach for the NASA new launch vehicles, the ARES I and ARES V. Specifically, the paper addresses the use of an integrated probabilistic functional analysis to support the design analysis cycle and a probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) to support the preliminary design and beyond.

Safie, Fayssal M.; Weldon, Danny M.

2007-01-01

229

Foundational development of an advanced nuclear reactor integrated safety code.  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the activities and results of a Sandia LDRD project whose objective was to develop and demonstrate foundational aspects of a next-generation nuclear reactor safety code that leverages advanced computational technology. The project scope was directed towards the systems-level modeling and simulation of an advanced, sodium cooled fast reactor, but the approach developed has a more general applicability. The major accomplishments of the LDRD are centered around the following two activities. (1) The development and testing of LIME, a Lightweight Integrating Multi-physics Environment for coupling codes that is designed to enable both 'legacy' and 'new' physics codes to be combined and strongly coupled using advanced nonlinear solution methods. (2) The development and initial demonstration of BRISC, a prototype next-generation nuclear reactor integrated safety code. BRISC leverages LIME to tightly couple the physics models in several different codes (written in a variety of languages) into one integrated package for simulating accident scenarios in a liquid sodium cooled 'burner' nuclear reactor. Other activities and accomplishments of the LDRD include (a) further development, application and demonstration of the 'non-linear elimination' strategy to enable physics codes that do not provide residuals to be incorporated into LIME, (b) significant extensions of the RIO CFD code capabilities, (c) complex 3D solid modeling and meshing of major fast reactor components and regions, and (d) an approach for multi-physics coupling across non-conformal mesh interfaces.

Clarno, Kevin (Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN); Lorber, Alfred Abraham; Pryor, Richard J.; Spotz, William F.; Schmidt, Rodney Cannon; Belcourt, Kenneth (Ktech Corporation, Albuquerque, NM); Hooper, Russell Warren; Humphries, Larry LaRon

2010-02-01

230

Identification and characterization of passive safety system and inherent safety feature building blocks for advanced light-water reactors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is investigating passive and inherent safety options for Advanced Light-Water Reactors (ALWRs). A major activity in 1989 includes identification and characterization of passive safety system and inherent safety feature building blocks, both existing and proposed, for ALWRs. Preliminary results of this work are reported herein. This activity is part of a larger effort by the

1989-01-01

231

U.S. Department of Energy -- Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity: Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Testing and Demonstration Activities  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA) tests plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) in closed track, dynamometer and onroad testing environments. The onroad testing includes the use of dedicated drivers on repeated urban and highway driving cycles that range from 10 to 200 miles, with recharging between each loop. Fleet demonstrations with onboard data collectors are also ongoing with PHEVs operating in several dozen states and Canadian Provinces, during which trips- and miles-per-charge, charging demand and energy profiles, and miles-per-gallon and miles-per-kilowatt-hour fuel use results are all documented, allowing an understanding of fuel use when vehicles are operated in charge depleting, charge sustaining, and mixed charge modes. The intent of the PHEV testing includes documenting the petroleum reduction potential of the PHEV concept, the infrastructure requirements, and operator recharging influences and profiles. As of May 2008, the AVTA has conducted track and dynamometer testing on six PHEV conversion models and fleet testing on 70 PHEVs representing nine PHEV conversion models. A total of 150 PHEVs will be in fleet testing by the end of 2008, all with onboard data loggers. The onroad testing to date has demonstrated 100+ miles per gallon results in mostly urban applications for approximately the first 40 miles of PHEV operations. The primary goal of the AVTA is to provide advanced technology vehicle performance benchmark data for technology modelers, research and development programs, and technology goal setters. The AVTA testing results also assist fleet managers in making informed vehicle purchase, deployment and operating decisions. The AVTA is part of DOE’s Vehicle Technologies Program. These AVTA testing activities are conducted by the Idaho National Laboratory and Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation, with Argonne National Laboratory providing dynamometer testing support. The proposed paper and presentation will discuss PHEV testing activities and results. INL/CON-08-14333

James E. Francfort; Donald Karner; John G. Smart

2009-05-01

232

Recent Advances in Oncology Acupuncture and Safety Considerations in Practice  

PubMed Central

Opinion statement Oncology acupuncture is a new and emerging field of research. Recent advances from published clinical trials have added evidence to support the use of acupuncture for symptom management in cancer patients. Recent new developments include (1) pain and dysfunction after neck dissection; (2) radiation-induced xerostomia in head and neck cancer; (3) aromatase inhibitor-associated arthralgia in breast cancer; (4) hot flashes in breast cancer and prostate cancer; and (5) chemotherapyinduced neutropenia in ovarian cancer. Some interventions are becoming a non-pharmaceutical option for cancer patients, while others still require further validation and confirmation. Meanwhile, owing to the rapid development of the field and increased demands from cancer patients, safety issues concerning oncology acupuncture practice have become imperative. Patients with cancer may be at higher risk developing adverse reactions from acupuncture. Practical strategies for enhancing safety measures are discussed and recommended. PMID:21103962

Lu, Weidong; Doherty-Gilman, Anne M.; Rosenthal, David S.

2011-01-01

233

Environmental, health, and safety issues of sodium-sulfur batteries for electric and hybrid vehicles  

SciTech Connect

This report is the last of four volumes that identify and assess the environmental, health, and safety issues that may affect the commercial-scale use of sodium-sulfur (Na/S) battery technology as the energy source in electric and hybrid vehicles. The reports are intended to help the Electric and Hybrid Propulsion Division of the Office of Transportation Technologies in the US Department of Energy (DOE/EHP) determine the direction of its research, development, and demonstration (RD D) program for Na/S battery technology. The reports review the status of Na/S battery RD D and identify potential hazards and risks that may require additional research or that may affect the design and use of Na/S batteries. This volume covers the in-vehicle safety issues of electric vehicles powered by Na/S batteries. The report is based on a review of the literature and on discussions with experts at DOE, national laboratories and agencies, and private industry. It has three major goals: (1) to identify the unique hazards associated with electric vehicle (EV) use; (2) to describe the existing standards, regulations, and guidelines that are or could be applicable to these hazards; and (3) to discuss the adequacy of the existing requirements in addressing the safety concerns of EVs.

Mark, J

1992-11-01

234

A Trial of an All-Terrain Vehicle Safety Education Video in a Community-Based Hunter Education Program  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: All-terrain vehicle (ATV) injury is an increasingly serious problem, particularly among rural youth. There have been repeated calls for ATV safety education, but little study regarding optimal methods or content for such education. The purpose of this study was to determine if an ATV safety video was effective in increasing ATV safety

Williams, Robert S.; Graham, James; Helmkamp, James C.; Dick, Rhonda; Thompson, Tonya; Aitken, Mary E.

2011-01-01

235

Environmental, health, and safety issues of sodium-sulfur batteries for electric and hybrid vehicles  

SciTech Connect

This report is the first of four volumes that identify and assess the environmental, health, and safety issues involved in using sodium-sulfur (Na/S) battery technology as the energy source in electric and hybrid vehicles that may affect the commercialization of Na/S batteries. This and the other reports on recycling, shipping, and vehicle safety are intended to help the Electric and Hybrid Propulsion Division of the Office of Transportation Technologies in the US Department of Energy (DOE/EHP) determine the direction of its research, development, and demonstration (RD D) program for Na/S battery technology. The reports review the status of Na/S battery RD D and identify potential hazards and risks that may require additional research or that may affect the design and use of Na/S batteries. This volume covers cell design and engineering as the basis of safety for Na/S batteries and describes and assesses the potential chemical, electrical, and thermal hazards and risks of Na/S cells and batteries as well as the RD D performed, under way, or to address these hazards and risks. The report is based on a review of the literature and on discussions with experts at DOE, national laboratories and agencies, universities, and private industry. Subsequent volumes will address environmental, health, and safety issues involved in shipping cells and batteries, using batteries to propel electric vehicles, and recycling and disposing of spent batteries. The remainder of this volume is divided into two major sections on safety at the cell and battery levels. The section on Na/S cells describes major component and potential failure modes, design, life testing and failure testing, thermal cycling, and the safety status of Na/S cells. The section on batteries describes battery design, testing, and safety status. Additional EH S information on Na/S batteries is provided in the appendices.

Ohi, J.M.

1992-09-01

236

Comparison of advanced battery technologies for electric vehicles  

SciTech Connect

Battery technologies of different chemistries, manufacture and geometry were evaluated as candidates for use in Electric Vehicles (EV). The candidate batteries that were evaluated include four single cell and seven multi-cell modules representing four technologies: Lead-Acid, Nickel-Cadmium, Nickel-Metal Hydride and Zinc-Bromide. A standard set of testing procedures for electric vehicle batteries, based on industry accepted testing procedures, and any tests which were specific to individual battery types were used in the evaluations. The batteries were evaluated by conducting performance tests, and by subjecting them to cyclical loading, using a computer controlled charge--discharge cycler, to simulate typical EV driving cycles. Criteria for comparison of batteries were: performance, projected vehicle range, cost, and applicability to various types of EVs. The four battery technologies have individual strengths and weaknesses and each is suited to fill a particular application. None of the batteries tested can fill every EV application.

Dickinson, B.E.; Lalk, T.R. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Mechanical Engineering Dept.; Swan, D.H. [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States). Inst. of Transportation Studies

1993-12-31

237

Analyzing the influence of median cross-section design on highway safety using vehicle dynamics simulations.  

PubMed

Although vehicle dynamics simulations have long been used in vehicle design and crash reconstruction, their use for highway design is rare. This paper investigates the safety of highway medians through iterative simulations of off-road median encroachments. The commercially available software CarSim was used to simulate over one hundred thousand encroachments, representing the entire passenger vehicle fleet and a wide range of encroachment angles, departure speeds, steering inputs, and braking inputs. Each individual simulation output was then weighted using data from previous studies to reflect the probability of each specific accident scenario occurring in a real-life median encroachment. Results of this analysis illustrate the relative influence of median cross-section geometry on the resulting accident outcomes. The simulations indicate that the overall safety of a highway median depends on the occurrence of both vehicle rollover and median crossover events, and the cross-section shape, slope, and width are all shown to greatly affect each of these incidents. An evaluation of the simulation results was conducted with vehicle trajectories from previous experimental crash tests. Further assessment of the aggregate simulation results to actual crash data was achieved through comparison with several databases of crash statistics. Both efforts showed a strong agreement between the simulations and the real-life crash data. PMID:20728628

Stine, Jason S; Hamblin, Bridget C; Brennan, Sean N; Donnell, Eric T

2010-11-01

238

Identification and characterization of passive safety system and inherent safety feature building blocks for advanced light-water reactors  

SciTech Connect

Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is investigating passive and inherent safety options for Advanced Light-Water Reactors (ALWRs). A major activity in 1989 includes identification and characterization of passive safety system and inherent safety feature building blocks, both existing and proposed, for ALWRs. Preliminary results of this work are reported herein. This activity is part of a larger effort by the US Department of Energy, reactor vendors, utilities, and others in the United States to develop improved LWRs. The Advanced Boiling Water Reactor (ABWR) program and the Advanced Pressurized Water Reactor (APWR) program have as goals improved, commercially available LWRs in the early 1990s. The Advanced Simplified Boiling Water Reactor (ASBWR) program and the AP-600 program are developing more advanced reactors with increased use of passive safety systems. It is planned that these reactors will become commercially available in the mid 1990s. The ORNL program is an exploratory research program for LWRs beyond the year 2000. Desired long-term goals for such reactors include: (1) use of only passive and inherent safety, (2) foolproof against operator errors, (3) malevolence resistance against internal sabotage and external assault and (4) walkaway safety. The acronym ''PRIME'' (Passive safety, Resilient operation, Inherent safety, Malevolence resistance, and Extended (walkaway) safety) is used to summarize these desired characteristics. Existing passive and inherent safety options are discussed in this document.

Forsberg, C.W.

1989-01-01

239

Advanced transportation system study: Manned launch vehicle concepts for two way transportation system payloads to LEO. Program cost estimates document  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report describes Rockwell International's cost analysis results of manned launch vehicle concepts for two way transportation system payloads to low earth orbit during the basic and option 1 period of performance for contract NAS8-39207, advanced transportation system studies. Vehicles analyzed include the space shuttle, personnel launch system (PLS) with advanced launch system (ALS) and national launch system (NLS) boosters, foreign launch vehicles, NLS-2 derived launch vehicles, liquid rocket booster (LRB) derived launch vehicle, and cargo transfer and return vehicle (CTRV).

Duffy, James B.

1993-01-01

240

Fuel efficiency and automobile safety: Single-vehicle highway fatalities for passenger cars  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports the results of an effort to shed some light on the relationship that might exist between enhanced standards and single-vehicle passenger car highway fatalities. Quantification of this relationship is not an easy task Not surprisingly, the literature on modeling the relationship between fuel economy and highway fatalities is very scant. Our analytic framework consists of two submodels: a corporate average fuel economy (CAFE) submodel and a single-vehicle highway fatalities submodel. Some of the variables that enter the CAFE relationship affect single-vehicle fatalities, as well. The results of this study are not unequivocal in every respect. However, they indicate that enhanced standards and automobile safety need not be at odds with each other. A main message that emerges from this study is the need not to confuse car downsizing with down weighting. Quantatative studies of highway fatalities have mostly treated weight and size interchangeably, and have used only the weight variable in the fatalities equation to avoid dealing with multicollinearity. Such references as {open_quote}size/weight{close_quote} which lump size and weight together as if they were the same variable are not uncommon in the safety literature. Our study indicates that weight and size are not a proxy to each other, and that in single vehicle crashes they are likely to have opposite effects on safety. Men researchers choose to drop the size variable and include only the weight variable in the fatalities equation, the weight estimate may end up with a negative sign, not necessarily because weight has a beneficial effect on safety, but because the omitted size variable has a dominant beneficial effect on safety, which is picked up by the weight variable that appears in the equation. 65 refs., 7 tabs.

Khazzoom, J.D. [San Jose Univ., CA (United States)

1994-12-31

241

Rating the overall secondary safety of vehicles from real world crash data: the Australian and New Zealand Total Secondary Safety Index.  

PubMed

Various systems for rating secondary safety of particular makes and models of vehicles have been developed internationally. These measures generally evaluate crashworthiness (the ability of the vehicle to protect its own occupants in the event of a crash) separately from aggressivity (the harm a vehicle is liable to impose on other road users into which it crashes). This paper describes an approach using Australian and New Zealand data that combines these two facets of secondary safety into one 'Total Secondary Safety Index' estimated from real world crash outcomes. The Index estimates the risk of death or serious injury to all key road users in crashes involving light passenger vehicles across the full range of crash types. This paper describes the rationale and method for producing this Index, together with some estimates for common Australian and New Zealand makes and models of light passenger vehicles. PMID:21376849

Newstead, Stuart V; Keall, Michael D; Watson, Linda M

2011-05-01

242

The impact of advancing propulsion technologies on reusable launch vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The IHPRPT (Integrated High Payoff Rocket Propulsion Technology) initiative is a joint Government and industry effort to develop and demonstrate innovative, revolutionary technologies that will double launch vehicle propulsion system capability by the year 2010. The liquid rocket engine technology plan uses a ‘‘phased’’ approach to achieving higher engine thrust-to-weight(mass), Isp, lower support cost, lower hardware cost, and increased reliability

Russell Joyner; Steve Peery; George Cox

1996-01-01

243

Assessment of launch vehicle advances to enable human mars excursions  

Microsoft Academic Search

A mathematical model is developed for the assessment of the launch mass of a vehicle designed for a human mission to Mars. The mission involves six stages: (i) ascent from Earth surface to low Earth orbit, (ii) outgoing trip from low Earth orbit to low Mars orbit, (iii) descent and landing on Mars, (iv) ascent from Mars surface to low

A. Miele; T. Wang; S. Mancuso

2001-01-01

244

Comparison of advanced rechargeable batteries for autonomous underwater vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) will likely play an increasing role in future military oceanic and scientific missions as long as power sources meet the systems needs. These needs, ranging from 20 to 200 kWh with minimum time from 20 to 200 hours, will not be satisfied with present batteries such as lead acid, nickel cadmium, and silver oxide zinc. This

J. P. Descroix; G. Chagnon

1994-01-01

245

Integration of Advanced Concepts and Vehicles Into the Next Generation Air Transportation System. Volume 1; Introduction, Key Messages, and Vehicle Attributes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Raytheon, in partnership with NASA, is leading the way in ensuring that the future air transportation continues to be a key driver of economic growth and stability and that this system provides an environmentally friendly, safe, and effective means of moving people and goods. A Raytheon-led team of industry and academic experts, under NASA contract NNA08BA47C, looked at the potential issues and impact of introducing four new classes of advanced aircraft into the next generation air transportation system -- known as NextGen. The study will help determine where NASA should further invest in research to support the safe introduction of these new air vehicles. Small uncrewed or unmanned aerial systems (SUAS), super heavy transports (SHT) including hybrid wing body versions (HWB), very light jets (VLJ), and supersonic business jets (SSBJ) are the four classes of aircraft that we studied. Understanding each vehicle's business purpose and strategy is critical to assessing the feasibility of new aircraft operations and their impact on NextGen's architecture. The Raytheon team used scenarios created by aviation experts that depict vehicles in year 2025 operations along with scripts or use cases to understand the issues presented by these new types of vehicles. The information was then mapped into the Joint Planning and Development Office's (JPDO s) Enterprise Architecture to show how the vehicles will fit into NextGen's Concept of Operations. The team also identified significant changes to the JPDO's Integrated Work Plan (IWP) to optimize the NextGen vision for these vehicles. Using a proven enterprise architecture approach and the JPDO s Joint Planning Environment (JPE) web site helped make the leap from architecture to planning efficient, manageable and achievable. Very Light Jets flying into busy hub airports -- Supersonic Business Jets needing to climb and descend rapidly to achieve the necessary altitude Super-heavy cargo planes requiring the shortest common flight path -- are just a few of the potential new operations in the future National Airspace System. To assess the impact of these new scenarios on overall national airspace operations, the Raytheon team used the capabilities of a suite of tools such as NASA's Airspace Concepts Evaluation System (ACES), the Flight Optimization System (FLOPS), FAA's Aviation Environmental Design Tool (AEDT), Intelligent Automations Kinematic Trajectory Generator (KTG) and the Aviation Safety Risk Model (ASRM). Detailed metroplex modeling, surface delay models for super heavy transports, prioritized routing and corridors for supersonics business jets, and VLJ demand models are some of the models developed by the Raytheon team to study the effect of operating these new vehicles in the future NAS. Using this suite of models, several trade studies were conducted to evaluate these effects in terms of delays, equity in access, safety, and the environment. Looking at the impact of each vehicle, a number of critical issues were identified. The Raytheon team concluded that strict compliance to NextGen's 4-dimensional trajectory (4DT) management will be required to accommodate these vehicles unique operations and increased number of flights in the future air space system. The next section provides a discussion of this and the other key findings from our study.

Zellweger, Andres; Resnick, Herbert; Stevens, Edward; Arkind, Kenneth; Cotton William B.

2010-01-01

246

Progress on advanced dc and ac induction drives for electric vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Progress is reported in the development of complete electric vehicle propulsion systems, and the results of tests on the Road Load Simulator of two such systems representative of advanced dc and ac drive technology are presented. One is the system used in the DOE's ETV-1 integrated test vehicle which consists of a shunt wound dc traction motor under microprocessor control using a transistorized controller. The motor drives the vehicle through a fixed ratio transmission. The second system uses an ac induction motor controlled by transistorized pulse width modulated inverter which drives through a two speed automatically shifted transmission. The inverter and transmission both operate under the control of a microprocessor. The characteristics of these systems are also compared with the propulsion system technology available in vehicles being manufactured at the inception of the DOE program and with an advanced, highly integrated propulsion system upon which technology development was recently initiated.

Schwartz, H. J.

1982-01-01

247

75 FR 60036 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; New Pneumatic Tires for Motor Vehicles With a GVWR of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...heavy load range tires for vehicles with gross vehicle weight rating (GVWR...applies to tires used on vehicles with a gross vehicle weight rating of 4,536...now applies to tires for vehicles with a gross vehicle weight rating of...

2010-09-29

248

Advanced Components for Electric and Hybrid Electric Vehicles: Proceedings of a workshop  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This is a key period in the development of electric and hybrid electric vehicles. The landmark 1990 legislation in California requires that two percent of new automobiles be zero emission vehicles in 1998, rising to 10 percent in the year 2005. This can only be met by electric vehicles. The purpose of the workshop was to concentrate on the technologies to improve the design, performance, manufacturability, and economics of the critical components for the next generation of electric and hybrid electric vehicles for the year 2000 and beyond. The workshop began with invited speakers to cover the general topics of impact of the California legislation, federal agency programs, development of standards, infrastructure needs, advanced battery development, and the imperatives for commercial success of electric and hybrid electric vehicles. Working sessions were five parallel meetings on energy conversion systems, energy storage systems, electric propulsion systems, controls and instrumentation, and ancillary systems.

Stricklett, K. L.; Cookson, Alan H.; Bartholomew, R. W.; Leedy, T.

1994-03-01

249

U.S. Department of Energy FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies Program Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity Federal Fleet Use of Electric Vehicles  

SciTech Connect

Per Executive Order 13031, “Federal Alternative Fueled Vehicle Leadership,” the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity provided $998,300 in incremental funding to support the deployment of 220 electric vehicles in 36 Federal fleets. The 145 electric Ford Ranger pickups and 75 electric Chrysler EPIC (Electric Powered Interurban Commuter) minivans were operated in 14 states and the District of Columbia. The 220 vehicles were driven an estimated average of 700,000 miles annually. The annual estimated use of the 220 electric vehicles contributed to 39,000 fewer gallons of petroleum being used by Federal fleets and the reduction in emissions of 1,450 pounds of smog-forming pollution. Numerous attempts were made to obtain information from all 36 fleets. Information responses were received from 25 fleets (69% response rate), as some Federal fleet personnel that were originally involved with the Incremental Funding Project were transferred, retired, or simply could not be found. In addition, many of the Department of Defense fleets indicated that they were supporting operations in Iraq and unable to provide information for the foreseeable future. It should be noted that the opinions of the 25 fleets is based on operating 179 of the 220 electric vehicles (81% response rate). The data from the 25 fleets is summarized in this report. Twenty-two of the 25 fleets reported numerous problems with the vehicles, including mechanical, traction battery, and charging problems. Some of these problems, however, may have resulted from attempting to operate the vehicles beyond their capabilities. The majority of fleets reported that most of the vehicles were driven by numerous drivers each week, with most vehicles used for numerous trips per day. The vehicles were driven on average from 4 to 50 miles per day on a single charge. However, the majority of the fleets reported needing gasoline vehicles for missions beyond the capabilities of the electric vehicles, usually because of range limitations. Twelve fleets reported experiencing at least one charge depletion while driving, whereas nine fleets reported not having this problem. Twenty-four of the 25 fleets responded that the electric vehicles were easy to use and 22 fleets indicated that the payload was adequate. Thirteen fleets reported charging problems; eleven fleets reported no charging problems. Nine fleets reported the vehicles broke down while driving; 14 fleets reported no onroad breakdowns. Some of the breakdowns while driving, however, appear to include normal flat tires and idiot lights coming on. In spite of operation and charging problems, 59% of the fleets responded that they were satisfied, very satisfied, or extremely satisfied with the performance of the electric vehicles. As of September 2003, 74 of the electric vehicles were still being used and 107 had been returned to the manufacturers because the leases had concluded.

Mindy Kirpatrick; J. E. Francfort

2003-11-01

250

Safety Analysis of Soybean Processing for Advanced Life Support  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Soybeans (cv. Hoyt) is one of the crops planned for food production within the Advanced Life Support System Integration Testbed (ALSSIT), a proposed habitat simulation for long duration lunar/Mars missions. Soybeans may be processed into a variety of food products, including soymilk, tofu, and tempeh. Due to the closed environmental system and importance of crew health maintenance, food safety is a primary concern on long duration space missions. Identification of the food safety hazards and critical control points associated with the closed ALSSIT system is essential for the development of safe food processing techniques and equipment. A Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) model was developed to reflect proposed production and processing protocols for ALSSIT soybeans. Soybean processing was placed in the type III risk category. During the processing of ALSSIT-grown soybeans, critical control points were identified to control microbiological hazards, particularly mycotoxins, and chemical hazards from antinutrients. Critical limits were suggested at each CCP. Food safety recommendations regarding the hazards and risks associated with growing, harvesting, and processing soybeans; biomass management; and use of multifunctional equipment were made in consideration of the limitations and restraints of the closed ALSSIT.

Hentges, Dawn L.

1999-01-01

251

A market systems analysis of the U.S. Sport Utility Vehicle market considering frontal crash safety technology and policy.  

PubMed

Active safety features and adjustments to the New Car Assessment Program (NCAP) consumer-information crash tests have the potential to decrease the number of serious traffic injuries each year, according to previous studies. However, literature suggests that risk reductions, particularly in the automotive market, are often accompanied by adjusted consumer risk tolerance, and so these potential safety benefits may not be fully realized due to changes in consumer purchasing or driving behavior. This article approaches safety in the new vehicle market, particularly in the Sport Utility Vehicle and Crossover Utility Vehicle segments, from a market systems perspective. Crash statistics and simulations are used to predict the effects of design and policy changes on occupant crash safety, and discrete choice experiments are conducted to estimate the values consumers place on vehicle attributes. These models are combined in a market simulation that forecasts how consumers respond to the available vehicle alternatives, resulting in predictions of the market share of each vehicle and how the change in fleet mixture influences societal outcomes including injuries, fuel consumption, and firm profits. The model is tested for a scenario where active safety features are implemented across the new vehicle fleet and a scenario where the U.S. frontal NCAP test speed is modified. While results exhibit evidence of consumer risk adjustment, they support adding active safety features and lowering the NCAP frontal test speed, as these changes are predicted to improve the welfare of both firms and society. PMID:22898094

Hoffenson, Steven; Frischknecht, Bart D; Papalambros, Panos Y

2013-01-01

252

Development of advanced nickel/metal hydride batteries for electric and hybrid vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nickel/metal hydride (Ni/MH) batteries have emerged as the battery technology of choice for electric vehicles. GM Ovonic L.L.C., a joint venture between General Motors and Ovonic Battery was established in 1994 to manufacture and commercialize Ovonic's proprietary Ni/MH batteries for electric and hybrid vehicle applications. GM Ovonic is developing a `family of batteries' aimed at product improvement and cost reduction. Current performance of these new battery designs is described, as well as projections for future improvements. In addition, advances in cell and battery power have allowed further product diversification into cells and batteries specifically designed for a range of hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs).

Gifford, Paul; Adams, John; Corrigan, Dennis; Venkatesan, Srinivasan

253

Electric power processing, distribution and control for advanced aerospace vehicles.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results of a current study program to develop a rational basis for selection of power processing, distribution, and control configurations for future aerospace vehicles including the Space Station, Space Shuttle, and high-performance aircraft are presented. Within the constraints imposed by the characteristics of power generation subsystems and the load utilization equipment requirements, the power processing, distribution and control subsystem can be optimized by selection of the proper distribution voltage, frequency, and overload/fault protection method. It is shown that, for large space vehicles which rely on static energy conversion to provide electric power, high-voltage dc distribution (above 100 V dc) is preferable to conventional 28 V dc and 115 V ac distribution per MIL-STD-704A. High-voltage dc also has advantages over conventional constant frequency ac systems in many aircraft applications due to the elimination of speed control, wave shaping, and synchronization equipment.

Krausz, A.; Felch, J. L.

1972-01-01

254

Gasoline Ultra Efficient Fuel Vehicle with Advanced Low Temperature Combustion  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this program was to develop, implement and demonstrate fuel consumption reduction technologies which are focused on reduction of friction and parasitic losses and on the improvement of thermal efficiency from in-cylinder combustion. The program was executed in two phases. The conclusion of each phase was marked by an on-vehicle technology demonstration. Phase I concentrated on short term goals to achieve technologies to reduce friction and parasitic losses. The duration of Phase I was approximately two years and the target fuel economy improvement over the baseline was 20% for the Phase I demonstration. Phase II was focused on the development and demonstration of a breakthrough low temperature combustion process called Gasoline Direct- Injection Compression Ignition (GDCI). The duration of Phase II was approximately four years and the targeted fuel economy improvement was 35% over the baseline for the Phase II demonstration vehicle. The targeted tailpipe emissions for this demonstration were Tier 2 Bin 2 emissions standards.

Confer, Keith

2014-09-30

255

Final report for the Advanced Natural Gas Vehicle Project  

Microsoft Academic Search

The project objective was to develop the technologies necessary to prototype a dedicated compressed natural gas (CNG) powered, mid-size automobile with operational capabilities comparable to gasoline automobiles. A system approach was used to design and develop the engine, gas storage system and vehicle packaging. The 2.4-liter DOHC engine was optimized for natural gas operation with high-compression pistons, hardened exhaust valves,

John Wozniak

1999-01-01

256

Advances in the Use of Tocols as Drug Delivery Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

There has been increasing interest in recent years in the drug delivery applications of tocols and their derivatives. Their\\u000a biocompatibility and potential to deliver both poorly soluble and water-soluble drugs make tocols attractive as drug delivery\\u000a vehicles. This review article will focus primarily on topical, oral, and parenteral drug administration using tocols, although\\u000a other routes of delivery such as pulmonary

Panayiotis P. Constantinides; Jihong Han; Stanley S. Davis

2006-01-01

257

Advanced PEFC development for fuel cell powered vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vehicles equipped with fuel cells have been developed with much progress. Outcomes of such development efforts include a Toyota fuel cell electric vehicle (FCEV) using hydrogen as the fuel which was developed and introduced in 1996, followed by another Toyota FCEV using methanol as the fuel, developed and introduced in 1997. In those Toyota FCEVs, a fuel cell system is installed under the floor of each RAV4L, to sports utility vehicle. It has been found that the CO concentration in the reformed gas of methanol reformer can be reduced to 100 ppm in wide ranges of catalyst temperature and gas flow rate, by using the ruthenium (Ru) catalyst as the CO selective oxidizer, instead of the platinum (Pt) catalyst known from some time ago. It has been also found that a fuel cell performance equivalent to that with pure hydrogen can be ensured even in the reformed gas with the carbon monoxide (CO) concentration of 100 ppm, by using the Pt-Ru (platinum ruthenium alloy) electrocatalyst as the anode electrocatalyst of a polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC), instead of the Pt electrocatalyst known from some time ago.

Kawatsu, Shigeyuki

258

Current status of environmental, health, and safety issues of nickel metal-hydride batteries for electric vehicles  

SciTech Connect

This report identifies important environment, health, and safety issues associated with nickel metal-hydride (Ni-MH) batteries and assesses the need for further testing and analysis. Among the issues discussed are cell and battery safety, workplace health and safety, shipping requirements, and in-vehicle safety. The manufacture and recycling of Ni-MH batteries are also examined. This report also overviews the ``FH&S`` issues associated with other nickel-based electric vehicle batteries; it examines venting characteristics, toxicity of battery materials, and the status of spent batteries as a hazardous waste.

Corbus, D.; Hammel, C.J.; Mark, J.

1993-08-01

259

Failure prediction for advanced crashworthiness of transportation vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the past two decades explicit finite element crashworthiness codes have become an indispensable tool for the design of crash and passenger safety systems. These codes have proven remarkably reliable for the prediction of ductile metal structures that deform plastically; however, they are not reliable for joining systems and materials such as high strength steels, plastics and low ductility lightweight

Anthony K. Pickett; Thomas Pyttel; Fabrice Payen; Franck Lauro; Nikica Petrinic; Heinz Werner; Jens Christlein

2004-01-01

260

The perspectives of research for enhancing active safety based on advanced control technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper considers the scope and the methodologies for enhancing active safety of road vehicles by sensing and control technologies. The first part of this paper introduces statistical data of traffic accidents in Japan, and describes the development of the drive recorder for accident\\/incident survey and analysis. Based on vehicle dynamics data, the algorithm of the drive recorder for capturing

Masao Nagai

2007-01-01

261

How Safe is Vehicle Safety? The Contribution of Vehicle Technologies to the Reduction in Road Casualties in France from 2000 to 2010  

PubMed Central

In France, over the last 10 years, road fatalities have decreased dramatically by 48%. This reduction is somewhat close to the target fixed by the European Commision in 2001 for the whole of Europe (?50 %). According to the French govnerment, 75% of this reduction was due to the implementation of automatic speed cameras on the roadsides from 2003 onwards. Yet, during this period, there was also a significantly increase in safety technology, new regulations in front and side impacts, and developments in Euro NCAP to improve passive safety in the vehicles. This paper set out to estimate the extent that vehicle safety technologies contributed to the road safety benefits over this decade. Using a combination of databases and fitment rates, the number of fatalities and hospitalized injuries saved in passenger car crashes was estimated for a number of safety technologies, individually and as a package including a 5 star EuroNCAP rating. The additional benefits from other public safety measures were also similarly estimated. The results showed that overall safety measures during this decade saved 240,676 fatalities + serious injuries, of which 173,663 were car occupants. Of these, 27,365 car occupants and 1,083 pedestrian savings could be attributed directly to vehicle safety improvements (11% overall). It was concluded that while public safety measures were responsible for the majority of the savings, enhanced vehicle safety technologies also made a significant improvement in the road toll in France during the last decade. As the take-up rate for these technologies improves, is expected to continue to provide even more benefits in the next 10-year period. PMID:22105388

Page, Yves; Hermitte, Thierry; Cuny, Sophie

2011-01-01

262

Safety Changes in the US Vehicle Fleet since Model Year 1990, Based on NASS Data  

PubMed Central

Based on the National Automotive Sampling System Crashworthiness Data System since the 1988–1992 model years, there has been a reduction in the MAIS 3+ injury rate and the Mean HARM for all crash modes. The largest improvement in vehicle safety has been in rollovers. There was an increase in the rollover injury rate in the 1993–1998 model year period, but a reduction since then. When comparing vehicles of the model year 1993 to 1998 with later model vehicles, the most profound difference was the reduction of rollover frequency for SUV’s – down more than 20% when compared to other crash modes. When considering only model years since 2002 the rollover frequency reduction was nearly 40%. A 26% reduction in the rate of moderate and serious injuries for all drivers in rollovers was observed for the model years later than 1998. The overall belt use rate for drivers of late model vehicles with HARM weighted injuries was 62% - up from 54% in earlier model vehicles. However, in rollover crashes, the same belt use rate lagged at 54%. PMID:23169134

Eigen, Ana Maria; Digges, Kennerly; Samaha, Randa Radwan

2012-01-01

263

Safety Changes in the US Vehicle Fleet since Model Year 1990, Based on NASS Data.  

PubMed

Based on the National Automotive Sampling System Crashworthiness Data System since the 1988-1992 model years, there has been a reduction in the MAIS 3+ injury rate and the Mean HARM for all crash modes. The largest improvement in vehicle safety has been in rollovers. There was an increase in the rollover injury rate in the 1993-1998 model year period, but a reduction since then. When comparing vehicles of the model year 1993 to 1998 with later model vehicles, the most profound difference was the reduction of rollover frequency for SUV's - down more than 20% when compared to other crash modes. When considering only model years since 2002 the rollover frequency reduction was nearly 40%. A 26% reduction in the rate of moderate and serious injuries for all drivers in rollovers was observed for the model years later than 1998. The overall belt use rate for drivers of late model vehicles with HARM weighted injuries was 62% - up from 54% in earlier model vehicles. However, in rollover crashes, the same belt use rate lagged at 54%. PMID:23169134

Eigen, Ana Maria; Digges, Kennerly; Samaha, Randa Radwan

2012-01-01

264

Analysis of the Relationship Between Vehicle Weight\\/Size and Safety, and Implications for Federal Fuel Economy Regulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report analyzes the relationship between vehicle weight, size (wheelbase, track width, and their product, footprint), and safety, for individual vehicle makes and models. Vehicle weight and footprint are correlated with a correlation coefficient (R²) of about 0.62. The relationship is stronger for cars (0.69) than for light trucks (0.42); light trucks include minivans, fullsize vans, truck-based SUVs, crossover SUVs,

Wenzel; Thomas P

2010-01-01

265

Pedestrian Safety  

MedlinePLUS

... Travel & Motor Vehicle Safety En Español Travel & Motor Vehicle Safety Pedestrian Safety Main Points Emergency physicians treat ... patients each year who are injured by motor vehicles while walking. Sixty-eight thousand pedestrians were injured ...

266

Design for Reliability and Safety Approach for the NASA New Launch Vehicle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The United States National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is in the midst of a space exploration program intended for sending crew and cargo to the international Space Station (ISS), to the moon, and beyond. This program is called Constellation. As part of the Constellation program, NASA is developing new launch vehicles aimed at significantly increase safety and reliability, reduce the cost of accessing space, and provide a growth path for manned space exploration. Achieving these goals requires a rigorous process that addresses reliability, safety, and cost upfront and throughout all the phases of the life cycle of the program. This paper discusses the "Design for Reliability and Safety" approach for the NASA new crew launch vehicle called ARES I. The ARES I is being developed by NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in support of the Constellation program. The ARES I consists of three major Elements: A solid First Stage (FS), an Upper Stage (US), and liquid Upper Stage Engine (USE). Stacked on top of the ARES I is the Crew exploration vehicle (CEV). The CEV consists of a Launch Abort System (LAS), Crew Module (CM), Service Module (SM), and a Spacecraft Adapter (SA). The CEV development is being led by NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC). Designing for high reliability and safety require a good integrated working environment and a sound technical design approach. The "Design for Reliability and Safety" approach addressed in this paper discusses both the environment and the technical process put in place to support the ARES I design. To address the integrated working environment, the ARES I project office has established a risk based design group called "Operability Design and Analysis" (OD&A) group. This group is an integrated group intended to bring together the engineering, design, and safety organizations together to optimize the system design for safety, reliability, and cost. On the technical side, the ARES I project has, through the OD&A environment, implemented a probabilistic approach to analyze and evaluate design uncertainties and understand their impact on safety, reliability, and cost. This paper focuses on the use of the various probabilistic approaches that have been pursued by the ARES I project. Specifically, the paper discusses an integrated functional probabilistic analysis approach that addresses upffont some key areas to support the ARES I Design Analysis Cycle (DAC) pre Preliminary Design (PD) Phase. This functional approach is a probabilistic physics based approach that combines failure probabilities with system dynamics and engineering failure impact models to identify key system risk drivers and potential system design requirements. The paper also discusses other probabilistic risk assessment approaches planned by the ARES I project to support the PD phase and beyond.

Safie, Fayssal, M.; Weldon, Danny M.

2007-01-01

267

Final report for the Advanced Natural Gas Vehicle Project  

SciTech Connect

The project objective was to develop the technologies necessary to prototype a dedicated compressed natural gas (CNG) powered, mid-size automobile with operational capabilities comparable to gasoline automobiles. A system approach was used to design and develop the engine, gas storage system and vehicle packaging. The 2.4-liter DOHC engine was optimized for natural gas operation with high-compression pistons, hardened exhaust valves, a methane-specific catalytic converter and multi-point gaseous injection. The chassis was repackaging to increase space for fuel storage with a custom-designed, cast-aluminum, semi-trailing arm rear suspension system, a revised flat trunk sheet-metal floorpan and by equipping the car with run-flat tires. An Integrated Storage system (ISS) was developed using all-composite, small-diameter cylinders encapsulated within a high-strength fiberglass shell with impact-absorbing foam. The prototypes achieved the target goals of a city/highway driving range of 300 miles, ample trunk capacity, gasoline vehicle performance and ultra low exhaust emissions.

John Wozniak

1999-02-16

268

A Novel Series Connected Batteries State of High Voltage Safety Monitor System for Electric Vehicle Application  

PubMed Central

Batteries, as the main or assistant power source of EV (Electric Vehicle), are usually connected in series with high voltage to improve the drivability and energy efficiency. Today, more and more batteries are connected in series with high voltage, if there is any fault in high voltage system (HVS), the consequence is serious and dangerous. Therefore, it is necessary to monitor the electric parameters of HVS to ensure the high voltage safety and protect personal safety. In this study, a high voltage safety monitor system is developed to solve this critical issue. Four key electric parameters including precharge, contact resistance, insulation resistance, and remaining capacity are monitored and analyzed based on the equivalent models presented in this study. The high voltage safety controller which integrates the equivalent models and control strategy is developed. By the help of hardware-in-loop system, the equivalent models integrated in the high voltage safety controller are validated, and the online electric parameters monitor strategy is analyzed and discussed. The test results indicate that the high voltage safety monitor system designed in this paper is suitable for EV application. PMID:24194677

Jiaxi, Qiang; Lin, Yang; Jianhui, He; Qisheng, Zhou

2013-01-01

269

Advanced Korean Industrial Safety and Health Policy with Risk Assessment  

PubMed Central

This article describes a systematic roadmap master plan for advanced industrial safety and health policy in Korea, with an emphasis on. Since Korean industries had first emergence of industrial safety and health policy in 1953, enormous efforts have been made on upgrading the relevant laws in order to reflect real situation of industrial work environment in accordance with rapid changes of Korean and global business over three decades. Nevertheless, current policy has major defects; too much techniques-based articles, diverged contents in less organization, combined enforcement and punishments and finally enforcing regulations full of commands and control. These deficiencies have make it difficult to accommodate changes of social, industrial and employment environment in customized fashion. The approach to the solution must be generic at the level of paradigm-shift rather than local modifications and enhancement. The basic idea is to establish a new system integrated with a risk assessment scheme, which encourages employers to apply to their work environment under comprehensive responsibility. The risk assessment scheme is designed to enable to inspect employers' compliances afterwards. A project comprises four yearly phases based on applying zones; initially designating and operating a specified risk zone, gradually expanding the special zones during a period of 3 years (2010-2012) and the final zone expanded to entire nation. In each phase, the intermediate version of the system is updated through a process of precise and unbiased validation in terms of its operability, feasibility and sustainability with building relevant infrastructures as needed. PMID:22953160

Cho, Jae Hyun; Moon, Il; Choi, Jaewook; Park, Dooyong; Lee, Youngsoon

2010-01-01

270

Development of Pneumatic Aerodynamic Devices to Improve the Performance, Economics, and Safety of Heavy Vehicles  

SciTech Connect

Under contract to the DOE Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies, the Georgia Tech Research Institute (GTRI) is developing and evaluating pneumatic (blown) aerodynamic devices to improve the performance, economics, stability and safety of operation of Heavy Vehicles. The objective of this program is to apply the pneumatic aerodynamic aircraft technology previously developed and flight-tested by GTRI personnel to the design of an efficient blown tractor-trailer configuration. Recent experimental results obtained by GTRI using blowing have shown drag reductions of 35% on a streamlined automobile wind-tunnel model. Also measured were lift or down-load increases of 100-150% and the ability to control aerodynamic moments about all 3 axes without any moving control surfaces. Similar drag reductions yielded by blowing on bluff afterbody trailers in current US trucking fleet operations are anticipated to reduce yearly fuel consumption by more than 1.2 billion gallons, while even further reduction is possible using pneumatic lift to reduce tire rolling resistance. Conversely, increased drag and down force generated instantaneously by blowing can greatly increase braking characteristics and control in wet/icy weather due to effective ''weight'' increases on the tires. Safety is also enhanced by controlling side loads and moments caused on these Heavy Vehicles by winds, gusts and other vehicles passing. This may also help to eliminate the jack-knifing problem if caused by extreme wind side loads on the trailer. Lastly, reduction of the turbulent wake behind the trailer can reduce splash and spray patterns and rough air being experienced by following vehicles. To be presented by GTRI in this paper will be results developed during the early portion of this effort, including a preliminary systems study, CFD prediction of the blown flowfields, and design of the baseline conventional tractor-trailer model and the pneumatic wind-tunnel model.

Robert J. Englar

2000-06-19

271

Advances in Decentralized Single-Beacon Acoustic Navigation for Underwater Vehicles: Theory and  

E-print Network

reference beacon in addition to its own inertial navigation sensors to perform absolute localizationAdvances in Decentralized Single-Beacon Acoustic Navigation for Underwater Vehicles: Theory and implementation of a decentralized navigation system that enables simultaneous single-beacon navigation

Whitcomb, Louis L.

272

NREL's Hydrogen-Powered Bus Serves as Showcase for Advanced Vehicle Technologies (AVT) (Brochure)  

SciTech Connect

Brochure describes the hydrogen-powered internal combustion engine (H2ICE) shuttle bus at NREL. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is funding the lease of the bus from Ford to demonstrate market-ready advanced technology vehicles to visitors at NREL.

Not Available

2010-08-01

273

Battery technology for electric and hybrid vehicles: Expert views about prospects for advancement  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we present the results of an expert elicitation on the prospects for advances in battery technology for electric and hybrid vehicles. We find disagreement among the experts on a wide range of topics, including the need for government funding, the probability of getting batteries with Lithium Metal anodes to work, and the probability of building safe Lithium-ion

Erin D. Baker; Haewon Chon; Jeffrey M. Keisler

2010-01-01

274

A numerical investigation on the efficiency of range extending systems using Advanced Vehicle Simulator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Series plug-in hybrid electric vehicles of varying engine configuration and battery capacity are modeled using Advanced Vehicle Simulator (ADVISOR). The performance of these vehicles is analyzed on the bases of energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions on the tank-to-wheel and well-to-wheel paths. Both city and highway driving conditions are considered during the simulation. When simulated on the well-to-wheel path, it is shown that the range extender with a Wankel rotary engine consumes less energy and emits fewer greenhouse gases compared to the other systems with reciprocating engines during many driving cycles. The rotary engine has a higher power-to-weight ratio and lower noise, vibration and harshness compared to conventional reciprocating engines, although performs less efficiently. The benefits of a Wankel engine make it an attractive option for use as a range extender in a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle.

Varnhagen, Scott; Same, Adam; Remillard, Jesse; Park, Jae Wan

2011-03-01

275

Clean Cities Guide to Alternative Fuel and Advanced Medium- and Heavy-Duty Vehicles (Book)  

SciTech Connect

Today's fleets are increasingly interested in medium-duty and heavy-duty vehicles that use alternative fuels or advanced technologies that can help reduce operating costs, meet emissions requirements, improve fleet sustainability, and support U.S. energy independence. Vehicle and engine manufacturers are responding to this interest with a wide range of options across a steadily growing number of vehicle applications. This guide provides an overview of alternative fuel power systems?including engines, microturbines, electric motors, and fuel cells?and hybrid propulsion systems. The guide also offers a list of individual medium- and heavy-duty vehicle models listed by application, along with associated manufacturer contact information, fuel type(s), power source(s), and related information.

Not Available

2013-08-01

276

Modeling of dynamic vehicle-road interactions for safety-related road evaluation.  

PubMed

Usually, road safety is assessed by following adequate highway geometric design standards and can be controlled later by measurement and expertise. Nevertheless, interactions between vehicle dynamics and road characteristics cannot be simultaneously analyzed for these two means of safety evaluation. In this study, an analytical method based on road/vehicle physical interactions applied to road diagnosis is proposed. Vehicle "point" and "bicycle" models are used in this first approach. French highway geometric design standards and a statistical method are presented and evaluated on a real curve case. The proposed numerical criterion, for the "bicycle" model, is then compared to these two classical methods for the considered road section. Its advantages are that it takes into account several combined parameters, that road defects are precisely localized and that it provides hierarchically classified solutions to the road managers. After this comparison step, further improvements should be focused on the modeling of successive curves and on the improvement of the informations given to the road manager. PMID:20728624

Orfila, O; Coiret, A; Do, M T; Mammar, S

2010-11-01

277

Research on safety evaluation model for in-vehicle secondary task driving.  

PubMed

This paper presents a new method for evaluating in-vehicle secondary task driving safety. There are five in-vehicle distracter tasks: tuning the radio to a local station, touching the touch-screen telephone menu to a certain song, talking with laboratory assistant, answering a telephone via Bluetooth headset, and finding the navigation system from Ipad4 computer. Forty young drivers completed the driving experiment on a driving simulator. Measures of fixations, saccades, and blinks are collected and analyzed. Based on the measures of driver eye movements which have significant difference between the baseline and secondary task driving conditions, the evaluation index system is built. The Analytic Network Process (ANP) theory is applied for determining the importance weight of the evaluation index in a fuzzy environment. On the basis of the importance weight of the evaluation index, Fuzzy Comprehensive Evaluation (FCE) method is utilized to evaluate the secondary task driving safety. Results show that driving with secondary tasks greatly distracts the driver's attention from road and the evaluation model built in this study could estimate driving safety effectively under different driving conditions. PMID:25194987

Jin, Lisheng; Xian, Huacai; Niu, Qingning; Bie, Jing

2014-09-01

278

Advanced electric propulsion system concept for electric vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Seventeen propulsion system concepts for electric vehicles were compared to determine the differences in components and battery pack to achieve the basic performance level. Design tradeoffs were made for selected configurations to find the optimum component characteristics required to meet all performance goals. The anticipated performance when using nickel-zinc batteries rather than the standard lead-acid batteries was also evaluated. The two systems selected for the final conceptual design studies included a system with a flywheel energy storage unit and a basic system that did not have a flywheel. The flywheel system meets the range requirement with either lead-acid or nickel-zinc batteries and also the acceleration of zero to 89 km/hr in 15 s. The basic system can also meet the required performance with a fully charged battery, but, when the battery approaches 20 to 30 percent depth of discharge, maximum acceleration capability gradually degrades. The flywheel system has an estimated life-cycle cost of $0.041/km using lead-acid batteries. The basic system has a life-cycle cost of $0.06/km. The basic system, using batteries meeting ISOA goals, would have a life-cycle cost of $0.043/km.

Raynard, A. E.; Forbes, F. E.

1979-01-01

279

Direct-hydrogen-fueled proton-exchange-membrane fuel cell system for transportation applications. Hydrogen vehicle safety report  

SciTech Connect

This report reviews the safety characteristics of hydrogen as an energy carrier for a fuel cell vehicle (FCV), with emphasis on high pressure gaseous hydrogen onboard storage. The authors consider normal operation of the vehicle in addition to refueling, collisions, operation in tunnels, and storage in garages. They identify the most likely risks and failure modes leading to hazardous conditions, and provide potential countermeasures in the vehicle design to prevent or substantially reduce the consequences of each plausible failure mode. They then compare the risks of hydrogen with those of more common motor vehicle fuels including gasoline, propane, and natural gas.

Thomas, C.E. [Directed Technologies, Inc., Arlington, VA (United States)

1997-05-01

280

75 FR 73998 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; New Pneumatic Tires for Motor Vehicles With a Gross...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...New Pneumatic Tires for Motor Vehicles With a Gross Vehicle Weight Rating (GVWR) of More Than 4,536 Kilograms (10,000 Pounds...new pneumatic tires for use on vehicles with a gross vehicle weight rating (GVWR) greater than 10,000 pounds and...

2010-11-30

281

76 FR 15903 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Roof Crush Resistance  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...crashes for motor vehicles with a gross vehicle weight rating...strength for driver and passenger...strength for driver and passenger...for motor vehicles with a GVWR...all types of vehicles, including multi-stage vehicle issues....

2011-03-22

282

Development of Micro Air Reconnaissance Vehicle as a Test Bed for Advanced Sensors and Electronics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes the development of a Micro/Mini Air Reconnaissance Vehicle for advanced sensors and electronics at NASA Langley Research Center over the last year. This vehicle is expected to have a total weight of less than four pounds, a design velocity of 40 mph, an endurance of 15-20 minutes, and a maximum range of 5km. The vehicle has wings that are simple to detach yet retain the correct alignment. The upper fuselage surface has a quick release hatch used to access the interior and also to mount the varying propulsion systems. The sensor suite developed for this vehicle consists of a Pitot-static measurement system for determining air speed, an absolute pressure measurement for determining altitude, magnetic direction measurement, and three orthogonal gyros to determine body angular rates. Swarming GPS-guidance and in-flight maneuvering is discussed, as well as design and installation of some other advance sensors like MEMS microphones, infrared cameras, GPS, humidity sensors, and an ultrasonic sonar sensor. Also low cost, small size, high performance control and navigation system for the Micro Air Vehicle is discussed. At the end, laboratory characterization of different sensors, motors, propellers, and batteries will be discussed.

Shams, Qamar A.; Vranas, Thomas L.; Fox, Robert L.; Kuhn, Theodore R.; Ingham, John; Logan, Michael J.; Barnes, Kevin N.; Guenther, Benjamin F.

2002-01-01

283

Vehicle Density Based Forwarding Protocol for Safety Message Broadcast in VANET  

PubMed Central

In vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs), the medium access control (MAC) protocol is of great importance to provide time-critical safety applications. Contemporary multihop broadcast protocols in VANETs usually choose the farthest node in broadcast range as the forwarder to reduce the number of forwarding hops. However, in this paper, we demonstrate that the farthest forwarder may experience large contention delay in case of high vehicle density. We propose an IEEE 802.11-based multihop broadcast protocol VDF to address the issue of emergency message dissemination. To achieve the tradeoff between contention delay and forwarding hops, VDF adaptably chooses the forwarder according to the vehicle density. Simulation results show that, due to its ability to decrease the transmission collisions, the proposed protocol can provide significantly lower broadcast delay. PMID:25121125

Huang, Jiawei; Wang, Jianxin

2014-01-01

284

Vehicle density based forwarding protocol for safety message broadcast in VANET.  

PubMed

In vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs), the medium access control (MAC) protocol is of great importance to provide time-critical safety applications. Contemporary multihop broadcast protocols in VANETs usually choose the farthest node in broadcast range as the forwarder to reduce the number of forwarding hops. However, in this paper, we demonstrate that the farthest forwarder may experience large contention delay in case of high vehicle density. We propose an IEEE 802.11-based multihop broadcast protocol VDF to address the issue of emergency message dissemination. To achieve the tradeoff between contention delay and forwarding hops, VDF adaptably chooses the forwarder according to the vehicle density. Simulation results show that, due to its ability to decrease the transmission collisions, the proposed protocol can provide significantly lower broadcast delay. PMID:25121125

Huang, Jiawei; Huang, Yi; Wang, Jianxin

2014-01-01

285

A customized vision system for tracking humans wearing reflective safety clothing from industrial vehicles and machinery.  

PubMed

This article presents a novel approach for vision-based detection and tracking of humans wearing high-visibility clothing with retro-reflective markers. Addressing industrial applications where heavy vehicles operate in the vicinity of humans, we deploy a customized stereo camera setup with active illumination that allows for efficient detection of the reflective patterns created by the worker's safety garments. After segmenting reflective objects from the image background, the interest regions are described with local image feature descriptors and classified in order to discriminate safety garments from other reflective objects in the scene. In a final step, the trajectories of the detected humans are estimated in 3D space relative to the camera. We evaluate our tracking system in two industrial real-world work environments on several challenging video sequences. The experimental results indicate accurate tracking performance and good robustness towards partial occlusions, body pose variation, and a wide range of different illumination conditions. PMID:25264956

Mosberger, Rafael; Andreasson, Henrik; Lilienthal, Achim J

2014-01-01

286

A Customized Vision System for Tracking Humans Wearing Reflective Safety Clothing from Industrial Vehicles and Machinery  

PubMed Central

This article presents a novel approach for vision-based detection and tracking of humans wearing high-visibility clothing with retro-reflective markers. Addressing industrial applications where heavy vehicles operate in the vicinity of humans, we deploy a customized stereo camera setup with active illumination that allows for efficient detection of the reflective patterns created by the worker's safety garments. After segmenting reflective objects from the image background, the interest regions are described with local image feature descriptors and classified in order to discriminate safety garments from other reflective objects in the scene. In a final step, the trajectories of the detected humans are estimated in 3D space relative to the camera. We evaluate our tracking system in two industrial real-world work environments on several challenging video sequences. The experimental results indicate accurate tracking performance and good robustness towards partial occlusions, body pose variation, and a wide range of different illumination conditions. PMID:25264956

Mosberger, Rafael; Andreasson, Henrik; Lilienthal, Achim J.

2014-01-01

287

Development of an advanced high-temperature fastener system for advanced aerospace vehicle application  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results of a program to develop a lightweight high temperature reusable fastening system for aerospace vehicle thermal protection system applications are documented. This feasibility program resulted in several fastener innovations which will meet the specific needs of the heat shield application. Three systems were designed from Hayes 188 alloy and tested by environmental exposure and residual mechanical properties. The designs include a clinch stud with a collar retainer, a weld stud with a split ring retainer, and a caged stud with a collar retainer. The results indicated that a lightweight, reusable, high temperature fastening system can be developed for aerospace vehicle application.

Kull, F. R.

1975-01-01

288

Advanced Aero-Propulsive Mid-Lift-to-Drag Ratio Entry Vehicle for Future Exploration Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA is currently looking well into the future toward realizing Exploration mission possibilities to destinations including the Earth-Moon Lagrange points, Near-Earth Asteroids (NEAs) and the Moon. These are stepping stones to our ultimate destination Mars. New ideas will be required to conquer the significant challenges that await us, some just conceptions and others beginning to be realized. Bringing these ideas to fruition and enabling further expansion into space will require varying degrees of change, from engineering and integration approaches used in spacecraft design and operations, to high-level architectural capabilities bounded only by the limits of our ideas. The most profound change will be realized by paradigm change, thus enabling our ultimate goals to be achieved. Inherent to achieving these goals, higher entry, descent, and landing (EDL) performance has been identified as a high priority. Increased EDL performance will be enabled by highly-capable thermal protection systems (TPS), the ability to deliver larger and heavier payloads, increased surface access, and tighter landing footprints to accommodate multiple asset, single-site staging. In addition, realizing reduced cost access to space will demand more efficient approaches and reusable launch vehicle systems. Current operational spacecraft and launch vehicles do not incorporate the technologies required for these far-reaching missions and goals, nor what is needed to achieve the desired launch vehicle cost savings. To facilitate these missions and provide for safe and more reliable capabilities, NASA and its partners will need to make ideas reality by gaining knowledge through the design, development, manufacturing, implementation and flight testing of robotic and human spacecraft. To accomplish these goals, an approach is recommended for integrated development and implementation of three paradigm-shifting capabilities into an advanced entry vehicle system with additional application to launch vehicle stage return, thus making ideas reality. These paradigm shifts include the technology maturation of advanced flexible thermal protection materials onto mid lift-to-drag ratio entry vehicles, the development of integrated supersonic aero-propulsive maneuvering, and the implementation of advanced asymmetric launch shrouds. These paradigms have significant overlap with launch vehicle stage return already being developed by the Air Force and several commercial space efforts. Completing the realization of these combined paradigms holds the key to a high-performing entry vehicle system capability that fully leverages multiple technology benefits to accomplish NASA's Exploration missions to atmospheric planetary destinations.

Campbell, C. H.; Stosaric, R. R; Cerimele, C. J.; Wong, K. A.; Valle, G. D.; Garcia, J. A.; Melton, J. E.; Munk, M. M.; Blades, E.; Kuruvila, G.; Picetti, D. J.; Hassan, B.; Kniskern, M. W.

2012-01-01

289

Launch Vehicle Design and Optimization Methods and Priority for the Advanced Engineering Environment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's Advanced Engineering Environment (AEE) is a research and development program that will improve collaboration among design engineers for launch vehicle conceptual design and provide the infrastructure (methods and framework) necessary to enable that environment. In this paper, three major technical challenges facing the AEE program are identified, and three specific design problems are selected to demonstrate how advanced methods can improve current design activities. References are made to studies that demonstrate these design problems and methods, and these studies will provide the detailed information and check cases to support incorporation of these methods into the AEE. This paper provides background and terminology for discussing the launch vehicle conceptual design problem so that the diverse AEE user community can participate in prioritizing the AEE development effort.

Rowell, Lawrence F.; Korte, John J.

2003-01-01

290

Baseline knowledge on vehicle safety and head restraints among Fleet Managers in British Columbia Canada: a pilot study  

PubMed Central

Background: Whiplash is the most common injury type arising from motor vehicle collisions, often leading to long-term suffering and disability. Prevention of such injuries is possible through the use of appropriate, correctly positioned, vehicular head restraints. Objective: To survey the awareness and knowledge level of vehicle fleet managers in the province of British Columbia, Canada, on the topics of vehicle safety, whiplash injury, and prevention; and to better understand whether these factors influence vehicle purchase/lease decisions. Methods: A survey was administered to municipal vehicle fleet managers at a professional meeting (n = 27). Results: Although many respondents understood the effectiveness of vehicle head restraints in the prevention of whiplash injury, the majority rarely adjusted their own headrests. Fleet managers lacked knowledge about the seriousness of whiplash injuries, their associated costs for Canada’s healthcare system, and appropriate head restraint positions to mitigate such injuries. The majority of respondents indicated that fleet vehicle purchase/lease decisions within their organization did not factor whiplash prevention as an explicit safety priority. Conclusions: There is relatively little awareness and enforcement of whiplash prevention strategies among municipal vehicle fleet managers. PMID:21886279

Desapriya, Ediriweera; Hewapathirane, D. Sesath; Peiris, Dinithi; Romilly, Doug; White, Marc

2011-01-01

291

Advanced transportation system study: Manned launch vehicle concepts for two way transportation system payloads to LEO  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of the Advanced Transportation System Study (ATSS) task area 1 study effort is to examine manned launch vehicle booster concepts and two-way cargo transfer and return vehicle concepts to determine which of the many proposed concepts best meets NASA's needs for two-way transportation to low earth orbit. The study identified specific configurations of the normally unmanned, expendable launch vehicles (such as the National Launch System family) necessary to fly manned payloads. These launch vehicle configurations were then analyzed to determine the integrated booster/spacecraft performance, operations, reliability, and cost characteristics for the payload delivery and return mission. Design impacts to the expendable launch vehicles which would be required to perform the manned payload delivery mission were also identified. These impacts included the implications of applying NASA's man-rating requirements, as well as any mission or payload unique impacts. The booster concepts evaluated included the National Launch System (NLS) family of expendable vehicles and several variations of the NLS reference configurations to deliver larger manned payload concepts (such as the crew logistics vehicle (CLV) proposed by NASA JSC). Advanced, clean sheet concepts such as an F-1A engine derived liquid rocket booster (LRB), the single stage to orbit rocket, and a NASP-derived aerospace plane were also included in the study effort. Existing expendable launch vehicles such as the Titan 4, Ariane 5, Energia, and Proton were also examined. Although several manned payload concepts were considered in the analyses, the reference manned payload was the NASA Langley Research Center's HL-20 version of the personnel launch system (PLS). A scaled up version of the PLS for combined crew/cargo delivery capability, the HL-42 configuration, was also included in the analyses of cargo transfer and return vehicle (CTRV) booster concepts. In addition to strictly manned payloads, two-way cargo transportation systems (CTRV's) were also examined. The study provided detailed design and analysis of the performance, reliability, and operations of these concepts. The study analyzed these concepts as unique systems and also analyzed several combined CTRV/booster configurations as integrated launch systems (such as for launch abort analyses). Included in the set of CTRV concepts analyzed were the medium CTRV, the integral CTRV (in both a pressurized and unpressurized configuration), the winged CTRV, and an attached cargo carrier for the PLS system known as the PLS caboose.

Duffy, James B.

1993-01-01

292

Reusable launch vehicles, enabling technology for the development of advanced upper stages and payloads  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the near future there will be classes of upper stages and payloads that will require initial operation at a high-earth orbit to reduce the probability of an inadvertent reentry that could result in a detrimental impact on humans and the biosphere. A nuclear propulsion system, such as was being developed under the Space Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (SNTP) Program, is an example of such a potential payload. This paper uses the results of a reusable launch vehicle (RLV) study to demonstrate the potential importance of a Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) to test and implement an advanced upper stage (AUS) or payload in a safe orbit and in a cost effective and reliable manner. The RLV is a horizontal takeoff and horizontal landing (HTHL), two-stage-to-orbit (TSTO) vehicle. The results of the study shows that an HTHL is cost effective because it implements airplane-like operation, infrastructure, and flight operations. The first stage of the TSTO is powered by Rocket-Based-Combined-Cycle (RBCC) engines, the second stage is powered by a LOX/LH rocket engine. The TSTO is used since it most effectively utilizes the capability of the RBCC engine. The analysis uses the NASA code POST (Program to Optimize Simulated Trajectories) to determine trajectories and weight in high-earth orbit for AUS/advanced payloads. Cost and reliability of an RLV versus current generation expandable launch vehicles are presented.

Metzger, John D.

1998-01-01

293

Preliminary evaluation of regulatory and safety issues for sodium-sulfur batteries in electric vehicle applications  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy (DOE) Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Program is involved in the development and evaluation of sodium-sulfur energy storage batteries for electric vehicle (EV) applications. Laboratory testing of complete battery systems, to be followed by controlled in-vehicle testing and on-road usage, are expected to occur as components of the DOE program during the 1988--1990 time frame. Testing and operation of sodium-sulfur batteries at other DOE contractor facilities may also take place during this time frame. A number of regulatory and safety issues can affect the technical scope, schedule, and cost of the expected programmatic activities. This document describes these issues and requirements, provides a preliminary evaluation of their significance, and lists those critical items that may result from them. The actions needed to permit the conduct of a successful program at DOE contractor facilities are identified, and concerns that could affect the eventual commercialization potential of sodium-sulfur batteries are noted to the extent they are known.

Evans, D.R.; Henriksen, G.L.; Hunt, G.L.

1987-05-01

294

Task-based vehicle interior layout design using optimization method to enhance safety  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a virtual environment for conducting vehicle interior layout design. A virtual human called Santos that is biomechanically correct, has realistic musculoskeletal system, and natural motion/posture is created to live in this virtual world. One of the objectives of this virtual environment is to allow Santos to explore the interior package design such that one designs new defense and security vehicles without having to create a physical prototype to enhance safety, save time and cost. Different controls require different tasks, for example, pulling a clutch lever, pushing a button, turning a knob, and so on. Therefore, different tasks correspond to different human upper-body motions and hand loads, which in turn correspond to different displacement and torque at each joint. This is a dynamics problem for interior layout design with external loads. The formulation of dynamic equations of motion is implemented within optimization algorithm to predict joint profiles. This methodology allows Santos to help vehicle interior layout design while executing various tasks.

Kim, Joo; Yang, Jingzhou; Abdel-Malek, Karim; Nebel, Kyle

2005-05-01

295

Advances in Underwater Robot Vehicles for Deep Ocean Exploration: Navigation, Control, and Survey Operations  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports recent advances and open problemsin navigation, control, and survey methodologies for underwaterrobotic vehicles. First, the technical challenges ofunderwater navigation are discussed. Second, an acousticnavigation system combining bottom-lock doppler sonarand time-of-flight long-baseline (LBL) navigation tech-niques, recently reported by the Authors, is reviewed. Theperformance of this system is examined in the context ofrecent deep-submergence operations with the...

Louis Whitcomb; Dana Yoerger; Hanumant Singh; Jonathan Howland

1999-01-01

296

Soft-switching interleaved bidirectional DC-DC converter for Advanced Vehicle Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes soft-switching interleaved bidirectional DC-DC converter suitable for advanced vehicle Applications. The proposed converter integrates interleaved synchronous buck and ZVT-cell with a single resonant inductor. ZVS is guaranteed with wide load range in CCM as well as wide output voltage range by current injection method. Also, switching losses and reverse recovery effects can be minimized. In addition, it

Dong-Gyu Lee; Nam-Ju Park; Dong-Seok Hyun

2008-01-01

297

Advancing electric-vehicle development with pure-lead-tin battery technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electric-vehicle (EV) development continues to make solid progress towards extending vehicle range, reliability and ease of use, aided significantly by technological advances in vehicle systems. There is, however, a widespread misconception that current battery technologies are not capable of meeting even the minimum user requirements that would launch EVs into daily use. Existing pure-lead-tin technology is moving EVs out of research laboratories and onto the streets, in daily side-by-side operation with vehicles powered by conventional gasoline and alternative fuels. This commercially available battery technology can provide traffic-compatible performance in a reliable and affordable manner, and can be used for either pure EVs or hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). Independent results obtained when applying lead-tin batteries in highly abusive conditions, both electrically and environmentally, are presented. The test fleet of EVs is owned and operated by Arizona Public Service (APS), an electric utility in Phoenix, AZ, USA. System, charger and battery development will be described. This gives a single charge range of up to 184 km at a constant speed of 72 km h -1, and with suitable opportunity charging, a 320 km range in a normal 8 h working day.

O'Brien, W. A.; Stickel, R. B.; May, G. J.

298

77 FR 51649 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Motorcycle Brake Systems  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...or Be Used On Wheeled Vehicles (1998 Agreement...Regulations for Wheeled Vehicles, Equipment and Parts...or Be Used On Wheeled Vehicles (1998 Agreement) was...globally harmonized vehicle regulations. This 1998...even professional test drivers cannot attain the...

2012-08-24

299

Advanced Infant Car Seat Would Increase Highway Safety  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An advanced infant car seat has been proposed to increase highway safety by reducing the incidence of crying, fussy behavior, and other child-related distractions that divert an adult driver s attention from driving. In addition to a conventional infant car seat with safety restraints, the proposed advanced infant car seat would include a number of components and subsystems that would function together as a comprehensive infant-care system that would keep its occupant safe, comfortable, and entertained, and would enable the driver to monitor the baby without having to either stop the car or turn around to face the infant during driving. The system would include a vibrator with bulb switch to operate; the switch would double as a squeeze toy that would make its own specific sound. A music subsystem would include loudspeakers built into the seat plus digital and analog circuitry that would utilize plug-in memory modules to synthesize music or a variety of other sounds. The music subsystem would include a built-in sound generator that could synthesize white noise or a human heartbeat to calm the baby to sleep. A second bulb switch could be used to control the music subsystem and would double as a squeeze toy that would make a distinct sound. An anti-noise sound-suppression system would isolate the baby from potentially disturbing ambient external noises. This subsystem would include small microphones, placed near the baby s ears, to detect ambient noise. The outputs of the microphone would be amplified and fed to the loudspeakers at appropriate amplitude and in a phase opposite that of the detected ambient noise, such that the net ambient sound arriving at the baby s ears would be almost completely cancelled. A video-camera subsystem would enable the driver to monitor the baby visually while continuing to face forward. One or more portable miniature video cameras could be embedded in the side of the infant car seat (see figure) or in a flip-down handle. The outputs of the video cameras would be transmitted by radio or infrared to a portable, miniature receiver/video monitor unit that would be attached to the dashboard of the car. The video-camera subsystem can also be used within transmission/reception range when the seat was removed from the car. The system would include a biotelemetric and tracking subsystem, which would include a Global Positioning System receiver for measuring its location. This subsystem would transmit the location of the infant car seat (even if the seat were not in a car) along with such biometric data as the baby s heart rate, perspiration rate, urinary status, temperature, and rate of breathing. Upon detecting any anomalies in the biometric data, this subsystem would send a warning to a paging device installed in the car or carried by the driver, so that the driver could pull the car off the road to attend to the baby. A motion detector in this subsystem would send a warning if the infant car seat were to be moved or otherwise disturbed unexpectedly while the infant was seated in it: this warning function, in combination with the position- tracking function, could help in finding a baby who had been kidnapped with the seat. Removable rechargeable batteries would enable uninterrupted functioning of all parts of the system while transporting the baby to and from the car. The batteries could be recharged via the cigarette-lighter outlet in the car or by use of an external AC-powered charger.

Dabney, Richard; Elrod, Susan

2004-01-01

300

77 FR 71163 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Windshield Zone Intrusion  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...pedestrians struck by vehicles. As a result, the agency believes that vehicle designs with regard...multipurpose passenger vehicles, trucks, and buses with a gross vehicle weight rating of...at establishing vehicle design criteria that will result in vehicles with hoods and...

2012-11-29

301

75 FR 22532 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Cargo Carrying Capacity  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...000 pounds and a vehicle capacity weight...modifications, these vehicles are unlikely to...likely that the vehicle's load-carrying...needs of handicapped drivers or passengers usually...to the unloaded vehicle weight of the vehicle...applies to used vehicles as well as new...

2010-04-29

302

77 FR 22637 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Accelerator Control Systems  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...passenger vehicles, trucks...have a gross vehicle weight rating...acceleration that a driver did not purposely...in heavy vehicles. If a vehicle is equipped...maintained by the driver, so having...countermeasure for a driver in the event...Compared to vehicles with automatic...transmission vehicle may be...

2012-04-16

303

78 FR 70415 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Occupant Crash Protection  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...average per vehicle costs are...54 for the driver position...on these vehicles is estimated...rearward of the driver's position...that the vehicles meet the...a motor vehicle with motive...operating used vehicles that do not...improving vehicle fire resistance, reducing driver...

2013-11-25

304

75 FR 17590 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Roof Crush Resistance  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...strength for driver and passenger...for motor vehicles with a GVWR...varies from vehicle model to...complete vehicles by larger...chassis-cab vehicle is a moving truck. The driver of a chassis-cab...behind the driver and front...delivery vehicle. These specialized vehicles are...

2010-04-07

305

The design and construction of electronic motor control and network interface hardware for advance concept urban mobility vehicles  

E-print Network

Over the past several years, the Smart Cities Group at MIT's Media Lab has engaged in research to develop several advanced concepts for vehicles to improve urban mobility. This research has focused on developing a modular ...

Morrissey, Bryan L. (Bryan Lawrence)

2008-01-01

306

Advanced BLDC motor drive for low cost and high performance propulsion system in electric and hybrid vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the authors propose an advanced brushless DC motor (BLDCM) drive for low cost and high performance electric propulsion system in electric vehicles (EVs) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). It includes reduced parts power converter topologies and an optimal PWM control strategy to produce the desired dynamic and static speed and torque characteristics. The theoretical explanation and operational

B. K. Lee; M. Ehsani

2001-01-01

307

78 FR 41436 - Proposed Revision to Treatment of Non-Safety Systems for Passive Advanced Light Water Reactors  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Non-Safety Systems for Passive Advanced Light Water Reactors AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory...Systems (RTNSS) for Passive Advanced Light Water Reactors.'' The NRC seeks public...Systems (RTNSS) for Passive Advanced Light Water Reactors.'' This area...

2013-07-10

308

77 FR 62270 - Proposed Revision Treatment of Non-Safety Systems for Passive Advanced Light Water Reactors  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Non-Safety Systems for Passive Advanced Light Water Reactors AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory...Systems (RTNSS) for Passive Advanced Light Water Reactors.'' The current SRP does...the proposed RTNSS for Passive Advance Light Water Reactors. DATES: Submit...

2012-10-12

309

Designing for safety in the conceptual design of the Advanced Neutron Source  

SciTech Connect

The Advanced Neutron Source is a major new research facility proposed by the Department of Energy for construction over the next six years. The unique set of nuclear safety features selected to give the recently completed conceptual design a high degree of safety are identified and discussed.

Harrington, R.M.; West, C.D.

1993-06-01

310

U.S. Department of Energy FreedomCAR & Vehicle Technologies Program Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity, Hydrogen/CNG Blended Fuels Performance Testing in a Ford F-150  

SciTech Connect

Federal regulation requires energy companies and government entities to utilize alternative fuels in their vehicle fleets. To meet this need, several automobile manufacturers are producing compressed natural gas (CNG)-fueled vehicles. In addition, several converters are modifying gasoline-fueled vehicles to operate on both gasoline and CNG (Bifuel). Because of the availability of CNG vehicles, many energy company and government fleets have adopted CNG as their principle alternative fuel for transportation. Meanwhile, recent research has shown that blending hydrogen with CNG (HCNG) can reduce emissions from CNG vehicles. However, blending hydrogen with CNG (and performing no other vehicle modifications) reduces engine power output, due to the lower volumetric energy density of hydrogen in relation to CNG. Arizona Public Service (APS) and the U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (DOE AVTA) identified the need to determine the magnitude of these effects and their impact on the viability of using HCNG in existing CNG vehicles. To quantify the effects of using various blended fuels, a work plan was designed to test the acceleration, range, and exhaust emissions of a Ford F-150 pickup truck operating on 100% CNG and blends of 15 and 30% HCNG. This report presents the results of this testing conducted during May and June 2003 by Electric Transportation Applications (Task 4.10, DOE AVTA Cooperative Agreement DEFC36- 00ID-13859).

James E. Francfort

2003-11-01

311

Indiana Advanced Electric Vehicle Training and Education Consortium (I-AEVtec)  

SciTech Connect

The Indiana Advanced Electric Vehicle Training and Education Consortium (I-AEVtec) is an educational partnership between six universities and colleges in Indiana focused on developing the education materials needed to support electric vehicle technology. The I-AEVtec has developed and delivered a number of degree and certificate programs that address various aspects of electric vehicle technology, including over 30 new or significantly modified courses to support these programs. These courses were shared on the SmartEnergyHub. The I-AEVtec program also had a significant outreach to the community with particular focus on K12 students. Finally, the evGrandPrix was established which is a university/college student electric go-kart race, where the students get hands-on experience in designing, building and racing electric vehicles. The evGrandPrix now includes student teams from across the US as well as from Europe and it is currently being held on Opening Day weekend for the Indy500 at the Indianapolis Motor Speedway.

Caruthers, James; Dietz, J.; Pelter, Libby; Chen, Jie; Roberson, Glen; McGinn, Paul; Kizhanipuram, Vinodegopal

2013-01-31

312

75 FR 12123 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Side Impact Protection; Fuel System Integrity; Electric...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...by another vehicle. In the MBD test, vehicles are required...protection to the driver and rear seat...side of the vehicle, as measured...install in work vehicles. NTEA stated...protect the driver from loose...back of the vehicle.''...

2010-03-15

313

75 FR 17605 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Roof Crush Resistance  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...vehicles (SUVs) for those vehicles to be subject to a lower...2.5 for all light vehicles, and the petitioners...for all light motor vehicle occupants in the final...CfIR argued that drivers and passengers of light...000 pounds) GVWR vehicles. It stated that...

2010-04-07

314

Noise abatement and traffic safety: The trade-off of quieter engines and pavements on vehicle detection.  

PubMed

Road traffic sounds are a major source of noise pollution in urban areas. But recent developments such as low noise pavements and hybrid/electric engine vehicles cast an optimistic outlook over such an environmental problem. However, it can be argued that engine, tire, and road noise could be relevant sources of information to avoid road traffic conflicts and accidents. In this paper, we analyze the potential trade-offs of traffic-noise abatement approaches in an experimental study, focusing for the first time on the impact and interaction of relevant factors such as pavement type, vehicle type, listener's age, and background noise, on vehicle detection levels. Results reveal that vehicle and pavement type significantly affect vehicle detection. Age is a significant factor, as both younger and older people exhibit lower detection levels of incoming vehicles. Low noise pavements combined with all-electric and hybrid vehicles might pose a severe threat to the safety of vulnerable road users. All factors interact simultaneously, and vehicle detection is best predicted by the loudness signal-to-noise ratio. PMID:23182778

Mendonça, C; Freitas, E; Ferreira, J P; Raimundo, I D; Santos, J A

2013-03-01

315

Protecting You/Protecting Me: Effects of an Alcohol Prevention and Vehicle Safety Program on Elementary Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes an evaluation of Protecting You/Protecting Me (PY/PM), a classroom-based, alcohol-use prevention and vehicle safety program for elementary students in first through fifth grades developed by Mothers Against Drunk Driving. PY/PM lessons and activities focus on teaching children about (1) their brains (why their brain is…

Bell, Mary Lou; Kelley-Baker, Tara; Rider, Raamses; Ringwalt, Christopher

2005-01-01

316

Evaluating Product-Related Hazards At the Consumer Product Safety CommissionThe Case of All-Terrain Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multivariate qualitative response models, such as logit regression models, are useful in evaluating product-related risk at the Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC). They are used to determine and quantify the factors associated with accidents, and can suggest or justify appropriate regulatory responses. This article applies the method to evaluating risks associated with all-terrain vehicles. A logit regression model is used

Gregory B. Rodgers

1990-01-01

317

Evaluating Product-Related Hazards at the Consumer Product Safety Commission: The Case of All-Terrain Vehicles.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Application of multivariate qualitative response models, such as logit regression models, to analysis of risks of all-terrain vehicles is discussed. Data are from national exposure and injury surveys and records of fatalities of the Consumer Product Safety Commission. Suggestions are made for further applications of the method. (SLD)

Rodgers, Gregory B.

1990-01-01

318

Alertinfra: a safety tool for infrastructure diagnosis devoted to heavy vehicles Cerezo, V. Bouteldja, M. and Conche, C. 1  

E-print Network

. Bouteldja, M. and Conche, C. 1 ALERTINFRAPL: A SAFETY TOOL FOR INFRASTRUCTURE DIAGNOSIS DEVOTED TO HEAVY, Département Laboratoire de Lyon, France F. CONCHE CETE de Lyon, Département Laboratoire de Clermont- Ferrand vehicles Cerezo, V. Bouteldja, M. and Conche, C. 2 1. Introduction This paper presents the results

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

319

Structural weights analysis of advanced aerospace vehicles using finite element analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A conceptual/preliminary level structural design system has been developed for structural integrity analysis and weight estimation of advanced space transportation vehicles. The system includes a three-dimensional interactive geometry modeler, a finite element pre- and post-processor, a finite element analyzer, and a structural sizing program. Inputs to the system include the geometry, surface temperature, material constants, construction methods, and aerodynamic and inertial loads. The results are a sized vehicle structure capable of withstanding the static loads incurred during assembly, transportation, operations, and missions, and a corresponding structural weight. An analysis of the Space Shuttle external tank is included in this paper as a validation and benchmark case of the system.

Bush, Lance B.; Lentz, Christopher A.; Rehder, John J.; Naftel, J. Chris; Cerro, Jeffrey A.

1989-01-01

320

Advances in stent technologies and their effect on clinical efficacy and safety  

PubMed Central

The introduction of intracoronary stents represented a major advance in interventional cardiology. While bare metal stents set the benchmark for improved safety over angioplasty, intimal hyperplasia and subsequent restenosis were important limitations. First-generation drug-eluting stents demonstrated significant improvements in efficacy, but not necessarily safety, and further technologic developments have focused on optimizing both. Current advances and understanding in stent design continue to improve on these concepts. This review summarizes past and present technology with particular emphasis on the principles underlying the efficacy and safety of drug-eluting stents, and offers a glimpse into the next generations of stents aimed at treating symptomatic coronary artery disease. PMID:24940085

Nikam, Navin; Steinberg, Toby B; Steinberg, Daniel H

2014-01-01

321

Environmental, health, and safety issues of sodium-sulfur batteries for electric and hybrid vehicles. Volume 1, Cell and battery safety  

SciTech Connect

This report is the first of four volumes that identify and assess the environmental, health, and safety issues involved in using sodium-sulfur (Na/S) battery technology as the energy source in electric and hybrid vehicles that may affect the commercialization of Na/S batteries. This and the other reports on recycling, shipping, and vehicle safety are intended to help the Electric and Hybrid Propulsion Division of the Office of Transportation Technologies in the US Department of Energy (DOE/EHP) determine the direction of its research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) program for Na/S battery technology. The reports review the status of Na/S battery RD&D and identify potential hazards and risks that may require additional research or that may affect the design and use of Na/S batteries. This volume covers cell design and engineering as the basis of safety for Na/S batteries and describes and assesses the potential chemical, electrical, and thermal hazards and risks of Na/S cells and batteries as well as the RD&D performed, under way, or to address these hazards and risks. The report is based on a review of the literature and on discussions with experts at DOE, national laboratories and agencies, universities, and private industry. Subsequent volumes will address environmental, health, and safety issues involved in shipping cells and batteries, using batteries to propel electric vehicles, and recycling and disposing of spent batteries. The remainder of this volume is divided into two major sections on safety at the cell and battery levels. The section on Na/S cells describes major component and potential failure modes, design, life testing and failure testing, thermal cycling, and the safety status of Na/S cells. The section on batteries describes battery design, testing, and safety status. Additional EH&S information on Na/S batteries is provided in the appendices.

Ohi, J.M.

1992-09-01

322

76 FR 53660 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Seat Belt Assemblies  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...assumed that all vehicles would have all the cited detection capabilities...risk during normal vehicle operation, e.g...remain buckled if the vehicle is traveling below...of crash imminent detection for existing...

2011-08-29

323

Characterization of an Integral Thermal Protection and Cryogenic Insulation Material for Advanced Space Transportation Vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's planned advanced space transportation vehicles will benefit from the use of integral/conformal cryogenic propellant tanks which will reduce the launch weight and lower the earth-to-orbit costs considerably. To implement the novel concept of integral/conformal tanks requires developing an equally novel concept in thermal protection materials. Providing insulation against reentry heating and preserving propellant mass can no longer be considered separate problems to be handled by separate materials. A new family of materials, Superthermal Insulation (STI), has been conceiving and investigated by NASA's Ames Research Center to simultaneously provide both thermal protection and cryogenic insulation in a single, integral material.

Salerno, L. J.; White, S. M.; Helvensteijn, B. P. M.

2000-01-01

324

Current status of environmental, health, and safety issues of lithium ion electric vehicle batteries  

SciTech Connect

The lithium ion system considered in this report uses lithium intercalation compounds as both positive and negative electrodes and has an organic liquid electrolyte. Oxides of nickel, cobalt, and manganese are used in the positive electrode, and carbon is used in the negative electrode. This report presents health and safety issues, environmental issues, and shipping requirements for lithium ion electric vehicle (EV) batteries. A lithium-based electrochemical system can, in theory, achieve higher energy density than systems using other elements. The lithium ion system is less reactive and more reliable than present lithium metal systems and has possible performance advantages over some lithium solid polymer electrolyte batteries. However, the possibility of electrolyte spills could be a disadvantage of a liquid electrolyte system compared to a solid electrolyte. The lithium ion system is a developing technology, so there is some uncertainty regarding which materials will be used in an EV-sized battery. This report reviews the materials presented in the open literature within the context of health and safety issues, considering intrinsic material hazards, mitigation of material hazards, and safety testing. Some possible lithium ion battery materials are toxic, carcinogenic, or could undergo chemical reactions that produce hazardous heat or gases. Toxic materials include lithium compounds, nickel compounds, arsenic compounds, and dimethoxyethane. Carcinogenic materials include nickel compounds, arsenic compounds, and (possibly) cobalt compounds, copper, and polypropylene. Lithiated negative electrode materials could be reactive. However, because information about the exact compounds that will be used in future batteries is proprietary, ongoing research will determine which specific hazards will apply.

Vimmerstedt, L.J.; Ring, S.; Hammel, C.J.

1995-09-01

325

Nuclear safety  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Topics dealing with nuclear safety are addressed which include the following: general safety requirements; safety design requirements; terrestrial safety; SP-100 Flight System key safety requirements; potential mission accidents and hazards; key safety features; ground operations; launch operations; flight operations; disposal; safety concerns; licensing; the nuclear engine for rocket vehicle application (NERVA) design philosophy; the NERVA flight safety program; and the NERVA safety plan.

Buden, D.

1991-01-01

326

Graduate Automotive Technology Education (GATE) Program: Center of Automotive Technology Excellence in Advanced Hybrid Vehicle Technology at West Virginia University  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the technical and educational achievements of the Graduate Automotive Technology Education (GATE) Center at West Virginia University (WVU), which was created to emphasize Advanced Hybrid Vehicle Technology. The Center has supported the graduate studies of 17 students in the Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering and the Lane Department of Computer Science and Electrical Engineering. These students have addressed topics such as hybrid modeling, construction of a hybrid sport utility vehicle (in conjunction with the FutureTruck program), a MEMS-based sensor, on-board data acquisition for hybrid design optimization, linear engine design and engine emissions. Courses have been developed in Hybrid Vehicle Design, Mobile Source Powerplants, Advanced Vehicle Propulsion, Power Electronics for Automotive Applications and Sensors for Automotive Applications, and have been responsible for 396 hours of graduate student coursework. The GATE program also enhanced the WVU participation in the U.S. Department of Energy Student Design Competitions, in particular FutureTruck and Challenge X. The GATE support for hybrid vehicle technology enhanced understanding of hybrid vehicle design and testing at WVU and encouraged the development of a research agenda in heavy-duty hybrid vehicles. As a result, WVU has now completed three programs in hybrid transit bus emissions characterization, and WVU faculty are leading the Transportation Research Board effort to define life cycle costs for hybrid transit buses. Research and enrollment records show that approximately 100 graduate students have benefited substantially from the hybrid vehicle GATE program at WVU.

Nigle N. Clark

2006-12-31

327

Advanced spacecraft fire safety: Proposed projects and program plan  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A detailed review identifies spacecraft fire safety issues and the efforts for their resolution, particularly for the threats posed by the increased on-orbit duration, size, and complexity of the Space Station Freedom. Suggestions provided by a survey of Wyle consultants and outside fire safety experts were combined into 30 research and engineering projects. The projects were then prioritized with respect to urgency to meet Freedom design goals, status of enabling technology, cost, and so on, to yield 14 highest priority projects, described in terms of background, work breakdown structure, and schedule. These highest priority projects can be grouped into the thematic areas of fire detection, fire extinguishment, risk assessment, toxicology and human effects, and ground based testing. Recommendations for overall program management stress the need for NASA Headquarters and field center coordination, with information exchange through spacecraft fire safety oversight committees.

Youngblood, Wallace W.; Vedha-Nayagam, M.

1989-01-01

328

Using in-depth investigations to identify transportation safety issues for wheelchair-seated occupants of motor vehicles.  

PubMed

In-depth investigations of motor-vehicle crashes involve detailed inspection, measurement, and photodocumentation of vehicle exterior and interior damage, evidence of belt-restraint use, and evidence of occupant contacts with the vehicle interior. Results of in-depth investigations thereby provide the most objective way to identify current and emerging injury problems and issues in occupant safety and crash protection, and provide important feedback on the real-world performance of the latest restraint-system and vehicle crashworthiness technologies. To provide an objective understanding of real-world transportation safety issues for wheelchair-seated travelers, the University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute (UMTRI) has been conducting and assembling data from in-depth investigations of motor-vehicle crashes and non-crash adverse moving-vehicle incidents, such as emergency vehicle braking, turning, and swerving, in which there was at least one vehicle occupant sitting in a wheelchair. The results of 39 investigations involving 42 wheelchair-seated occupants have been assembled and entered into a wheelchair-occupant crash/injury database. In addition, a biomechanical analysis of each case has been performed to identify key safety issues for wheelchair-seated travelers. The wheelchairs of 34 of the 42 occupants who were seated in wheelchairs while traveling in motor vehicles were effectively secured by either a four-point, strap-type tiedown system or a docking securement device, and all but one of these properly secured wheelchairs remained in place during the crash or non-collision event. However, 30 of the 42 occupants were improperly restrained, either because of non-use or incomplete use of available belt restraints, or because the belt restraints were improperly positioned on the occupant's body. Twenty-six of the 42 occupants sustained significant injuries and 10 of these occupants died as a direct result of injuries sustained, or from complications resulting from those injuries. These findings, when combined with the analyses of the individual cases, point to a need for better driver and caregiver education and training on how to properly secure wheelchairs and position belt restraints on wheelchair-seated passengers. They also point to a need for improved restraint systems used by wheelchair-seated drivers, and a need for wheelchair designs that facilitate the proper use and positioning of vehicle-anchored belt restraints. PMID:19800833

Schneider, Lawrence W; Klinich, Kathleen D; Moore, Jamie L; MacWilliams, Joel B

2010-04-01

329

Biconic cargo return vehicle with an advanced recovery system. Volume 1: Conceptual design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The conceptual design of the biconic Cargo Return Vehicle (CRV) is presented. The CRV will be able to meet all of the Space Station Freedom (SSF's) resupply needs. Worth note is the absence of a backup recovery chute in case of Advanced Recovery System (ARS) failure. The high reliability of ram-air parachutes does not warrant the penalty weight that such a system would create on successful missions. The CRV will launch vertically integrated with an Liquid Rocket Booster (LRB) vehicle and meets all NASA restrictions on fuel type for all phases of the mission. Because of the downscaled Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle (OMV) program, the CRV has been designed to be able to transfer cargo by docking directly to the Space Station Freedom as well as with OMV assistance. The CRV will cover enough crossrange to reach its primary landing site, Edwards Airforce Base, and all secondary landing sites with the exception of one orbit. Transportation back to KSC will be via the Boeing Super Guppy. Due to difficulties with man-rating the CRV, it will not be used in a CERV role. A brief summary of the CRV's specifications is given.

1990-01-01

330

A Soft-Switching Inverter for High-Temperature Advanced Hybrid Electric Vehicle Traction Motor Drives  

SciTech Connect

The state-of-the-art hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) require the inverter cooling system to have a separate loop to avoid power semiconductor junction over temperatures because the engine coolant temperature of 105?C does not allow for much temperature rise in silicon devices. The proposed work is to develop an advanced soft-switching inverter that will eliminate the device switching loss and cut down the power loss so that the inverter can operate at high-temperature conditions while operating at high switching frequencies with small current ripple in low inductance based permanent magnet motors. The proposed tasks also include high-temperature packaging and thermal modeling and simulation to ensure the packaged module can operate at the desired temperature. The developed module will be integrated with the motor and vehicle controller for dynamometer and in-vehicle testing to prove its superiority. This report will describe the detailed technical design of the soft-switching inverters and their test results. The experiments were conducted both in module level for the module conduction and switching characteristics and in inverter level for its efficiency under inductive and dynamometer load conditions. The performance will be compared with the DOE original specification.

None, None

2012-01-31

331

Installation of the Irradiation Test Vehicle in the Advanced Test Reactor  

SciTech Connect

The Irradiation Test Vehicle (ITV) was installed in the Department of Energy's Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) during May 1999. The ITV is capable of providing neutron spectral tailoring and individual temperature control for up to 15 experiment capsules simultaneously. The test vehicle consists of three permanently installed in-pile tubes running the length of the reactor vessel. The bores of these in-pile tubes are kept dry and test trains with integral instrumentation are inserted and removed through a transfer shield plate above the reactor vessel head. The test vehicle is designed to irradiate specimens as large as 2.2 cm in diameter, at temperatures of 250-800C, achieving neutron damage rates as high as 10 displacements per atom per year in Vanadium. The experiment specimen temperature control is fully automated using a Distributed Control System (DCS) to control up to 15 separate blended gas channels for the ITV. The system remains in place as a permanent ATR Experiment support system and has excess capacity to accommodate experiment program growth. The ITV was initially installed with instrumented dummy tests to allow for testing and characterization of the control system.

A. J. Palmer; B. C. Hong; D. J. Stites; F. W. Ingram

1999-08-01

332

Installation of the Irradiation Test Vehicle in the Advanced Test Reactor  

SciTech Connect

The Irradiation Test Vehicle (ITV) was installed in the Department of Energy’s Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) during May 1999. The ITV is capable of providing neutron spectral tailoring and individual temperature control for up to 15 experiment capsules simultaneously. The test vehicle consists of three permanently installed in-pile tubes running the length of the reactor vessel. The bores of these in-pile tubes are kept dry and test trains with integral instrumentation are inserted and removed through a transfer shield plate above the reactor vessel head. The test vehicle is designed to irradiate specimens as large as 2.2 cm in diameter, at temperatures of 250 - 800C, achieving neutron damage rates as high as 10 displacements per atom per year in Vanadium. The experiment specimen temperature control is fully automated using a Distributed Control System (DCS) to control up to 15 separate blended gas channels for the ITV. The system remains in place as a permanent ATR Experiment support system and has excess capacity to accommodate experiment program growth. The ITV was initially installed with instrumented dummy tests to allow for testing and characterization of the control system.

Palmer, Alma Joseph; Hong, Bonnie Colleen; Ingram, Frederick William; Stites, David John

1999-09-01

333

77 FR 751 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Matters Incorporated by Reference  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...vertical longitudinal vehicle plane from the angle...annual production of vehicles for each manufacturer and the number of vehicles manufactured by each manufacturer under S7.1, a vehicle produced by more than...Impact protection for the driver from the steering...

2012-01-06

334

75 FR 7370 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Door Locks and Door Retention Components  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...the FRE did not include vehicle structural changes...the earlier model year vehicles tested at VRTC failed...more recent model year vehicles, which had the addition...are not aware of any vehicle requiring significant...warning system to alert the driver when the door is...

2010-02-19

335

Safety evaluation methodology for advanced coal extraction systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Qualitative and quantitative evaluation methods for coal extraction systems were developed. The analysis examines the soundness of the design, whether or not the major hazards have been eliminated or reduced, and how the reduction would be accomplished. The quantitative methodology establishes the approximate impact of hazards on injury levels. The results are weighted by peculiar geological elements, specialized safety training, peculiar mine environmental aspects, and reductions in labor force. The outcome is compared with injury level requirements based on similar, safer industries to get a measure of the new system's success in reducing injuries. This approach provides a more detailed and comprehensive analysis of hazards and their effects than existing safety analyses.

Zimmerman, W. F.

1981-01-01

336

Advanced onboard storage concepts for natural gas-fueled automotive vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The evaluation of several advanced concepts for storing natural gas at reduced pressure is presented. The advanced concepts include adsorption on high surface area carbon, adsorption in high porosity zeolite, storage in clathration compounds, and storage by dissolution in liquid solvents. High surface area carbons with high packing density are the best low pressure storage mediums. A simple mathematical model is used to compare adsorption storage on a state of the art carbon with compression storage. The model indicates that a vehicle using adsorption storage of natural gas at 3.6 MPa will have 36 percent of the range, on the EPA city cycle, of a vehicle operating on a compression storage system having the same physical size and a peak storage pressure of 21 MPa. Preliminary experiments and current literature suggest that the storage capacity of state of the art carbons could be improved by as much as 50 percent, and that adsorption systems having a capacity equal to compression storage at 14 MPa are possible without exceeding a maximum pressure of 3.6 MPa.

Remick, R. J.; Elkins, R. H.; Camara, E. H.; Bulicz, T.

1984-01-01

337

Study of advanced electric propulsion system concept using a flywheel for electric vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Advanced electric propulsion system concepts with flywheels for electric vehicles are evaluated and it is predicted that advanced systems can provide considerable performance improvement over existing electric propulsion systems with little or no cost penalty. Using components specifically designed for an integrated electric propulsion system avoids the compromises that frequently lead to a loss of efficiency and to inefficient utilization of space and weight. A propulsion system using a flywheel power energy storage device can provide excellent acceleration under adverse conditions of battery degradation due either to very low temperatures or high degrees of discharge. Both electrical and mechanical means of transfer of energy to and from the flywheel appear attractive; however, development work is required to establish the safe limits of speed and energy storage for advanced flywheel designs and to achieve the optimum efficiency of energy transfer. Brushless traction motor designs using either electronic commutation schemes or dc-to-ac inverters appear to provide a practical approach to a mass producible motor, with excellent efficiency and light weight. No comparisons were made with advanced system concepts which do not incorporate a flywheel.

Younger, F. C.; Lackner, H.

1979-01-01

338

Applications of advanced intervention technologies to enhance microbial food safety  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Food safety issues may arise due to chemical and/or microbial contaminations. Foodborne pathogens typically are the major reasons in food related outbreaks that result in human sickness/death, product disposal/waste and other economic losses. The food industry is continuously seeking better interv...

339

Advanced missions safety. Volume 3: Appendices. Part 2: Experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Supporting documentation pertaining to the hazards of transporting experimental equipment on the Earth Orbit Shuttle is presented. The subjects discussed are: (1) experiment and hardware definition, (2) hazard analysis, (3) preventive measure assessment, (4) preventive measures statements, (5) remedial measure assessment, and (6) experiment interaction safety considerations.

Hinton, M. G., Jr.

1972-01-01

340

TransAtlas: A U.S. Map of Fuels and Vehicles Data from the Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles (AFDC)  

DOE Data Explorer

Data stored in the Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (AFDC) can provide insight to policymakers, entrepreneurs, fuel users, and other parties interested in reducing petroleum consumption. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory analyzes transportation-related data and identifies trends related to alternative fuels and vehicles. These analyses are posted in the AFDC as technical reports and Excel spreadsheets that can be manipulated by outside users. To provide the most robust collection of information possible, this section also includes links to data analyses from outside the AFDC. These sources are noted in each file. There are also interactive map applications and some PDF documents.

341

Biennial Workshop on Digital Signal Processing for In-Vehicle Systems, Sep. 29-Oct. 2, 2013, Seoul, Korea Rear-end Collision Prevention Using Mobile Devices  

E-print Network

vehicle dynamics, thus making a portable device a driving safety tool. We aim to de- sign an advanced that can be used to measure useful vehicle dynamics information, thus making such portable devices

Busso, Carlos

342

Current status of environmental, health, and safety issues of lithium polymer electric vehicle batteries  

SciTech Connect

Lithium solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) batteries are being investigated by researchers worldwide as a possible energy source for future electric vehicles (EVs). One of the main reasons for interest in lithium SPE battery systems is the potential safety features they offer as compared to lithium battery systems using inorganic and organic liquid electrolytes. However, the development of lithium SPE batteries is still in its infancy, and the technology is not envisioned to be ready for commercialization for several years. Because the research and development (R&D) of lithium SPE battery technology is of a highly competitive nature, with many companies both in the United States and abroad pursuing R&D efforts, much of the information concerning specific developments of lithium SPE battery technology is proprietary. This report is based on information available only through the open literature (i.e., information available through library searches). Furthermore, whereas R&D activities for lithium SPE cells have focused on a number of different chemistries, for both electrodes and electrolytes, this report examines the general environmental, health, and safety (EH&S) issues common to many lithium SPE chemistries. However, EH&S issues for specific lithium SPE cell chemistries are discussed when sufficient information exists. Although lithium batteries that do not have a SPE are also being considered for EV applications, this report focuses only on those lithium battery technologies that utilize the SPE technology. The lithium SPE battery technologies considered in this report may contain metallic lithium or nonmetallic lithium compounds (e.g., lithium intercalated carbons) in the negative electrode.

Corbus, D.; Hammel, C.J.

1995-02-01

343

Current status of environmental, health, and safety issues of lithium polymer electric vehicle batteries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lithium solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) batteries are being investigated by researchers worldwide as a possible energy source for future electric vehicles (EV's). One of the main reasons for interest in lithium SPE battery systems is the potential safety features they offer as compared to lithium battery systems using inorganic and organic liquid electrolytes. However, the development of lithium SPE batteries is still in its infancy, and the technology is not envisioned to be ready for commercialization for several years. Because the research and development (R&D) of lithium SPE battery technology is of a highly competitive nature, with many companies both in the United States and abroad pursuing R&D efforts, much of the information concerning specific developments of lithium SPE battery technology is proprietary. This report is based on information available only through the open literature (i.e., information available through library searches). Furthermore, whereas R&D activities for lithium SPE cells have focused on a number of different chemistries, for both electrodes and electrolytes, this report examines the general environmental, health, and safety (EH&S) issues common to many lithium SPE chemistries. However, EH&S issues for specific lithium SPE cell chemistries are discussed when sufficient information exists. Although lithium batteries that do not have a SPE are also being considered for EV applications, this report focuses only on those lithium battery technologies that utilize the SPE technology. The lithium SPE battery technologies considered in this report may contain metallic lithium or nonmetallic lithium compounds (e.g., lithium intercalated carbons) in the negative electrode.

Corbus, D.; Hammel, C. J.

1995-02-01

344

Advanced Concepts for Pressure-Channel Reactors: Modularity, Performance and Safety  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on an analysis of the development of advanced concepts for pressure-tube reactor technology, we adapt and adopt the pressure-tube reactor advantage of modularity, so that the subdivided core has the potential for optimization of the core, safety, fuel cycle and thermal performance independently, while retaining passive safety features. In addition, by adopting supercritical water-cooling, the logical developments from existing

Romney B. Duffey; Igor L. Pioro; Sermet Kuran

2008-01-01

345

Mission analysis and guidance, navigation, and control design for rendezvous and docking phase of advanced reentry vehicle mission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Advanced Reentry Vehicle (ARV) belongs to the family of vehicles designed to perform rendezvous and docking (RvD) with the International space station (ISS) [1]. Differently from its predecessor ATV (Automated Transfer Vehicle), the ARV will transport a reentry capsule, equipped with a heatshield and able to bring back cargo, experiments, or, as a possible future development, even crew, being this latter scenario very attracting in view of the Space Shuttle retirement. GMV, as subcontractor of EADS-Astrium Germany, is in charge of the RvD and departure mission analysis and GNC (Guidance, Navigation, and Control) design of ARV mission. This paper will present the main outcomes of the study.

Strippoli, L.; Colmenarejo, P.; Strauch, H.

2013-12-01

346

Advancing medication infusion safety through the clinical integration of technology.  

PubMed

Adverse drug events resulting from errors in prescribing or administering medications are preventable. Within a hospital system, numerous technologies are employed to address the common sources of medication error, including the use of electronic medical records, physician order entry, smart infusion pumps, and barcode medication administration systems. Infusion safety is inherently risky because of the high-risk medications administered and the lack of integration among the stand-alone systems in most institutions. Intravenous clinical integration (IVCI) is a technology that connects electronic medical records, physician order entry, smart infusion pumps, and barcode medication administration systems. It combines the safety features of an automatically programmed infusion pump (drug, concentration, infusion rate, and patient weight, all auto-programmed into the device) with software that provides visibility to real-time clinical infusion data. Our article describes the characteristics of IVCI at WellSpan Health and its impact on patient safety. The integrated infusion system has the capability of reducing medication errors, improving patient care, reducing in-facility costs, and supporting asset management. It can enhance continuous quality improvement efforts and efficiency of clinical work flow. After implementing IVCI, the institution realized a safer patient environment and a more streamlined work flow for pharmacy and nursing. PMID:24145584

Gerhart, Donald; O'Shea, Kristen; Muller, Sharon

2013-01-01

347

Setting an agenda for advancing young worker safety in the U.S. and Canada.  

PubMed

Scholars and practitioners from multiple perspectives, including developmental science, sociology, business, medicine, and public health, have considered the implications of employment for young people. We summarize a series of meetings designed to synthesize information from these perspectives and derive recommendations to guide research, practice, and policy with a focus on young worker safety and health. During the first three meetings, participants from the United States and Canada considered invited white papers addressing developmental issues, public health data and findings, as well as programmatic advances and evaluation needs. At the final meeting, the participants recommended both research and policy directions to advance understanding and improve young worker safety. PMID:22547854

Runyan, Carol W; Lewko, John; Rauscher, Kimberly

2012-01-01

348

Aeroassisted manned transfer vehicle (TAXI) for advanced Mars Transportation: NASA/USRA 1987 Senior Design Project  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A conceptual design study of an aeroassisted orbital transfer vehicle is discussed. Nicknamed TAXI, it will ferry personnel and cargo: (1) between low Earth orbit and a spacecraft circling around the Sun in permanent orbit intersecting gravitational fields of Earth and Mars, and (2) between the cycling spacecraft and a Mars orbiting station, co-orbiting with Phobos. Crew safety and mission flexibility (in terms of ability to provide a wide range of delta-V) were given high priority. Three versions were considered, using the same overall configuration based on a low L/D aerobrake with the geometry of a raked off elliptical cone with ellipsoidal nose and a toroidal skirt. The propulsion system consists of three gimballed LOX/LH2 engines firing away from the aerobrake. The versions differ mainly in the size of the aeroshields and propellant tanks. TAXI A version resulted from an initial effort to design a single transfer vehicle able to meet all delta-V requirements during the 15-year period (2025 to 2040) of Mars mission operations. TAXI B is designed to function with the cycling spacecraft moving in a simplified, nominal trajectory. On Mars missions, TAXI B would be able to meet the requirements of all the missions with a relative approach velocity near Mars of less than 9.3 km/sec. Finally, TAXI C is a revision of TAXI A, a transfer vehicle designed for missions with a relative velocity near Mars larger than 9.3 km/sec. All versions carry a crew of 9 (11 with modifications) and a cargo of 10000 lbm. Trip duration varies from 1 day for transfer from LEO to the cycling ship to nearly 5 days for transfer from the ship to the Phobos orbit.

1987-01-01

349

Space transfer vehicle concepts and requirements study. Volume 2, book 4: Integrated advanced technology development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Space Transfer Vehicle (STV) program provides both an opportunity and a requirement to increase our upper stage capabilities with the development and applications of new technologies. Issues such as man rating, space basing, reusability, and long lunar surface storage times drive the need for new technology developments and applications. In addition, satisfaction of mission requirements such as lunar cargo delivery capability and lunar landing either require new technology development or can be achieved in a more cost-effective manner with judicious applications of advanced technology. During the STV study, advanced technology development requirements and plans have been addressed by the Technology/Advanced Development Working Group composed of NASA and contractor representatives. This report discusses the results to date of this working group. The first section gives an overview of the technologies that have potential or required applications for the STV and identifies those technologies baselined for the STV. Figures are provided that list the technology categories and show the priority placed on those technology categories for either the space-based or ground-based options. The second section covers the plans and schedules for incorporating the technologies into the STV program.

Weber, Gary A.

1991-01-01

350

J Syst Sci Complex (20XX) XX: 128 Control of Vehicle Platoons for Highway Safety and  

E-print Network

Utility: Consensus with Communications and Vehicle Dynamics Le Yi WANG · Ali SYED · George YIN · Abhilash control, networked systems, vehicle dynamics, communications. Le Yi WANG(Corresponding author) · Ali SYED

Zhang, Hongwei

351

Protecting you\\/protecting me: Effects of an alcohol prevention and vehicle safety program on elementary students  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes an evaluation of Protecting You\\/Protecting Me (PY\\/PM), a classroom-based, alcohol-use prevention and vehicle safety program for elementary students in first through fifth grades developed by Mothers Against Drunk Driving. PY\\/PM lessons and activities focus on teaching children about (1) their brains (why their brain is important, how their brain continues to develop throughout childhood and adolescence, what

Mary Lou Bell; Tara Kelley-Baker; Raamses Rider; Christopher Ringwalt

2005-01-01

352

AN ADVANCED TOOL FOR APPLIED INTEGRATED SAFETY MANAGEMENT  

SciTech Connect

WESKEM, LLC's Environmental, Safety and Health (ES&H) Department had previously assessed that a lack of consistency, poor communication and using antiquated communication tools could result in varying operating practices, as well as a failure to capture and disseminate appropriate Integrated Safety Management (ISM) information. To address these issues, the ES&H Department established an Activity Hazard Review (AHR)/Activity Hazard Analysis (AHA) process for systematically identifying, assessing, and controlling hazards associated with project work activities during work planning and execution. Depending on the scope of a project, information from field walkdowns and table-top meetings are collected on an AHR form. The AHA then documents the potential failure and consequence scenarios for a particular hazard. Also, the AHA recommends whether the type of mitigation appears appropriate or whether additional controls should be implemented. Since the application is web based, the information is captured into a single system and organized according to the >200 work activities already recorded in the database. Using the streamlined AHA method improved cycle time from over four hours to an average of one hour, allowing more time to analyze unique hazards and develop appropriate controls. Also, the enhanced configuration control created a readily available AHA library to research and utilize along with standardizing hazard analysis and control selection across four separate work sites located in Kentucky and Tennessee. The AHR/AHA system provides an applied example of how the ISM concept evolved into a standardized field-deployed tool yielding considerable efficiency gains in project planning and resource utilization. Employee safety is preserved through detailed planning that now requires only a portion of the time previously necessary. The available resources can then be applied to implementing appropriate engineering, administrative and personal protective equipment controls in the field.

Potts, T. Todd; Hylko, James M.; Douglas, Terence A.

2003-02-27

353

75 FR 37343 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Occupant Crash Protection  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...because the majority of vehicles already have some type...purposes. Occupancy detection technology is not readily-equipped...and those passenger vehicles equipped with large...for rear seat occupant detection (e.g., removable...are their expected per vehicle costs? Are there...

2010-06-29

354

78 FR 15920 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Tire Selection and Rims  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...vehicle weight rating (GVWR) of 4,536 kg (10,000 lbs.) or less. It also proposes...vehicle weight rating (GVWR) of 4,536 kg (10,000 pounds) or less, except for...apply to all vehicles with a GVWR of 4,536 kg (10,000 pounds) or less with the...

2013-03-13

355

UT College of Natural Sciences Mandatory Safety Belt Usage in College Vehicles  

E-print Network

belts. This includes pick-up truck beds, cargo areas, and the outside of vehicles. Note: This rule) The driver of the vehicle shall ensure that passengers are in compliance with the above rules before operating the vehicle. Note: We recognize a driver may be unaware if a passenger unfastens a seat belt

Jefferys, William

356

Research on the Turning Safety of an High-Temperature Ladle Carrier Vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on the Newton's law of relative motion , the mode describing the turning behavior of an high -temperature ladle carrier vehicle is built while considering the vehicle body's products of inertia. Due to the huge products of inertia, model calculation and numeric simulation show that the high-temperature ladle carrier vehicle may roll over during turning. The rollover can be

Zhang Wei-dong; Li Xiang-hua; Deng Hua

2009-01-01

357

77 FR 71752 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Lamps, Reflective Devices, and Associated Equipment  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...feet from the vehicle and on a vertical plane that is perpendicular to the longitudinal...feet from the vehicle and on a vertical plane that is perpendicular to the longitudinal...15 feet from the vehicle on a vertical plane that is perpendicular to the...

2012-12-04

358

Advanced Test Reactor Safety Basis Upgrade Lessons Learned Relative to Design Basis Verification and Safety Basis Management  

SciTech Connect

The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) is a pressurized light-water reactor with a design thermal power of 250 MW. The principal function of the ATR is to provide a high neutron flux for testing reactor fuels and other materials. The reactor also provides other irradiation services such as radioisotope production. The ATR and its support facilities are located at the Test Reactor Area of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). An audit conducted by the Department of Energy's Office of Independent Oversight and Performance Assurance (DOE OA) raised concerns that design conditions at the ATR were not adequately analyzed in the safety analysis and that legacy design basis management practices had the potential to further impact safe operation of the facility.1 The concerns identified by the audit team, and issues raised during additional reviews performed by ATR safety analysts, were evaluated through the unreviewed safety question process resulting in shutdown of the ATR for more than three months while these concerns were resolved. Past management of the ATR safety basis, relative to facility design basis management and change control, led to concerns that discrepancies in the safety basis may have developed. Although not required by DOE orders or regulations, not performing design basis verification in conjunction with development of the 10 CFR 830 Subpart B upgraded safety basis allowed these potential weaknesses to be carried forward. Configuration management and a clear definition of the existing facility design basis have a direct relation to developing and maintaining a high quality safety basis which properly identifies and mitigates all hazards and postulated accident conditions. These relations and the impact of past safety basis management practices have been reviewed in order to identify lessons learned from the safety basis upgrade process and appropriate actions to resolve possible concerns with respect to the current ATR safety basis. The need for a design basis reconstitution program for the ATR has been identified along with the use of sound configuration management principles in order to support safe and efficient facility operation.

G. L. Sharp; R. T. McCracken

2004-05-01

359

Intelligent Vehicle Health Management  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As a part of the overall goal of developing Integrated Vehicle Health Management systems for aerospace vehicles, the NASA Faculty Fellowship Program (NFFP) at Marshall Space Flight Center has performed a pilot study on IVHM principals which integrates researched IVHM technologies in support of Integrated Intelligent Vehicle Management (IIVM). IVHM is the process of assessing, preserving, and restoring system functionality across flight and ground systems (NASA NGLT 2004). The framework presented in this paper integrates advanced computational techniques with sensor and communication technologies for spacecraft that can generate responses through detection, diagnosis, reasoning, and adapt to system faults in support of INM. These real-time responses allow the IIVM to modify the affected vehicle subsystem(s) prior to a catastrophic event. Furthermore, the objective of this pilot program is to develop and integrate technologies which can provide a continuous, intelligent, and adaptive health state of a vehicle and use this information to improve safety and reduce costs of operations. Recent investments in avionics, health management, and controls have been directed towards IIVM. As this concept has matured, it has become clear the INM requires the same sensors and processing capabilities as the real-time avionics functions to support diagnosis of subsystem problems. New sensors have been proposed, in addition, to augment the avionics sensors to support better system monitoring and diagnostics. As the designs have been considered, a synergy has been realized where the real-time avionics can utilize sensors proposed for diagnostics and prognostics to make better real-time decisions in response to detected failures. IIVM provides for a single system allowing modularity of functions and hardware across the vehicle. The framework that supports IIVM consists of 11 major on-board functions necessary to fully manage a space vehicle maintaining crew safety and mission objectives: Guidance and Navigation; Communications and Tracking; Vehicle Monitoring; Information Transport and Integration; Vehicle Diagnostics; Vehicle Prognostics; Vehicle mission Planning; Automated Repair and Replacement; Vehicle Control; Human Computer Interface; and Onboard Verification and Validation. Furthermore, the presented framework provides complete vehicle management which not only allows for increased crew safety and mission success through new intelligence capabilities, but also yields a mechanism for more efficient vehicle operations. The representative IVHM technologies for computer platform using heterogeneous communication, 3) coupled electromagnetic oscillators for enhanced communications, 4) Linux-based real-time systems, 5) genetic algorithms, 6) Bayesian Networks, 7) evolutionary algorithms, 8) dynamic systems control modeling, and 9) advanced sensing capabilities. This paper presents IVHM technologies developed under NASA's NFFP pilot project and the integration of these technologies forms the framework for IIVM.

Paris, Deidre E.; Trevino, Luis; Watson, Michael D.

2005-01-01

360

Evaluating the impact of advanced vehicle and fuel technologies in U.S. light duty vehicle fleet  

E-print Network

The unrelenting increase in oil use by the U.S. light-duty vehicle (LDV) fleet presents an extremely challenging energy and environmental problem. A variety of propulsion technologies and fuels have the promise to reduce ...

Bandivadekar, Anup P

2008-01-01

361

Advanced single permanent magnet axipolar ironless stator ac motor for electric passenger vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A program was conducted to design and develop an advanced-concept motor specifically created for propulsion of electric vehicles with increased range, reduced energy consumption, and reduced life-cycle costs in comparison with conventional systems. The motor developed is a brushless, dc, rare-earth cobalt, permanent magnet, axial air gap inductor machine that uses an ironless stator. Air cooling is inherent provided by the centrifugal-fan action of the rotor poles. An extensive design phase was conducted, which included analysis of the system performance versus the SAE J227a(D) driving cycle. A proof-of-principle model was developed and tested, and a functional model was developed and tested. Full generator-level testing was conducted on the functional model, recording electromagnetic, thermal, aerodynamic, and acoustic noise data. The machine demonstrated 20.3 kW output at 1466 rad/s and 160 dc. The novel ironless stator demonstated the capability to continuously operate at peak current. The projected system performance based on the use of a transistor inverter is 23.6 kW output power at 1466 rad/s and 83.3 percent efficiency. Design areas of concern regarding electric vehicle applications include the inherently high windage loss and rotor inertia.

Beauchamp, E. D.; Hadfield, J. R.; Wuertz, K. L.

1983-01-01

362

75 FR 25927 - Vehicle/Track Interaction Safety Standards; High-Speed and High Cant Deficiency Operations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...behavior of rail vehicles. These models require...accurate knowledge of vehicle parameters, including...passenger car. (2) Vehicle type means vehicles with variations...passenger car. (2) Vehicle type means vehicles with...

2010-05-10

363

78 FR 16051 - Vehicle/Track Interaction Safety Standards; High-Speed and High Cant Deficiency Operations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...behavior of rail vehicles. These models...knowledge of vehicle parameters...NPRM that all vehicles requiring qualification of the vehicle/track system...inspection systems are vehicle-based--not necessarily vehicles...

2013-03-13

364

Advanced Transportation System Studies Technical Area 2 (TA-2) Heavy Lift Launch Vehicle Development Contract. Volume 2; Technical Results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of the Advanced Transportation System Studies (ATSS) Technical Area 2 (TA-2) Heavy Lift Launch Vehicle Development contract was to provide advanced launch vehicle concept definition and analysis to assist NASA in the identification of future launch vehicle requirements. Contracted analysis activities included vehicle sizing and performance analysis, subsystem concept definition, propulsion subsystem definition (foreign and domestic), ground operations and facilities analysis, and life cycle cost estimation. This document is Volume 2 of the final report for the contract. It provides documentation of selected technical results from various TA-2 analysis activities, including a detailed narrative description of the SSTO concept assessment results, a user's guide for the associated SSTO sizing tools, an SSTO turnaround assessment report, an executive summary of the ground operations assessments performed during the first year of the contract, a configuration-independent vehicle health management system requirements report, a copy of all major TA-2 contract presentations, a copy of the FLO launch vehicle final report, and references to Pratt & Whitney's TA-2 sponsored final reports regarding the identification of Russian main propulsion technologies.

1995-01-01

365

A SECOND LOOK AT THE SAFETY EFFECTIVENESS OF THE MYRTLE CREEK ADVANCED CURVE WARNING SYSTEM  

E-print Network

-1- A SECOND LOOK AT THE SAFETY EFFECTIVENESS OF THE MYRTLE CREEK ADVANCED CURVE WARNING SYSTEM in both directions of Interstate 5 near Myrtle Creek, Oregon. For the evaluation, two measures approaching the curve based on these detected speeds. The original analysis evaluated the change in mean speed

Bertini, Robert L.

366

Advanced missions safety. Volume 3: Appendices. Part 1: Space shuttle rescue capability  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The space shuttle rescue capability is analyzed as a part of the advanced mission safety study. The subjects discussed are: (1) mission evaluation, (2) shuttle configurations and performance, (3) performance of shuttle-launched tug system, (4) multiple pass grazing reentry from lunar orbit, (5) ground launched ascent and rendezvous time, (6) cost estimates, and (7) parallel-burn space shuttle configuration.

1972-01-01

367

Safety Design Strategy for the Advanced Test Reactor Primary Coolant Pump and Motor Replacement Project  

SciTech Connect

In accordance with the requirements of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 413.3B, “Program and Project Management for the Acquisition of Capital Assets,” safety must be integrated into the design process for new or major modifications to DOE Hazard Category 1, 2, and 3 nuclear facilities. The intended purpose of this requirement involves the handling of hazardous materials, both radiological and chemical, in a way that provides adequate protection to the public, workers, and the environment. Requirements provided in DOE Order 413.3B and DOE Order 420.1B, “Facility Safety,” and the expectations of DOE-STD-1189-2008, “Integration of Safety into the Design Process,” provide for identification of hazards early in the project and use of an integrated team approach to design safety into the facility. This safety design strategy provides the basic safety-in-design principles and concepts that will be used for the Advanced Test Reactor Reliability Sustainment Project. While this project does not introduce new hazards to the ATR, it has the potential for significant impacts to safety-related systems, structures, and components that are credited in the ATR safety basis and are being replaced. Thus the project has been determined to meet the definition of a major modification and is being managed accordingly.

Noel Duckwitz

2011-06-01

368

Safety Design Strategy for the Advanced Test Reactor Diesel Bus (E-3) and Switchgear Replacement Project  

SciTech Connect

In accordance with the requirements of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 413.3B, “Program and Project Management for the Acquisition of Capital Assets,” safety must be integrated into the design process for new or major modifications to DOE Hazard Category 1, 2, and 3 nuclear facilities. The intended purpose of this requirement involves the handling of hazardous materials, both radiological and chemical, in a way that provides adequate protection to the public, workers, and the environment. Requirements provided in DOE Order 413.3B and DOE Order 420.1B, “Facility Safety,” and the expectations of DOE-STD-1189-2008, “Integration of Safety into the Design Process,” provide for identification of hazards early in the project and use of an integrated team approach to design safety into the facility. This safety design strategy provides the basic safety-in-design principles and concepts that will be used for the Advanced Test Reactor Reliability Sustainment Project. While this project does not introduce new hazards to the ATR, it has the potential for significant impacts to safety-related systems, structures, and components that are credited in the ATR safety basis and are being replaced. Thus the project has been determined to meet the definition of a major modification and is being managed accordingly.

Noel Duckwitz

2011-06-01

369

Safety Design Strategy for the Advanced Test Reactor Emergency Firewater Injection System Replacement Project  

SciTech Connect

In accordance with the requirements of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 413.3B, “Program and Project Management for the Acquisition of Capital Assets,” safety must be integrated into the design process for new or major modifications to DOE Hazard Category 1, 2, and 3 nuclear facilities. The intended purpose of this requirement involves the handling of hazardous materials, both radiological and chemical, in a way that provides adequate protection to the public, workers, and the environment. Requirements provided in DOE Order 413.3B and DOE Order 420.1B, “Facility Safety,” and the expectations of DOE-STD-1189-2008, “Integration of Safety into the Design Process,” provide for identification of hazards early in the project and use of an integrated team approach to design safety into the facility. This safety design strategy provides the basic safety-in-design principles and concepts that will be used for the Advanced Test Reactor Reliability Sustainment Project. While this project does not introduce new hazards to the ATR, it has the potential for significant impacts to safety-related systems, structures, and components that are credited in the ATR safety basis and are being replaced. Thus the project has been determined to meet the definition of a major modification and is being managed accordingly.

Noel Duckwitz

2011-06-01

370

Advanced reactors and associated fuel cycle facilities: safety and environmental impacts.  

PubMed

The safety and environmental impacts of new technology and fuel cycle approaches being considered in current U.S. nuclear research programs are contrasted to conventional technology options in this paper. Two advanced reactor technologies, the sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR) and the very high temperature gas-cooled reactor (VHTR), are being developed. In general, the new reactor technologies exploit inherent features for enhanced safety performance. A key distinction of advanced fuel cycles is spent fuel recycle facilities and new waste forms. In this paper, the performance of existing fuel cycle facilities and applicable regulatory limits are reviewed. Technology options to improve recycle efficiency, restrict emissions, and/or improve safety are identified. For a closed fuel cycle, potential benefits in waste management are significant, and key waste form technology alternatives are described. PMID:21399407

Hill, R N; Nutt, W M; Laidler, J J

2011-01-01

371

Advanced weigh-in-motion system for weighing vehicles at high speed  

SciTech Connect

A state-of-the-art, Advanced Weigh-In-Motion (WIM) system has been designed, installed, and tested on the west bound side of Interstate I-75/I-40 near the Knox County Weigh Station. The project is a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and International Road Dynamics, Inc. (IRD) sponsored by the Office of Uranium Programs, Facility and Technology Management Division of the Department of Energy under CRADA No. ORNL95-0364. ORNL, IRD, the Federal Highway Administration, the Tennessee Department of Safety and the Tennessee Department of Transportation have developed a National High Speed WIM Test Facility for test and evaluation of high-speed WIM systems. The WIM system under evaluation includes a Single Load Cell WIM scale system supplied and installed by IRD. ORNL developed a stand-alone, custom data acquisition system, which acquires the raw signals from IRD`s in-ground single load cell transducers. Under a separate contract with the Federal Highway Administration, ORNL designed and constructed a laboratory scale house for data collection, analysis and algorithm development. An initial advanced weight-determining algorithm has been developed. The new advanced WIM system provides improved accuracy and can reduce overall system variability by up to 30% over the existing high accuracy commercial WIM system.

Beshears, D.L.; Muhs, J.D.; Scudiere, M.B. [and others

1998-02-01

372

Environmental, health, and safety issues of sodium-sulfur batteries for electric and hybrid vehicles  

SciTech Connect

This report examines the shipping regulations that govern the shipment of dangerous goods. Since the elemental sodium contained in both sodium-sulfur and sodium-metal-chloride batteries is classified as a dangerous good, and is listed on both the national and international hazardous materials listings, both national and international regulatory processes are considered in this report The interrelationships as well as the differences between the two processes are highlighted. It is important to note that the transport regulatory processes examined in this report are reviewed within the context of assessing the necessary steps needed to provide for the domestic and international transport of sodium-beta batteries. The need for such an assessment was determined by the Shipping Sub-Working Group (SSWG) of the EV Battery Readiness Working Group (Working Group), created in 1990. The Working Group was created to examine the regulatory issues pertaining to in-vehicle safety, shipping, and recycling of sodium-sulfur batteries, each of which is addressed by a sub-working group. The mission of the SSWG is to establish basic provisions that will ensure the safe and efficient transport of sodium-beta batteries. To support that end, a proposal to the UN Committee of Experts was prepared by the SSWG, with the goal of obtaining a proper shipping name and UN number for sodium-beta batteries and to establish the basic transport requirements for such batteries (see the appendix for the proposal as submitted). It is emphasized that because batteries are large articles containing elemental sodium and, in some cases, sulfur, there is no existing UN entry under which they can be classified and for which modal transport requirements, such as the use of packaging appropriate for such large articles, are provided for. It is for this reason that a specific UN entry for sodium-beta batteries is considered essential.

Hammel, C.J.

1992-09-01

373

Advanced transportation system studies technical area 2(TA-2): Heavy lift launch vehicle development. volume 1; Executive summary  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of the TA-2 contract was to provide advanced launch vehicle concept definition and analysis to assist NASA in the identification of future launch vehicle requirements. Contracted analysis activities included vehicle sizing and performance analysis, subsystem concept definition, propulsion subsystem definition (foreign and domestic), ground operations and facilities analysis, and life cycle cost estimation. This document is part of the final report for the TA-2 contract. The final report consists of three volumes: Volume 1 is the Executive Summary, Volume 2 is Technical Results, and Volume 3 is Program Cost Estimates. The document-at-hand, Volume 1, provides a summary description of the technical activities that were performed over the entire contract duration, covering three distinct launch vehicle definition activities: heavy-lift (300,000 pounds injected mass to low Earth orbit) launch vehicles for the First Lunar Outpost (FLO), medium-lift (50,000-80,000 pounds injected mass to low Earth orbit) launch vehicles, and single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO) launch vehicles (25,000 pounds injected mass to a Space Station orbit).

McCurry, J.

1995-01-01

374

Design, simulation and evaluation of advanced display concepts for the F-16 control configured vehicle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Advanced display concepts to augment the tracking ability of the F-16 Control Configured Vehicle (CCV) were designed, simulated, and evaluated. A fixed-base simulator was modified to represent the F-16 CCV. An isometric sidearm control stick and two-axis CCV thumb button were installed in the cockpit. The forward cockpit CRT was programmed to present an external scene (numbered runway, horizon) and the designed Heads Up Display. The cockpit interior was modified to represent a fighter and the F-16 CCV dynamics and direct lift and side force modes were programmed. Compensatory displays were designed from man-machine considerations. Pilots evaluated the Heads up Display and compensatory displays during simulated descents in the presence of several levels of filtered, zero-mean winds gusts. During a descent from 2500 feet to the runway, the pilots tracked a point on the runway utilizing the basic F-16, F-16 CCV, and F-16 CCV with advanced displays. Substantial tracking improvements resulted utilizing the CCV modes, and the displays were found to even further enhance the tracking ability of the F-16 CCV.

Klein, R. W.; Hollister, W. M.

1982-01-01

375

Advanced Information Processing System (AIPS)-based fault tolerant avionics architecture for launch vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An avionics architecture for the advanced launch system (ALS) that uses validated hardware and software building blocks developed under the advanced information processing system program is presented. The AIPS for ALS architecture defined is preliminary, and reliability requirements can be met by the AIPS hardware and software building blocks that are built using the state-of-the-art technology available in the 1992-93 time frame. The level of detail in the architecture definition reflects the level of detail available in the ALS requirements. As the avionics requirements are refined, the architecture can also be refined and defined in greater detail with the help of analysis and simulation tools. A useful methodology is demonstrated for investigating the impact of the avionics suite to the recurring cost of the ALS. It is shown that allowing the vehicle to launch with selected detected failures can potentially reduce the recurring launch costs. A comparative analysis shows that validated fault-tolerant avionics built out of Class B parts can result in lower life-cycle-cost in comparison to simplex avionics built out of Class S parts or other redundant architectures.

Lala, Jaynarayan H.; Harper, Richard E.; Jaskowiak, Kenneth R.; Rosch, Gene; Alger, Linda S.; Schor, Andrei L.

1990-01-01

376

Comparison of a Traditional Probabilistic Risk Assessment Approach with Advanced Safety Analysis  

SciTech Connect

As part of the Light Water Sustainability Program (LWRS) [1], the purpose of the Risk Informed Safety Margin Characterization (RISMC) [2] Pathway research and development (R&D) is to support plant decisions for risk-informed margin management with the aim to improve economics, reliability, and sustain safety of current NPPs. In this paper, we describe the RISMC analysis process illustrating how mechanistic and probabilistic approaches are combined in order to estimate a safety margin. We use the scenario of a “station blackout” (SBO) wherein offsite power and onsite power is lost, thereby causing a challenge to plant safety systems. We describe the RISMC approach, illustrate the station blackout modeling, and contrast this with traditional risk analysis modeling for this type of accident scenario. We also describe our approach we are using to represent advanced flooding analysis.

Smith, Curtis L; Mandelli, Diego; Zhegang Ma

2014-11-01

377

Analysis of the Relationship Between Vehicle Weight/Size and Safety, and Implications for Federal Fuel Economy Regulation  

SciTech Connect

This report analyzes the relationship between vehicle weight, size (wheelbase, track width, and their product, footprint), and safety, for individual vehicle makes and models. Vehicle weight and footprint are correlated with a correlation coefficient (R{sup 2}) of about 0.62. The relationship is stronger for cars (0.69) than for light trucks (0.42); light trucks include minivans, fullsize vans, truck-based SUVs, crossover SUVs, and pickup trucks. The correlation between wheelbase and track width, the components of footprint, is about 0.61 for all light vehicles, 0.62 for cars and 0.48 for light trucks. However, the footprint data used in this analysis does not vary for different versions of the same vehicle model, as curb weight does; the analysis could be improved with more precise data on footprint for different versions of the same vehicle model. Although US fatality risk to drivers (driver fatalities per million registered vehicles) decreases as vehicle footprint increases, there is very little correlation either for all light vehicles (0.01), or cars (0.07) or trucks (0.11). The correlation between footprint and fatality risks cars impose on drivers of other vehicles is also very low (0.01); for trucks the correlation is higher (0.30), with risk to others increasing as truck footprint increases. Fatality risks reported here do not account for differences in annual miles driven, driver age or gender, or crash location by vehicle type or model. It is difficult to account for these factors using data on national fatal crashes because the number of vehicles registered to, for instance, young males in urban areas is not readily available by vehicle type or model. State data on all police-reported crashes can be used to estimate casualty risks that account for miles driven, driver age and gender, and crash location. The number of vehicles involved in a crash can act as a proxy of the number of miles a given vehicle type, or model, is driven per year, and is a preferable unit of exposure to a serious crash than the number of registered vehicles. However, because there are relatively few fatalities in the states providing crash data, we calculate casualty risks, which are the sum of fatalities and serious or incapacitating injuries, per vehicle involved in a crash reported to the police. We can account for driver age/gender and driving location effects by excluding from analysis crashes (and casualties) involving young males and the elderly, and occurring in very rural or very urban counties. Using state data on all police-reported crashes in five states, we find that excluding crashes involving young male and elderly drivers has little effect on casualty risk; however, excluding crashes that occurred in the most rural and most urban counties (based on population density) increases casualty risk for all vehicle types except pickups. This suggests that risks for pickups are overstated unless they account for the population density of the county in which the crashes occur. After removing crashes involving young males and elderly drivers, and those occurring in the most rural and most urban counties, we find that casualty risk in all light-duty vehicles tends to increase with increasing weight or footprint; however, the correlation (R{sup 2}) between casualty risk and vehicle weight is 0.31, while the correlation with footprint is 0.23. These relationships are stronger for cars than for light trucks. The correlation between casualty risk in frontal crashes and light-duty vehicle wheelbase is 0.12, while the correlation between casualty risk in left side crashes and track width is 0.36. We calculated separately the casualty risks vehicles impose on drivers of the other vehicles with which they crash. The correlation between casualty risk imposed by light trucks on drivers of other vehicles and light truck footprint is 0.15, while the correlation with light truck footprint is 0.33; risk imposed on others increases as light truck weight or footprint increases. Our analysis indicates that, after excluding crashes involving young m

Wenzel, Thomas P.

2010-03-02

378

75 FR 21567 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard No. 108; Lamp, Reflective Devices and Associated Equipment...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Safety Standard No. 108; Lamp, Reflective...For compliance testing purposes, the agency...certification process. Our lighting standard does not...Safety Standard (FMVSS) No. 108; Lamps, reflective...equipment, establishes lighting requirements...

2010-04-26

379

Enhancing vehicle safety management in training deployments : an application of system dynamics  

E-print Network

Organization Sierra-Tango is employing a systematic and methodical safety framework to manage risks in all their operational and training activities. While this safety system has shown itself to be reasonably effective in ...

Lim, Kelvin F. H. (Kelvin Fang Hui)

2008-01-01

380

ROYAL HOLLOWAY, UNIVERSITY OF LONDON COLLEGE DRIVING AND VEHICLE SAFETY POLICY  

E-print Network

SAFETY Dr Richard Fisk Health & Safety Adviser 6/9/10 #12;Contents List of Contents of Driving Licences ...................................... 2 1.4 Driver Evaluation, (Induction) and Refresher Phones ............................................................. 6 2.12 Driver Assistants

Royal Holloway, University of London

381

Next Generation Safety Performance Monitoring at Signalized Intersections Using Connected Vehicle Technology  

E-print Network

Crash-based safety evaluation is often hampered by randomness, lack of timeliness, and rarity of crash occurrences. Surrogate safety data are commonly used as an alternative to crash data; however, its current practice is still resource intensive...

Zha, Liteng

2014-04-28

382

75 FR 70670 - Final Vehicle Safety Rulemaking and Research Priority Plan 2010-2013  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Safety Rulemaking and Research Priority Plan 2010-2013...anticipate that the research will be done by the...Safety Rulemaking and Research Priority Plan 2010-2013...instructions, or visit Docket Management Facility at U.S....

2010-11-18

383

Human-System Safety Methods for Development of Advanced Air Traffic Management Systems  

SciTech Connect

The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) is supporting the National Aeronautics and Space Administration in the development of advanced air traffic management (ATM) systems as part of the Advanced Air Transportation Technologies program. As part of this program INEEL conducted a survey of human-system safety methods that have been applied to complex technical systems, to identify lessons learned from these applications and provide recommendations for the development of advanced ATM systems. The domains that were surveyed included offshore oil and gas, commercial nuclear power, commercial aviation, and military. The survey showed that widely different approaches are used in these industries, and that the methods used range from very high-level, qualitative approaches to very detailed quantitative methods such as human reliability analysis (HRA) and probabilistic safety assessment (PSA). In addition, the industries varied widely in how effectively they incorporate human-system safety assessment in the design, development, and testing of complex technical systems. In spite of the lack of uniformity in the approaches and methods used, it was found that methods are available that can be combined and adapted to support the development of advanced air traffic management systems.

Nelson, W.R.

1999-05-24

384

Enhancing in-vehicle safety via contact sensor for stress detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

The number of vehicles on the road as well as the human drive time is increasing significantly. Many drivers are increasing their attempts to multi-task while driving including eating, drinking, entertainment control etc. A relatively new domain has emerged over the last 5 years focused on increased technology in the vehicle based on: GPS navigation systems, traffic, weather warning systems,

Sanjay A. Patil; John H. L. Hansen

2009-01-01

385

Flight Safety Analysis Tool for Space Vehicle Operations in the National Airspace  

Microsoft Academic Search

The military, civilian and commercial demands on space access are expected to experience a continuing increase. The many potential applications have been greeted by a plethora of new launch vehicle concepts with promises to enable more launches with reduced cost and improved reliability. The expectation that some reusable launch vehicles can operate to and from regular runways suggests the possibility

Victor H. L. Cheng; Gerald M. Diaz; Banavar Sridhar

386

Advances in coupled safety modeling using systems analysis and high-fidelity methods.  

SciTech Connect

The potential for a sodium-cooled fast reactor to survive severe accident initiators with no damage has been demonstrated through whole-plant testing in EBR-II and FFTF. Analysis of the observed natural protective mechanisms suggests that they would be characteristic of a broad range of sodium-cooled fast reactors utilizing metal fuel. However, in order to demonstrate the degree to which new, advanced sodium-cooled fast reactor designs will possess these desired safety features, accurate, high-fidelity, whole-plant dynamics safety simulations will be required. One of the objectives of the advanced safety-modeling component of the Reactor IPSC is to develop a science-based advanced safety simulation capability by utilizing existing safety simulation tools coupled with emerging high-fidelity modeling capabilities in a multi-resolution approach. As part of this integration, an existing whole-plant systems analysis code has been coupled with a high-fidelity computational fluid dynamics code to assess the impact of high-fidelity simulations on safety-related performance. With the coupled capabilities, it is possible to identify critical safety-related phenomenon in advanced reactor designs that cannot be resolved with existing tools. In this report, the impact of coupling is demonstrated by evaluating the conditions of outlet plenum thermal stratification during a protected loss of flow transient. Outlet plenum stratification was anticipated to alter core temperatures and flows predicted during natural circulation conditions. This effect was observed during the simulations. What was not anticipated, however, is the far-reaching impact that resolving thermal stratification has on the whole plant. The high temperatures predicted at the IHX inlet due to thermal stratification in the outlet plenum forces heat into the intermediate system to the point that it eventually becomes a source of heat for the primary system. The results also suggest that flow stagnation in the intermediate system is possible, raising questions about the effectiveness of the intermediate decay heat removal systems in the design that was evaluated. Existing tools do not predict flow stagnation. This work has demonstrated that with a proper coupling approach, a high-fidelity CFD tool can be used to resolve the important flow and temperature distributions throughout a plant while still maintaining the whole-plant safety analysis capabilities of a systems analysis code.

Fanning, T. H.; Thomas, J. W.; Nuclear Engineering Division

2010-05-31

387

Advances in Liposuction: Five Key Principles with Emphasis on Patient Safety and Outcomes  

PubMed Central

Summary: Since Illouz’s presentation of a technique for lipoplasty at the 1982 Annual Meeting of the American Society of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgeons, liposuction has become one of the most commonly performed aesthetic surgery procedures. The evolution of liposuction has seen refinements in technique and improvement of patient safety-related standards of care. Based on long-term experience with body contouring surgery, 5 principles of advanced liposuction are presented: preoperative evaluation and planning, intraoperative monitoring—safety measures, the role of wetting solutions and fluid resuscitation, circumferential contouring and complication prevention, and outcomes measurement. PMID:25289270

Tabbal, Geo N.; Ahmad, Jamil; Lista, Frank

2013-01-01

388

Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project Safety Advancement Field Effort (SAFE) Program  

SciTech Connect

In 1992, the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project experienced several health and safety related incidents at active remediation project sites. As a result, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) directed the Technical Assistance Contractor (TAC) to establish a program increasing the DOE`s overall presence at operational remediation sites to identify and minimize risks in operations to the fullest extent possible (Attachments A and B). In response, the TAC, in cooperation with the DOE and the Remedial Action Contractor (RAC), developed the Safety Advancement Field Effort (SAFE) Program.

Not Available

1994-02-01

389

Development of methodologies for ensuring structural safety of gas turbines and launch vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The research presented in this dissertation involves two distinct areas. In both cases, optimization techniques provided an important tool to achieve the goal of ensuring structural integrity and safety of gas turbine and launch vehicle systems. In the first area, a novel testing methodology has been developed to assess turbine engine materials fatigue strength. The idea is to accumulate fatigue energy on a base-excited plate specimen at high frequency resonant modes and to complete a fatigue test in a few hours at very low cost. The methodology consists of: (1) a topological design procedure, incorporating a finite element model, to characterize the shape of the specimens for ensuring the required stress state/pattern, (2) a vibration feedback empirical procedure for achieving the high cycle fatigue experiments with variable-amplitude loading, and (3) a fatigue strength implementation scheme for calculating effective stresses and effective number of cycles to failure. The performance of the methodology is demonstrated by the experimental results from steel, 6061-T6 aluminum, and Ti-6Al-4V plate specimens subjected to fully reversed bending for both uniaxial and biaxial stress states. Furthermore, a technique has been developed to produce residual stress enabling vibration-based fatigue testing at various stress ratios. Additionally, this vibration-based fatigue method has the advantage of being able to produce a fatigue crack in the test specimen while it is still in the initiation stage. In the second area, an optimization procedure has been developed to uniquely and efficiently determine the "best" local geometry design of a new composite ChamberCore structure. This procedure is based on minimization of the total mass of a single composite ChamberCore, subject to a set of design and stress constraints. The stress constraints are obtained in closed-form based on the composite box-beam model for various composite lamination designs and loading conditions. The optimization problem statement is constructed and then solved using the VMCON optimization program. As a supplement to the above sizing/geometry optimization the application of topology optimization to the ChamberCore geometry has been investigated. These two techniques, sizing optimization and topology optimization, provide an avenue for achieving an optimized ChamberCore structure.

George, Thomas Joe, Jr.

390

Advanced Photon Source experimental beamline Safety Assessment Document: Addendum to the Advanced Photon Source Accelerator Systems Safety Assessment Document (APS-3.2.2.1.0)  

SciTech Connect

This Safety Assessment Document (SAD) addresses commissioning and operation of the experimental beamlines at the Advanced Photon Source (APS). Purpose of this document is to identify and describe the hazards associated with commissioning and operation of these beamlines and to document the measures taken to minimize these hazards and mitigate the hazard consequences. The potential hazards associated with the commissioning and operation of the APS facility have been identified and analyzed. Physical and administrative controls mitigate identified hazards. No hazard exists in this facility that has not been previously encountered and successfully mitigated in other accelerator and synchrotron radiation research facilities. This document is an updated version of the APS Preliminary Safety Analysis Report (PSAR). During the review of the PSAR in February 1990, the APS was determined to be a Low Hazard Facility. On June 14, 1993, the Acting Director of the Office of Energy Research endorsed the designation of the APS as a Low Hazard Facility, and this Safety Assessment Document supports that designation.

NONE

1995-01-01

391

Advances in decentralized single-beacon acoustic navigation for underwater vehicles: Theory and simulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports the theory and implementation of a decentralized navigation system that enables simultaneous single-beacon navigation of multiple underwater vehicles. In single-beacon navigation, each vehicle uses ranges from a single, moving reference beacon in addition its own inertial navigation sensors to perform absolute localization and navigation. In this implementation the vehicles perform simultaneous communication and navigation using underwater acoustic

Sarah E. Webster; Louis L. Whitcomb; Ryan M. Eustice

2010-01-01

392

Advanced Components for Electric and Hybrid Electric Vehicles: Proceedings of a workshop  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is a key period in the development of electric and hybrid electric vehicles. The landmark 1990 legislation in California requires that two percent of new automobiles be zero emission vehicles in 1998, rising to 10 percent in the year 2005. This can only be met by electric vehicles. The purpose of the workshop was to concentrate on the technologies

K. L. Stricklett; Alan H. Cookson; R. W. Bartholomew; T. Leedy

1994-01-01

393

Safety and tolerance of sorafenib in Japanese patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  Sorafenib provides a survival benefit for patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, there has been little\\u000a experience with it in Japan. This study evaluated the safety and tolerance of sorafenib in Japanese patients with HCC.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Clinical data for patients given sorafenib for advanced HCC were captured from eight institutions. All patients were classified\\u000a as Child-Pugh A and the treatment

Sadahisa OgasawaraFumihiko; Fumihiko Kanai; Shuntaro Obi; Shinpei Sato; Taketo Yamaguchi; Ryosaku Azemoto; Hideaki Mizumoto; Youhei Koushima; Naoki Morimoto; Nobuto Hirata; Takeshi Toriyabe; Yusuke Shinozaki; Yoshihiko Ooka; Rintaro Mikata; Tetsuhiro Chiba; Shinichiro Okabe; Fumio Imazeki; Masaharu Yoshikawa; Osamu Yokosuka

394

U.S. Department of Energy Vehicle Technologies Program -- Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity -- Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Charging Infrastructure Review  

SciTech Connect

Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) are under evaluation by various stake holders to better understand their capability and potential benefits. PHEVs could allow users to significantly improve fuel economy over a standard HEV and in some cases, depending on daily driving requirements and vehicle design, have the ability to eliminate fuel consumption entirely for daily vehicle trips. The cost associated with providing charge infrastructure for PHEVs, along with the additional costs for the on-board power electronics and added battery requirements associated with PHEV technology will be a key factor in the success of PHEVs. This report analyzes the infrastructure requirements for PHEVs in single family residential, multi-family residential and commercial situations. Costs associated with this infrastructure are tabulated, providing an estimate of the infrastructure costs associated with PHEV deployment.

Kevin Morrow; Donald Darner; James Francfort

2008-11-01

395

1997 hybrid electric vehicle specifications  

SciTech Connect

The US DOE sponsors Advanced Vehicle Technology competitions to help educate the public and advance new vehicle technologies. For several years, DOE has provided financial and technical support for the American Tour de Sol. This event showcases electric and hybrid electric vehicles in a road rally across portions of the northeastern United States. The specifications contained in this technical memorandum apply to vehicles that will be entered in the 1997 American Tour de Sol. However, the specifications were prepared to be general enough for use by other teams and individuals interested in developing hybrid electric vehicles. The purpose of the specifications is to ensure that the vehicles developed do not present a safety hazard to the teams that build and drive them or to the judges, sponsors, or public who attend the competitions. The specifications are by no means the definitive sources of information on constructing hybrid electric vehicles - as electric and hybrid vehicles technologies advance, so will the standards and practices for their construction. In some cases, the new standards and practices will make portions of these specifications obsolete.

Sluder, S.; Larsen, R.; Duoba, M.

1996-10-01

396

Developing a Comprehensive Software Suite for Advanced Reactor Performance and Safety Analysis  

SciTech Connect

This paper provides an introduction to the reactor analysis capabilities of the nuclear power reactor simulation tools that are being developed as part of the U.S. Department of Energy s Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation (NEAMS) Toolkit. The NEAMS Toolkit is an integrated suite of multi-physics simulation tools that leverage high-performance computing to reduce uncertainty in the prediction of performance and safety of advanced reactor and fuel designs. The Toolkit effort is comprised of two major components, the Fuels Product Line (FPL), which provides tools for fuel performance analysis, and the Reactor Product Line (RPL), which provides tools for reactor performance and safety analysis. This paper provides an overview of the NEAMS RPL development effort.

Pointer, William David [ORNL] [ORNL; Bradley, Keith S [ORNL] [ORNL; Fischer, Paul F [ORNL] [ORNL; Smith, Micheal A [ORNL] [ORNL; Tautges, Timothy J [ORNL] [ORNL; Ferencz, Robert M [ORNL] [ORNL; Martineau, Richard C [ORNL] [ORNL; Jain, Rajeev [ORNL] [ORNL; Obabko, Aleksandr [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL)] [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Billings, Jay Jay [ORNL] [ORNL

2013-01-01

397

Using advanced manufacturing to produce unmanned aerial vehicles: a feasibility study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper reports on a feasibility study to explore the impact of advanced manufacturing on the production and maintenance of a 3D printed, unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) in theatre. Specifically, this report focuses on fused deposition modeling (FDM), the selective deposition of a molten thermoplastic. FDM is already a forward deployed technology, primarily used for printing custom tools and replacement parts. The authors ask if it is feasible to expand the printers' capacity to produce aerial platforms; the reduction in logistics and labor could significantly decrease costs per unit and enable far more platform customization and specialized deployment scenarios than are available in existing aircraft. The University of Virginia and The MITRE Corporation designed and built a prototype, 3D printed UAV for use as an aerial sensor platform. This report • Discusses the printed aerial platform, summarizes the design process, and compares printing methods • Describes the benefits and limitations to selecting FDM printers as the technology both for deployment as well as UAV design • Concludes with the current state and future expectations for FDM printing technologies relevant to UAV production. Our findings suggest that although 3D printing is not yet entirely field-ready, many of its advantages can already be realized.

Easter, Steven; Turman, Jonathan; Sheffler, David; Balazs, Michael; Rotner, Jonathan

2013-05-01

398

Recent advances in MRI technology: Implications for image quality and patient safety  

PubMed Central

Recent advances in MRI technology are presented, with emphasis on how this new technology impacts clinical operations (better image quality, faster exam times, and improved throughput). In addition, implications for patient safety are discussed with emphasis on the risk of patient injury due to either high local specific absorption rate (SAR) or large cumulative energy doses delivered during long exam times. Patient comfort issues are examined as well. PMID:23961024

Sobol, Wlad T.

2012-01-01

399

Safety and Activity of Sorafenib in Different Histotypes of Advanced Renal Cell Carcinoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The aim of our study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety in unresectable or advanced renal carcinoma treated with sorafenib, in a situation closely similar to the everyday medical practice. Patients and Methods: One hundred and thirty-six patients have been treated with 400 mg b.i.d. of sorafenib administered orally until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity. They were either

Giuseppe Procopio; Elena Verzoni; Arpine Gevorgyan; Maddalena Mancin; Sara Pusceddu; Laura Catena; Marco Platania; Valentina Guadalupi; Antonia Martinetti; Emilio Bajetta

2007-01-01

400

Safety and Efficacy of Modified FOLFOX6 for Treatment of Metastatic or Locally Advanced Colorectal Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Although a variety of FOLFOX regimens (5-fluorouracil and L-leucovorin combined with oxaliplatin) are widely used for the treatment of advanced colorectal cancer, the neurotoxicity caused by oxaliplatin is often problematic. The aim of this observational study was to assess the safety and efficacy of a modified version of the FOLFOX6 regimen (mFOLFOX6) when administered using the ‘stop-and-go’ strategy. Patients

Shigemi Matsumoto; Takafumi Nishimura; Masashi Kanai; Yukiko Mori; Satoshi Nagayama; Jun’ichiro Kawamura; Akinari Nomura; Shin’ichi Miyamoto; Toshiyuki Kitano; Hiroshi Ishiguro; Kazuhiro Yanagihara; Satoshi Teramukai; Yoshiharu Sakai; Tsutomu Chiba; Masanori Fukushima

2008-01-01

401

Development of a collaborative vehicle collision avoidance system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Advanced systems for driver assistance in combination with new preventive safety systems offer great potential for collision avoidance, reducing accident severity and increasing occupant protection. This paper presents the development and evaluation of a system targeting to vehicle collision avoidance in emergency situations. The proposed system provides the nearby vehicles with information about possible accident involvement. The main feature of

Evdokimos I. Konstantinidis; George I. Patoulidis; Ioannis N. Vandikas; Constantinos Parisses; Nikos Asimopoulos

2010-01-01

402

Safety of a multi-vehicle system in mixed communication environments  

E-print Network

Recent news events and statistics demonstrate the frequent occurrence of pile-up crashes on highways. A predominant reason for the occurrence of such crashes is that current vehicles (including those equipped with an ...

Chakravarthy, Animesh

2007-01-01

403

76 FR 43825 - Launch Safety: Lightning Criteria for Expendable Launch Vehicles  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...and lightning triggered by the flight of an expendable launch vehicle through or near an electrified environment in or near a cloud. These changes also increase launch availability and implement changes already adopted by the United States Air Force....

2011-07-22

404

76 FR 23254 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Lamps, Reflective Devices, and Associated Equipment  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...technical issues: Markus Price, Office of Crash Avoidance Standards (NVS-121), NHTSA...and 15 degrees downward from the vertical plane.'' MIC submitted this petition for rulemaking... 15 degrees of perpendicular to the plane on which the vehicle stands. In...

2011-04-26

405

NWSM 50-1115 OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY  

E-print Network

.................................................................... 8-1 9 COMPRESSED GAS SAFETY ................................................................................................... 31-1 32 MOTOR VEHICLE SAFETY

406

Sipping fuel and saving lives: increasing fuel economy withoutsacrificing safety  

SciTech Connect

The public, automakers, and policymakers have long worried about trade-offs between increased fuel economy in motor vehicles and reduced safety. The conclusion of a broad group of experts on safety and fuel economy in the auto sector is that no trade-off is required. There are a wide variety of technologies and approaches available to advance vehicle fuel economy that have no effect on vehicle safety. Conversely, there are many technologies and approaches available to advance vehicle safety that are not detrimental to vehicle fuel economy. Congress is considering new policies to increase the fuel economy of new automobiles in order to reduce oil dependence and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The findings reported here offer reassurance on an important dimension of that work: It is possible to significantly increase the fuel economy of motor vehicles without compromising their safety. Automobiles on the road today demonstrate that higher fuel economy and greater safety can co-exist. Some of the safest vehicles have higher fuel economy, while some of the least safe vehicles driven today--heavy, large trucks and SUVs--have the lowest fuel economy. At an October 3, 2006 workshop, leading researchers from national laboratories, academia, auto manufacturers, insurance research industry, consumer and environmental groups, material supply industries, and the federal government agreed that vehicles could be designed to simultaneously improve safety and fuel economy. The real question is not whether we can realize this goal, but the best path to get there. The experts' studies reveal important new conclusions about fuel economy and safety, including: (1) Vehicle fuel economy can be increased without affecting safety, and vice versa; (2) Reducing the weight and height of the heaviest SUVs and pickup trucks will simultaneously increase both their fuel economy and overall safety; and (3) Advanced materials can decouple size from mass, creating important new possibilities for increasing both fuel economy and safety without compromising functionality.

Gordon, Deborah; Greene, David L.; Ross, Marc H.; Wenzel, Tom P.

2007-06-11

407

A two stage launch vehicle for use as an advanced space transportation system for logistics support of the space station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report describes the preliminary design specifications for an Advanced Space Transportation System consisting of a fully reusable flyback booster, an intermediate-orbit cargo vehicle, and a shuttle-type orbiter with an enlarged cargo bay. It provides a comprehensive overview of mission profile, aerodynamics, structural design, and cost analyses. These areas are related to the overall feasibility and usefullness of the proposed system.

1987-01-01

408

Advanced Turbine Technology Applications Project (ATTAP) and Hybrid Vehicle Turbine Engine Technology Support project (HVTE-TS): Final summary report  

SciTech Connect

This final technical report was prepared by Rolls-Royce Allison summarizing the multiyear activities of the Advanced Turbine Technology Applications Project (ATTAP) and the Hybrid Vehicle Turbine Engine Technology Support (HVTE-TS) project. The ATTAP program was initiated in October 1987 and continued through 1993 under sponsorship of the US Department of Energy (DOE), Energy Conservation and Renewable Energy, Office of Transportation Technologies, Propulsion Systems, Advanced Propulsion Division. ATTAP was intended to advance the technological readiness of the automotive ceramic gas turbine engine. The target application was the prime power unit coupled to conventional transmissions and powertrains. During the early 1990s, hybrid electric powered automotive propulsion systems became the focus of development and demonstration efforts by the US auto industry and the Department of energy. Thus in 1994, the original ATTAP technology focus was redirected to meet the needs of advanced gas turbine electric generator sets. As a result, the program was restructured to provide the required hybrid vehicle turbine engine technology support and the project renamed HVTE-TS. The overall objective of the combined ATTAP and HVTE-TS projects was to develop and demonstrate structural ceramic components that have the potential for competitive automotive engine life cycle cost and for operating 3,500 hr in an advanced high temperature turbine engine environment. This report describes materials characterization and ceramic component development, ceramic components, hot gasifier rig testing, test-bed engine testing, combustion development, insulation development, and regenerator system development. 130 figs., 12 tabs.

NONE

1998-12-01

409

Galerkin CFD solvers for use in a multi-disciplinary suite for modeling advanced flight vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work extends existing Galerkin CFD solvers for use in a multi-disciplinary suite. The suite is proposed as a means of modeling advanced flight vehicles, which exhibit strong coupling between aerodynamics, structural dynamics, controls, rigid body motion, propulsion, and heat transfer. Such applications include aeroelastics, aeroacoustics, stability and control, and other highly coupled applications. The suite uses NASA STARS for modeling structural dynamics and heat transfer. Aerodynamics, propulsion, and rigid body dynamics are modeled in one of the five CFD solvers below. Euler2D and Euler3D are Galerkin CFD solvers created at OSU by Cowan (2003). These solvers are capable of modeling compressible inviscid aerodynamics with modal elastics and rigid body motion. This work reorganized these solvers to improve efficiency during editing and at run time. Simple and efficient propulsion models were added, including rocket, turbojet, and scramjet engines. Viscous terms were added to the previous solvers to create NS2D and NS3D. The viscous contributions were demonstrated in the inertial and non-inertial frames. Variable viscosity (Sutherland's equation) and heat transfer boundary conditions were added to both solvers but not verified in this work. Two turbulence models were implemented in NS2D and NS3D: Spalart-Allmarus (SA) model of Deck, et al. (2002) and Menter's SST model (1994). A rotation correction term (Shur, et al., 2000) was added to the production of turbulence. Local time stepping and artificial dissipation were adapted to each model. CFDsol is a Taylor-Galerkin solver with an SA turbulence model. This work improved the time accuracy, far field stability, viscous terms, Sutherland?s equation, and SA model with NS3D as a guideline and added the propulsion models from Euler3D to CFDsol. Simple geometries were demonstrated to utilize current meshing and processing capabilities. Air-breathing hypersonic flight vehicles (AHFVs) represent the ultimate application of the suite. The current models are accurate at low supersonic speed and reasonable for engineering approximation at hypersonic speeds. Improvements to extend the models fully into the hypersonic regime are given in the Recommendations section.

Moffitt, Nicholas J.

410

Report of the Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) safety workshop, Knoxville, Tennessee, October 25--26, 1988  

SciTech Connect

On October 25--26, 1988, about 60 people took part in an Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) Safety Workshop, organized in cooperation with the Oak Ridge Operations (ORO) Office of the Department of Energy (DOE) and held in Knoxville, Tennessee. After a plenary session at which ANS Project staff presented status reports on the ANS design, research and development (R and D), and safety analysis efforts, the workshop broke into three working groups, each covering a different topic: Environmental and Waste Management, Applicable Regulatory Safety Criteria and Goals, and Reactor Concepts. Each group was asked to review the Project's approach to safety-related issues and to provide guidance on future reactor safety needs or directions for the Project. With the help of able chairmen, assisted by reporters and secretarial support, the working groups were extremely successful. Draft reports from each group were prepared before the workshop closed, and the major findings of each group were presented for review and discussion by the entire workshop attendance. This report contains the final version of the group reports, incorporating the results of the overall review by all the workshop participants.

Buchanan, J.R.; Dumont, J.N.; Kendrick, C.M.; Row, T.H.; Thompson, P.B.; West, C.D.; Marchaterre, J.F.; Muhlheim, M.D.; McBee, M.R. (comp.)

1988-12-01

411

Worldwide advanced nuclear power reactors with passive and inherent safety: What, why, how, and who  

SciTech Connect

The political controversy over nuclear power, the accidents at Three Mile Island (TMI) and Chernobyl, international competition, concerns about the carbon dioxide greenhouse effect and technical breakthroughs have resulted in a segment of the nuclear industry examining power reactor concepts with PRIME safety characteristics. PRIME is an acronym for Passive safety, Resilience, Inherent safety, Malevolence resistance, and Extended time after initiation of an accident for external help. The basic ideal of PRIME is to develop power reactors in which operator error, internal sabotage, or external assault do not cause a significant release of radioactivity to the environment. Several PRIME reactor concepts are being considered. In each case, an existing, proven power reactor technology is combined with radical innovations in selected plant components and in the safety philosophy. The Process Inherent Ultimate Safety (PIUS) reactor is a modified pressurized-water reactor, the Modular High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (MHTGR) is a modified gas-cooled reactor, and the Advanced CANDU Project is a modified heavy-water reactor. In addition to the reactor concepts, there is parallel work on super containments. The objective is the development of a passive box'' that can contain radioactivity in the event of any type of accident. This report briefly examines: why a segment of the nuclear power community is taking this new direction, how it differs from earlier directions, and what technical options are being considered. A more detailed description of which countries and reactor vendors have undertaken activities follows. 41 refs.

Forsberg, C.W.; Reich, W.J.

1991-09-01

412

An Integrated Network of Roadside Sensors and Vehicles for Driving Safety: Concept, Design and Experiments  

E-print Network

--One major goal of the vehicular ad hoc net- work (VANET) is to improve driving safety. However, the VANET safety. Towards addressing the problem, we propose to integrate the VANET with the inexpensive wireless or connectivity of the VANET. Along with the concept of VANET-WSN integration, new challenges arise and should

Wang, Guiling

413

Collision safety of a hard-shell low-mass vehicle  

SciTech Connect

Low-mass vehicles and in particular low-mass electric vehicles as produced today in very small quantities are in general not designed for crashworthiness in collisions. Particular problems of compact low-mass cars are: reduced length of the car front, low mass compared to other vehicles, and heavy batteries in the case of an electric car. With the intention of studying design improvements, three frontal crash tests were run last year: the first one with a commercial, lightweight electric car; the second with a reinforced version of the same car; and the last one with a car based on a different structural design with a `hard-shell` car body. Crash tests showed that the latter solution made better use of the small zone available for continuous energy absorption. The paper discusses further the problem of frontal collisions between vehicles of different weight and, in particular, the side collision. A side-collision test was run with the hard-shell vehicle following the ECE lateral-impact test procedure at 50 km/h and led to results for the EuroSIDI-dummy well below current injury tolerance criteria.

Kaeser, R.; Walz, F.H.; Brunner, A.

1994-06-01

414

Overview of the Safety Issues Associated with the Compressed Natural Gas Fuel System and Electric Drive System in a Heavy Hybrid Electric Vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report evaluates the hazards that are unique to a compressed-natural-gas (CNG)-fueled heavy hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) design compared with a conventional heavy vehicle. The unique design features of the heavy HEV are the CNG fuel system for the internal-combustion engine (ICE) and the electric drive system. This report addresses safety issues with the CNG fuel system and the electric

Samuel C. Nelson

2002-01-01

415

Deterministic and risk-informed approaches for safety analysis of advanced reactors: Part II, Risk-informed approaches  

Microsoft Academic Search

Technical insights and findings from a critical review of deterministic approaches typically applied to ensure design safety of nuclear power plants were presented in the companion paper of Part I included in this issue. In this paper we discuss the risk-informed approaches that have been proposed to make a safety case for advanced reactors including Generation-IV reactors such as Modular

Inn Seock Kim; Sang Kyu Ahn; Kyu Myung Oh

2010-01-01

416

All-Terrain Vehicle Safety. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Commerce, Consumer Protection, and Competitiveness of the Committee on Energy and Commerce. House of Representatives, One Hundredth Congress. Second Session on H.R. 3991.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Witnesses testified on the merits of the All Terrain Vehicle (ATV) User Safety and Equity Act, a bill that would declare three-wheel ATVs to be banned as hazardous products under the Consumer Product Safety Act, and would direct the Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) to promulgate consumer product safety rules for ATVs. This act prohibits…

Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Energy and Commerce.

417

78 FR 68748 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Designated Seating Positions  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...AAJ), Safety Research and Strategies (SRS), Toyota Motor North America (Toyota), Mitsubishi Motors R&D of America (Mitsubishi), and Public Citizen.\\2\\ Toyota also expressed its support for the...

2013-11-15

418

76 FR 17808 - Final Vehicle Safety Rulemaking and Research Priority Plan 2011-2013  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Economy Rulemaking and Research Priority Plan 2011-2013...anticipate that the research will be done by the...Safety Rulemaking and Research Priority Plan 2011-2013...instructions, or visit Docket Management Facility at U.S....

2011-03-31

419

Consolidated Advanced Technologies for Law Enforcement Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Consolidated Advanced Technologies for Law Enforcement Program (CAT Program) is a collaborative effort between the University of New Hampshire and the New Hampshire Department of Safety. The program addresses related problems in the integration of electronic devices within police vehicles, and in the network communications integrating vehicles and law enforcement agencies, all of which impact the ability to seamlessly

W. Thomas Miller; Andrew L. Kun; William H. Lenharth

2004-01-01

420

The Institute for Advanced Vehicle Systems (IAVS), part of the College of Engineering and Computer  

E-print Network

with vehicles such as the Toyota Echo and the Ford Focus but with 30% less mass. In addition, the LMV will match-mass vehicle is approxi- mately 10 inches longer than the Toyota to maxi- mize the occupant space is comparable to the Toyota Yaris hatch- back. Luggage space would be equivalent to the Toyota Echo through

Lu, Yi

421

Advanced gear-shifting and clutching strategy for a parallel-hybrid vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

In parallel-hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), both the electric drive and the internal combustion engine provide driving torque to the wheels either separately or together. The electric drive also can be used as a generator to recharge the batteries when the engine produces more power than is needed to propel the vehicle. As a result of the battery peak power density

Hyeoun-Dong Lee; Seung-Ki Sul; Han-Sang Cho; Jang-Moo Lee

2000-01-01

422

Teaching Advanced Vehicle Dynamics Using a Project Based Learning (PBL) Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents an interesting teaching experiment carried out at XXX University. The author offered a new course in computational/analytical vehicle dynamics to senior undergraduate students, graduate students and practicing engineers. The objective of the course was to present vehicle dynamics theory with practical applications using…

Redkar, Sangram

2012-01-01

423

What Every Technician Must Know: Safety First with Hybrid & Electric Vehicles  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page provides a 2011 presentation on hybrid and electric vehicle technology program by Scott Rill and Janna Oakes of Arapahoe Community College, for ATEEC/CSM's Sustainable Energy Education and Training (SEET) Technology Workshop for high school and community college energy technology instructors. This resource is free to download. Users must first create a login with ATEEC's website to access the file.

Oakes, Janna

424

76 FR 53648 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards: Occupant Crash Protection  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...manufacturers to install Lower Anchors and Tethers for Children (LATCH) \\5\\ systems in...comprised of two lower anchorages and one top tether anchorage. Each lower anchorage includes...vehicle seat cushion and seat back. The top tether anchorage is a fixture to which the...

2011-08-29

425

72 FR 68442 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Cargo Carrying Capacity  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...recreation vehicle trailers be the same as the size of the tires listed on the tire information...we also proposed to require that the size of the tires that are on motor homes and...label for inflation pressures. If the size of the tire on the label and the size of...

2007-12-04

426

49 CFR 575.301 - Vehicle Labeling of Safety Rating Information.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...section. (2) The label must depict the star ratings for that vehicle as reported to...Rated” or “To Be Rated,” the star graphic indicating each rating, as...and symbols on the label (including the star graphic specified in paragraph...

2010-10-01

427

76 FR 48009 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Lamps, Reflective Devices, and Associated Equipment  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...interpreted as allowing a multiple lighted section lamp that is part of a multiple lamp arrangement, such as a light-emitting diode (LED) lamp, that is mounted on the fixed portion of the vehicle to comply only with the single lighted...

2011-08-08

428

78 FR 54209 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Lamps, Reflective Devices, and Associated Equipment  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...mounted at an angle 15 degrees of a plane perpendicular to that on which the vehicle...degrees upward and 15 degrees downward of a plane perpendicular to that on which the...an angle of less than 8 degrees to the plane of the plate. SAE J587 APR 1997...

2013-09-03

429

76 FR 23255 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Lamps, Reflective Devices, and Associated Equipment  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...design license plate holders so that the plane surface of a license plate in the holder...within 15[deg] of perpendicular to the plane surface on which the vehicle stands. Paragraph...paragraph 6.1 that ``the angle between the plane of the license plate and the plane on...

2011-04-26

430

Developing safety critical software for an unmanned aerial vehicle situational awareness tool  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we describe our application of the SPARK programming language to the development of flight control software for an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV). The SPARK language was used during a senior-level software engineering course at the US Air Force Academy. This paper uses the year-long project from this course as an example application of SPARK. The process we

Ricky E. Sward; Mark Gerken

2006-01-01

431

Accounting for the Variation of Driver Aggression in the Simulation of Conventional and Advanced Vehicles  

SciTech Connect

Hybrid electric vehicles, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, and battery electric vehicles offer the potential to reduce both oil imports and greenhouse gases, as well as to offer a financial benefit to the driver. However, assessing these potential benefits is complicated by several factors, including the driving habits of the operator. We focus on driver aggression, i.e., the level of acceleration and velocity characteristic of travel, to (1) assess its variation within large, real-world drive datasets, (2) quantify its effect on both vehicle efficiency and economics for multiple vehicle types, (3) compare these results to those of standard drive cycles commonly used in the industry, and (4) create a representative drive cycle for future analyses where standard drive cycles are lacking.

Neubauer, J.; Wood, E.

2013-01-01

432

Accounting for the Variation of Driver Aggression in the Simulation of Conventional and Advanced Vehicles: Preprint  

SciTech Connect

Hybrid electric vehicles, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, and battery electric vehicles offer the potential to reduce both oil imports and greenhouse gases, as well as to offer a financial benefit to the driver. However, assessing these potential benefits is complicated by several factors, including the driving habits of the operator. We focus on driver aggression, i.e., the level of acceleration and velocity characteristic of travel, to (1) assess its variation within large, real-world drive datasets, (2) quantify its effect on both vehicle efficiency and economics for multiple vehicle types, (3) compare these results to those of standard drive cycles commonly used in the industry, and (4) create a representative drive cycle for future analyses where standard drive cycles are lacking.

Neubauer, J.; Wood, E.

2013-03-01

433

Mechanical design of a missteered beam safety monitor at the Advanced Photon Source  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A missteered beam safety monitor (MBSM) has been designed to protect the accelerator ring of the Advanced Photon Source against incursions of the missteered synchrotron radiation. When the orbit of the particle beam in the accelerator shifts out of its safety limits, the photon beam from the bending magnet will pass through the square apertures on the cooled mask of the MBSM and will heat up a very thin tungsten wire (0.025 mm in diameter) behind the mask. Acting as a resistance thermometer, the electrical resistance of the tungsten wire increases proportionally with temperature rise. As soon as the electrical resistance of the tungsten wire reaches a preset point, a signal is triggered immediately to dump the particle beam in the accelerator. The tungsten wire is inclined to the photon beam at 4.5 degrees in the vertical direction to prevent it from being overheated by the high power photon beam. Detailed mechanical design and thermal analysis are presented.

Chang, J.; Shu, D.; Decker, G.; Nian, T.; Kuzay, T. M.; Lumpkin, A.; Wang, X.

1996-09-01

434

Updating United States Advanced Battery Consortium and Department of Energy battery technology targets for battery electric vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Battery electric vehicles (BEVs) offer significant potential to reduce the nation's consumption of petroleum based products and the production of greenhouse gases however, their widespread adoption is limited largely by the cost and performance limitations of modern batteries. With recent growth in efforts to accelerate BEV adoption (e.g. the Department of Energy's (DOE) EV Everywhere Grand Challenge) and the age of existing BEV battery technology targets, there is sufficient motivation to re-evaluate the industry's technology targets for battery performance and cost. Herein we document the analysis process that supported the selection of the United States Advanced Battery Consortium's (USABC) updated BEV battery technology targets. Our technology agnostic approach identifies the necessary battery performance characteristics that will enable the vehicle level performance required for a commercially successful, mass market full BEV, as guided by the workgroup's OEM members. The result is an aggressive target, implying that batteries need to advance considerably before BEVs can be both cost and performance competitive with existing petroleum powered vehicles.

Neubauer, Jeremy; Pesaran, Ahmad; Bae, Chulheung; Elder, Ron; Cunningham, Brian

2014-12-01

435

Advanced transportation system studies technical area 2 (TA-2): Heavy lift launch vehicle development. volume 3; Program Cost estimates  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of the TA-2 contract was to provide advanced launch vehicle concept definition and analysis to assist NASA in the identification of future launch vehicle requirements. Contracted analysis activities included vehicle sizing and performance analysis, subsystem concept definition, propulsion subsystem definition (foreign and domestic), ground operations and facilities analysis, and life cycle cost estimation. The basic period of performance of the TA-2 contract was from May 1992 through May 1993. No-cost extensions were exercised on the contract from June 1993 through July 1995. This document is part of the final report for the TA-2 contract. The final report consists of three volumes: Volume 1 is the Executive Summary, Volume 2 is Technical Results, and Volume 3 is Program Cost Estimates. The document-at-hand, Volume 3, provides a work breakdown structure dictionary, user's guide for the parametric life cycle cost estimation tool, and final report developed by ECON, Inc., under subcontract to Lockheed Martin on TA-2 for the analysis of heavy lift launch vehicle concepts.

McCurry, J. B.

1995-01-01

436

Efficient, High-Torque Electric Vehicle Motor: Advanced Electric Vehicle Motors with Low or No Rare Earth Content  

SciTech Connect

REACT Project: QM Power will develop a new type of electric motor with the potential to efficiently power future generations of EVs without the use of rare-earth-based magnets. Many of today’s EV motors use rare earth magnets to efficiently provide torque to the wheels. QM Power’s motors would contain magnets that use no rare earth minerals, are light and compact, and can deliver more power with greater efficiency and at reduced cost. Key innovations in this project include a new motor design with iron-based magnetic materials, a new motor control technique, and advanced manufacturing techniques that substantially reduce the cost of the motor. The ultimate goal of this project is to create a cost-effective EV motor that offers the rough peak equivalent of 270 horsepower.

None

2012-01-01

437

Safety in numbers: target prevalence affects the detection of vehicles during simulated driving.  

PubMed

The "low-prevalence effect" refers to the fact that observers often fail to detect rare targets (<5 % prevalence) during visual search tasks. Previous research has demonstrated robust prevalence effects in real-world tasks that employ static images, such as airport luggage screening. No published research has examined prevalence effects in dynamic tasks, such as driving. We conducted a driving simulator experiment to investigate whether target prevalence effects influence the detection of other vehicles while driving. The target vehicles were motorcycles and buses, with prevalence being manipulated both within and between subjects: Half of the subjects experienced a high prevalence of motorcycles with a low prevalence of buses, and half experienced a high prevalence of buses with a low prevalence of motorcycles. Consistent with our hypotheses, drivers detected high-prevalence targets faster than low-prevalence targets for both vehicle types. Overall, our results support the notion that increasing the prevalence of visual search targets makes them more salient, and consequently easier to detect. PMID:24464593

Beanland, Vanessa; Lenné, Michael G; Underwood, Geoffrey

2014-04-01

438

Development of Production-Intent Plug-In Hybrid Vehicle Using Advanced Lithium-Ion Battery Packs with Deployment to a Demonstration Fleet  

SciTech Connect

The primary goal of this project was to speed the development of one of the first commercially available, OEM-produced plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV). The performance of the PHEV was expected to double the fuel economy of the conventional hybrid version. This vehicle program incorporated a number of advanced technologies, including advanced lithium-ion battery packs and an E85-capable flex-fuel engine. The project developed, fully integrated, and validated plug-in specific systems and controls by using GM’s Global Vehicle Development Process (GVDP) for production vehicles. Engineering Development related activities included the build of mule vehicles and integration vehicles for Phases I & II of the project. Performance data for these vehicles was shared with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The deployment of many of these vehicles was restricted to internal use at GM sites or restricted to assigned GM drivers. Phase III of the project captured the first half or Alpha phase of the Engineering tasks for the development of a new thermal management design for a second generation battery module. The project spanned five years. It included six on-site technical reviews with representatives from the DOE. One unique aspect of the GM/DOE collaborative project was the involvement of the DOE throughout the OEM vehicle development process. The DOE gained an understanding of how an OEM develops vehicle efficiency and FE performance, while balancing many other vehicle performance attributes to provide customers well balanced and fuel efficient vehicles that are exciting to drive. Many vehicle content and performance trade-offs were encountered throughout the vehicle development process to achieve product cost and performance targets for both the OEM and end customer. The project team completed two sets of PHEV development vehicles with fully integrated PHEV systems. Over 50 development vehicles were built and operated for over 180,000 development miles. The team also completed four GM engineering development Buy-Off rides/milestones. The project included numerous engineering vehicle and systems development trips including extreme hot, cold and altitude exposure. The final fuel economy performance demonstrated met the objectives of the PHEV collaborative GM/DOE project. Charge depletion fuel economy of twice that of the non-PHEV model was demonstrated. The project team also designed, developed and tested a high voltage battery module concept that appears to be feasible from a manufacturability, cost and performance standpoint. The project provided important product development and knowledge as well as technological learnings and advancements that include multiple U.S. patent applications.

No, author

2013-09-29

439

The Eyeball ROV : an underwater Remotely Operated Vehicle featuring advances in rotational actuation, communication, and localization  

E-print Network

The design for a spherical Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV) with a camera, called the Eyeball ROV due to motions similar to the human eye, is presented in this thesis. The ROV features an actuation scheme that utilizes a ...

Rust, Ian Charles

2011-01-01

440

KELVIN: A Second Generation Land Vehicle 2002 Florida Conference on Recent Advances in Robotics  

E-print Network

-magnetic braking system. Kelvin has all of the features of an on-road vehicle including signal lights, brake lights steel bars. Sheet metal is used to line the underside and the otherwise open areas of the frame

Schwartz, Eric M.

441

An approach to optimal guidance of an advanced launch vehicle concept  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An approximate solution for the maximum payload trajectory of a two-stage launch vehicle using a regular perturbation technique is presented. A zero-order solution for a two-stage vehicle based on a flat-earth approximation and negligible atmospheric effects is obtained in closed form. High-order correction terms are obtained from the solution of nonhomogeneous, first-order linear differential equations by quadrature. This promises the capability for an onboard optimal guidance law implementation.

Leung, Martin S.; Calise, Anthony J.

1990-01-01

442

Advances in Electric Drive Vehicle Modeling with Subsequent Experimentation and Analysis  

E-print Network

concerns as well that must be well developed and tested before full-deployment. While electric vehicle onboard energy sources are the primary concern with electric drive vehicles, the energy distribution lines are also at the forefront of the alternative... to neglect the linear acceleration force. Moreover, researchers often neglect the efficiency of these elements along with losses such as transmission friction and brake drag due to their relatively small magnitudes and measurement difficulty [2...

Hausmann, Austin Joseph

2012-08-31

443

Importance of the Natural Terrestrial Environment with Regard to Advanced Launch Vehicle Design and Development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The terrestrial environment is an important forcing function in the design and development of the launch vehicle. The scope of the terrestrial environment includes the following phenomena: Winds; Atmospheric Thermodynamic Models and Properties; Thermal Radiation; U.S. and World Surface Environment Extremes; Humidity; Precipitation, Fog, and Icing; Cloud Characteristics and Cloud Cover Models; Atmospheric Electricity; Atmospheric Constituents; Vehicle Engine Exhaust and Toxic Chemical Release; Occurrences of Tornadoes and Hurricanes; Geological Hazards, and Sea States. One must remember that the flight profile of any launch vehicle is in the terrestrial environment. Terrestrial environment definitions are usually limited to information below 90 km. Thus, a launch vehicle's operations will always be influenced to some degree by the terrestrial environment with which it interacts. As a result, the definition of the terrestrial environment and its interpretation is one of the key launch vehicle design and development inputs. This definition is a significant role, for example, in the areas of structures, control systems, trajectory shaping (performance), aerodynamic heating and take off/landing capabilities. The launch vehicle's capabilities which result from the design, in turn, determines the constraints and flight opportunities for tests and operations.

Pearson, S. D.; Vaughan, W. W.; Batts, G. W.; Jasper, G. L.

1996-01-01

444

76 FR 49532 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Electronic Stability Control; Technical Report on the...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Electronic Stability Control Systems for Cars and LTVs AGENCY: National Highway Traffic...stability control (ESC) for passenger cars and LTVs (light trucks and vans). Safety...involved in a fatal crash. For passenger cars, the reductions are 5 percent and 23...

2011-08-10

445

77 FR 53199 - California State Motor Vehicle Pollution Control Standards; Advanced Clean Car Program; Request...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Pollution Control Standards; Advanced Clean Car Program; Request for Waiver of Preemption...that it has developed an Advanced Clean Car program (ACC) which combines the control...coordinated package of requirements for passenger cars, light-duty trucks and...

2012-08-31

446

Vehicle localisation using a single camera  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lots of rear end collisions due to driver inattention have been identified as a major automotive safety issue. A short advance warning can reduce the number and severity of the rear end collisions. This paper describes a Forward Collision Warning (FCW) system based on monocular vision, and presents a new vehicle detection method: appearance-based hypothesis generation, template tracking-based hypothesis verification

Jianzhu Cui; Fuqiang Liu; Zhipeng Li; Zhen Jia

2010-01-01

447

Real time lane detection for autonomous vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

An increasing safety and reducing road accidents, thereby saving lives are one of great interest in the context of Advanced Driver Assistance Systems. Apparently, among the complex and challenging tasks of future road vehicles is road lane detection or road boundaries detection. It is based on lane detection (which includes the localization of the road, the determination of the relative

A. A. M. Assidiq; O. O. Khalifa; R. Islam; S. Khan

2008-01-01

448

Design and Transient Analysis of Passive Safety Cooling Systems for Advanced Nuclear Reactors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Pebble Bed Advanced High Temperature Reactor (PB-AHTR) is a pebble fueled, liquid salt cooled, high temperature nuclear reactor design that can be used for electricity generation or other applications requiring the availability of heat at elevated temperatures. A stage in the design evolution of this plant requires the analysis of the plant during a variety of potential transients to understand the primary and safety cooling system response. This study focuses on the performance of the passive safety cooling system with a dual purpose, to assess the capacity to maintain the core at safe temperatures and to assist the design process of this system to achieve this objective. The analysis requires the use of complex computational tools for simulation and verification using analytical solutions and comparisons with experimental data. This investigation builds upon previous detailed design work for the PB-AHTR components, including the core, reactivity control mechanisms and the intermediate heat exchanger, developed in 2008. In addition the study of this reference plant design employs a wealth of auxiliary information including thermal-hydraulic physical phenomena correlations for multiple geometries and thermophysical properties for the constituents of the plant. Finally, the set of performance requirements and limitations imposed from physical constrains and safety considerations provide with a criteria and metrics for acceptability of the design. The passive safety cooling system concept is turned into a detailed design as a result from this study. A methodology for the design of air-cooled passive safety systems was developed and a transient analysis of the plant, evaluating a scrammed loss of forced cooling event was performed. Furthermore, a design optimization study of the passive safety system and an approach for the validation and verification of the analysis is presented. This study demonstrates that the resulting point design responds properly to the transient event and maintains the core and reactor components at acceptable temperatures within allowable safety margins. It is also demonstrated that the transition from steady full-power, forced-cooling mode to steady decay-heat, natural-circulation mode is stable, predictable and well characterized.

Galvez, Cristhian

2011-12-01

449

30 Hour OSHA General Industry Safety Certification Program Geared Towards Advanced Energy Manufacturing  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The following course was created by Grand Rapids Community College (GRCC), through seed funding from the CAAT, to train workers for entry level positions in the advanced energy manufacturing industry. The course is designed around OSHA’s “Standards for General Industry” and if taught by an authorized General Industry Outreach Training Program Instructor, students should receive an OSHA General Industry 30-hour Safety certification. Instructional materials include PowerPoint presentations, instructor notes, OSHA instructor and student manuals (handouts/assignments), and lesson objectives. All lessons are intended to be taught through PowerPoint presentations with guidance from the included lesson objectives and notes for instructors. The included PowerPoints are original OSHA presentations modified by GRCC and originals created by GRCC. The lesson topics are: Introduction to OSHA Safety and Health Programs, Hazard Mapping, Personal Protective Equipment, Exit Routes and Emergency Action Plans, Fire Protection and Prevention, Electrical Hazards, Ergonomics and Manual Material Handling, Walking and Working Surfaces, Industrial Hygiene, Flammable and Combustible Liquids  Hazard Communication Exit Routes and Emergency Action Plans, Fire Protection and Prevention, First Aid and CPR, Hand and Power Tool Safety, Machine Guarding, and Control of Hazardous Energy (Lockout/Tag-out). For more information on the course visit https://learning.grcc.edu/ec2k/CourseListing.asp?master_id=777&course_area=CEMF&course_number=102&course_subtitle=00.

2013-04-11

450

Accounting for the Variation of Driver Aggression in the Simulation of Conventional and Advanced Vehicles (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect

This presentation discusses a method of accounting for realistic levels of driver aggression to higher-level vehicle studies, including the impact of variation in real-world driving characteristics (acceleration and speed) on vehicle energy consumption and different powertrains (e.g., conventionally powered vehicles versus electrified drive vehicles [xEVs]). Aggression variation between drivers can increase fuel consumption by more than 50% or decrease it by more than 20% from average. The normalized fuel consumption deviation from average as a function of population percentile was found to be largely insensitive to powertrain. However, the traits of ideal driving behavior are a function of powertrain. In conventional vehicles, kinetic losses dominate rolling resistance and aerodynamic losses. In xEVs with regenerative braking, rolling resistance and aerodynamic losses dominate. The relation of fuel consumption predicted from real-world drive data to that predicted by the industry-standard HWFET, UDDS, LA92, and US06 drive cycles was not consistent across powertrains, and varied broadly from the mean, median, and mode of real-world driving. A drive cycle synthesized by NREL's DRIVE tool accurately and consistently reproduces average real-world for multiple powertrains within 1%, and can be used to calculate the fuel consumption effects of varying levels of driver aggression.

Neubauer, J.; Wood, E.

2013-05-01

451

Shock and vibration data acquisition system for off-road vehicle operator health and safety assessment.  

PubMed

A data acquisition software and hardware system was developed for acquiring geo-referenced shock and vibration data using National Instruments' LabView graphical programming language. This was used in conjunction with a modular data acquisition and signal conditioning system and a Differential Global Positioning System (DGPS) receiver. A prototype vehicle obstacle course, which introduced spatially varying shock events to vehicles as they traversed the course, was constructed. Obstacles consisted of both repetitious and single discrete events. A series of investigations was conducted on the obstacle course to evaluate the performance and characteristics of the DAQ system and the tractor when exposed to shock and vibration events. Spectral and time domain plots obtained from the geo-referenced data acquisition system (GDAQ) system under static, highway, and off-road obstacle course conditions were evaluated to demonstrate that the system performed as expected. The migration of experiments from laboratory to field gave confidence that this system could be used to collect shock and vibration data over a wide range of frequencies. The use of geo-referenced data records proved beneficial in isolating and extracting data segments of interest from a continuous data record. PMID:17131950

Balasubramanian, K; Burks, T F; Lehtola, C J; Lee, W S

2006-11-01

452

Vehicle System Dynamics Vol. 46, Supplement, 2008, 315  

E-print Network

-impact vehicle dynamics and the development of enhanced vehicle safety systems. Keywords: vehicle collision model; 4-DOF vehicle dynamics model; post-impact vehicle states 1. Introduction Vehicle collision mechanics

Peng, Huei

453

77 FR 46677 - Vehicle Certification; Contents of Certification Labels  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...motorcycles, and low-speed vehicles (those vehicle types not identified by...Requirements for Motor Vehicles (Except the Vehicle Identification Number...Part 567 Labeling, Motor vehicle safety, Motor vehicles. In consideration...

2012-08-06

454

Technology assessments of advanced energy storage systems for electric and hybrid vehicles  

SciTech Connect

Flywheels, hydropneumatic accumulators (in vehicles with a hydrostatic powertrain), and superconducting magnets were assessed as candidate technologies for recovering braking energy and averaging power demands in electric and hybrid vehicles. The technologies were also assessed for their suitability for fulfilling the entire energy storage requirement in vehicles. The scope of the technology assessments included the current state-of-the-art and developments anticipated within the next few years in the US and abroad. Key individuals and companies currently working on each technology contributed technical information to the study. Some of these individuals and companies are nearing the pre-production prototype stage with systems suitable for automobiles. Several have constructed systems using similar technology for other applications, including satellites and industrial equipment.

Not Available

1993-04-30

455

Technology assessments of advanced energy storage systems for electric and hybrid vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Flywheels, hydropneumatic accumulators (in vehicles with a hydrostatic powertrain), and superconducting magnets were assessed as candidate technologies for recovering braking energy and averaging power demands in electric and hybrid vehicles. The technologies were also assessed for their suitability for fulfilling the entire energy storage requirement in vehicles. The scope of the technology assessments included the current state-of-the-art and developments anticipated within the next few years in the US and abroad. Key individuals and companies currently working on each technology contributed technical information to the study. Some of these individuals and companies are nearing the pre-production prototype stage with systems suitable for automobiles. Several have constructed systems using similar technology for other applications, including satellites and industrial equipment.

1993-04-01

456

Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program Risk Informed Safety Margin Characterization (RISMC) Advanced Test Reactor Demonstration Case Study  

SciTech Connect

Safety is central to the design, licensing, operation, and economics of Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs). Consequently, the ability to better characterize and quantify safety margin holds the key to improved decision making about LWR design, operation, and plant life extension. A systematic approach to characterization of safety margins and the subsequent margins management options represents a vital input to the licensee and regulatory analysis and decision making that will be involved. The purpose of the RISMC Pathway R&D is to support plant decisions for risk-informed margins management with the aim to improve economics, reliability, and sustain safety of current NPPs. Goals of the RISMC Pathway are twofold: (1) Develop and demonstrate a risk-assessment method coupled to safety margin quantification that can be used by NPP decision makers as part of their margin recovery strategies. (2) Create an advanced “RISMC toolkit” that enables more accurate representation of NPP safety margin. This report describes the RISMC methodology demonstration where the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) was used as a test-bed for purposes of determining safety margins. As part of the demonstration, we describe how both the thermal-hydraulics and probabilistic safety calculations are integrated and used to quantify margin management strategies.

Curtis Smith; David Schwieder; Cherie Phelan; Anh Bui; Paul Bayless

2012-08-01

457

49 CFR 1.95 - Delegations to the National Highway Traffic Safety Administrator.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...dispenser requirements; and (10) Section 248(a) [42 U.S.C. 17054(a)], relating to biofuels distribution and advanced biofuels infrastructure. (k) Carry out the functions and exercise the motor vehicle safety authority...

2014-10-01

458

49 CFR 1.95 - Delegations to the National Highway Traffic Safety Administrator.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...dispenser requirements; and (10) Section 248(a) [42 U.S.C. 17054(a)], relating to biofuels distribution and advanced biofuels infrastructure. (k) Carry out the functions and exercise the motor vehicle safety authority...

2012-10-01

459

49 CFR 1.95 - Delegations to the National Highway Traffic Safety Administrator.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...dispenser requirements; and (10) Section 248(a) [42 U.S.C. 17054(a)], relating to biofuels distribution and advanced biofuels infrastructure. (k) Carry out the functions and exercise the motor vehicle safety authority...

2013-10-01

460

Overview of the Safety Issues Associated with the Compressed Natural Gas Fuel System and Electric Drive System in a Heavy Hybrid Electric Vehicle  

SciTech Connect

This report evaluates the hazards that are unique to a compressed-natural-gas (CNG)-fueled heavy hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) design compared with a conventional heavy vehicle. The unique design features of the heavy HEV are the CNG fuel system for the internal-combustion engine (ICE) and the electric drive system. This report addresses safety issues with the CNG fuel system and the electric drive system. Vehicles on U. S. highways have been propelled by ICEs for several decades. Heavy-duty vehicles have typically been fueled by diesel fuel, and light-duty vehicles have been fueled by gasoline. The hazards and risks posed by ICE vehicles are well understood and have been generally accepted by the public. The economy, durability, and safety of ICE vehicles have established a standard for other types of vehicles. Heavy-duty (i.e., heavy) HEVs have recently been introduced to U. S. roadways, and the hazards posed by these heavy HEVs can be compared with the hazards posed by ICE vehicles. The benefits of heavy HEV technology are based on their potential for reduced fuel consumption and lower exhaust emissions, while the disadvantages are the higher acquisition cost and the expected higher maintenance costs (i.e., battery packs). The heavy HEV is more suited for an urban drive cycle with stop-and-go driving conditions than for steady expressway speeds. With increasing highway congestion and the resulting increased idle time, the fuel consumption advantage for heavy HEVs (compared with conventional heavy vehicles) is enhanced by the HEVs' ability to shut down. Any increase in fuel cost obviously improves the economics of a heavy HEV. The propulsion system for a heavy HEV is more complex than the propulsion system for a conventional heavy vehicle. The heavy HEV evaluated in this study has in effect two propulsion systems: an ICE fueled by CNG and an electric drive system with additional complexity and failure modes. This additional equipment will result in a less reliable vehicle with a lower availability than a conventional heavy vehicle. Experience with heavy HEVs to date supports this observation. The key safety concern for the electric drive system is the higher voltages and currents that are required in the electric drive system. Faults that could expose personnel to these electric hazards must be considered, addressed, and minimized. The key issue for the CNG-fueled ICE is containment of the high-pressure natural gas. Events that can result in a release of natural gas with the possibility of subsequent ignition are of concern. These safety issues are discussed. The heavy HEV has the potential to have a safety record that is comparable to that of the conventional vehicle, but adequate attention to detail will be required.

Nelson, S.C.

2002-11-14