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1

Motor Vehicle Safety  

MedlinePLUS

... these crashes is one part of motor vehicle safety. Here are some things you can do to ... speed or drive aggressively Don't drive impaired Safety also involves being aware of others. Share the ...

2

Advanced Technology Vehicle Testing  

SciTech Connect

The light-duty vehicle transportation sector in the United States depends heavily on imported petroleum as a transportation fuel. The Department of Energy’s Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA) is testing advanced technology vehicles to help reduce this dependency, which would contribute to the economic stability and homeland security of the United States. These advanced technology test vehicles include internal combustion engine vehicles operating on 100% hydrogen (H2) and H2CNG (compressed natural gas) blended fuels, hybrid electric vehicles, neighborhood electric vehicles, urban electric vehicles, and electric ground support vehicles. The AVTA tests and evaluates these vehicles with closed track and dynamometer testing methods (baseline performance testing) and accelerated reliability testing methods (accumulating lifecycle vehicle miles and operational knowledge within 1 to 1.5 years), and in normal fleet environments. The Arizona Public Service Alternative Fuel Pilot Plant and H2-fueled vehicles are demonstrating the feasibility of using H2 as a transportation fuel. Hybrid, neighborhood, and urban electric test vehicles are demonstrating successful applications of electric drive vehicles in various fleet missions. The AVTA is also developing electric ground support equipment (GSE) test procedures, and GSE testing will start during the fall of 2003. All of these activities are intended to support U.S. energy independence. The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory manages these activities for the AVTA.

James Francfort

2003-11-01

3

Introduction to LNG vehicle safety  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Basic information on the characteristics of liquefied natural gas (LNG) is assembled to provide an overview of safety issues and practices for the use of LNG vehicles. This document is intended for those planning or considering the use of LNG vehicles, including vehicle fleet owners and operators, public transit officials and boards, local fire and safety officials, manufacturers and distributors, and gas industry officials. Safety issues and mitigation measures that should be considered for candidate LNG vehicle projects are addressed.

Bratvold, Delma; Friedman, David; Chernoff, Harry; Farkhondehpay, Dariush; Comay, Claudia

1994-03-01

4

Vehicle Management Driver Safety Program  

E-print Network

Vehicle Management and Driver Safety Program Manual Facilities & Operations / Finance & Administration Version 2 April 2012 #12;© 2012 University of Alberta. #12;The Vehicle Management and Driver of employment. Driver Acknowledgement I have received the University of Alberta, Vehicle Management and Driver

Machel, Hans

5

Vehicle Safety. Managing Liability Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This monograph discusses the safety of vehicles owned, leased, maintained, and operated by colleges and universities. First, the risks by colleges and universities is discussed. First, the risks associated with college vehicles are outlined, including the liability that comes with staff/faculty and student drivers and such special concerns as…

Newby, Deborah, Ed.

6

Review and recent advances in battery health monitoring and prognostics technologies for electric vehicle (EV) safety and mobility  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As hybrid and electric vehicle technologies continue to advance, car manufacturers have begun to employ lithium ion batteries as the electrical energy storage device of choice for use in existing and future vehicles. However, to ensure batteries are reliable, efficient, and capable of delivering power and energy when required, an accurate determination of battery performance, health, and life prediction is necessary. This paper provides a review of battery prognostics and health management (PHM) techniques, with a focus on major unmet needs in this area for battery manufacturers, car designers, and electric vehicle drivers. A number of approaches are presented that have been developed to monitor battery health status and performance, as well as the evolution of prognostics modeling methods. The goal of this review is to render feasible and cost effective solutions for dealing with battery life issues under dynamic operating conditions.

Rezvanizaniani, Seyed Mohammad; Liu, Zongchang; Chen, Yan; Lee, Jay

2014-06-01

7

5-Star Safety Ratings: 2011-Newer Vehicles  

MedlinePLUS

5-Star Safety Ratings 2011-Newer Vehicles 1990-2010 Vehicles Air Bags Child Safety at Parents Central Resources Rollover ... to the most frequently asked questions about 5-Star Safety Ratings. Shop Smart for a Safer Car, ...

8

Vehicle Battery Safety Roadmap Guidance  

SciTech Connect

The safety of electrified vehicles with high capacity energy storage devices creates challenges that must be met to assure commercial acceptance of EVs and HEVs. High performance vehicular traction energy storage systems must be intrinsically tolerant of abusive conditions: overcharge, short circuit, crush, fire exposure, overdischarge, and mechanical shock and vibration. Fail-safe responses to these conditions must be designed into the system, at the materials and the system level, through selection of materials and safety devices that will further reduce the probability of single cell failure and preclude propagation of failure to adjacent cells. One of the most important objectives of DOE's Office of Vehicle Technologies is to support the development of lithium ion batteries that are safe and abuse tolerant in electric drive vehicles. This Roadmap analyzes battery safety and failure modes of state-of-the-art cells and batteries and makes recommendations on future investments that would further DOE's mission.

Doughty, D. H.

2012-10-01

9

Adaptive Dissemination of Safety Data Among Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

In-vehicle active safety systems are directed towards reducing the number of accidents or at least alleviating their consequences. One of the key technologies for developing these systems is safety vehicular communication. This paper proposes an adaptive approach to dissemination of safety data among vehicles. This data is then used by systems in vehicles for identifying hazards in traffic and reacting

Ioan Chisalita; Nahid Shahmehri

2006-01-01

10

Advanced heavy lift launch vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The performance requirements of advanced technology-incorporating, next-generation heavy lift launch vehicles (HLLVs) for LEO missions are discussed, and the configurational features facilitated by those technologies are evaluated. These 1990s 'cargo' vehicles will capitalize on advanced avionics, software and automation, novel hot structure and thermal insulation materials, and more powerful liquid-fuel rockets employing either hydrogen or hydrocarbons. The configurations considered include a winged booster. The use of Space Shuttle components is a major cost-minimization strategy in many of these HLLV design efforts.

Shelton, Billy W.

11

29 CFR 500.100 - Vehicle safety obligations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Vehicle safety obligations. 500.100 Section...AGRICULTURAL WORKER PROTECTION Motor Vehicle Safety and Insurance for Transportation...and Health for Migrant Workers Motor Vehicle Safety § 500.100 Vehicle...

2010-07-01

12

Utility vehicle safety Operator training program  

E-print Network

;Operator procedure & performance Off Road Operation: When Utility Vehicles are operated off of roadwaysUtility vehicle safety Operator training program #12;Permissible use Utility Vehicles may only Utility Vehicle operator · When equipped with the "Required Equipment" · On public roadways within

Minnesota, University of

13

ADVANCED UNDERGROUND VEHICLE POWER AND CONTROL FUELCELL MINE LOCOMOTIVE  

E-print Network

ADVANCED UNDERGROUND VEHICLE POWER AND CONTROL FUELCELL MINE LOCOMOTIVE Arnold R. Miller, David L powered locomotive, an underground mining haulage vehicle, was developed and is presently undergoing metal-hydride storage, the four-ton locomotive has un- dergone safety risk assessment and preliminary

14

Vehicle-to-vehicle safety messaging in DSRC  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper studies the design of layer-2 protocols for a vehicle to send safety messages to other vehicles. The target is to send vehicle safety messages with high reliability and low delay. The communication is one-to-many, local, and geo-significant. The vehicular communication network is ad-hoc, highly mobile, and with large numbers of contending nodes. The messages are very short, have

Qing Xu; Tony K. Mak; Jeff Ko; Raja Sengupta

2004-01-01

15

MOTOR VEHICLE USE PROGRAM DRIVER SAFETY TIPS  

E-print Network

MOTOR VEHICLE USE PROGRAM DRIVER SAFETY TIPS Observe Speed Limits and Traffic Laws ­ Allow - Employees who drive Institute or privately owned vehicles on Institute business must possess and carry person. Insurance - Employees who operate their privately owned vehicles on Institute business shall

16

LNG vehicle technology, economics, and safety assessment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Liquid natural gas (LNG) is an attractive transportation fuel because of its high heating value and energy density (i.e., Btu/lb. and Btu/gal.), clean burning characteristics, relatively low cost ($/Btu), and domestic availability. This research evaluated LNG vehicle and refueling system technology, economics, and safety. Prior and current LNG vehicle projects were studied to identify needed technology improvements. Life-cycle cost analyses considered various LNG vehicle and fuel supply options. Safety records, standards, and analysis methods were reviewed. The LNG market niche is centrally fueled heavy-duty fleet vehicles with high fuel consumption. For these applications, fuel cost savings can amortize equipment capital costs.

Powars, Charles A.; Moyer, Carl B.; Lowell, Douglas D.

1994-02-01

17

Advanced Vehicle system concepts. [nonpetroleum passenger transportation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Various nonpetroleum vehicle system concepts for passenger vehicles in the 1990's are being considered as part of the Advanced Vehicle (AV) Assessment at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The vehicle system and subsystem performance requirements, the projected characteristics of mature subsystem candidates, and promising systems are presented. The system candidates include electric and hybrid vehicles powered by electricity with or without a nonpetroleum power source. The subsystem candidates include batteries (aqueous-mobile, flow, high-temperature, and metal-air), fuel cells (phosphoric acid, advanced acids, and solid polymer electrolyte), nonpetroleum heat engines, advanced dc and ac propulsion components, power-peaking devices, and transmissions.

Hardy, K. S.; Langendoen, J. M.

1983-01-01

18

Teaching Technology by Assessing Vehicle Safety  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

According to the National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, motor vehicle crashes are the leading cause of death among Americans aged 2-34. Many states have adopted periodic motor vehicle inspection (PMVI) to ensure the safety of the highways, and states that have adopted PMVI report a reduction in highway fatalities. Deaths and injuries…

Lazaros, Edward J.

2012-01-01

19

32 CFR 636.33 - Vehicle safety inspection criteria.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Vehicle safety inspection criteria. 636.33...ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION (SPECIFIC INSTALLATIONS... Fort Stewart, Georgia § 636.33 Vehicle safety inspection criteria. (a)...

2014-07-01

20

32 CFR 636.33 - Vehicle safety inspection criteria.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Vehicle safety inspection criteria. 636.33...ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION (SPECIFIC INSTALLATIONS... Fort Stewart, Georgia § 636.33 Vehicle safety inspection criteria. (a)...

2012-07-01

21

32 CFR 636.33 - Vehicle safety inspection criteria.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Vehicle safety inspection criteria. 636.33...ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION (SPECIFIC INSTALLATIONS... Fort Stewart, Georgia § 636.33 Vehicle safety inspection criteria. (a)...

2011-07-01

22

32 CFR 636.33 - Vehicle safety inspection criteria.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Vehicle safety inspection criteria. 636.33...ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION (SPECIFIC INSTALLATIONS... Fort Stewart, Georgia § 636.33 Vehicle safety inspection criteria. (a)...

2013-07-01

23

Advance Computer Communication Systems in Hybrid Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an overview of advance signal processors and computer systems in present day hybrid vehicles. The increase in processing speeds of the present day digital signal processors has helped in development of hybrid cars at commercial level. Hybrid vehicles make use of computer control systems that are extremely complicated. The recent advances in processing speed and power, the

P. V. Suryavanshi; V. K. Sharma; R. Sharma

2006-01-01

24

5-Star Safety Ratings: 1990-2010 Vehicles  

MedlinePLUS

5-Star Safety Ratings 2011-Newer Vehicles 1990-2010 Vehicles Air Bags Child Safety at Parents Central Resources Rollover ... to the most frequently asked questions about 5-Star Safety Ratings. Shop Smart for a Safer Car, ...

25

10 CFR 611.3 - Advanced technology vehicle.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Advanced technology vehicle. 611.3 Section...ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY VEHICLES MANUFACTURER ASSISTANCE...General § 611.3 Advanced technology vehicle. In order to...

2010-01-01

26

Need for Speed: Motorized Vehicle Safety for Children  

MedlinePLUS

... Children Safety & Prevention Listen Need for Speed: Motorized Vehicle Safety for Children Article Body Although children cannot ... the driver's seat of other types of motorized vehicles. Most commonly, these youngsters are driving tractors, lawn ...

27

3D LIDAR processing for vehicle safety and environment recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Automotive safety systems like ldquoadaptive cruise controlrdquo (ACC), ldquolane change assistrdquo and pre-crash systems are nowadays dealing with the detection of vehicles on the road. All major upper class vehicle manufacturers like Mercedes, BMW, Chrysler and Lexus as well as leading suppliers (Bosch, Continental, Delphi) are currently developing intelligent vehicle safety systems. For vehicle environment perception many different sensors are

Philipp Lindner; Gerd Wanielik

2009-01-01

28

Ventilation control for improved cabin air quality and vehicle safety  

Microsoft Academic Search

Motor vehicles are a prime pollution source. In certain circumstances, the vehicle's exhaust may enter the vehicle cabin causing driver discomfort and adverse health effects. As a result, driver reflexes decrease and fatigue may be exhibited. Oxygen depletion due to vehicle occupant breathing can also threaten vehicle safety. Cabin air filters and ventilation control are capable of improving passenger comfort,

Kosmas Galatsis; W. Wlodarski; Yongxiang Li; K. Kalantar-zadeh

2001-01-01

29

Advanced Vehicle Concepts and Implications for NextGen  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report presents the results of a major NASA study of advanced vehicle concepts and their implications for the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen). Comprising the efforts of dozens of researchers at multiple institutions, the analyses presented here cover a broad range of topics including business-case development, vehicle design, avionics, procedure design, delay, safety, environmental impacts, and metrics. The study focuses on the following five new vehicle types: Cruise-efficient short takeoff and landing (CESTOL) vehicles Large commercial tiltrotor aircraft (LCTRs) Unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) Very light jets (VLJs) Supersonic transports (SST). The timeframe of the study spans the years 2025-2040, although some analyses are also presented for a 3X scenario that has roughly three times the number of flights as today. Full implementation of NextGen is assumed.

Blake, Matt; Smith, Jim; Wright, Ken; Mediavilla Ricky; Kirby, Michelle; Pfaender, Holger; Clarke, John-Paul; Volovoi, Vitali; Dorbian, Christopher; Ashok, Akshay; Reynolds, Tom; Waitz, Ian; Hileman, James; Arunachalam, Sarav; Hedrick, Matt; Vempati, Lakshmi; Laroza, Ryan; denBraven, Wim; Henderson, Jeff

2010-01-01

30

Advances in fuel cell vehicle design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Factors such as global warming, dwindling fossil fuel reserves, and energy security concerns combine to indicate that a replacement for the internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicle is needed. Fuel cell vehicles have the potential to address the problems surrounding the ICE vehicle without imposing any significant restrictions on vehicle performance, driving range, or refuelling time. Though there are currently some obstacles to overcome before attaining the widespread commercialization of fuel cell vehicles, such as improvements in fuel cell and battery durability, development of a hydrogen infrastructure, and reduction of high costs, the fundamental concept of the fuel cell vehicle is strong: it is efficient, emits zero harmful emissions, and the hydrogen fuel can be produced from various renewable sources. Therefore, research on fuel cell vehicle design is imperative in order to improve vehicle performance and durability, increase efficiency, and reduce costs. This thesis makes a number of key contributions to the advancement of fuel cell vehicle design within two main research areas: powertrain design and DC/DC converters. With regards to powertrain design, this research first analyzes various powertrain topologies and energy storage system types. Then, a novel fuel cell-battery-ultracapacitor topology is presented which shows reduced mass and cost, and increased efficiency, over other promising topologies found in the literature. A detailed vehicle simulator is created in MATLAB/Simulink in order to simulate and compare the novel topology with other fuel cell vehicle powertrain options. A parametric study is performed to optimize each powertrain and general conclusions for optimal topologies, as well as component types and sizes, for fuel cell vehicles are presented. Next, an analytical method to optimize the novel battery-ultracapacitor energy storage system based on maximizing efficiency, and minimizing cost and mass, is developed. This method can be applied to any system utilizing the novel battery-ultracapacitor energy storage system and is not limited in application to only fuel cell vehicles. With regards to DC/DC converters, it is important to design efficient and light-weight converters for use in fuel cell and other electric vehicles to improve overall vehicle fuel economy. Thus, this research presents a novel soft-switching method, the capacitor-switched regenerative snubber, for the high-power DC/DC boost converters commonly used in fuel cell vehicles. This circuit is shown to increase the efficiency and reduce the overall mass of the DC/DC boost converter.

Bauman, Jennifer

31

NREL's Isothermal Battery Calorimeters are Crucial Tools for Advancing Electric-Drive Vehicles  

E-print Network

battery safety and life issues long before cars are delivered to dealers' lots, making hybrid and electricNREL's Isothermal Battery Calorimeters are Crucial Tools for Advancing Electric-Drive Vehicles, and plug-in hybrids. But before more Americans switch to electric-drive vehicles, automakers need batteries

32

76 FR 53072 - Certification; Importation of Vehicles and Equipment Subject to Federal Safety, Bumper, and Theft...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...purchase, or sale of motor vehicles or motor vehicle equipment. The amendments...purchase, or sale of motor vehicles or motor vehicle equipment. These offenses...and 593 Imports, Motor vehicle safety, Motor vehicles, Reporting and...

2011-08-25

33

76 FR 2631 - Certification; Importation of Vehicles and Equipment Subject to Federal Safety, Bumper, and Theft...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...purchase or sale of motor vehicles or motor vehicle equipment. We also propose...purchase or sale of motor vehicles or motor vehicle equipment. These offenses...and 593 Imports, Motor Vehicle Safety, Motor Vehicles, Reporting and...

2011-01-14

34

Advanced thermoplastic composites: An attractive new material for usage in highly loaded vehicle components  

SciTech Connect

Beside the lightweight potential and further well known advantages of advanced composite materials, continuous fiber reinforced thermoplastics employed in vehicle structural parts especially offer short manufacturing cycle times and an additional economically viable manufacturing process. Presenting a frame structure concept for two highly loaded vehicle parts, a safety seat and a side door, numerous features concerning the choice of suitable composite materials, design aspects, investigations to develop a thermoforming technique, mature for a series production of vehicle parts, are discussed.

Mehn, R.; Seidl, F.; Peis, R.; Heinzmann, D.; Frei, P. [BMW AG Muenchen (Germany)

1995-10-01

35

Advanced propulsion concepts for orbital transfer vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Studies of the United States Space Transportation System show that in the mid-to-late 1990s expanded capabilities for Orbital Transfer Vehicles (OTV) will be needed to meet increased payload requirements for transporting materials and possible men to geosynchronous orbit. NASA is conducting a technology program in support of an advanced propulsion system for future OTVs. This program is briefly described with results to date of the first program element, the Conceptual Design and Technology Definition studies.

Cooper, L. P.

1982-01-01

36

Launch vehicle flight control augmentation using smart materials and advanced composites (CDDF Project 93-05)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Marshall Space Flight Center has a rich heritage of launch vehicles that have used aerodynamic surfaces for flight stability such as the Saturn vehicles and flight control such as on the Redstone. Recently, due to aft center-of-gravity locations on launch vehicles currently being studied, the need has arisen for the vehicle control augmentation that is provided by these flight controls. Aerodynamic flight control can also reduce engine gimbaling requirements, provide actuator failure protection, enhance crew safety, and increase vehicle reliability, and payload capability. In the Saturn era, NASA went to the Moon with 300 sq ft of aerodynamic surfaces on the Saturn V. Since those days, the wealth of smart materials and advanced composites that have been developed allow for the design of very lightweight, strong, and innovative launch vehicle flight control surfaces. This paper presents an overview of the advanced composites and smart materials that are directly applicable to launch vehicle control surfaces.

Barret, C.

1995-01-01

37

Sharing vehicle and infrastructure intelligence for assisted intersection safety  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we describe a framework and system architecture for sharing of information between vehicles and infrastructure with the aim of increasing intersection safety. Emerging intersection safety applications are based on location sensing and wireless communication. We show that these applications can only be realized if vehicles and intersection can both participate and share their information and intelligence. The

Somak Datta Gupta; Yaser P. Fallah; Steven E. Shladover

2011-01-01

38

77 FR 51731 - All-Terrain Vehicle Safety Summit  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...CPSC-2012-0048] 16 CFR Chapter II All-Terrain Vehicle Safety Summit AGENCY...announcing its intent to hold a Summit on all-terrain vehicle (ATV) safety. The Summit...should register by September 14, 2012; all other individuals who wish to attend...

2012-08-27

39

All-Terrain Vehicle (ATV) Safety (For Parents)  

MedlinePLUS

... t) Safety Guidelines All-terrain vehicles (ATVs) are off-road vehicles for recreational use. In most states, it's legal ... riding ATVs. What Are ATVs? ATVs are motorized vehicles that are meant to be used off-road or on dirt roads, not on paved roads ...

40

Advanced power reactors with improved safety characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The primary objective of nuclear safety is the protection of individuals, society and environment against radiological hazards from accidental releases of radioactive materials contained in nuclear reactors.At a worldwide scale, several advanced reactor concepts are currently being considered, some of them already at a design stage. Essential safety objectives include both further strengthening the prevention of accidents and improving the

A. Birkhofer

1995-01-01

41

Advanced hybrid vehicle propulsion system study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results are presented of a study of an advanced heat engine/electric automotive hybrid propulsion system. The system uses a rotary stratified charge engine and ac motor/controller in a parallel hybrid configuration. The three tasks of the study were (1) parametric studies involving five different vehicle types, (2) design trade-off studies to determine the influence of various vehicle and propulsion system paramaters on system performance fuel economy and cost, and (3) a conceptual design establishing feasibility at the selected approach. Energy consumption for the selected system was .034 1/km (61.3 mpg) for the heat engine and .221 kWh/km (.356 kWh/mi) for the electric power system over a modified J227 a schedule D driving cycle. Life cycle costs were 7.13 cents/km (11.5 cents/mi) at $2/gal gasoline and 7 cents/kWh electricity for 160,000 km (100,000 mi) life.

Schwarz, R.

1982-01-01

42

Advanced vehicle systems assessment. Volume 4: Supporting analyses  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Volume 4 (Supporting Analyses) is part of a five-volume report, Advanced Vehicle Systems Assessment. Thirty-nine individuals, knowledgeable in advanced technology, were interviewed to obtain their preferences. Rankings were calculated for the eight groups they represented, using multiplicative and additive utility models. The four topics for consideration were: (1) preferred range for various battery technologies; (2) preferred battery technology for each of a variety of travel ranges; (3) most promising battery technology, vehicle range combination; and (4) comparison of the most preferred electric vehicle with the methanol-fuled, spark-ignition engine vehicle and with the most preferred of the hybrid vehicles.

Hardy, K.

1985-01-01

43

ADVISOR: a systems analysis tool for advanced vehicle modeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides an overview of Advanced Vehicle Simulator (ADVISOR)—the US Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) ADVISOR written in the MATLAB\\/Simulink environment and developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. ADVISOR provides the vehicle engineering community with an easy-to-use, flexible, yet robust and supported analysis package for advanced vehicle modeling. It is primarily used to quantify the fuel economy, the performance,

T. Markel; A. Brooker; T. Hendricks; V. Johnson; K. Kelly; B. Kramer; M O’Keefe; S. Sprik; K. Wipke

2002-01-01

44

Advanced concepts in electric vehicle design  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1994, the Eco-Vehicle Project was begun to develop an electric vehicle (EV) using a ground-up design approach that incorporates unique designs specific to an EV. The Eco-Vehicle will be a high-performance, but ultrasmall, battery-powered vehicle. New designs for the Eco-Vehicle include an in-wheel motor drive system, a hollow load floor which will house the batteries, and a new battery

Hiroshi Shimizu; Junji Harada; Colby Bland; Kiyomoto Kawakami; Lam Chan

1997-01-01

45

The Relationship between Vehicle Weight/Size and Safety  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Light-duty vehicles account for about 20% of US CO2 emissions. However, new vehicle fuel economy standards have not been significantly tightened since they were first enacted three decades ago. A historical impediment to imposing tougher fuel economy standards has been the long-standing perception that reducing the mass of a car or truck would make it more dangerous to its occupants in a crash. One often hears that this perception is dictated by "simple physics:" that, all else being equal, you are at greater risk in a lighter vehicle than in a heavier one. Our research on driver fatality risk has found that, when it comes to vehicle safety, all else is never equal. Vehicle mass is not the most important variable in determining occupant safety, not even in frontal crashes between two vehicles. You are at no greater risk driving an average car than you are driving a much heavier (and less fuel efficient) truck-based SUV. And larger and heavier truck-based SUVs and pickups impose enormous risks on car occupants. We summarize the most recent research on the interplay between vehicle weight, size and safety, and what the implications are for new state and federal standards to reduce vehicle CO2 emissions.

Wenzel, Tom; Ross, Marc

2008-09-01

46

Safety Issues with Hydrogen as a Vehicle Fuel  

SciTech Connect

This report is an initial effort to identify and evaluate safety issues associated with the use of hydrogen as a vehicle fuel in automobiles. Several forms of hydrogen have been considered: gas, liquid, slush, and hydrides. The safety issues have been discussed, beginning with properties of hydrogen and the phenomenology of hydrogen combustion. Safety-related operating experiences with hydrogen vehicles have been summarized to identify concerns that must be addressed in future design activities and to support probabilistic risk assessment. Also, applicable codes, standards, and regulations pertaining to hydrogen usage and refueling have been identified and are briefly discussed. This report serves as a safety foundation for any future hydrogen safety work, such as a safety analysis or a probabilistic risk assessment.

L. C. Cadwallader; J. S. Herring

1999-09-01

47

Safety Issues with Hydrogen as a Vehicle Fuel  

SciTech Connect

This report is an initial effort to identify and evaluate safety issues associated with the use of hydrogen as a vehicle fuel in automobiles. Several forms of hydrogen have been considered: gas, liquid, slush, and hydrides. The safety issues have been discussed, beginning with properties of hydrogen and the phenomenology of hydrogen combustion. Safety-related operating experiences with hydrogen vehicles have been summarized to identify concerns that must be addressed in future design activities and to support probabilistic risk assessment. Also, applicable codes, standards, and regulations pertaining to hydrogen usage and refueling have been identified and are briefly discussed. This report serves as a safety foundation for any future hydrogen safety work, such as a safety analysis or a probabilistic risk assessment.

Cadwallader, Lee Charles; Herring, James Stephen

1999-10-01

48

National Highway Traffic Safety Administration: Vehicle and Equipment Information  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The National Highway Transportation Safety Administration makes it easy to track down the safety reliability records of automobiles with their newly redesigned web site. The Vehicle and Equipment page offers information on safety problems and issues, testing results, regulations and standards, and research and development. Of particular interest are searchable databases on recalls, technical service bulletins, consumer complaints, and compliance investigations; each search retrieves information specific to the make, model, and year the user enters. The vehicle owners' questionnaire can be used to submit a report of car defects that the NHTSA should investigate.

1997-01-01

49

Hybrid Electic Vehicle (HEV) Safety Considerations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This module consists of a presentation and lab both concerning HEV safety and were developed to enhance automotive courses with HEV technologies through a seed grant from the CAAT. Some safety considerations discussed are wire sheathing color, safety gloves, insulated tools, multimeters, high voltage disabling procedures, and HEV smart keys. The lab will familiarize technicians with the safety precautions associated with working on HEVs such as dealing with high voltage and isolating these potentially dangerous circuits.

College, Lewis A.

50

Vehicle-to-Vehicle Communication: Fair Transmit Power Control for Safety-Critical Information  

Microsoft Academic Search

Direct radio-based vehicle-to-vehicle communication can help prevent accidents by providing accurate and up-to-date local status and hazard information to the driver. In this paper, we assume that two types of messages are used for traffic safety-related communication: 1) Periodic messages (ldquobeaconsrdquo) that are sent by all vehicles to inform their neighbors about their current status (i.e., position) and 2) event-driven

Marc Torrent-Moreno; Jens Mittag; Paolo Santi; Hannes Hartenstein

2009-01-01

51

Advanced vehicle systems assessment. Volume 5: Appendices  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An appendix to the systems assessment for the electric hybrid vehicle project is presented. Included are battery design, battery cost, aluminum vehicle construction, IBM PC computer programs and battery discharge models.

Hardy, K.

1985-01-01

52

Advanced structures technology and aircraft safety  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA research and development on advanced aeronautical structures technology related to flight safety is reviewed. The effort is categorized as research in the technology base and projects sponsored by the Aircraft Energy Efficiency (ACEE) Project Office. Base technology research includes mechanics of composite structures, crash dynamics, and landing dynamics. The ACEE projects involve development and fabrication of selected composite structural components for existing commercial transport aircraft. Technology emanating from this research is intended to result in airframe structures with improved efficiency and safety.

Mccomb, H. G., Jr.

1983-01-01

53

Advanced Wireless Power Transfer Vehicle and Infrastructure Analysis (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect

This presentation discusses current research at NREL on advanced wireless power transfer vehicle and infrastructure analysis. The potential benefits of E-roadway include more electrified driving miles from battery electric vehicles, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, or even properly equipped hybrid electric vehicles (i.e., more electrified miles could be obtained from a given battery size, or electrified driving miles could be maintained while using smaller and less expensive batteries, thereby increasing cost competitiveness and potential market penetration). The system optimization aspect is key given the potential impact of this technology on the vehicles, the power grid and the road infrastructure.

Gonder, J.; Brooker, A.; Burton, E.; Wang, J.; Konan, A.

2014-06-01

54

Recent advances in vehicle routing exact algorithms  

Microsoft Academic Search

The capacitated vehicle routing problem (CVRP) is the problem in which a set of identical vehicles located at a central depot\\u000a is to be optimally routed to supply customers with known demands subject to vehicle capacity constraints. This paper provides\\u000a a review of the most recent developments that had a major impact in the current state-of-the-art of exact algorithms for

Roberto Baldacci; Paolo Toth; Daniele Vigo

2007-01-01

55

Alternative Fuel and Advanced Vehicle Tools (AFAVT), AFDC (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect

The Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Web site offers a collection of calculators, interactive maps, and informational tools to assist fleets, fuel providers, and others looking to reduce petroleum consumption in the transportation sector.

Not Available

2010-01-01

56

Advanced Plug-in Electric Vehicle Travel and Charging  

E-print Network

Advanced Plug-in Electric Vehicle Travel and Charging Behavior UC Davis Plug-in Hybrid and Electric-depth study of PEV usage and charging dynamics. Inform policy on battery size/vehicle architecture household travel dynamics. How is the PEV used compared to other cars? EVMT impacts? · Determine charging

California at Davis, University of

57

RESEARCH NEEDS FOR ADVANCED SAFETY CONCEPTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY In spite of momentarily stagnating construction of new nuclear power plants research with respect to a still more improvement of safety features must go on. Advanced designs of nuclear plants promise a big step forward in minimising the risk. Research activities in the fields of thermal hydraulics neutron physics and severe accident mitigation are presented. Public acceptance of nuclear

F. MAYINGER

58

Reliability Analysis of DSRC Wireless Communication for Vehicle Safety Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 802.11-p based dedicated short range communication (DSRC) is being seriously considered as a promising wireless technology for enhancing transportation safety and highway efficiency. However, to-date, there is very little research done in characterizing the reliability of DSRC communication based on real-world experimental data, and its effect on the reliability of vehicle safety applications. Our experimental set-up includes a fleet

Fan Bai; Hariharan Krishnan

2006-01-01

59

Using advanced technologies to reduce motor vehicle greenhouse gas emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper quantifies the potential reduction in US greenhouse gas emissions that could be achieved by using advanced-technology motor vehicles and low-emission bio-fuels. These two approaches are compared to a variety of other approaches to reduce transportation sector emissions. It is concluded that only strong fiscal measures can produce emission reductions as large as are available from advanced-technology vehicles and

Carmen Difiglio

1997-01-01

60

Advanced vehicle systems assessment. Volume 2: Subsystems assessment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Volume 2 (Subsystems Assessment) is part of a five-volume report entitled Advanced Vehicle Systems Assessment. Volume 2 presents the projected performance capabilities and cost characteristics of applicable subsystems, considering an additional decade of development. Subsystems of interest include energy storage and conversion devices as well as the necessary powertrain components and vehicle subsystems. Volume 2 also includes updated battery information based on the assessment of an independent battery review board (with the aid of subcontractor reports on advanced battery characteristics).

Hardy, K.

1985-01-01

61

RAMS approach for reusable launch vehicle advanced studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The emerging of reusable single stage to orbit concept as credible launchers in the turn of the century is changing some technical and technological approaches in the way of doing future launcher advanced studies. Among others (such as operations through the "aircraft-like operations" concept), the RAMS approach (reliability, availability, maintainability and safety) has to be implemented from the very beginning of a concept study, especially for the SSTOs ones in order to meet the "able" requirements (affordable, reusable, reliable, available and operable). Beyond the "traditional" considerations applied to expendable launchers and/or man rated space transportation systems, the RAMS involvement in reusable launcher advanced studies and concept trade-offs must allow to perform the best balance between costs, performance and related risks. For instance, in the framework of SSTOs key technologies identification studies performed at Aerospatiale, the RAMS have been involved from the beginning of the preliminary design task. This approach has shown that the assessment of the main propulsion failure risks and associated probabilities of occurrence have strongly affected the vehicle design within the mission management and technical aspects such as main propulsion specifications, ascent trajectory shaping and landing phase scenario (VTOVL configuration). This paper intends to describe this RAMS approach and addresses how it has been applied on trade-off on VTOVL concept.

Tatry, PH.; Deneu, F.; Simonotti, J. L.

62

A single-subject approach to evaluating vehicle safety belt reminders: Back to basics  

PubMed Central

A single-subject ABA reversal design was applied to evaluate the effectiveness of a limited 8-s safety belt reminder system and two modified reminder systems (a delayed and second reminder) to increase the safety belt use of 13 drivers. The research was conducted with a specially equipped research vehicle that permitted the manipulation of different safety belt reminder stimuli and the unobtrusive recording of a driver's belt use. For 2 subjects, the limited 8-s reminder increased safety belt use. For another 2 subjects, the second reminder markedly increased belt use. Some subjects were uninfluenced by the reminder systems presented; others always buckled up during both baseline and intervention conditions. The approach and results are discussed with regard to the application of behavior analysis methodologies (e.g., cumulative records) and principles (e.g., schedules of reinforcement) to advance the utility and investigation of safety belt reminder systems. PMID:16795740

Berry, Thomas D.; Geller, E. Scott

1991-01-01

63

Advanced protection technology for ground combat vehicles.  

PubMed

Just as highway drivers use radar detectors to attempt to stay ahead of police armed with the latest radar technology, the Armed Forces are locked in a spiral to protect combat vehicles and their crews against the latest threats in both the contemporary operating environment and the anticipated operating environment (ie, beyond 2020). In response to bigger, heavier, or better-protected vehicles, adversaries build and deploy larger explosive devices or bombs. However, making improvements to combat vehicles is much more expensive than deploying larger explosives. In addition, demand is increasing for lighter-weight vehicles capable of rapid deployment. Together, these two facts give the threat a clear advantage in the future. To protect vehicles and crews, technologies focusing on detection and hit avoidance, denial of penetration, and crew survivability must be combined synergistically to provide the best chance of survival on the modern battlefield. PMID:22865132

Bosse, Timothy G

2012-01-01

64

Natural Gas Vehicle Cylinder Safety, Training and Inspection Project  

SciTech Connect

Under the auspices of the National Energy Technology Laboratory and the US Department of Energy, the Clean Vehicle Education Foundation conducted a three-year program to increase the understanding of the safe and proper use and maintenance of vehicular compressed natural gas (CNG) fuel systems. High-pressure fuel systems require periodic inspection and maintenance to insure safe and proper operation. The project addressed the needs of CNG fuel containers (cylinders) and associated high-pressure fuel system components related to existing law, codes and standards (C&S), available training and inspection programs, and assured coordination among vehicle users, public safety officials, fueling station operators and training providers. The program included a public and industry awareness campaign, establishment and administration of a cylinder inspector certification training scholarship program, evaluation of current safety training and testing practices, monitoring and investigation of CNG vehicle incidents, evaluation of a cylinder recertification program and the migration of CNG vehicle safety knowledge to the nascent hydrogen vehicle community.

Hank Seiff

2008-12-31

65

Vehicle-to-vehicle wireless communication protocols for enhancing highway traffic safety  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents an overview of highway cooperative collision avoidance (CCA), which is an emerging vehicular safety application using the IEEE- and ASTM-adopted Dedicated Short Range Communication (DSRC) standard. Along with a description of the DSRC architecture, we introduce the concept of CCA and its implementation requirements in the context of a vehicle-to-vehicle wireless network, primarily at the Medium Access

Subir Biswas; R. Tatchikou; F. Dion

2006-01-01

66

Advanced propulsion system concept for hybrid vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A series hybrid system, utilizing a free piston Stirling engine with a linear alternator, and a parallel hybrid system, incorporating a kinematic Stirling engine, are analyzed for various specified reference missions/vehicles ranging from a small two passenger commuter vehicle to a van. Parametric studies for each configuration, detail tradeoff studies to determine engine, battery and system definition, short term energy storage evaluation, and detail life cycle cost studies were performed. Results indicate that the selection of a parallel Stirling engine/electric, hybrid propulsion system can significantly reduce petroleum consumption by 70 percent over present conventional vehicles.

Bhate, S.; Chen, H.; Dochat, G.

1980-01-01

67

Coordinated Control and Communication for Enhanced Safety of Highway Vehicle Platoons  

E-print Network

Coordinated Control and Communication for Enhanced Safety of Highway Vehicle Platoons Lijian Xu enhanced safety, improved highway utility, increased fuel economy, and reduced emission. This paper, communication resource allocation, and vehicle coordination in highway platoon control problems. I. INTRODUCTION

Zhang, Hongwei

68

Advances in hypersonic vehicle synthesis with application to studies of advanced thermal protection system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report summarizes the work entitled 'Advances in Hypersonic Vehicle Synthesis with Application to Studies of Advanced Thermal Protection Systems.' The effort was in two areas: (1) development of advanced methods of trajectory and propulsion system optimization; and (2) development of advanced methods of structural weight estimation. The majority of the effort was spent in the trajectory area.

Ardema, Mark D.

1995-01-01

69

First Responder Safety Training for Electric and Hybrid Vehicles  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This module was created to educate first responders on the hazards of electric, hybrid, fuel cell, and other alternative fuel vehicles applying to collisions, fires, floods, and more. These materials were used in a four hour first responders training workshop developed by START (specialized training in advanced rescue techniques) and funded by the CAAT.

70

Advancing Pedestrian Safety at Rail Grade Crossings Paul Metaxatos and P.S. Sriraj  

E-print Network

Advancing Pedestrian Safety at Rail Grade Crossings Paul Metaxatos and P.S. Sriraj Urban1 2 Contrary to the declining number of fatalities due to train-vehicle collisions at highway-3 rail grade crossings, the number of pedestrian and bicycle fatalities at highway- and4 pathway-rail grade

Illinois at Chicago, University of

71

76 FR 55859 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards No. 121; Air Brake Systems  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard...newly-manufactured vehicles equipped with...agency require a driver-controllable...increase in two-vehicle rear end crashes...the striking vehicle. However, this...mph, allowing drivers to disable the...altogether on heavy vehicles. The...

2011-09-09

72

Advanced propulsion system for hybrid vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A number of hybrid propulsion systems were evaluated for application in several different vehicle sizes. A conceptual design was prepared for the most promising configuration. Various system configurations were parametrically evaluated and compared, design tradeoffs performed, and a conceptual design produced. Fifteen vehicle/propulsion systems concepts were parametrically evaluated to select two systems and one vehicle for detailed design tradeoff studies. A single hybrid propulsion system concept and vehicle (five passenger family sedan)were selected for optimization based on the results of the tradeoff studies. The final propulsion system consists of a 65 kW spark-ignition heat engine, a mechanical continuously variable traction transmission, a 20 kW permanent magnet axial-gap traction motor, a variable frequency inverter, a 386 kg lead-acid improved state-of-the-art battery, and a transaxle. The system was configured with a parallel power path between the heat engine and battery. It has two automatic operational modes: electric mode and heat engine mode. Power is always shared between the heat engine and battery during acceleration periods. In both modes, regenerative braking energy is absorbed by the battery.

Norrup, L. V.; Lintz, A. T.

1980-01-01

73

Continuously variable transmission: Assessment of applicability to advance electric vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A brief historical account of the evolution of continuously variable transmissions (CVT) for automotive use is given. The CVT concepts which are potentially suitable for application with electric and hybrid vehicles are discussed. The arrangement and function of several CVT concepts are cited along with their current developmental status. The results of preliminary design studies conducted on four CVT concepts for use in advanced electric vehicles are discussed.

Loewenthal, S. H.; Parker, R. J.

1981-01-01

74

Improved Range Safety Analysis for Space Vehicles Using Range Safety Template Toolkit  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper discusses an alternative to traditional methodologies for space launch and re-entry vehicle range safety analysis using the Range Safety Template Toolkit (RSTT), developed by Australia's Defense Science and Technology Organization (DSTO) in partnership with Aerospace Concepts Pty Ltd. RSTT offers rapid generation of mission-specific safety templates that comply with internationally-recognized standards for range risk criteria. Compared to some traditional methods, RSTT produces more accurate assessments of risk to personnel and infrastructure. This provides range operators with greater confidence in the range safety products, enhancing their ability to rigorously manage safety on their ranges. RSTT also offers increased precision of risk analysis and iteration of mission design allowing greater flexibility in planning range operations with rapid feedback on the safety impact of mission changes. These concepts are explored through examples involving a suborbital sounding rocket, demonstrating how traditional range safety assumptions may be reassessed using the RSTT robust probabilistic methodology.

Tisato, J.; Vuletich, I.; Brett, M.; Williams, W.; Wilson, S.

2012-01-01

75

Advanced continuously variable transmissions for electric and hybrid vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A brief survey of past and present continuously variable transmissions (CVT) which are potentially suitable for application with electric and hybrid vehicles is presented. Discussion of general transmission requirements and benefits attainable with a CVT for electric vehicle use is given. The arrangement and function of several specific CVT concepts are cited along with their current development status. Lastly, the results of preliminary design studies conducted under a NASA contract for DOE on four CVT concepts for use in advanced electric vehicles are reviewed.

Loewenthal, S. H.

1980-01-01

76

75 FR 15621 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Theft Protection and Rollaway Prevention  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...TRANSPORTATION National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 571 [Docket...RIN 2127-AK38 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Theft Protection and Rollaway...Prevention AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA),...

2010-03-30

77

Space transfer vehicle avionics advanced development needs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The assessment of preliminary transportation program options for the exploration initiative is underway. The exploration initiative for the Moon and Mars is outlined by mission phases. A typical lunar/Mars outpost technology/advanced development schedule is provided. An aggressive and focused technology development program is needed as early as possible to successfully support these new initiatives. The avionics advanced development needs, plans, laboratory facilities, and benefits from an early start are described.

Huffaker, C. F.

1990-01-01

78

An Exploratory Study of the Relationship Between Socioeconomic Status and Motor Vehicle Safety Features  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The purpose of this study was to assess the association between motor vehicle owners' socioeconomic status (SES) and the safety of their motor vehicles.Methods: Truncated vehicle identification numbers (VINs) were obtained from the Maryland Motor Vehicle Administration office. ZIP code–level income and educational data were assigned to each VIN. Software was used to identify safety-related vehicle characteristics including crash

Deborah C. Girasek; Brett Taylor

2010-01-01

79

Fuel Properties Database from the Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (AFDC)  

DOE Data Explorer

This database contains information on advanced petroleum and non-petroleum based fuels, as well as key data on advanced compression ignition fuels. Included are data on physical, chemical, operational, environmental, safety, and health properties. These data result from tests conducted according to standard methods (mostly American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM). The source and test methods for each fuel data set are provided with the information. The database can be searched in various ways and can output numbers or explanatory text. Heavy vehicle chassis emission data are also available for some fuels.

80

Advanced control concepts. [for shuttle ascent vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The problems of excess control devices and insufficient trim control capability on shuttle ascent vehicles were investigated. The trim problem is solved at all time points of interest using Lagrangian multipliers and a Simplex based iterative algorithm developed as a result of the study. This algorithm has the capability to solve any bounded linear problem with physically realizable constraints, and to minimize any piecewise differentiable cost function. Both solution methods also automatically distribute the command torques to the control devices. It is shown that trim requirements are unrealizable if only the orbiter engines and the aerodynamic surfaces are used.

Sharp, J. B.; Coppey, J. M.

1973-01-01

81

Communication Information Structures and Contents for Enhanced Safety of Highway Vehicle  

E-print Network

1 Communication Information Structures and Contents for Enhanced Safety of Highway Vehicle Platoons, Senior Member, IEEE Abstract--Highway platooning of vehicles has been identified as a promising framework-vehicle coordination, an appropriately managed platoon can potentially offer enhanced safety, improved highway utility

Zhang, Hongwei

82

Advanced Underground Vehicle Power and Control Fuelcell Mine Locomotive  

E-print Network

Advanced Underground Vehicle Power and Control Fuelcell Mine Locomotive U.S. Department of Energy Street, Suite 2131 Denver, CO 80293 #12;FOUR-TON MINE LOCOMOTIVE Reno, Nevada ­ November 2002 #12;LOCOMOTIVE PROJECT PARTNERS CANMET ­ Underground testing Fuelcell Propulsion Institute ­ Industry oversight

83

Responses to Questions and Answers Advanced Vehicle Technology Manufacturing Solicitation  

E-print Network

1 Responses to Questions and Answers Advanced Vehicle Technology Manufacturing Solicitation PON successful applicants after the Notice of Proposed Awards to confirm this role and obtain any additional definition of "manufacturing equipment?" For example, would purchases of tooling or assembly line equipment

84

Advanced gel propulsion controls for kill vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A gel propulsion control concept for tactical applications is reviewed, and the status of the individual component technologies currently under development at the Aerojet Propulsion Division is discussed. It is concluded that a gel propellant Divert and Attitude Control Subsystem (DACS) provides a safe, insensitive munitions compliant alternative to current liquid Theater Missile Defense (TMD) DACS approaches. The gel kill vehicle (KV) control system packages a total impulse typical of a tactical weapon interceptor for the ground- or sea-based TMD systems. High density packaging makes it possible to increase firepower and to eliminate long-term high pressure gas storage associated with bipropellant systems. The integrated control subsystem technologies encompass solid propellant gas generators, insulated composite overwrapped propellant tanks, lightweight endoatmospheric thrusters, and insensitive munition gel propellants, which meet the requirements of a deployable, operationally safe KV.

Yasuhara, W. K.; Olson, A.; Finato, S.

1993-06-01

85

Advanced electromagnetic methods for aerospace vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Advanced Helicopter Electromagnetics (AHE) Industrial Associates Program continues its research on variety of main topics identified and recommended by the Advisory Task Force of the program. The research activities center on issues that advance technology related to helicopter electromagnetics. While most of the topics are a continuation of previous works, special effort has been focused on some of the areas due to recommendations from the last annual conference. The main topics addressed in this report are: composite materials, and antenna technology. The area of composite materials continues getting special attention in this period. The research has focused on: (1) measurements of the electrical properties of low-conductivity materials; (2) modeling of material discontinuity and their effects on the scattering patterns; (3) preliminary analysis on interaction of electromagnetic fields with multi-layered graphite fiberglass plates; and (4) finite difference time domain (FDTD) modeling of fields penetration through composite panels of a helicopter.

Balanis, Constantine A.; Sun, Weimin; El-Sharawy, El-Budawy; Aberle, James T.; Birtcher, Craig R.; Peng, Jian; Tirkas, Panayiotis A.

1992-01-01

86

Ejection safety for advanced fighter helmets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The old saying, `Safety is paramount.' was never more true than it is in the area of ejection safety for high-speed fighter aircraft. The fighter aircraft of today has been designed to endure tremendous structural loading during dogfight or evasive maneuvers. It can fly faster, turn quicker, stay in the air longer (with in-flight refuel) and carry more bombs than its predecessor. Because of human physiological limits, the human has become the weak link in today's fighter aircraft. The fighter pilot must endure and function with peak performance in conditions that are much worse than anything the majority of us will ever encounter. When these conditions reach a point that human endurance is exceeded, devices such as anti-g suits and positive pressure breathing apparatus help the fighter pilot squeeze out that extra percentage of strength necessary to outperform the opponent. As fighter aircraft become more sophisticated, helmet trackers, helmet displays and noise cancellation devices are being added to the helmet. Yet the fighter pilot's helmet must remain lightweight and be aesthetically appealing, while still offering ballistic protection. It must function with existing life support equipment such as the Combined Advanced Technology Enhanced Design g-Ensemble (COMBAT-EDGE). It must not impede the pilot's ability to perform any action necessary to accomplish the planned mission. The helmet must protect the pilot during the harsh environment of ejection. When the pilot's only resort is to pull the handle and initiate the ejection sequence, the helmet becomes his salvation or instant death. This paper discusses the safety concerns relative to the catapult phase of ejecting from a high-speed fighter while wearing an advanced fighter helmet.

Wiley, Larry L.; Brown, Randall W.; MacMillan, Robert T.

1995-05-01

87

77 FR 37477 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Glazing Materials  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...motor vehicles and motor vehicles equipment. S2. Purpose...transparency in motor vehicle windows for driver visibility, and to...being thrown through the vehicle windows in collisions...multipurpose passenger vehicles, trucks, buses,...

2012-06-21

88

76 FR 53102 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Denial of Petition for Rulemaking; School Buses  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...bus'' is a motor vehicle, except a trailer...school buses with a gross vehicle weight rating (GVWR...Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard (FMVSS...shoulder belts to these vehicles. Large school buses...often with a teenage driver. When alternative...

2011-08-25

89

Advanced electromagnetic methods for aerospace vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Advanced Helicopter Electromagnetics is centered on issues that advance technology related to helicopter electromagnetics. Progress was made on three major topics: composite materials; precipitation static corona discharge; and antenna technology. In composite materials, the research has focused on the measurements of their electrical properties, and the modeling of material discontinuities and their effect on the radiation pattern of antennas mounted on or near material surfaces. The electrical properties were used to model antenna performance when mounted on composite materials. Since helicopter platforms include several antenna systems at VHF and UHF bands, measuring techniques are being explored that can be used to measure the properties at these bands. The effort on corona discharge and precipitation static was directed toward the development of a new two dimensional Voltage Finite Difference Time Domain computer program. Results indicate the feasibility of using potentials for simulating electromagnetic problems in the cases where potentials become primary sources. In antenna technology the focus was on Polarization Diverse Conformal Microstrip Antennas, Cavity Backed Slot Antennas, and Varactor Tuned Circular Patch Antennas. Numerical codes were developed for the analysis of two probe fed rectangular and circular microstrip patch antennas fed by resistive and reactive power divider networks.

Balanis, Constantine A.; El-Sharawy, El-Budawy; Hashemi-Yeganeh, Shahrokh; Aberle, James T.; Birtcher, Craig R.

1991-01-01

90

77 FR 40843 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard No. 108; Lamp, Reflective Devices, and Associated Equipment  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...approaches for the regulation of motor vehicle lighting performance...Avenue SE., Washington, DC 20590. Comments: You...Avenue SE., Washington, DC 20590. Hand Delivery...Avenue SE., Washington, DC 20590. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Federal Motor Vehicle Safety...

2012-07-11

91

Rules of the Road for Transporting Children--Guidelines for Developing a Motor Vehicle Safety Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses safety issues for child care centers that provide transportation for children. Notes the importance of vehicle usage and control, driver qualifications, vehicle maintenance, child securement, accident procedures, and driver education and training. (JPB)

Hooker, Bruce; Gearhart, Kentin

1999-01-01

92

An advanced unmanned vehicle for remote applications  

SciTech Connect

An autonomous mobile robotic capability is critical to developing remote work applications for hazardous environments. A few potential applications include humanitarian demining and ordnance neutralization, extraterrestrial science exploration, and hazardous waste cleanup. The ability of the remote platform to sense and maneuver within its environment is a basic technology requirement which is currently lacking. This enabling technology will open the door for force multiplication and cost effective solutions to remote operations. The ultimate goal of this work is to develop a mobile robotic platform that can identify and avoid local obstacles as it traverses from its current location to a specified destination. This goal directed autonomous navigation scheme uses the Global Positioning System (GPS) to identify the robot`s current coordinates in space and neural network processing of LADAR range images for local obstacle detection and avoidance. The initial year funding provided by this LDRD project has developed a small exterior mobile robotic development platform and a fieldable version of Sandia`s Scannerless Range Imager (SRI) system. The robotic testbed platform is based on the Surveillance And Reconnaissance ground Equipment (SARGE) robotic vehicle design recently developed for the US DoD. Contingent upon follow-on funding, future enhancements will develop neural network processing of the range map data to traverse unstructured exterior terrain while avoiding obstacles. The SRI will provide real-time range images to a neural network for autonomous guidance. Neural network processing of the range map data will allow real-time operation on a Pentium based embedded processor board.

Pletta, J.B.; Sackos, J.

1998-03-01

93

Control definition study for advanced vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The low speed, high angle of attack flight mechanics of an advanced, canard-configured, supersonic tactical aircraft designed with moderate longitudinal relaxed static stability (Static Margin, SM = 16% C sub W at M = 0.4) was investigated. Control laws were developed for the longitudinal axis (""G'' or maneuver and angle of attack command systems) and for the lateral/directional axes. The performance of these control laws was examined in engineering simulation. A canard deflection/rate requirement study was performed as part of the ""G'' command law evaluation at low angles of attack. Simulated coupled maneuvers revealed the need for command limiters in all three aircraft axes to prevent departure from controlled flight. When modified with command/maneuver limiters, the control laws were shown to be adequate to prevent aircraft departure during aggressive air combat maneuvering.

Lapins, M.; Martorella, R. P.; Klein, R. W.; Meyer, R. C.; Sturm, M. J.

1983-01-01

94

78 FR 76265 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Small Business Impacts of Motor Vehicle Safety  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...and docket materials that are available in the system: (a) ``Quick Search'' to search using a full-text search engine, or (b) ``Advanced Search,'' which displays various indexed fields such as the docket name, docket...

2013-12-17

95

75 FR 22317 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Small Business Impacts of Motor Vehicle Safety  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...and docket materials that are available in the system: (a) ``Quick Search'' to search using a full-text search engine, or (b) ``Advanced Search,'' which displays various indexed fields such as the docket name, docket...

2010-04-28

96

77 FR 69586 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Small Business Impacts of Motor Vehicle Safety  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...and docket materials that are available in the system: (a) ``Quick Search'' to search using a full-text search engine, or (b) ``Advanced Search,'' which displays various indexed fields such as the docket name, docket...

2012-11-20

97

76 FR 72888 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Small Business Impacts of Motor Vehicle Safety  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...and docket materials that are available in the system: (a) ``Quick Search'' to search using a full-text search engine, or (b) ``Advanced Search,'' which displays various indexed fields such as the docket name, docket...

2011-11-28

98

75 FR 76692 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Small Business Impacts of Motor Vehicle Safety  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...and docket materials that are available in the system: (a) ``Quick Search'' to search using a full-text search engine, or (b) ``Advanced Search,'' which displays various indexed fields such as the docket name, docket...

2010-12-09

99

Advancing Autonomous Operations for Deep Space Vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Starting in Jan 2012, the Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Autonomous Mission Operations (AMO) Project began to investigate the ability to create and execute "single button" crew initiated autonomous activities [1]. NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) designed and built a fluid transfer hardware test-bed to use as a sub-system target for the investigations of intelligent procedures that would command and control a fluid transfer test-bed, would perform self-monitoring during fluid transfers, detect anomalies and faults, isolate the fault and recover the procedures function that was being executed, all without operator intervention. In addition to the development of intelligent procedures, the team is also exploring various methods for autonomous activity execution where a planned timeline of activities are executed autonomously and also the initial analysis of crew procedure development. This paper will detail the development of intelligent procedures for the NASA MSFC Autonomous Fluid Transfer System (AFTS) as well as the autonomous plan execution capabilities being investigated. Manned deep space missions, with extreme communication delays with Earth based assets, presents significant challenges for what the on-board procedure content will encompass as well as the planned execution of the procedures.

Haddock, Angie T.; Stetson, Howard K.

2014-01-01

100

Performance of advanced lead acid batteries for electric vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New applications for lead-acid batteries, such as electric vehicle propulsion, demand high specific energy and power and good cycle life. A research and development program at Johnson Controls, Inc., sponsored in part by the United States Department of Energy through Argonne National Laboratory, has been underway since 1978 to develop advanced electric vehicle batteries. Cell test results on and Advanced Battery design developed under this program are described. Capacity, energy and power delivered at various discharge rates are shown. Material distribution and utilization are described, and the effects of discharge rate and temperature on the material utilization of both electrodes is determined. Cycle life data at 100% depth of discharge are also presented.

Mahato, B. K.; Brilmyer, G. H.; Bullock, K. R.

101

Experimental Study on the Vehicle Safety by Earthquake Track Excitation with 1/10 Scale Vehicle and Roller Rig  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A railway is organized by a variety of individual technologies, and functions safely and properly as a system, therefore it is necessary for the system safety to study each potential unsafe case caused due to large earthquakes. Recent reports indicate that railway vehicles could be derailed by earthquake ground motions with no fatal damages of vehicles or tracks. Thus, we should further study the derailment mechanism to pursue to minimize the risk of railway system safety against large earthquakes. Particularly, for more comprehensive understanding on the derailment mechanism of high speed railway vehicle, the derailment process of the case should be directly verified. Therefore, in this study, we arrange an experimental setup with 1/10 scale vehicle and roller rig providing both conditions of high speed wheel/rail rolling contact and large amplitude excitations. Through the experiment, we obtained the outcomes. (1) Two types of vehicle derailment motions are observed; one is rocking derailment and the other is sliding derailment. Derailment motions are similar regardless of vehicle speed. (2) By contrast, the excitation amplitudes for derailment decrease according to the increase of vehicle speed particularly by low frequency excitations. (3) The excitation amplitudes for wheel lift of flange height are relatively independent of vehicle speed. (4) Based on the similarity of fundamental vehicle dynamics between the 1/10 and full scale vehicles, those observed mechanisms in the scaled test should be applicable to that of full scale vehicle.

Nishimura, Kazuhiko; Terumichi, Yoshiaki; Morimura, Tsutomu; Fukada, Junji

102

ADVANCED REACTOR SAFETY PROGRAM – STAKEHOLDER INTERACTION AND FEEDBACK  

SciTech Connect

In the Spring of 2013, we began discussions with our industry stakeholders on how to upgrade our safety analysis capabilities. The focus of these improvements would primarily be on advanced safety analysis capabilities that could help the nuclear industry analyze, understand, and better predict complex safety problems. The current environment in the DOE complex is such that recent successes in high performance computer modeling could lead the nuclear industry to benefit from these advances, as long as an effort to translate these advances into realistic applications is made. Upgrading the nuclear industry modeling analysis capabilities is a significant effort that would require substantial participation and coordination from all industry segments: research, engineering, vendors, and operations. We focus here on interactions with industry stakeholders to develop sound advanced safety analysis applications propositions that could have a positive impact on industry long term operation, hence advancing the state of nuclear safety.

Benjamin W. Spencer; Hai Huang

2014-08-01

103

FS 531: Advanced Food Safety and Quality Dr. Jeff Culbertson  

E-print Network

FS 531: Advanced Food Safety and Quality Professor: Dr. Jeff Culbertson Office: Hulbert 305B Phone topics related to food safety and quality including current issues regarding microbiological and viral and SQF standards. Impacts of recent regulations, such as the Food Safety and Modernization Act of 2011

Collins, Gary S.

104

Issues affecting advanced passive light-water reactor safety analysis  

SciTech Connect

Next generation commercial reactor designs emphasize enhanced safety through improved safety system reliability and performance by means of system simplification and reliance on immutable natural forces for system operation. Simulating the performance of these safety systems will be central to analytical safety evaluation of advanced passive reactor designs. Yet the characteristically small driving forces of these safety systems pose challenging computational problems to current thermal-hydraulic systems analysis codes. Additionally, the safety systems generally interact closely with one another, requiring accurate, integrated simulation of the nuclear steam supply system, engineered safeguards and containment. Furthermore, numerical safety analysis of these advanced passive reactor designs wig necessitate simulation of long-duration, slowly-developing transients compared with current reactor designs. The composite effects of small computational inaccuracies on induced system interactions and perturbations over long periods may well lead to predicted results which are significantly different than would otherwise be expected or might actually occur. Comparisons between the engineered safety features of competing US advanced light water reactor designs and analogous present day reactor designs are examined relative to the adequacy of existing thermal-hydraulic safety codes in predicting the mechanisms of passive safety. Areas where existing codes might require modification, extension or assessment relative to passive safety designs are identified. Conclusions concerning the applicability of these codes to advanced passive light water reactor safety analysis are presented.

Beelman, R.J.; Fletcher, C.D.; Modro, S.M.

1992-08-01

105

Issues affecting advanced passive light-water reactor safety analysis  

SciTech Connect

Next generation commercial reactor designs emphasize enhanced safety through improved safety system reliability and performance by means of system simplification and reliance on immutable natural forces for system operation. Simulating the performance of these safety systems will be central to analytical safety evaluation of advanced passive reactor designs. Yet the characteristically small driving forces of these safety systems pose challenging computational problems to current thermal-hydraulic systems analysis codes. Additionally, the safety systems generally interact closely with one another, requiring accurate, integrated simulation of the nuclear steam supply system, engineered safeguards and containment. Furthermore, numerical safety analysis of these advanced passive reactor designs wig necessitate simulation of long-duration, slowly-developing transients compared with current reactor designs. The composite effects of small computational inaccuracies on induced system interactions and perturbations over long periods may well lead to predicted results which are significantly different than would otherwise be expected or might actually occur. Comparisons between the engineered safety features of competing US advanced light water reactor designs and analogous present day reactor designs are examined relative to the adequacy of existing thermal-hydraulic safety codes in predicting the mechanisms of passive safety. Areas where existing codes might require modification, extension or assessment relative to passive safety designs are identified. Conclusions concerning the applicability of these codes to advanced passive light water reactor safety analysis are presented.

Beelman, R.J.; Fletcher, C.D.; Modro, S.M.

1992-01-01

106

Vehicle Data for Alternative Fuel Vehicles (AFVs) and Hybrid Fuel Vehicles (HEVs) from the Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (AFCD)  

DOE Data Explorer

The AFDC provides search capabilities for many different models of both light-duty and heavy-duty vehicles. Engine and transmission type, fuel and class, fuel economy and emission certification are some of the facts available. The search will also help users locate dealers in their areas and do cost analyses. Information on alternative fuel vehicles and on advanced technology vehicles, along with calculators, resale and conversion information, links to incentives and programs such as Clean Cities, and dozens of fact sheets and publications make this section of the AFDC a valuable resource for car buyers.

107

Level Crossing Crash Taxonomy for Connected Vehicle Safety August 5, 2014  

E-print Network

1 Level Crossing Crash Taxonomy for Connected Vehicle Safety Research August 5, 2014 Volpe-Rail Intersection Crash Taxonomy For Connected Vehicle Safety Research Office of Research and Development Washington, DC 20590 Focus on level crossing- highway intersection Research products Crash Taxonomy Concept

Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, University of

108

Adaptive congestion control of DSRC vehicle networks for collaborative road safety applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Congestion control is critical for the provisioning of quality of services (QoS) over dedicated short range communications (DSRC) vehicle networks for road safety applications. In this paper we propose a congestion control method for DSRC vehicle networks at road intersection, with the aims of providing high availability and low latency channels for high priority emergency safety applications while maximizing channel

Wenyang Guan; Jianhua He; Lin Bai; Zuoyin Tang

2011-01-01

109

Impact of Communication Erasure Channels on Safety of Highway Vehicle Platoons  

E-print Network

1 Impact of Communication Erasure Channels on Safety of Highway Vehicle Platoons Lijian Xu, Member perfor- mance significantly. This paper employs safety of highway vehicle platoons as a platform to study highway utility, increase fuel economy, and reduce emission. By comparing different information structures

Zhang, Hongwei

110

14 CFR 417.233 - Analysis for an unguided suborbital launch vehicle flown with a wind weighting safety system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Analysis for an unguided suborbital launch vehicle flown...TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LAUNCH SAFETY Flight Safety Analysis § 417.233 Analysis for an unguided suborbital launch vehicle...

2013-01-01

111

14 CFR 417.233 - Analysis for an unguided suborbital launch vehicle flown with a wind weighting safety system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Analysis for an unguided suborbital launch vehicle flown...TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LAUNCH SAFETY Flight Safety Analysis § 417.233 Analysis for an unguided suborbital launch vehicle...

2012-01-01

112

14 CFR 417.233 - Analysis for an unguided suborbital launch vehicle flown with a wind weighting safety system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Analysis for an unguided suborbital launch vehicle flown...TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LAUNCH SAFETY Flight Safety Analysis § 417.233 Analysis for an unguided suborbital launch vehicle...

2014-01-01

113

14 CFR 417.233 - Analysis for an unguided suborbital launch vehicle flown with a wind weighting safety system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Analysis for an unguided suborbital launch vehicle flown...TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LAUNCH SAFETY Flight Safety Analysis § 417.233 Analysis for an unguided suborbital launch vehicle...

2010-01-01

114

14 CFR 417.233 - Analysis for an unguided suborbital launch vehicle flown with a wind weighting safety system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Analysis for an unguided suborbital launch vehicle flown...TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LAUNCH SAFETY Flight Safety Analysis § 417.233 Analysis for an unguided suborbital launch vehicle...

2011-01-01

115

Weight and cost forecasting for advanced manned space vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A mass and cost estimating computerized methology for predicting advanced manned space vehicle weights and costs was developed. The user friendly methology designated MERCER (Mass Estimating Relationship/Cost Estimating Relationship) organizes the predictive process according to major vehicle subsystem levels. Design, development, test, evaluation, and flight hardware cost forecasting is treated by the study. This methodology consists of a complete set of mass estimating relationships (MERs) which serve as the control components for the model and cost estimating relationships (CERs) which use MER output as input. To develop this model, numerous MER and CER studies were surveyed and modified where required. Additionally, relationships were regressed from raw data to accommodate the methology. The models and formulations which estimated the cost of historical vehicles to within 20 percent of the actual cost were selected. The result of the research, along with components of the MERCER Program, are reported. On the basis of the analysis, the following conclusions were established: (1) The cost of a spacecraft is best estimated by summing the cost of individual subsystems; (2) No one cost equation can be used for forecasting the cost of all spacecraft; (3) Spacecraft cost is highly correlated with its mass; (4) No study surveyed contained sufficient formulations to autonomously forecast the cost and weight of the entire advanced manned vehicle spacecraft program; (5) No user friendly program was found that linked MERs with CERs to produce spacecraft cost; and (6) The group accumulation weight estimation method (summing the estimated weights of the various subsystems) proved to be a useful method for finding total weight and cost of a spacecraft.

Williams, Raymond

1989-01-01

116

Analysis of quasi-hybrid solid rocket booster concepts for advanced earth-to-orbit vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A study was conducted to assess the feasibility of quasi-hybrid solid rocket boosters for advanced Earth-to-orbit vehicles. Thermochemical calculations were conducted to determine the effect of liquid hydrogen addition, solids composition change plus liquid hydrogen addition, and the addition of an aluminum/liquid hydrogen slurry on the theoretical performance of a PBAN solid propellant rocket. The space shuttle solid rocket booster was used as a reference point. All three quasi-hybrid systems theoretically offer higher specific impulse when compared with the space shuttle solid rocket boosters. However, based on operational and safety considerations, the quasi-hybrid rocket is not a practical choice for near-term Earth-to-orbit booster applications. Safety and technology issues pertinent to quasi-hybrid rocket systems are discussed.

Zurawski, Robert L.; Rapp, Douglas C.

1987-01-01

117

Hybrid and electric advanced vehicle systems (heavy) simulation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A computer program to simulate hybrid and electric advanced vehicle systems (HEAVY) is described. It is intended for use early in the design process: concept evaluation, alternative comparison, preliminary design, control and management strategy development, component sizing, and sensitivity studies. It allows the designer to quickly, conveniently, and economically predict the performance of a proposed drive train. The user defines the system to be simulated using a library of predefined component models that may be connected to represent a wide variety of propulsion systems. The development of three models are discussed as examples.

Hammond, R. A.; Mcgehee, R. K.

1981-01-01

118

Aeronautical technology 2000: A projection of advanced vehicle concepts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Aeronautics and Space Engineering Board (ASEB) of the National Research Council conducted a Workshop on Aeronautical Technology: a Projection to the Year 2000 (Aerotech 2000 Workshop). The panels were asked to project advances in aeronautical technologies that could be available by the year 2000. As the workshop was drawing to a close, it became evident that a more comprehensive investigation of advanced air vehicle concepts than was possible in the limited time available at the workshop would be valuable. Thus, a special panel on vehicle applications was organized. In the course of two meetings, the panel identified and described representative types of aircraft judged possible with the workshop's technology projections. These representative aircraft types include: military aircraft; transport aircraft; rotorcraft; extremely high altitude aircraft; and transatmospheric aircraft. Improvements in performance, efficiency, and operational characteristics possible through the application of the workshop's year 2000 technology projections were discussed. The subgroups also identified the technologies considered essential and enhancing or supporting to achieve the projected aircraft improvements.

1985-01-01

119

Advanced aeroservoelastic stabilization techniques for hypersonic flight vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Advanced high performance vehicles, including Single-Stage-To-Orbit (SSTO) hypersonic flight vehicles, that are statically unstable, require higher bandwidth flight control systems to compensate for the instability resulting in interactions between the flight control system, the engine/propulsion dynamics, and the low frequency structural modes. Military specifications, such as MIL-F-9490D and MIL-F-87242, tend to limit treatment of structural modes to conventional gain stabilization techniques. The conventional gain stabilization techniques, however, introduce low frequency effective time delays which can be troublesome from a flying qualities standpoint. These time delays can be alleviated by appropriate blending of gain and phase stabilization techniques (referred to as Hybrid Phase Stabilization or HPS) for the low frequency structural modes. The potential of using HPS for compensating structural mode interaction was previously explored. It was shown that effective time delay was significantly reduced with the use of HPS; however, the HPS design was seen to have greater residual response than a conventional gain stablized design. Additional work performed to advance and refine the HPS design procedure, to further develop residual response metrics as a basis for alternative structural stability specifications, and to develop strategies for validating HPS design and specification concepts in manned simulation is presented. Stabilization design sensitivity to structural uncertainties and aircraft-centered requirements are also assessed.

Chan, Samuel Y.; Cheng, Peter Y.; Myers, Thomas T.; Klyde, David H.; Magdaleno, Raymond E.; Mcruer, Duane T.

1992-01-01

120

Spatial multibody modeling and vehicle dynamics analysis of advanced vehicle technologies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The US Army vision, announced in October of 1999, encompasses people, readiness, and transformation. The goal of the Army vision is to transition the entire Army into a force that is strategically responsive and dominant at every point of the spectrum of operations. The transformation component will be accomplished in three ways: the Objective Force, the Legacy (current) Force, and the Interim Force. The objective force is not platform driven, but rather the focus is on achieving capabilities that will operate as a "system of systems." As part of the Objective Force, the US Army plans to begin production of the Future Combat System (FCS) in FY08 and field the first unit by FY10 as currently defined in the FCS solicitation(1). As part of the FCS program, the Future Tactical Truck System (FTTS) encompasses all US Army tactical wheeled vehicles and its initial efforts will focus only on the heavy class. The National Automotive Center (NAC) is using modeling and simulation to demonstrate the feasibility and operational potential of advanced commercial and military technologies with application to new and existing tactical vehicles and to describe potential future vehicle capabilities. This document will present the results of computer-based, vehicle dynamics performance assessments of FTTS concepts with such features as hybrid power sources, active suspensions, skid steering, and in-hub electric drive motors. Fully three-dimensional FTTS models are being created using commercially available modeling and simulation methodologies such as ADAMS and DADS and limited vehicle dynamics validation studies are will be performed.

Letherwood, Michael D.; Gunter, David D.; Gorsich, David J.; Udvare, Thomas B.

2004-08-01

121

Ejection safety for advanced fighter helmets  

Microsoft Academic Search

The old saying, `Safety is paramount.' was never more true than it is in the area of ejection safety for high-speed fighter aircraft. The fighter aircraft of today has been designed to endure tremendous structural loading during dogfight or evasive maneuvers. It can fly faster, turn quicker, stay in the air longer (with in-flight refuel) and carry more bombs than

Larry L. Wiley; Randall W. Brown; Robert T. MacMillan

1995-01-01

122

41 CFR 102-34.250 - Do Federal employees in Government motor vehicles have to use all safety devices and follow all...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...employees in Government motor vehicles have to use all safety devices and follow all safety guidelines? 102-34.250 Section 102-34...employees in Government motor vehicles have to use all safety devices and follow all safety...

2010-07-01

123

Advancements in electric and hybrid electric vehicle technology  

SciTech Connect

Contents of this volume include: Influence of Battery Characteristics on Traction Drive Performance; Chassis Design for a Small Electric City Car; Thermal Comfort of Electric Vehicles; Power Quality Problems at Electric Vehicle`s Charging Station; The Development and Performance of the AMPhibian Hybrid Electric Vehicle; The Selection of Lead-Acid Batteries for Use in Hybrid Electric Vehicles; and more.

NONE

1994-12-31

124

Safety Assurance for Irradiating Experiments in the Advanced Test Reactor  

SciTech Connect

The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR), located at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), was specifically designed to provide a high neutron flux test environment for conducting a variety of experiments. This paper addresses the safety assurance process for two general types of experiments conducted in the ATR facility and how the safety analyses for experiments are related to the ATR safety basis. One type of experiment is more routine and generally represents greater risks; therefore, this type of experiment is addressed in more detail in the ATR safety basis. This allows the individual safety analysis for this type of experiment to be more standardized. The second type of experiment is defined in more general terms in the ATR safety basis and is permitted under more general controls. Therefore, the individual safety analysis for the second type of experiment tends to be more unique and is tailored to each experiment.

T. A. Tomberlin; S. B. Grover

2004-11-01

125

Advanced underground Vehicle Power and Control: The locomotive Research Platform  

SciTech Connect

Develop a fuelcell mine locomotive with metal-hydride hydrogen storage. Test the locomotive for fundamental limitations preventing successful commercialization of hydride fuelcells in underground mining. During Phase 1 of the DOE-EERE sponsored project, FPI and its partner SNL, completed work on the development of a 14.4 kW fuelcell power plant and metal-hydride energy storage. An existing battery-electric locomotive with similar power requirements, minus the battery module, was used as the base vehicle. In March 2001, Atlas Copco Wagner of Portland, OR, installed the fuelcell power plant into the base vehicle and initiated integration of the system into the vehicle. The entire vehicle returned to Sandia in May 2001 for further development and integration. Initial system power-up took place in December 2001. A revision to the original contract, Phase 2, at the request of DOE Golden Field Office, established Vehicle Projects LLC as the new prime contractor,. Phase 2 allowed industry partners to conduct surface tests, incorporate enhancements to the original design by SNL, perform an extensive risk and safety analysis, and test the fuelcell locomotive underground under representative production mine conditions. During the surface tests one of the fuelcell stacks exhibited reduced power output resulting in having to replace both fuelcell stacks. The new stacks were manufactured with new and improved technology resulting in an increase of the gross power output from 14.4 kW to 17 kW. Further work by CANMET and Hatch Associates, an engineering consulting firm specializing in safety analysis for the mining industry, both under subcontract to Vehicle Projects LLC, established minimum requirements for underground testing. CANMET upgraded the Programmable Logic Control (PLC) software used to monitor and control the fuelcell power plant, taking into account locomotive operator's needs. Battery Electric, a South Africa manufacturer, designed and manufactured (at no cost to the project) a new motor controller capable of operating the higher rpm motor and different power characteristics of the fuelcells. In early August 2002, CANMET, with the technical assistance of Nuvera Fuel Cells and Battery Electric, installed the new PLC software, installed the new motor controller, and installed the new fuelcell stacks. After minor adjustments, the fuelcell locomotive pulled its first fully loaded ore cars on a surface track. The fuelcell-powered locomotive easily matched the battery powered equivalent in its ability to pull tonnage and equaled the battery-powered locomotive in acceleration. The final task of Phase 2, testing the locomotive underground in a production environment, occurred in early October 2002 in a gold mine. All regulatory requirements to allow the locomotive underground were completed and signed off by Hatch Associates prior to going underground. During the production tests, the locomotive performed flawlessly with no failures or downtime. The actual tests occurred during a 2-week period and involved moving both gold ore and waste rock over a 1,000 meter track. Refueling, or recharging, of the metal-hydride storage took place on the surface. After each shift, the metal-hydride storage module was removed from the locomotive, transported to surface, and filled with hydrogen from high-pressure tanks. The beginning of each shift started with taking the fully recharged metal-hydride storage module down into the mine and re-installing it onto the locomotive. Each 8 hour shift consumed approximately one half to two thirds of the onboard hydrogen. This indicates that the fuelcell-powered locomotive can work longer than a similar battery-powered locomotive, which operates about 6 hours, before needing a recharge.

Vehicle Projects LLC

2003-01-28

126

76 FR 11415 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Power-Operated Window, Partition, and Roof Panel Systems  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...TRANSPORTATION National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 571 [Docket...RIN 2127-AK52 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Power-Operated Window...Systems AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA),...

2011-03-02

127

Inter-vehicle communications: assessing information dissemination under safety constraints  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main goal of inter-vehicle communication technologies is to provide each vehicle with the required information about its surrounding in order to assist the driver avoiding potential dangers. The required information level, or awareness, can be achieved by the exchange of periodic status messages (beacons) among neighboring vehicles together with the quick dissemination of information about potential hazards. In previous

Marc Torrent-Moreno

2007-01-01

128

78 FR 2797 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Minimum Sound Requirements for Hybrid and Electric Vehicles  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...likely to be moving at low speeds...in which the target vehicle was slowing...Investigation into the Detection of a Quiet Vehicle...time from first detection of a target vehicle to the...participant indicated detection of a target vehicle. A...

2013-01-14

129

77 FR 20558 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Platform Lifts for Motor Vehicles; Platform Lift...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...multipurpose passenger vehicle other than a motor home with a gross vehicle weight rating (GVWR...each lift-equipped vehicle with a GVWR of 4...requirements apply to vehicles with public use lifts...locations remote from the driver's seating...

2012-04-05

130

10 CFR 611.3 - Advanced technology vehicle.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...average combined fuel economy for vehicles with substantially similar attributes...combined average fuel economy of all vehicles with substantially similar attributes...DOE. (3) In the case of an electric drive vehicle with the ability to...

2012-01-01

131

10 CFR 611.3 - Advanced technology vehicle.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...average combined fuel economy for vehicles with substantially similar attributes...combined average fuel economy of all vehicles with substantially similar attributes...DOE. (3) In the case of an electric drive vehicle with the ability to...

2013-01-01

132

10 CFR 611.3 - Advanced technology vehicle.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...average combined fuel economy for vehicles with substantially similar attributes...combined average fuel economy of all vehicles with substantially similar attributes...DOE. (3) In the case of an electric drive vehicle with the ability to...

2014-01-01

133

10 CFR 611.3 - Advanced technology vehicle.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...average combined fuel economy for vehicles with substantially similar attributes...combined average fuel economy of all vehicles with substantially similar attributes...DOE. (3) In the case of an electric drive vehicle with the ability to...

2011-01-01

134

Advanced Control Surface Seal Development for Future Space Vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's Glenn Research Center (GRC) has been developing advanced high temperature structural seals since the late 1980s and is currently developing seals for future space vehicles as part of the Next Generation Launch Technology (NGLT) program. This includes control surface seals that seal the edges and hinge lines of movable flaps and elevons on future reentry vehicles. In these applications, the seals must operate at temperatures above 2000 F in an oxidizing environment, limit hot gas leakage to protect underlying structures, endure high temperature scrubbing against rough surfaces, and remain flexible and resilient enough to stay in contact with sealing surfaces for multiple heating and loading cycles. For this study, three seal designs were compared against the baseline spring tube seal through a series of compression tests at room temperature and 2000 F and flow tests at room temperature. In addition, canted coil springs were tested as preloaders behind the seals at room temperature to assess their potential for improving resiliency. Addition of these preloader elements resulted in significant increases in resiliency compared to seals by themselves and surpassed the performance of the baseline seal at room temperature. Flow tests demonstrated that the seal candidates with engineered cores had lower leakage rates than the baseline spring tube design. However, then the seals were placed on the preloader elements, the flow rates were higher as the seals were not compressed as much and therefore were not able to fill the groove as well. High temperature tests were also conducted to assess the compatability of seal fabrics against cermaic matrix composite (CMC) panels anticipated for use in next generation launch vehicles. These evaluations demonstrated potential bonding issues between the Nextel fabrics and CMC candidates.

DeMange, Jeffrey J.; Dunlap, Patrick H.; Steinetz, Bruce M.

2003-01-01

135

Advanced Control Surface Seal Development for Future Space Vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA s Glenn Research Center (GRC) has been developing advanced high temperature structural seals since the late 1980's and is currently developing seals for future space vehicles as part of the Next Generation Launch Technology (NGLT) program. This includes control surface seals that seal the edges and hinge lines of movable flaps and elevons on future reentry vehicles. In these applications, the seals must operate at temperatures above 2000 F in an oxidizing environment, limit hot gas leakage to protect underlying structures, endure high temperature scrubbing against rough surfaces, and remain flexible and resilient enough to stay in contact with sealing surfaces for multiple heating and loading cycles. For this study, three seal designs were compared against the baseline spring tube seal through a series of compression tests at room temperature and 2000 F and flow tests at room temperature. In addition, canted coil springs were tested as preloaders behind the seals at room temperature to assess their potential for improving resiliency. Addition of these preloader elements resulted in significant increases in resiliency compared to the seals by themselves and surpassed the performance of the baseline seal at room temperature. Flow tests demonstrated that the seal candidates with engineered cores had lower leakage rates than the baseline spring tube design. However, when the seals were placed on the preloader elements, the flow rates were higher as the seals were not compressed as much and therefore were not able to fill the groove as well. High temperature tests were also conducted to asses the compatibility of seal fabrics against ceramic matrix composite (CMC) panels anticipated for use in next generation launch vehicles. These evaluations demonstrated potential bonding issues between the Nextel fabrics and CMC candidates.

DeMange, J. J.; Dunlap, P. H., Jr.; Steinetz, B. M.

2004-01-01

136

Survey of Advanced Booster Options for Potential Shuttle Derivative Vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A never-ending major goal for the Space Shuttle program is to continually improve flight safety, as long as this launch system remains in operational service. One of the options to improve system safety and to enhance vehicle performance as well, that has been seriously studied over the past several decades, is to replace the existing strap-on four segment solid rocket boosters (SRB's) with more capable units. A number of booster upgrade options have been studied in some detail, ranging from five segment solids through hybrids and a wide variety of liquid strap-ons (both pressure and pump fed with various propellants); all the way to a completely reusable liquid fly back booster (complete with air breathing engines for controlled landing and return). All of these possibilities appear to offer improvements in varying degrees; and each has their strengths and weaknesses from both programmatic and technical points of view. The most beneficial booster upgrade/design, if the shuttle program were to continue long enough to justify the required investment, would be an approach that greatly increased both vehicle and crew safety. This would be accomplished by increasing the minimum range/minimum altitude envelope that would readily allow abort to orbit (ATO), possibly even to zero/zero, and possibly reduce or eliminate the Return to Launch Site (RTLS) and even the Trans Atlantic Landing (TAL) abort mode requirements. This paper will briefly survey and discuss all of the various booster'upgrade options studied previously, and compare their relative attributes. The survey will explicitly discuss, in summary comparative form, options that include: five segment solids; several hybrid possibilities; pressure and/or pump-fed liquids using either LO2/kerosene, H2O/kerosene and LO2/J2, any of which could be either fully expendable, partly or fully reusable; and finally a fully reusable liquid fly back booster system, with a number of propellant and propulsion system options. Performance and configuration comparison illustrations and tables will be included to provide a comprehensive survey for the paper.

Sackheim, Robert L.; Ryan, Richard; Threet, Ed; Kennedy, James W. (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

137

Safe Operation of Commercial Vehicles. Module SH-18. Safety and Health.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This student module on safe operation of commercial vehicles is one of 50 modules concerned with job safety and health. This module discusses causes of vehicle accidents, economic reasons for accident control, and considerations for preventive maintenance. Following the introduction, 11 objectives (each keyed to a page in the text) the student is…

Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

138

Next Generation Safety Performance Monitoring at Signalized Intersections Using Connected Vehicle Technology  

E-print Network

communication data sets. The safety measures were categorized into single-OBE measures and dual-OBE measure based on the number of the equipped vehicle needed to be monitored. We used vehicles trapped in dilemma zone as the single-OBE measure. The dual...

Zha, Liteng

2014-04-28

139

The Effect of Automobile Safety on Vehicle Type Choice: An Empirical Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An analysis was made of the extent to which the safety characteristics of new vehicles affect consumer purchase decisions. Using an extensive data set that combines vehicle data collected by the Automobile Club of Southern California Target Car Program with the responses from a national household survey of new car buyers, a statistical model of…

McCarthy, Patrick S.

140

Advanced missions safety. Volume 2: Technical discussion, Part 2: Experiment safety, guidelines  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A technical analysis of a portion of the advanced missions safety study is presented. The potential hazards introduced when experimental equipment is carried aboard the Earth Orbit Shuttle are identified. Safety guidelines and requirements for eliminating or reducing these hazards are recommended.

Hinton, M. G., Jr.

1972-01-01

141

NREL - Advanced Vehicles and Fuels Basics - Center for Transportation Technologies and Systems 2010  

ScienceCinema

We can improve the fuel economy of our cars, trucks, and buses by designing them to use the energy in fuels more efficiently. Researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) are helping the nation achieve these goals by developing transportation technologies like: advanced vehicle systems and components; alternative fuels; as well as fuel cells, hybrid electric, and plug-in hybrid vehicles. For a text version of this video visit http://www.nrel.gov/learning/advanced_vehicles_fuels.html

None

2013-05-29

142

Functional safety for the Advanced Technology Solar Telescope  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since inception, the Advanced Technology Solar Telescope (ATST) has planned to implement a facility-wide functional safety system to protect personnel from harm and prevent damage to the facility or environment. The ATST will deploy an integrated safety-related control system (SRCS) to achieve functional safety throughout the facility rather than relying on individual facility subsystems to provide safety functions on an ad hoc basis. The Global Interlock System (GIS) is an independent, distributed, facility-wide, safety-related control system, comprised of commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) programmable controllers that monitor, evaluate, and control hazardous energy and conditions throughout the facility that arise during operation and maintenance. The GIS has been designed to utilize recent advances in technology for functional safety plus revised national and international standards that allow for a distributed architecture using programmable controllers over a local area network instead of traditional hard-wired safety functions, while providing an equivalent or even greater level of safety. Programmable controllers provide an ideal platform for controlling the often complex interrelationships between subsystems in a modern astronomical facility, such as the ATST. A large, complex hard-wired relay control system is no longer needed. This type of system also offers greater flexibility during development and integration in addition to providing for expanded capability into the future. The GIS features fault detection, self-diagnostics, and redundant communications that will lead to decreased maintenance time and increased availability of the facility.

Bulau, Scott; Williams, Timothy R.

2012-09-01

143

49 CFR 240.111 - Individual's duty to furnish data on prior safety conduct as motor vehicle operator.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...data on prior safety conduct as motor vehicle operator. 240.111...data on prior safety conduct as motor vehicle operator. (a...Avenue, SE., Washington, DC 20590 in accordance with the...appendix C unless the person's motor vehicle driving license...

2010-10-01

144

NASA technical advances in aircraft occupant safety  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A NASA program to improve aircraft safety is discussed in terms of three areas of concentration: unexpected turbulence encounters, fire, and crash impact. To provide warning of clear air turbulence (CAT) so that the pilot can take evasive action, a laser Doppler system is described, which functions by measuring backscatter frequency radiation occurring in aerosols ahead of the aircraft. The system was found able to detect CAT, but at shorter than optimal ranges (10 km as opposed to 32 km). Fire safety has focused on both the early detection of fires through improved sensing methods, and on the development of fire-retardant materials, i.e., intumescent char-forming protective coatings. Crashworthiness is discussed in terms of the development of a survivable crash envelope and improved seat and restraint systems. To evaluate an aircraft for crashworthiness, finite-element computer programs are currently being developed which analyze both aircraft structural configurations and the intrinsic strength of aircraft materials.

Enders, J. H.

1978-01-01

145

Advanced Key Technologies for Hot Control Surfaces in Space Re- Entry Vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

(1)MAN Technologie AG, D- 86153 Augsburg, Germany (2,3) ESA, 2200 Noordwijk ZH, The Netherlands Current space re-entry vehicles (e.g. X-38 vehicle 201, the prototype of the International Space Station's Crew Return Vehicle (CRV)) require advanced control surfaces (so called body flaps). Such control surfaces allow the design of smaller and lighter vehicles as well as faster re-entries (compared to the US Shuttle). They are designed as light-weight structures that need no metallic parts, need no mass or volume consuming heat sinks to protect critical components (e.g. bearings) and that can be operated at temperatures of more than 1600 "C in air transferring high mechanical loads (dynamic 40 kN, static 70 kN) at the same time. Because there is a need for CRV and also for Reusable Launch Vehicles (RLV) in future, the European Space Agency (ESA) felt compelled to establish a "Future European Space Transportation and Investigation Program,, (FESTIP) and a "General Support for Technology Program,, (GSTP). One of the main goals of these programs was to develop and qualify key-technologies that are able to master the above mentioned challenging requirements for advanced hot control surfaces and that can be applied for different vehicles. In 1996 MAN Technologie has started the development of hot control surfaces for small lifting bodies in the national program "Heiü Strukturen,,. One of the main results of this program was that especially the following CMC (Ceramic Matrix Composite) key technologies need to be brought up to space flight standard: Complex CMC Structures, CMC Bearings, Metal-to-CMC Joining Technologies, CMC Fasteners, Oxidation Protection Systems and Static and Dynamic Seals. MAN Technologie was contracted by ESA to continue the development and qualification of these key technologies in the frame of the FESTIP and the GSTP program. Development and qualification have successfully been carried out. The key technologies have been applied for the X-38 vehicle 201 body flaps that have been designed, manufactured and qualified also by MAN Technologie in the frame of the national TETRA program ("Technologien fu zuku ftige Raum-Transportsysteme,,). A set of two body flaps will be delivered to NASA at the beginning of 2002 to be integrated into the vehicle 201. Based on development- and qualification tests, the paper describes main technical properties and features of these key technologies that at the same time represent the status of the art. In a qualification test (simultaneous application of thermal and mechanical loads with bearing movements in oxidising atmosphere) of a full scaled CMC bearing, five complete re-entries have been simulated successfully. The paper informs about applied mechanical load and temperature histories as well as about the number of intermittent bearing movements. The paper further informs about the complex CMC attachment structures (attachment of bearing into the body flap and load introduction) that have been qualified together with the CMC bearing. The attachment of the body flap to the vehicle's aft structure has also been qualified by tests in which also four re- entries have been simulated successfully. The attachment in principle is an interfacing structure between the "hot" (1600 "C) CMC body flap and the "cold,, (175 "C) metallic vehicle's aft structure that is able to transfer high me- chanical loads at high temperatures and minimise the heat flux through interfacing components in such way that the temperature difference of 1600 "C 175 "C = 1425 "C is brought down over a structure-length of only 200 mm. The paper informs about applied mechanical load and temperature histories and about the safety margins that have been demonstrated by rupture tests. Mechanical load carrying capacity and thermal resistance of ceramic fasteners have been demonstrated in several development tests which cover tension-, shear-, fatigue- and self locking-tests as well as tests with fastener assemblies representative for the body flaps. The r

Dogigli, Michael; Pradier, Alain; Tumino, Giorgio

2002-01-01

146

Setting initial targets in vehicle side impact safety design using regression-based modeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

The performance of a vehicle in a side impact safety assessment test can be influenced by a number of parameters which can be categorized under structural, packaging, and restraint system-related areas. One way of setting design variable targets in initial stages for desirable side impact safety performance is to use reliable regression-based relations developed with the aid of test data.

A Deb; K S Cheruvu

2007-01-01

147

Proper Use of Child Safety Seat Motor vehicle crashes are the leading cause of  

E-print Network

Proper Use of Child Safety Seat Restraints Motor vehicle crashes are the leading cause safety belts and child restraints are the single most effective tool in reducing these deaths children are at a greater risk of being unrestrained. Misuse and non-use of child restraints remains high

148

Passive Safety Features in Advanced Nuclear Power Plant Design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For implementation of advance passive safety features in future nuclear power plant design, a passive safety system has been proposed and its response has been observed for Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA) in the cold leg of a reactor coolant system. In a transient simulation the performance of proposed system is validated against existing safety injection system for a reference power plant of 325 MWe. The existing safety injection system is a huge system and consists of many active components including pumps, valves, piping and Instrumentation and Control (I&C). A good running of the active components of this system is necessary for its functionality as high head safety injection system under design basis accidents. Using reactor simulation technique, the proposed passive safety injection system and existing safety injection system are simulated and tested for their performance under large break LOCA for the same boundary conditions. Critical thermal hydraulic parameters of both the systems are presented graphically and discussed. The results obtained are approximately the same in both the cases. However, the proposed passive safety injection system is a better choice for such type of reactors due to reduction in components with improved safety.

Tahir, M.; Chughtai, I. R.; Aslam, M.

2013-03-01

149

REQUEST TO USE A UNIVERSITY MOTORIZED VEHICLE FORM Issued By: Risk & Safety 20 Oct 2009 REQUEST TO USE A UNIVERSITY MOTORIZED VEHICLE  

E-print Network

REQUEST TO USE A UNIVERSITY MOTORIZED VEHICLE FORM Issued By: Risk & Safety 20 Oct 2009 REQUEST TO USE A UNIVERSITY MOTORIZED VEHICLE INSTRUCTIONS: Complete form, attach a photocopy of your drivers University Vehicle License Plate# ____________currently under the control of the Department

Bolch, Tobias

150

Ares-I-X Vehicle Preliminary Range Safety Malfunction Turn Analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ares-I-X is the designation given to the flight test version of the Ares-I rocket (also known as the Crew Launch Vehicle - CLV) being developed by NASA. As part of the preliminary flight plan approval process for the test vehicle, a range safety malfunction turn analysis was performed to support the launch area risk assessment and vehicle destruct criteria development processes. Several vehicle failure scenarios were identified which could cause the vehicle trajectory to deviate from its normal flight path, and the effects of these failures were evaluated with an Ares-I-X 6 degrees-of-freedom (6-DOF) digital simulation, using the Program to Optimize Simulated Trajectories Version 2 (POST2) simulation framework. The Ares-I-X simulation analysis provides output files containing vehicle state information, which are used by other risk assessment and vehicle debris trajectory simulation tools to determine the risk to personnel and facilities in the vicinity of the launch area at Kennedy Space Center (KSC), and to develop the vehicle destruct criteria used by the flight test range safety officer. The simulation analysis approach used for this study is described, including descriptions of the failure modes which were considered and the underlying assumptions and ground rules of the study, and preliminary results are presented, determined by analysis of the trajectory deviation of the failure cases, compared with the expected vehicle trajectory.

Beaty, James R.; Starr, Brett R.; Gowan, John W., Jr.

2008-01-01

151

Future of electricity for automobiles: advanced electric vehicle concepts  

Microsoft Academic Search

A large and growing effort involving both the federal government and industry is underway to develop and commercialize highway vehicles that utilize electricity. The electricity they use can be generated from nonpetroleum fuels. The Department of Energy, through its Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Program, is the principal federal agency involved in this work. The goal is to replace petroleum-consuming vehicles

OConnell

1981-01-01

152

Reducing Safety Flaring through Advanced Control  

E-print Network

, causing a release to the safety flare system 4 Fuel Gas System Overview HP Fuel Gas Unit1 GTG Off-Gas SC BB/Propane Vaporizers Unit2 Unit6Unit5Unit4Unit3Unit1 Crude Fuel Gas HP BB Gas Dry Fuel Gas Customer PIC Unit7 Town Gas Unit8 LP BB... / C3 Gas PIC Sphere Unit9 LP Fuel Gas FLARE PIC FLARE PIC C kPaG D kPaG B kPaG BB/Propane Vaporizers PIC A kPaG A kPaG 5 More Details ? Fuel Gas System ? Heavily integrated refinery / chemical plant fuel gas system ?Older refining...

Hokanson, D.; Lehman, K.; Matsumoto, S.; Takai, N.; Takase, F.

2010-01-01

153

Environmental, health, and safety issues of sodium-sulfur batteries for electric and hybrid vehicles. Volume 4, In-vehicle safety  

SciTech Connect

This report is the last of four volumes that identify and assess the environmental, health, and safety issues that may affect the commercial-scale use of sodium-sulfur (Na/S) battery technology as the energy source in electric and hybrid vehicles. The reports are intended to help the Electric and Hybrid Propulsion Division of the Office of Transportation Technologies in the US Department of Energy (DOE/EHP) determine the direction of its research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) program for Na/S battery technology. The reports review the status of Na/S battery RD&D and identify potential hazards and risks that may require additional research or that may affect the design and use of Na/S batteries. This volume covers the in-vehicle safety issues of electric vehicles powered by Na/S batteries. The report is based on a review of the literature and on discussions with experts at DOE, national laboratories and agencies, and private industry. It has three major goals: (1) to identify the unique hazards associated with electric vehicle (EV) use; (2) to describe the existing standards, regulations, and guidelines that are or could be applicable to these hazards; and (3) to discuss the adequacy of the existing requirements in addressing the safety concerns of EVs.

Mark, J.

1992-11-01

154

Advanced launch vehicle system concepts: An historical overview  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many studies leading to advanced launch vehicle system concepts have been undertaken during the years leading to the Space Shuttle development and since it was started. All of these have focused on nebulous and wide-ranging mission requirements. As a result, many launch system concepts have been defined, each addressing a different mission, yielding a wide range of points of departure once the "real" mission, or missions, have been identified. Future studies have this database available from which to depart once the "real" next generation mission is defined. This paper discusses some of the main issues surrounding the development of future systems. This subject really addresses the three principal requirements needed to be resolved for these systems to come into being: system architecture—what does the system look like and what is its makeup?, technologies—what are the technologies required to make the new system a successful venture and meet the requirements set forth in the mission statement?, and finally, the mission—what do we need to do and when?. The principal focus here will be on the past studies reviewing past concepts which address particular aspects of potential mission requirements with technology development and concepts discussed as we go along.

Ehrlich, Carl F.

1997-01-01

155

Analysis of Aviation Safety Reporting System Incident Data Associated With the Technical Challenges of the Vehicle Systems Safety Technology Project  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This analysis was conducted to support the Vehicle Systems Safety Technology (VSST) Project of the Aviation Safety Program (AVsP) milestone VSST4.2.1.01, "Identification of VSST-Related Trends." In particular, this is a review of incident data from the NASA Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS). The following three VSST-related technical challenges (TCs) were the focus of the incidents searched in the ASRS database: (1) Vechicle health assurance, (2) Effective crew-system interactions and decisions in all conditions; and (3) Aircraft loss of control prevention, mitigation, and recovery.

Withrow, Colleen A.; Reveley, Mary S.

2014-01-01

156

Enhancing the NASA Expendable Launch Vehicle Payload Safety Review Process Through Program Activities  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The safety review process for NASA spacecraft flown on Expendable Launch Vehicles (ELVs) has been guided by NASA-STD 8719.8, Expendable Launch Vehicle Payload Safety Review Process Standard. The standard focused primarily on the safety approval required to begin pre-launch processing at the launch site. Subsequent changes in the contractual, technical, and operational aspects of payload processing, combined with lessons-learned supported a need for the reassessment of the standard. This has resulted in the formation of a NASA ELV Payload Safety Program. This program has been working to address the programmatic issues that will enhance and supplement the existing process, while continuing to ensure the safety of ELV payload activities.

Palo, Thomas E.

2007-01-01

157

76 FR 45436 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Electric-Powered Vehicles; Electrolyte Spillage and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...electro-mechanical components or circuits that propel the vehicle...is supplied by a high voltage source. This includes...train that has a working voltage greater than 30 VAC...mechanical components or circuits that propel the vehicle...is supplied by a high voltage source. This...

2011-07-29

158

78 FR 13853 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Denial of Petition for Rulemaking; Vehicle Rollover...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...height of its center of gravity to predict a vehicle's...document that some makes and models of vehicles have become wider, and have a centers of gravity that are lower to the ground...versions of similar makes and models, therefore improving...

2013-03-01

159

RISMC ADVANCED SAFETY ANALYSIS WORKING PLAN – FY 2015 – FY 2019  

SciTech Connect

SUMMARY In this report, the Advanced Safety Analysis Program (ASAP) objectives and value proposition is described. ASAP focuses on modernization of nuclear power safety analysis (tools, methods and data); implementing state-of-the-art modeling techniques (which include, for example, enabling incorporation of more detailed physics as they become available); taking advantage of modern computing hardware; and combining probabilistic and mechanistic analyses to enable a risk informed safety analysis process. The modernized tools will maintain the current high level of safety in our nuclear power plant fleet, while providing an improved understanding of safety margins and the critical parameters that affect them. Thus, the set of tools will provide information to inform decisions on plant modifications, refurbishments, and surveillance programs, while improving economics. The set of tools will also benefit the design of new reactors, enhancing safety per unit cost of a nuclear plant. As part of the discussion, we have identified three sets of stakeholders, the nuclear industry, the Department of Energy (DOE), and associated oversight organizations. These three groups would benefit from ASAP in different ways. For example, within the DOE complex, the possible applications that are seen include the safety of experimental reactors, facility life extension, safety-by-design in future generation advanced reactors, and managing security for the storage of nuclear material. This report provides information in five areas: 1. A value proposition (“why is this important?”) that will make the case for stakeholder’s use of the ASAP research and development (R&D) products. 2. An identification of likely end users and pathway to adoption of enhanced tools by the end-users. 3. A proposed set of practical and achievable “use case” demonstrations. 4. A proposed plan to address ASAP verification and validation (V&V) needs. 5. A proposed schedule for the multi-year ASAP.

Ronaldo H. Szilard; Curtis L. Smith

2014-09-01

160

77 FR 24560 - National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Electric Vehicle Safety Technical Symposium  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...considerations for electric vehicles powered by lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries. The symposium will include brief NHTSA presentations...current agency research and activities related to Li-ion batteries and Li-ion battery-powered vehicles,...

2012-04-24

161

The impact of passive safety systems on desirability of advanced light water reactors  

E-print Network

This work investigates whether the advanced light water reactor designs with passive safety systems are more desirable than advanced reactor designs with active safety systems from the point of view of uncertainty in the ...

Eul, Ryan C

2006-01-01

162

NASA Expendable Launch Vehicle (ELV) Payload Safety Review Process  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Issues addressed by this program: (1) Complicated roles and responsibilities associated with multi-partner projects (2) Working relationships and communications between all organizations involved in the payload safety process (3) Consistent interpretation and implementation of safety requirements from one project to the rest (4) Consistent implementation of the Tailoring Process (5) Clearly defined NASA decision-making-authority (6) Bring Agency-wide perspective to each ElV payload project. Current process requires a Payload Safety Working Group (PSWG) for eac payload with representatives from all involved organizations.

Starbus, Calvert S.; Donovan, Shawn; Dook, Mike; Palo, Tom

2007-01-01

163

Advanced Crew Rescue Vehicle/Personnel Launch System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Advanced Crew Rescue Vehicle (ACRV) will be an essential element of the Space Station to respond to three specific missions, all of which have occurred during the history space exploration by the U.S. and the Soviets: (1) Mission DRM-1: Return of disabled crew members during medical emergencies; (2) Mission DRM-2: Return of crew members from accidents or as a result of failures of Space Station systems; and (3) Mission DRM-3: Return of crew members during interruption of Space Shuttle launches. The ACRV will have the ability to transport up to eight astronauts during a 24-hour mission. Not only would the ACRV serve as a lifeboat to provide transportation back to Earth, but it would also be available as a immediately available safe refuge in case the Space Station were severely damaged by space debris or other catastrophe. Upon return to Earth, existing world-wide search and rescue assets operated by the Coast Guard and Department of Defense would be able to retrieve personnel returned to Earth via the ACRV. The operational approach proposed for the ACRV is tailored to satisfying mission requirements for simplicity of operation (no piloting skills or specially trained personnel are required), continuous availability, high reliability and affordability. By using proven systems as the basis for many critical ACRV systems, the ACRV program is more likely to achieve each of these mission requirements. Nonetheless, the need for the ACRV to operate reliably with little preflight preparation after, perhaps, 5 to 10 years in orbit imposes challenges not faced by any previous space system of this complexity. Specific concerns exist regarding micrometeoroid impacts, battery life, and degradation of recovery parachutes while in storage.

Craig, Jerry W.

1993-01-01

164

Advanced Crew Rescue Vehicle/Personnel Launch System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Advanced Crew Rescue Vehicle (ACRV) will be an essential element of the Space Station to respond to three specific missions, all of which have occurred during the history space exploration by the U.S. and the Soviets: (1) Mission DRM-1: Return of disabled crew members during medical emergencies; (2) Mission DRM-2: Return of crew members from accidents or as a result of failures of Space Station systems; and (3) Mission DRM-3: Return of crew members during interruption of Space Shuttle launches. The ACRV will have the ability to transport up to eight astronauts during a 24-hour mission. Not only would the ACRV serve as a lifeboat to provide transportation back to Earth, but it would also be available as a immediately available safe refuge in case the Space Station were severely damaged by space debris or other catastrophe. Upon return to Earth, existing world-wide search and rescue assets operated by the Coast Guard and Department of Defense would be able to retrieve personnel returned to Earth via the ACRV. The operational approach proposed for the ACRV is tailored to satisfying mission requirements for simplicity of operation (no piloting skills or specially trained personnel are required), continuous availability, high reliability and affordability. By using proven systems as the basis for many critical ACRV systems, the ACRV program is more likely to achieve each of these mission requirements. Nonetheless, the need for the ACRV to operate reliably with little preflight preparation after, perhaps, 5 to 10 years in orbit imposes challenges not faced by any previous space system of this complexity. Specific concerns exist regarding micrometeoroid impacts, battery life, and degradation of recovery parachutes while in storage.

Craig, Jerry W.

1993-02-01

165

An assessment of research and development leadership in advanced batteries for electric vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Due to the recently enacted California regulations requiring zero emission vehicles be sold in the market place by 1998, electric vehicle research and development (R&D) is accelerating. Much of the R&D work is focusing on the Achilles' heel of electric vehicles -- advanced batteries. This report provides an assessment of the R&D work currently underway in advanced batteries and electric vehicles in the following countries: Denmark, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Russia, and the United Kingdom. Although the US can be considered one of the leading countries in terms of advanced battery and electric vehicle R&D work, it lags other countries, particularly France, in producing and promoting electric vehicles. The US is focusing strictly on regulations to promote electric vehicle usage while other countries are using a wide variety of policy instruments (regulations, educational outreach programs, tax breaks and subsidies) to encourage the use of electric vehicles. The US should consider implementing additional policy instruments to ensure a domestic market exists for electric vehicles. The domestic is the largest and most important market for the US auto industry.

Bruch, V. L.

1994-02-01

166

An assessment of research and development leadership in advanced batteries for electric vehicles  

SciTech Connect

Due to the recently enacted California regulations requiring zero emission vehicles be sold in the market place by 1998, electric vehicle research and development (R&D) is accelerating. Much of the R&D work is focusing on the Achilles` heel of electric vehicles -- advanced batteries. This report provides an assessment of the R&D work currently underway in advanced batteries and electric vehicles in the following countries: Denmark, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Russia, and the United Kingdom. Although the US can be considered one of the leading countries in terms of advanced battery and electric vehicle R&D work, it lags other countries, particularly France, in producing and promoting electric vehicles. The US is focusing strictly on regulations to promote electric vehicle usage while other countries are using a wide variety of policy instruments (regulations, educational outreach programs, tax breaks and subsidies) to encourage the use of electric vehicles. The US should consider implementing additional policy instruments to ensure a domestic market exists for electric vehicles. The domestic is the largest and most important market for the US auto industry.

Bruch, V.L.

1994-02-01

167

Analytical Study on the Safety of High Speed Railway Vehicle on Excited Tracks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A railway is organized by a variety of individual technologies, and functions safely and properly as a system, therefore it is necessary for the system safety to study each potential case of disasters caused by earthquakes. Recent reports indicate that railway vehicles could be derailed solely by the ground motions of earthquakes with no fatal damages of vehicles or tracks. Based on the reports and facts, we believe that we should further study the derailment mechanism of a high speed railway vehicle excited by large seismic motions, to pursue to minimize the risk of railway system against large earthquakes. At the start of the study, we developed our original vehicle dynamics simulation and then employed it for numerical analyses. At the present stage, through the analyses, we obtained the following major outcomes. (1) Most of derailments are brought as the result of the rocking motion of a vehicle by track excitations underneath. Interestingly, the derailing motions are observed similarly regardless of vehicle speed. (2) By contrast, the excitation amplitudes for derailment are influenced by vehicle speed particularly in lower input frequencies. This can be explained by the sensitivity of the relative wheel/rail slide due to creepage. (3) The excitation amplitudes for 30mm of wheel lift are relatively independent of vehicle speed. (4) The wheel/rail slide strongly depends on the friction coefficient if a vehicle stationed, being relatively independent of the friction coefficient at higher speeds.

Nishimura, Kazuhiko; Terumichi, Yoshiaki; Morimura, Tsutomu; Sogabe, Kiyoshi

168

Motor Vehicle Safety - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus  

MedlinePLUS

... français) Hindi (??????) Japanese (???) Korean (???) Marshallese (kajin Majöl) Portuguese (português) Russian (???????) Somali (af ... Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Return to top Marshallese (kajin Majöl) Safety with Car Seats and Booster ...

169

White paper: Preliminary assessment of LNG vehicle technology, economics, and safety issues, revision 1  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objective of the study is to evaluate the potential of liquified natural gas (LNG) as a vehicle fuel, to determine market inches, and to identify needed technology improvements. The white paper is being issued when the work is approximately 30 percent complete to preview the study direction, draw preliminary conclusions, and make initial recommendations. Interim findings relative to LNG vehicle technology, economics, and safety are presented. It is important to decide if heavier hydrocarbons should be allowed in LNG vehicle fuel. Development of suitable refueling couplings and vehicle fuel supply pressure systems are recommended. Initial economics analyses considered transit buses and pickup and delivery trucks fueled via onsite liquefiers and imported LNG. Net user costs were more than (but in some cases close to) those for diesel fuel and gasoline. Lowering the cost of small-scale liquefiers would significantly improve the economics of LNG vehicles. New emissions regulations may introduce considerations beyond simple cost comparisons. LNG vehicle safety and available accident data are reviewed. Consistent codes for LNG vehicles and refueling facilities are needed.

Powars, Charles; Lucher, Dan; Moyer, Carl; Browning, Lou

1992-01-01

170

Self-Configuring TDMA Protocols for Enhancing Vehicle Safety With DSRC Based Vehicle-to-Vehicle Communications  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a novel Medium Access Control protocol for inter-vehicular wireless networking using the emerging Dedicated Short Range Communication (DSRC) standards. The main contribution of the paper is the design of a self- configuring TDMA protocol capable of inter-vehicle message delivery with short and deterministic delay bounds. The proposed Vehicular Self-Organizing MAC (VeSOMAC) is designed to be vehicle location

Fan Yu; Subir K. Biswas

2007-01-01

171

New active safety device dedicated to light all-terrain vehicle stability: Application to quad bike and off-road  

E-print Network

(small weight, huge reachable speeds...), All-Terrain Vehicles (ATVs - as quad bikes) and off-road mobile, the prevention of off-road vehicle and mobile robot rollover are addressed by using a new active safety device vehicle stability even at high speed. Indeed, in off-road mobile robot context, the complexity

Boyer, Edmond

172

76 FR 78 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard; Engine Control Module Speed Limiter Device  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...to Schneider's crash data from its own fleet, vehicles...a significantly lower crash rate than large trucks...Advocates for Highway and Auto Safety (Advocates) commented...does not believe that the data in the 1991 report to...occupants that are killed in crashes between heavy trucks...

2011-01-03

173

Improving surveillance for injuries associated with potential motor vehicle safety defects  

PubMed Central

Objective: To improve surveillance for deaths and injuries associated with potential motor vehicle safety defects. Design: Vehicles in fatal crashes can be studied for indications of potential defects using an "early warning" surveillance statistic previously suggested for screening reports of adverse drug reactions. This statistic is illustrated with time series data for fatal, tire related and fire related crashes. Geographic analyses are used to augment the tire related statistics. Results: A statistical criterion based on the Poisson distribution that tests the likelihood of an expected number of events, given the number of events that actually occurred, is a promising method that can be readily adapted for use in injury surveillance. Conclusions: Use of the demonstrated techniques could have helped to avert a well known injury surveillance failure. This method is adaptable to aid in the direction of engineering and statistical reviews to prevent deaths and injuries associated with potential motor vehicle safety defects using available databases. PMID:15066972

Whitfield, R; Whitfield, A

2004-01-01

174

Advanced Reactor Safety Research Division. Quarterly progress report, April 1-June 30, 1980  

SciTech Connect

The Advanced Reactor Safety Research Programs Quarterly Progress Report describes current activities and technical progress in the programs at Brookhaven National Laboratory sponsored by the USNRC Division of Reactor Safety Research. The projects reported each quarter are the following: HTGR safety evaluation, SSC Code Development, LMFBR Safety Experiments, and Fast Reactor Safety Code Validation.

Romano, A.J.

1980-01-01

175

Advanced Reactor Safety Research Division. Quarterly progress report, January 1-March 31, 1980  

SciTech Connect

The Advanced Reactor Safety Research Programs quarterly progress report describes current activities and technical progress in the programs at Brookhaven National Laboratory sponsored by the USNRC Division of Reactor Safety Research. The projects reported each quarter are the following: HTGR Safety Evaluation, SSC Code Development, LMFBR Safety Experiments, and Fast Reactor Safety Code Validation.

Agrawal, A.K.; Cerbone, R.J.; Sastre, C.

1980-06-01

176

Design for Reliability and Safety Approach for the New NASA Launch Vehicle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The United States National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is in the midst of a space exploration program intended for sending crew and cargo to the international Space Station (ISS), to the moon, and beyond. This program is called Constellation. As part of the Constellation program, NASA is developing new launch vehicles aimed at significantly increase safety and reliability, reduce the cost of accessing space, and provide a growth path for manned space exploration. Achieving these goals requires a rigorous process that addresses reliability, safety, and cost upfront and throughout all the phases of the life cycle of the program. This paper discusses the "Design for Reliability and Safety" approach for the NASA new launch vehicles, the ARES I and ARES V. Specifically, the paper addresses the use of an integrated probabilistic functional analysis to support the design analysis cycle and a probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) to support the preliminary design and beyond.

Safie, Fayssal M.; Weldon, Danny M.

2007-01-01

177

System Interface for an Integrated Intelligent Safety System (ISS) for Vehicle Applications  

PubMed Central

This paper deals with the interface-relevant activity of a vehicle integrated intelligent safety system (ISS) that includes an airbag deployment decision system (ADDS) and a tire pressure monitoring system (TPMS). A program is developed in LabWindows/CVI, using C for prototype implementation. The prototype is primarily concerned with the interconnection between hardware objects such as a load cell, web camera, accelerometer, TPM tire module and receiver module, DAQ card, CPU card and a touch screen. Several safety subsystems, including image processing, weight sensing and crash detection systems, are integrated, and their outputs are combined to yield intelligent decisions regarding airbag deployment. The integrated safety system also monitors tire pressure and temperature. Testing and experimentation with this ISS suggests that the system is unique, robust, intelligent, and appropriate for in-vehicle applications. PMID:22205861

Hannan, Mahammad A.; Hussain, Aini; Samad, Salina A.

2010-01-01

178

U.S. Department of Energy -- Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity: Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Testing and Demonstration Activities  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA) tests plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) in closed track, dynamometer and onroad testing environments. The onroad testing includes the use of dedicated drivers on repeated urban and highway driving cycles that range from 10 to 200 miles, with recharging between each loop. Fleet demonstrations with onboard data collectors are also ongoing with PHEVs operating in several dozen states and Canadian Provinces, during which trips- and miles-per-charge, charging demand and energy profiles, and miles-per-gallon and miles-per-kilowatt-hour fuel use results are all documented, allowing an understanding of fuel use when vehicles are operated in charge depleting, charge sustaining, and mixed charge modes. The intent of the PHEV testing includes documenting the petroleum reduction potential of the PHEV concept, the infrastructure requirements, and operator recharging influences and profiles. As of May 2008, the AVTA has conducted track and dynamometer testing on six PHEV conversion models and fleet testing on 70 PHEVs representing nine PHEV conversion models. A total of 150 PHEVs will be in fleet testing by the end of 2008, all with onboard data loggers. The onroad testing to date has demonstrated 100+ miles per gallon results in mostly urban applications for approximately the first 40 miles of PHEV operations. The primary goal of the AVTA is to provide advanced technology vehicle performance benchmark data for technology modelers, research and development programs, and technology goal setters. The AVTA testing results also assist fleet managers in making informed vehicle purchase, deployment and operating decisions. The AVTA is part of DOE’s Vehicle Technologies Program. These AVTA testing activities are conducted by the Idaho National Laboratory and Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation, with Argonne National Laboratory providing dynamometer testing support. The proposed paper and presentation will discuss PHEV testing activities and results. INL/CON-08-14333

James E. Francfort; Donald Karner; John G. Smart

2009-05-01

179

Comparison of advanced battery technologies for electric vehicles  

SciTech Connect

Battery technologies of different chemistries, manufacture and geometry were evaluated as candidates for use in Electric Vehicles (EV). The candidate batteries that were evaluated include four single cell and seven multi-cell modules representing four technologies: Lead-Acid, Nickel-Cadmium, Nickel-Metal Hydride and Zinc-Bromide. A standard set of testing procedures for electric vehicle batteries, based on industry accepted testing procedures, and any tests which were specific to individual battery types were used in the evaluations. The batteries were evaluated by conducting performance tests, and by subjecting them to cyclical loading, using a computer controlled charge--discharge cycler, to simulate typical EV driving cycles. Criteria for comparison of batteries were: performance, projected vehicle range, cost, and applicability to various types of EVs. The four battery technologies have individual strengths and weaknesses and each is suited to fill a particular application. None of the batteries tested can fill every EV application.

Dickinson, B.E.; Lalk, T.R. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Mechanical Engineering Dept.; Swan, D.H. [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States). Inst. of Transportation Studies

1993-12-31

180

Foundational development of an advanced nuclear reactor integrated safety code.  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the activities and results of a Sandia LDRD project whose objective was to develop and demonstrate foundational aspects of a next-generation nuclear reactor safety code that leverages advanced computational technology. The project scope was directed towards the systems-level modeling and simulation of an advanced, sodium cooled fast reactor, but the approach developed has a more general applicability. The major accomplishments of the LDRD are centered around the following two activities. (1) The development and testing of LIME, a Lightweight Integrating Multi-physics Environment for coupling codes that is designed to enable both 'legacy' and 'new' physics codes to be combined and strongly coupled using advanced nonlinear solution methods. (2) The development and initial demonstration of BRISC, a prototype next-generation nuclear reactor integrated safety code. BRISC leverages LIME to tightly couple the physics models in several different codes (written in a variety of languages) into one integrated package for simulating accident scenarios in a liquid sodium cooled 'burner' nuclear reactor. Other activities and accomplishments of the LDRD include (a) further development, application and demonstration of the 'non-linear elimination' strategy to enable physics codes that do not provide residuals to be incorporated into LIME, (b) significant extensions of the RIO CFD code capabilities, (c) complex 3D solid modeling and meshing of major fast reactor components and regions, and (d) an approach for multi-physics coupling across non-conformal mesh interfaces.

Clarno, Kevin (Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN); Lorber, Alfred Abraham; Pryor, Richard J.; Spotz, William F.; Schmidt, Rodney Cannon; Belcourt, Kenneth (Ktech Corporation, Albuquerque, NM); Hooper, Russell Warren; Humphries, Larry LaRon

2010-02-01

181

Advanced transportation system study: Manned launch vehicle concepts for two way transportation system payloads to LEO. Program cost estimates document  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report describes Rockwell International's cost analysis results of manned launch vehicle concepts for two way transportation system payloads to low earth orbit during the basic and option 1 period of performance for contract NAS8-39207, advanced transportation system studies. Vehicles analyzed include the space shuttle, personnel launch system (PLS) with advanced launch system (ALS) and national launch system (NLS) boosters, foreign launch vehicles, NLS-2 derived launch vehicles, liquid rocket booster (LRB) derived launch vehicle, and cargo transfer and return vehicle (CTRV).

Duffy, James B.

1993-01-01

182

Environmental, health, and safety issues of sodium-sulfur batteries for electric and hybrid vehicles  

SciTech Connect

This report is the last of four volumes that identify and assess the environmental, health, and safety issues that may affect the commercial-scale use of sodium-sulfur (Na/S) battery technology as the energy source in electric and hybrid vehicles. The reports are intended to help the Electric and Hybrid Propulsion Division of the Office of Transportation Technologies in the US Department of Energy (DOE/EHP) determine the direction of its research, development, and demonstration (RD D) program for Na/S battery technology. The reports review the status of Na/S battery RD D and identify potential hazards and risks that may require additional research or that may affect the design and use of Na/S batteries. This volume covers the in-vehicle safety issues of electric vehicles powered by Na/S batteries. The report is based on a review of the literature and on discussions with experts at DOE, national laboratories and agencies, and private industry. It has three major goals: (1) to identify the unique hazards associated with electric vehicle (EV) use; (2) to describe the existing standards, regulations, and guidelines that are or could be applicable to these hazards; and (3) to discuss the adequacy of the existing requirements in addressing the safety concerns of EVs.

Mark, J

1992-11-01

183

Ant Colony Optimization for vehicle routing in advanced logistics systems  

E-print Network

ways, for instance, adding more than one depot, considering more than one vehicle type, accounting, have an impact as great as the solution strategy. In this paper we present DyvOil and AntRoute, two metaheuristic such as Ant Colony System. We also describe the case of Pina Petroli, a fuel oil distribution

Gambardella, Luca Maria

184

Environmental, health, and safety issues of sodium-sulfur batteries for electric and hybrid vehicles  

SciTech Connect

This report is the first of four volumes that identify and assess the environmental, health, and safety issues involved in using sodium-sulfur (Na/S) battery technology as the energy source in electric and hybrid vehicles that may affect the commercialization of Na/S batteries. This and the other reports on recycling, shipping, and vehicle safety are intended to help the Electric and Hybrid Propulsion Division of the Office of Transportation Technologies in the US Department of Energy (DOE/EHP) determine the direction of its research, development, and demonstration (RD D) program for Na/S battery technology. The reports review the status of Na/S battery RD D and identify potential hazards and risks that may require additional research or that may affect the design and use of Na/S batteries. This volume covers cell design and engineering as the basis of safety for Na/S batteries and describes and assesses the potential chemical, electrical, and thermal hazards and risks of Na/S cells and batteries as well as the RD D performed, under way, or to address these hazards and risks. The report is based on a review of the literature and on discussions with experts at DOE, national laboratories and agencies, universities, and private industry. Subsequent volumes will address environmental, health, and safety issues involved in shipping cells and batteries, using batteries to propel electric vehicles, and recycling and disposing of spent batteries. The remainder of this volume is divided into two major sections on safety at the cell and battery levels. The section on Na/S cells describes major component and potential failure modes, design, life testing and failure testing, thermal cycling, and the safety status of Na/S cells. The section on batteries describes battery design, testing, and safety status. Additional EH S information on Na/S batteries is provided in the appendices.

Ohi, J.M.

1992-09-01

185

A Trial of an All-Terrain Vehicle Safety Education Video in a Community-Based Hunter Education Program  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: All-terrain vehicle (ATV) injury is an increasingly serious problem, particularly among rural youth. There have been repeated calls for ATV safety education, but little study regarding optimal methods or content for such education. The purpose of this study was to determine if an ATV safety video was effective in increasing ATV safety

Williams, Robert S.; Graham, James; Helmkamp, James C.; Dick, Rhonda; Thompson, Tonya; Aitken, Mary E.

2011-01-01

186

Integration of Advanced Concepts and Vehicles Into the Next Generation Air Transportation System. Volume 1; Introduction, Key Messages, and Vehicle Attributes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Raytheon, in partnership with NASA, is leading the way in ensuring that the future air transportation continues to be a key driver of economic growth and stability and that this system provides an environmentally friendly, safe, and effective means of moving people and goods. A Raytheon-led team of industry and academic experts, under NASA contract NNA08BA47C, looked at the potential issues and impact of introducing four new classes of advanced aircraft into the next generation air transportation system -- known as NextGen. The study will help determine where NASA should further invest in research to support the safe introduction of these new air vehicles. Small uncrewed or unmanned aerial systems (SUAS), super heavy transports (SHT) including hybrid wing body versions (HWB), very light jets (VLJ), and supersonic business jets (SSBJ) are the four classes of aircraft that we studied. Understanding each vehicle's business purpose and strategy is critical to assessing the feasibility of new aircraft operations and their impact on NextGen's architecture. The Raytheon team used scenarios created by aviation experts that depict vehicles in year 2025 operations along with scripts or use cases to understand the issues presented by these new types of vehicles. The information was then mapped into the Joint Planning and Development Office's (JPDO s) Enterprise Architecture to show how the vehicles will fit into NextGen's Concept of Operations. The team also identified significant changes to the JPDO's Integrated Work Plan (IWP) to optimize the NextGen vision for these vehicles. Using a proven enterprise architecture approach and the JPDO s Joint Planning Environment (JPE) web site helped make the leap from architecture to planning efficient, manageable and achievable. Very Light Jets flying into busy hub airports -- Supersonic Business Jets needing to climb and descend rapidly to achieve the necessary altitude Super-heavy cargo planes requiring the shortest common flight path -- are just a few of the potential new operations in the future National Airspace System. To assess the impact of these new scenarios on overall national airspace operations, the Raytheon team used the capabilities of a suite of tools such as NASA's Airspace Concepts Evaluation System (ACES), the Flight Optimization System (FLOPS), FAA's Aviation Environmental Design Tool (AEDT), Intelligent Automations Kinematic Trajectory Generator (KTG) and the Aviation Safety Risk Model (ASRM). Detailed metroplex modeling, surface delay models for super heavy transports, prioritized routing and corridors for supersonics business jets, and VLJ demand models are some of the models developed by the Raytheon team to study the effect of operating these new vehicles in the future NAS. Using this suite of models, several trade studies were conducted to evaluate these effects in terms of delays, equity in access, safety, and the environment. Looking at the impact of each vehicle, a number of critical issues were identified. The Raytheon team concluded that strict compliance to NextGen's 4-dimensional trajectory (4DT) management will be required to accommodate these vehicles unique operations and increased number of flights in the future air space system. The next section provides a discussion of this and the other key findings from our study.

Zellweger, Andres; Resnick, Herbert; Stevens, Edward; Arkind, Kenneth; Cotton William B.

2010-01-01

187

Results of electric vehicle safety issues survey: Conducted on behalf of ad hoc EV battery readiness working group in-vehicle safety sub-working group  

SciTech Connect

This report documents the results of a survey conducted in the winter of 1994-1995 by the In-Vehicle Safety Sub-Working Group, a working subunit of the DOE-sponsored ad hoc EV Battery Readiness Working Group. The survey was intended to determine the opinions of a group of industry experts regarding the relative importance of a list of some 39 potential safety concerns, grouped into 8 broad areas related to electric vehicles and their battery systems. Participation in the survey was solicited from the members of the Battery Readiness Working Group, along with members of the SAE EV Battery Safety Issues Task Force and selected other knowledgeable individuals. Results of the survey questionnaire were compiled anonymously from the 38 individuals who submitted responses. For each of the issues, survey respondents ranked them as having high, medium or low importance in each of three areas: the severity of events involving this concern, the probability that such events will occur, and the likelihood that mitigating action for such events may be needed beyond normal practices. The accumulated responses from this ranking activity are tabulated, and the response totals are also provided by several subgroupings of respondents. Additionally, large numbers of written comments were provided by respondents, and these are summarized with numbers of responses indicated. A preliminary statistical analysis of the tabulated results was performed but did not provide a satisfactory ranking of the concerns and has not been included in this report. A list is provided of the 15 concerns which a majority of the respondents indicated could be of both medium-to-high severity and medium-to-high probability of occurrence. This list will be reviewed by the Safety Sub-Working Group to determine the status of actions being taken by industry or government to mitigate these concerns, and the likelihood that additional research, standards development or regulation may be warranted to address them.

Hunt, G.L.

1996-06-01

188

Fuel efficiency and automobile safety: Single-vehicle highway fatalities for passenger cars  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports the results of an effort to shed some light on the relationship that might exist between enhanced standards and single-vehicle passenger car highway fatalities. Quantification of this relationship is not an easy task Not surprisingly, the literature on modeling the relationship between fuel economy and highway fatalities is very scant. Our analytic framework consists of two submodels: a corporate average fuel economy (CAFE) submodel and a single-vehicle highway fatalities submodel. Some of the variables that enter the CAFE relationship affect single-vehicle fatalities, as well. The results of this study are not unequivocal in every respect. However, they indicate that enhanced standards and automobile safety need not be at odds with each other. A main message that emerges from this study is the need not to confuse car downsizing with down weighting. Quantatative studies of highway fatalities have mostly treated weight and size interchangeably, and have used only the weight variable in the fatalities equation to avoid dealing with multicollinearity. Such references as {open_quote}size/weight{close_quote} which lump size and weight together as if they were the same variable are not uncommon in the safety literature. Our study indicates that weight and size are not a proxy to each other, and that in single vehicle crashes they are likely to have opposite effects on safety. Men researchers choose to drop the size variable and include only the weight variable in the fatalities equation, the weight estimate may end up with a negative sign, not necessarily because weight has a beneficial effect on safety, but because the omitted size variable has a dominant beneficial effect on safety, which is picked up by the weight variable that appears in the equation. 65 refs., 7 tabs.

Khazzoom, J.D. [San Jose Univ., CA (United States)

1994-12-31

189

75 FR 60036 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; New Pneumatic Tires for Motor Vehicles With a GVWR of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...heavy load range tires for vehicles with gross vehicle weight rating (GVWR...applies to tires used on vehicles with a gross vehicle weight rating of 4,536...now applies to tires for vehicles with a gross vehicle weight rating of...

2010-09-29

190

Advanced PEFC development for fuel cell powered vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vehicles equipped with fuel cells have been developed with much progress. Outcomes of such development efforts include a Toyota fuel cell electric vehicle (FCEV) using hydrogen as the fuel which was developed and introduced in 1996, followed by another Toyota FCEV using methanol as the fuel, developed and introduced in 1997. In those Toyota FCEVs, a fuel cell system is installed under the floor of each RAV4L, to sports utility vehicle. It has been found that the CO concentration in the reformed gas of methanol reformer can be reduced to 100 ppm in wide ranges of catalyst temperature and gas flow rate, by using the ruthenium (Ru) catalyst as the CO selective oxidizer, instead of the platinum (Pt) catalyst known from some time ago. It has been also found that a fuel cell performance equivalent to that with pure hydrogen can be ensured even in the reformed gas with the carbon monoxide (CO) concentration of 100 ppm, by using the Pt-Ru (platinum ruthenium alloy) electrocatalyst as the anode electrocatalyst of a polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC), instead of the Pt electrocatalyst known from some time ago.

Kawatsu, Shigeyuki

191

A market systems analysis of the U.S. Sport Utility Vehicle market considering frontal crash safety technology and policy.  

PubMed

Active safety features and adjustments to the New Car Assessment Program (NCAP) consumer-information crash tests have the potential to decrease the number of serious traffic injuries each year, according to previous studies. However, literature suggests that risk reductions, particularly in the automotive market, are often accompanied by adjusted consumer risk tolerance, and so these potential safety benefits may not be fully realized due to changes in consumer purchasing or driving behavior. This article approaches safety in the new vehicle market, particularly in the Sport Utility Vehicle and Crossover Utility Vehicle segments, from a market systems perspective. Crash statistics and simulations are used to predict the effects of design and policy changes on occupant crash safety, and discrete choice experiments are conducted to estimate the values consumers place on vehicle attributes. These models are combined in a market simulation that forecasts how consumers respond to the available vehicle alternatives, resulting in predictions of the market share of each vehicle and how the change in fleet mixture influences societal outcomes including injuries, fuel consumption, and firm profits. The model is tested for a scenario where active safety features are implemented across the new vehicle fleet and a scenario where the U.S. frontal NCAP test speed is modified. While results exhibit evidence of consumer risk adjustment, they support adding active safety features and lowering the NCAP frontal test speed, as these changes are predicted to improve the welfare of both firms and society. PMID:22898094

Hoffenson, Steven; Frischknecht, Bart D; Papalambros, Panos Y

2013-01-01

192

EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS OF VEHICLE DYNAMICS. VALIDATION OF A NOVEL VEHICLE MATHEMATICAL MODEL USING ADVANCED INSTRUMENTATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dynamic behaviour represents a relevant factor in several technical fields in the automotive world. The dynamic characterization of a vehicle can be done by means of tests or simulations. In both methods, it is not avoidable to realize tests (direct study of the facts or model validations). This paper focuses on the tests definition problem (manoeuvres, variables of interest,

Felipe Jiménez Alonso

193

Analytical modeling of rail vehicle safety and comfort in short radius curved tracks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study deals with the modeling of rail vehicles' behavior when traveling in curves of short radius. Based on the symmetry of the vehicle and on the nature of the motion, we show that the study of the system behavior can be reduced to the quasi static study of a quarter. We propose in this work, an analytical model able to describe the safety and the comfort by determining derailment and creep forces. The developed model is validated using the software ADAMS and results from the bibliography. The developed model can be easily used to optimize the rail vehicles design and the sensitivity analyses of its performance. To cite this article: M. Nejlaoui et al., C. R. Mecanique 337 (2009).

Nejlaoui, Mohamed; Affi, Zouhaier; Houidi, Ajmi; Romdhane, Lotfi

2009-05-01

194

Current status of environmental, health, and safety issues of nickel metal-hydride batteries for electric vehicles  

SciTech Connect

This report identifies important environment, health, and safety issues associated with nickel metal-hydride (Ni-MH) batteries and assesses the need for further testing and analysis. Among the issues discussed are cell and battery safety, workplace health and safety, shipping requirements, and in-vehicle safety. The manufacture and recycling of Ni-MH batteries are also examined. This report also overviews the ``FH&S`` issues associated with other nickel-based electric vehicle batteries; it examines venting characteristics, toxicity of battery materials, and the status of spent batteries as a hazardous waste.

Corbus, D.; Hammel, C.J.; Mark, J.

1993-08-01

195

Operational design factors for advanced space transportation vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The tools and techniques needed to provide design decision-makers with balanced quantitative assessments of the potential operability consequences of their decisions are addressed. The factors controlling operability are identified, and a methodology to predict the impact of these factors on a specific launch vehicle is developed. Requirements to control these factors are established, and analytical tools developed specifically for performing detailed simulations to verify specific operability characteristics are described. An approach to collect, store, organize, and access high-quality historical, current, and future launch system data for the benefit of the USAF and the U.S. launch system community at large is outlined.

Whitehair, C. L.; Hickman, R. A.; Adams, J. D.; Wolfe, M. G.

1992-08-01

196

Final report for the Advanced Natural Gas Vehicle Project  

SciTech Connect

The project objective was to develop the technologies necessary to prototype a dedicated compressed natural gas (CNG) powered, mid-size automobile with operational capabilities comparable to gasoline automobiles. A system approach was used to design and develop the engine, gas storage system and vehicle packaging. The 2.4-liter DOHC engine was optimized for natural gas operation with high-compression pistons, hardened exhaust valves, a methane-specific catalytic converter and multi-point gaseous injection. The chassis was repackaging to increase space for fuel storage with a custom-designed, cast-aluminum, semi-trailing arm rear suspension system, a revised flat trunk sheet-metal floorpan and by equipping the car with run-flat tires. An Integrated Storage system (ISS) was developed using all-composite, small-diameter cylinders encapsulated within a high-strength fiberglass shell with impact-absorbing foam. The prototypes achieved the target goals of a city/highway driving range of 300 miles, ample trunk capacity, gasoline vehicle performance and ultra low exhaust emissions.

John Wozniak

1999-02-16

197

How Safe is Vehicle Safety? The Contribution of Vehicle Technologies to the Reduction in Road Casualties in France from 2000 to 2010  

PubMed Central

In France, over the last 10 years, road fatalities have decreased dramatically by 48%. This reduction is somewhat close to the target fixed by the European Commision in 2001 for the whole of Europe (?50 %). According to the French govnerment, 75% of this reduction was due to the implementation of automatic speed cameras on the roadsides from 2003 onwards. Yet, during this period, there was also a significantly increase in safety technology, new regulations in front and side impacts, and developments in Euro NCAP to improve passive safety in the vehicles. This paper set out to estimate the extent that vehicle safety technologies contributed to the road safety benefits over this decade. Using a combination of databases and fitment rates, the number of fatalities and hospitalized injuries saved in passenger car crashes was estimated for a number of safety technologies, individually and as a package including a 5 star EuroNCAP rating. The additional benefits from other public safety measures were also similarly estimated. The results showed that overall safety measures during this decade saved 240,676 fatalities + serious injuries, of which 173,663 were car occupants. Of these, 27,365 car occupants and 1,083 pedestrian savings could be attributed directly to vehicle safety improvements (11% overall). It was concluded that while public safety measures were responsible for the majority of the savings, enhanced vehicle safety technologies also made a significant improvement in the road toll in France during the last decade. As the take-up rate for these technologies improves, is expected to continue to provide even more benefits in the next 10-year period. PMID:22105388

Page, Yves; Hermitte, Thierry; Cuny, Sophie

2011-01-01

198

Advances in high-resolution imaging from underwater vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Large area mapping at high resolution underwater continues to be constrained by the mismatch between available navigation as compared to sensor accuracy. In this paper we present advances that exploit consistency and redundancy within local sensor measurements to build high resolution optical and acoustic maps that are a consistent representation of the environment.

We present our work in the context of

Hanumant Singh; Christopher Roman; Oscar Pizarro; Ryan Eustice

2005-01-01

199

NREL's Hydrogen-Powered Bus Serves as Showcase for Advanced Vehicle Technologies (AVT) (Brochure)  

SciTech Connect

Brochure describes the hydrogen-powered internal combustion engine (H2ICE) shuttle bus at NREL. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is funding the lease of the bus from Ford to demonstrate market-ready advanced technology vehicles to visitors at NREL.

Not Available

2010-08-01

200

77 FR 53199 - California State Motor Vehicle Pollution Control Standards; Advanced Clean Car Program; Request...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Advanced Clean Car program (ACC) which combines the control of smog and soot causing pollutants and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions...amendments to its low emission vehicle (LEV) program to address both smog forming pollutants and greenhouse gases, and amendments to...

2012-08-31

201

Advances in Decentralized Single-Beacon Acoustic Navigation for Underwater Vehicles: Theory and  

E-print Network

reference beacon in addition to its own inertial navigation sensors to perform absolute localizationAdvances in Decentralized Single-Beacon Acoustic Navigation for Underwater Vehicles: Theory and implementation of a decentralized navigation system that enables simultaneous single-beacon navigation

Whitcomb, Louis L.

202

A numerical investigation on the efficiency of range extending systems using Advanced Vehicle Simulator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Series plug-in hybrid electric vehicles of varying engine configuration and battery capacity are modeled using Advanced Vehicle Simulator (ADVISOR). The performance of these vehicles is analyzed on the bases of energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions on the tank-to-wheel and well-to-wheel paths. Both city and highway driving conditions are considered during the simulation. When simulated on the well-to-wheel path, it is shown that the range extender with a Wankel rotary engine consumes less energy and emits fewer greenhouse gases compared to the other systems with reciprocating engines during many driving cycles. The rotary engine has a higher power-to-weight ratio and lower noise, vibration and harshness compared to conventional reciprocating engines, although performs less efficiently. The benefits of a Wankel engine make it an attractive option for use as a range extender in a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle.

Varnhagen, Scott; Same, Adam; Remillard, Jesse; Park, Jae Wan

2011-03-01

203

Clean Cities Guide to Alternative Fuel and Advanced Medium- and Heavy-Duty Vehicles (Book)  

SciTech Connect

Today's fleets are increasingly interested in medium-duty and heavy-duty vehicles that use alternative fuels or advanced technologies that can help reduce operating costs, meet emissions requirements, improve fleet sustainability, and support U.S. energy independence. Vehicle and engine manufacturers are responding to this interest with a wide range of options across a steadily growing number of vehicle applications. This guide provides an overview of alternative fuel power systems?including engines, microturbines, electric motors, and fuel cells?and hybrid propulsion systems. The guide also offers a list of individual medium- and heavy-duty vehicle models listed by application, along with associated manufacturer contact information, fuel type(s), power source(s), and related information.

Not Available

2013-08-01

204

Design Optimization of Vehicle Control Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The advancement of electronic technology has made significant contributions to the safety and convenience of modern vehicles. New intelligent functionalities of vehicles have been im- plemented in a number of electronic control units (ECUs) that are connected to each in vehicle control networks (VCNs). However, with the rapid increase in the number of ECUs, VCNs currently face several challenges, e.g.,

Seongwoo Kim; Eundong Lee; Mideum Choi; Hanyou Jeong; Seungwoo Seo

2011-01-01

205

NASA advanced aeronautics design solar powered remotely piloted vehicle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Environmental problems such as the depletion of the ozone layer and air pollution demand a change in traditional means of propulsion that is sensitive to the ecology. Solar powered propulsion is a favorable alternative that is both ecologically harmless as well as cost effective. Integration of solar energy into designs ranging from futuristic vehicles to heating is beneficial to society. The design and construction of a Multi-Purpose Remotely Piloted Vehicle (MPRPV) seeks to verify the feasibility of utilizing solar propulsion as a primary fuel source. This task has been a year long effort by a group of ten students, divided into five teams, each dealing with different aspects of the design. The aircraft was designed to take-off, climb to the design altitude, fly in a sustained figure-eight flight path, and cruise for approximately one hour. This mission requires flight at Reynolds numbers between 150,000 and 200,000 and demands special considerations in the aerodynamic design in order to achieve flight in this regime. Optimal performance requires a light weight configuration with both structural integrity and maximum power availability. The structure design and choice of solar cells for the propulsion was governed by the weight, efficiency, and cost considerations. The final design is a MPRPV weighting 35 N which cruises 7 m/s at the design altitude of 50 m. The configuration includes a wing composed of balsa and foam NACA 6409 airfoil sections and carbon fiber spars, a tail of similar construction, and a truss structure fuselage. The propulsion system consists of 98 10 percent efficient solar cells donated by Mobil Solar, a NiCad battery for energy storage, and a folding propeller regulated by a lightweight and efficient control system. The airfoils and propeller chosen for the design were research and tested during the design process.

Elario, David S.; Guillmette, Neal H.; Lind, Gregory S.; Webster, Jonathan D.; Ferreira, Michael J.; Konstantakis, George C.; Marshall, David L.; Windt, Cari L.

1991-01-01

206

Pedestrian Safety  

MedlinePLUS

... Travel & Motor Vehicle Safety En Español Travel & Motor Vehicle Safety Pedestrian Safety Main Points Emergency physicians treat ... patients each year who are injured by motor vehicles while walking. Sixty-eight thousand pedestrians were injured ...

207

A Novel Series Connected Batteries State of High Voltage Safety Monitor System for Electric Vehicle Application  

PubMed Central

Batteries, as the main or assistant power source of EV (Electric Vehicle), are usually connected in series with high voltage to improve the drivability and energy efficiency. Today, more and more batteries are connected in series with high voltage, if there is any fault in high voltage system (HVS), the consequence is serious and dangerous. Therefore, it is necessary to monitor the electric parameters of HVS to ensure the high voltage safety and protect personal safety. In this study, a high voltage safety monitor system is developed to solve this critical issue. Four key electric parameters including precharge, contact resistance, insulation resistance, and remaining capacity are monitored and analyzed based on the equivalent models presented in this study. The high voltage safety controller which integrates the equivalent models and control strategy is developed. By the help of hardware-in-loop system, the equivalent models integrated in the high voltage safety controller are validated, and the online electric parameters monitor strategy is analyzed and discussed. The test results indicate that the high voltage safety monitor system designed in this paper is suitable for EV application. PMID:24194677

Jiaxi, Qiang; Lin, Yang; Jianhui, He; Qisheng, Zhou

2013-01-01

208

Development of Pneumatic Aerodynamic Devices to Improve the Performance, Economics, and Safety of Heavy Vehicles  

SciTech Connect

Under contract to the DOE Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies, the Georgia Tech Research Institute (GTRI) is developing and evaluating pneumatic (blown) aerodynamic devices to improve the performance, economics, stability and safety of operation of Heavy Vehicles. The objective of this program is to apply the pneumatic aerodynamic aircraft technology previously developed and flight-tested by GTRI personnel to the design of an efficient blown tractor-trailer configuration. Recent experimental results obtained by GTRI using blowing have shown drag reductions of 35% on a streamlined automobile wind-tunnel model. Also measured were lift or down-load increases of 100-150% and the ability to control aerodynamic moments about all 3 axes without any moving control surfaces. Similar drag reductions yielded by blowing on bluff afterbody trailers in current US trucking fleet operations are anticipated to reduce yearly fuel consumption by more than 1.2 billion gallons, while even further reduction is possible using pneumatic lift to reduce tire rolling resistance. Conversely, increased drag and down force generated instantaneously by blowing can greatly increase braking characteristics and control in wet/icy weather due to effective ''weight'' increases on the tires. Safety is also enhanced by controlling side loads and moments caused on these Heavy Vehicles by winds, gusts and other vehicles passing. This may also help to eliminate the jack-knifing problem if caused by extreme wind side loads on the trailer. Lastly, reduction of the turbulent wake behind the trailer can reduce splash and spray patterns and rough air being experienced by following vehicles. To be presented by GTRI in this paper will be results developed during the early portion of this effort, including a preliminary systems study, CFD prediction of the blown flowfields, and design of the baseline conventional tractor-trailer model and the pneumatic wind-tunnel model.

Robert J. Englar

2000-06-19

209

Advanced Korean Industrial Safety and Health Policy with Risk Assessment  

PubMed Central

This article describes a systematic roadmap master plan for advanced industrial safety and health policy in Korea, with an emphasis on. Since Korean industries had first emergence of industrial safety and health policy in 1953, enormous efforts have been made on upgrading the relevant laws in order to reflect real situation of industrial work environment in accordance with rapid changes of Korean and global business over three decades. Nevertheless, current policy has major defects; too much techniques-based articles, diverged contents in less organization, combined enforcement and punishments and finally enforcing regulations full of commands and control. These deficiencies have make it difficult to accommodate changes of social, industrial and employment environment in customized fashion. The approach to the solution must be generic at the level of paradigm-shift rather than local modifications and enhancement. The basic idea is to establish a new system integrated with a risk assessment scheme, which encourages employers to apply to their work environment under comprehensive responsibility. The risk assessment scheme is designed to enable to inspect employers' compliances afterwards. A project comprises four yearly phases based on applying zones; initially designating and operating a specified risk zone, gradually expanding the special zones during a period of 3 years (2010-2012) and the final zone expanded to entire nation. In each phase, the intermediate version of the system is updated through a process of precise and unbiased validation in terms of its operability, feasibility and sustainability with building relevant infrastructures as needed. PMID:22953160

Cho, Jae Hyun; Moon, Il; Choi, Jaewook; Park, Dooyong; Lee, Youngsoon

2010-01-01

210

Advanced korean industrial safety and health policy with risk assessment.  

PubMed

This article describes a systematic roadmap master plan for advanced industrial safety and health policy in Korea, with an emphasis on. Since Korean industries had first emergence of industrial safety and health policy in 1953, enormous efforts have been made on upgrading the relevant laws in order to reflect real situation of industrial work environment in accordance with rapid changes of Korean and global business over three decades. Nevertheless, current policy has major defects; too much techniques-based articles, diverged contents in less organization, combined enforcement and punishments and finally enforcing regulations full of commands and control. These deficiencies have make it difficult to accommodate changes of social, industrial and employment environment in customized fashion. The approach to the solution must be generic at the level of paradigm-shift rather than local modifications and enhancement. The basic idea is to establish a new system integrated with a risk assessment scheme, which encourages employers to apply to their work environment under comprehensive responsibility. The risk assessment scheme is designed to enable to inspect employers' compliances afterwards. A project comprises four yearly phases based on applying zones; initially designating and operating a specified risk zone, gradually expanding the special zones during a period of 3 years (2010-2012) and the final zone expanded to entire nation. In each phase, the intermediate version of the system is updated through a process of precise and unbiased validation in terms of its operability, feasibility and sustainability with building relevant infrastructures as needed. PMID:22953160

Kwon, Hyuckmyun; Cho, Jae Hyun; Moon, Il; Choi, Jaewook; Park, Dooyong; Lee, Youngsoon

2010-09-01

211

Advanced electric propulsion system concept for electric vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Seventeen propulsion system concepts for electric vehicles were compared to determine the differences in components and battery pack to achieve the basic performance level. Design tradeoffs were made for selected configurations to find the optimum component characteristics required to meet all performance goals. The anticipated performance when using nickel-zinc batteries rather than the standard lead-acid batteries was also evaluated. The two systems selected for the final conceptual design studies included a system with a flywheel energy storage unit and a basic system that did not have a flywheel. The flywheel system meets the range requirement with either lead-acid or nickel-zinc batteries and also the acceleration of zero to 89 km/hr in 15 s. The basic system can also meet the required performance with a fully charged battery, but, when the battery approaches 20 to 30 percent depth of discharge, maximum acceleration capability gradually degrades. The flywheel system has an estimated life-cycle cost of $0.041/km using lead-acid batteries. The basic system has a life-cycle cost of $0.06/km. The basic system, using batteries meeting ISOA goals, would have a life-cycle cost of $0.043/km.

Raynard, A. E.; Forbes, F. E.

1979-01-01

212

Wheeled Mobility Device Transportation Safety in Fixed Route and Demand-Responsive Public Transit Vehicles within the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

An overview of the current status of wheelchair transportation safety in fixed route and demand-responsive, non-rail, public transportation vehicles within the US is presented. A description of each mode of transportation is provided, followed by a discussion of the primary issues affecting safety, accessibility and usability. Technologies such as lifts, ramps, securement systems and occupant restraint systems, along with regulations

Karen L. Frost; Linda van Roosmalen; Gina Bertocci; Douglas J. Cross

2012-01-01

213

Development of Micro Air Reconnaissance Vehicle as a Test Bed for Advanced Sensors and Electronics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes the development of a Micro/Mini Air Reconnaissance Vehicle for advanced sensors and electronics at NASA Langley Research Center over the last year. This vehicle is expected to have a total weight of less than four pounds, a design velocity of 40 mph, an endurance of 15-20 minutes, and a maximum range of 5km. The vehicle has wings that are simple to detach yet retain the correct alignment. The upper fuselage surface has a quick release hatch used to access the interior and also to mount the varying propulsion systems. The sensor suite developed for this vehicle consists of a Pitot-static measurement system for determining air speed, an absolute pressure measurement for determining altitude, magnetic direction measurement, and three orthogonal gyros to determine body angular rates. Swarming GPS-guidance and in-flight maneuvering is discussed, as well as design and installation of some other advance sensors like MEMS microphones, infrared cameras, GPS, humidity sensors, and an ultrasonic sonar sensor. Also low cost, small size, high performance control and navigation system for the Micro Air Vehicle is discussed. At the end, laboratory characterization of different sensors, motors, propellers, and batteries will be discussed.

Shams, Qamar A.; Vranas, Thomas L.; Fox, Robert L.; Kuhn, Theodore R.; Ingham, John; Logan, Michael J.; Barnes, Kevin N.; Guenther, Benjamin F.

2002-01-01

214

75 FR 73998 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; New Pneumatic Tires for Motor Vehicles With a Gross...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...New Pneumatic Tires for Motor Vehicles With a Gross Vehicle Weight Rating (GVWR) of More Than 4,536 Kilograms (10,000 Pounds...new pneumatic tires for use on vehicles with a gross vehicle weight rating (GVWR) greater than 10,000 pounds and...

2010-11-30

215

76 FR 15903 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Roof Crush Resistance  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...crashes for motor vehicles with a gross vehicle weight rating...strength for driver and passenger...strength for driver and passenger...for motor vehicles with a GVWR...all types of vehicles, including multi-stage vehicle issues....

2011-03-22

216

Variation in U.S. Traffic Safety Policy Environments and Motor Vehicle Fatalities 1980–2010  

PubMed Central

Objective To examine the impact of variation in state laws governing traffic safety on motor vehicle fatalities. Study Design Repeated cross sectional time series design. Methods Fixed effects regression models estimate the relationship between state motor vehicle fatality rates and the strength of the state law environment for 50 states, 1980–2010. The strength of the state policy environment is measured by calculating the proportion of a set of 27 evidence-based laws in place each year. The effect of alcohol consumption on motor vehicle fatalities is estimated using a subset of alcohol laws as instrumental variables. Results Once other risk factors are controlled in statistical models, states with stronger regulation of safer driving and driver/passenger protections had significantly lower motor vehicle fatality rates for all ages. Alcohol consumption was strongly associated with higher MVC death rates, as were state unemployment rates. Conclusions Encouraging laggard states to adopt the full range of available laws could significantly reduce preventable traffic-related deaths in the U.S. – especially those among younger individuals. Estimating the relationship between different policy environments and health outcomes can quantify the result of policy gaps. PMID:24275035

Silver, Diana; Macinko, James; Bae, Jin Yung; Jimenez, Geronimo; Paul, Maggie

2013-01-01

217

Direct-hydrogen-fueled proton-exchange-membrane fuel cell system for transportation applications. Hydrogen vehicle safety report  

SciTech Connect

This report reviews the safety characteristics of hydrogen as an energy carrier for a fuel cell vehicle (FCV), with emphasis on high pressure gaseous hydrogen onboard storage. The authors consider normal operation of the vehicle in addition to refueling, collisions, operation in tunnels, and storage in garages. They identify the most likely risks and failure modes leading to hazardous conditions, and provide potential countermeasures in the vehicle design to prevent or substantially reduce the consequences of each plausible failure mode. They then compare the risks of hydrogen with those of more common motor vehicle fuels including gasoline, propane, and natural gas.

Thomas, C.E. [Directed Technologies, Inc., Arlington, VA (United States)

1997-05-01

218

Research on safety evaluation model for in-vehicle secondary task driving.  

PubMed

This paper presents a new method for evaluating in-vehicle secondary task driving safety. There are five in-vehicle distracter tasks: tuning the radio to a local station, touching the touch-screen telephone menu to a certain song, talking with laboratory assistant, answering a telephone via Bluetooth headset, and finding the navigation system from Ipad4 computer. Forty young drivers completed the driving experiment on a driving simulator. Measures of fixations, saccades, and blinks are collected and analyzed. Based on the measures of driver eye movements which have significant difference between the baseline and secondary task driving conditions, the evaluation index system is built. The Analytic Network Process (ANP) theory is applied for determining the importance weight of the evaluation index in a fuzzy environment. On the basis of the importance weight of the evaluation index, Fuzzy Comprehensive Evaluation (FCE) method is utilized to evaluate the secondary task driving safety. Results show that driving with secondary tasks greatly distracts the driver's attention from road and the evaluation model built in this study could estimate driving safety effectively under different driving conditions. PMID:25194987

Jin, Lisheng; Xian, Huacai; Niu, Qingning; Bie, Jing

2014-09-01

219

Advanced Technology Vehicle Program of the Maryland Department of Transportation and Metropolitan Washington Council of Governments  

SciTech Connect

A multi-year Clean Alternative program is designed to integrate low-emission advanced technology vehicles into high mileage/high-fuel-use public and private fleets, which are major contributors to high pollution levels. The primary goal of the program is reduced emissions of nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) from on-road vehicles in the Maryland counties surrounding Washington, DC. The program is targeted at fleets operating in Calvert, Charles, Frederick, Montgomery and Prince George's counties. Eligible types of vehicle applications include taxicabs, shuttles, buses, and delivery vans and trucks. Other types may qualify if they meet certain annual fuel-use or mileage criteria. Minimum requirements have been established for participating companies, including size of fleet and age of firm. The first vehicles under this program were placed in service in 1999. The Clean Alternative provides financial incentives to selected qualified firms that purchase original equipment manufacturer (OEM) vehicles or heavy-duty engines that have been certified to Low Emission Vehicle (LEV) emission levels or lower. This program is intended to be flexible and to evolve over time. For instance, in coming years the standards for acceptable emission levels may be tightened. The level of financial incentive will be determined on a case-by-case basis and other types of incentives may be provided in some cases. The range of counties included may be extended in the future or criteria for participation changed to help meet the air quality goals of the region.

Freudberg, Stuart A.

2001-03-31

220

A customized vision system for tracking humans wearing reflective safety clothing from industrial vehicles and machinery.  

PubMed

This article presents a novel approach for vision-based detection and tracking of humans wearing high-visibility clothing with retro-reflective markers. Addressing industrial applications where heavy vehicles operate in the vicinity of humans, we deploy a customized stereo camera setup with active illumination that allows for efficient detection of the reflective patterns created by the worker's safety garments. After segmenting reflective objects from the image background, the interest regions are described with local image feature descriptors and classified in order to discriminate safety garments from other reflective objects in the scene. In a final step, the trajectories of the detected humans are estimated in 3D space relative to the camera. We evaluate our tracking system in two industrial real-world work environments on several challenging video sequences. The experimental results indicate accurate tracking performance and good robustness towards partial occlusions, body pose variation, and a wide range of different illumination conditions. PMID:25264956

Mosberger, Rafael; Andreasson, Henrik; Lilienthal, Achim J

2014-01-01

221

Advanced Aero-Propulsive Mid-Lift-to-Drag Ratio Entry Vehicle for Future Exploration Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA is currently looking well into the future toward realizing Exploration mission possibilities to destinations including the Earth-Moon Lagrange points, Near-Earth Asteroids (NEAs) and the Moon. These are stepping stones to our ultimate destination Mars. New ideas will be required to conquer the significant challenges that await us, some just conceptions and others beginning to be realized. Bringing these ideas to fruition and enabling further expansion into space will require varying degrees of change, from engineering and integration approaches used in spacecraft design and operations, to high-level architectural capabilities bounded only by the limits of our ideas. The most profound change will be realized by paradigm change, thus enabling our ultimate goals to be achieved. Inherent to achieving these goals, higher entry, descent, and landing (EDL) performance has been identified as a high priority. Increased EDL performance will be enabled by highly-capable thermal protection systems (TPS), the ability to deliver larger and heavier payloads, increased surface access, and tighter landing footprints to accommodate multiple asset, single-site staging. In addition, realizing reduced cost access to space will demand more efficient approaches and reusable launch vehicle systems. Current operational spacecraft and launch vehicles do not incorporate the technologies required for these far-reaching missions and goals, nor what is needed to achieve the desired launch vehicle cost savings. To facilitate these missions and provide for safe and more reliable capabilities, NASA and its partners will need to make ideas reality by gaining knowledge through the design, development, manufacturing, implementation and flight testing of robotic and human spacecraft. To accomplish these goals, an approach is recommended for integrated development and implementation of three paradigm-shifting capabilities into an advanced entry vehicle system with additional application to launch vehicle stage return, thus making ideas reality. These paradigm shifts include the technology maturation of advanced flexible thermal protection materials onto mid lift-to-drag ratio entry vehicles, the development of integrated supersonic aero-propulsive maneuvering, and the implementation of advanced asymmetric launch shrouds. These paradigms have significant overlap with launch vehicle stage return already being developed by the Air Force and several commercial space efforts. Completing the realization of these combined paradigms holds the key to a high-performing entry vehicle system capability that fully leverages multiple technology benefits to accomplish NASA's Exploration missions to atmospheric planetary destinations.

Campbell, C. H.; Stosaric, R. R; Cerimele, C. J.; Wong, K. A.; Valle, G. D.; Garcia, J. A.; Melton, J. E.; Munk, M. M.; Blades, E.; Kuruvila, G.; Picetti, D. J.; Hassan, B.; Kniskern, M. W.

2012-01-01

222

Launch Vehicle Design and Optimization Methods and Priority for the Advanced Engineering Environment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's Advanced Engineering Environment (AEE) is a research and development program that will improve collaboration among design engineers for launch vehicle conceptual design and provide the infrastructure (methods and framework) necessary to enable that environment. In this paper, three major technical challenges facing the AEE program are identified, and three specific design problems are selected to demonstrate how advanced methods can improve current design activities. References are made to studies that demonstrate these design problems and methods, and these studies will provide the detailed information and check cases to support incorporation of these methods into the AEE. This paper provides background and terminology for discussing the launch vehicle conceptual design problem so that the diverse AEE user community can participate in prioritizing the AEE development effort.

Rowell, Lawrence F.; Korte, John J.

2003-01-01

223

Reusable launch vehicles, enabling technology for the development of advanced upper stages and payloads  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the near future there will be classes of upper stages and payloads that will require initial operation at a high-earth orbit to reduce the probability of an inadvertent reentry that could result in a detrimental impact on humans and the biosphere. A nuclear propulsion system, such as was being developed under the Space Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (SNTP) Program, is an example of such a potential payload. This paper uses the results of a reusable launch vehicle (RLV) study to demonstrate the potential importance of a Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) to test and implement an advanced upper stage (AUS) or payload in a safe orbit and in a cost effective and reliable manner. The RLV is a horizontal takeoff and horizontal landing (HTHL), two-stage-to-orbit (TSTO) vehicle. The results of the study shows that an HTHL is cost effective because it implements airplane-like operation, infrastructure, and flight operations. The first stage of the TSTO is powered by Rocket-Based-Combined-Cycle (RBCC) engines, the second stage is powered by a LOX/LH rocket engine. The TSTO is used since it most effectively utilizes the capability of the RBCC engine. The analysis uses the NASA code POST (Program to Optimize Simulated Trajectories) to determine trajectories and weight in high-earth orbit for AUS/advanced payloads. Cost and reliability of an RLV versus current generation expandable launch vehicles are presented.

Metzger, John D.

1998-01-01

224

Advanced Technology and Breakthrough Physics for 2025 and 2050 Military Aerospace Vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We are investigating the development of military aerospace planes that would embody advanced technology and break-through physics to revolutionize the capability of the US Air Force to respond in a timely manner to hostile threats facing the United States and its Allies. One plane concept embodied science and technology advances deemed developable by 2025. These advances included: MHD airbreathing propulsion, aneutronic fusion propulsion and light weight and high-strength airframe and propulsion materials-to accomplish Air Force aerospace missions from the ground up to geostationary orbit. The other plane embodied the further advancements in science and technology that were deemed possible by 2050. These advancements included: augmentation of MHD and fusion power with power from the zero-point energies of the quantum vacuum, and augmentation of vehicle jet propulsion with field propulsion to increase vehicle delta V by a factor of more than 2, thereby extending Air Force protective operations beyond earth orbit-into cislunar space. This paper has been approved for public release by the USAF.

Froning, David; Czysz, Paul

2006-01-01

225

Advancing electric-vehicle development with pure-lead-tin battery technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electric-vehicle (EV) development continues to make solid progress towards extending vehicle range, reliability and ease of use, aided significantly by technological advances in vehicle systems. There is, however, a widespread misconception that current battery technologies are not capable of meeting even the minimum user requirements that would launch EVs into daily use. Existing pure-lead-tin technology is moving EVs out of research laboratories and onto the streets, in daily side-by-side operation with vehicles powered by conventional gasoline and alternative fuels. This commercially available battery technology can provide traffic-compatible performance in a reliable and affordable manner, and can be used for either pure EVs or hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). Independent results obtained when applying lead-tin batteries in highly abusive conditions, both electrically and environmentally, are presented. The test fleet of EVs is owned and operated by Arizona Public Service (APS), an electric utility in Phoenix, AZ, USA. System, charger and battery development will be described. This gives a single charge range of up to 184 km at a constant speed of 72 km h -1, and with suitable opportunity charging, a 320 km range in a normal 8 h working day.

O'Brien, W. A.; Stickel, R. B.; May, G. J.

226

77 FR 51649 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Motorcycle Brake Systems  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...or Be Used On Wheeled Vehicles (1998 Agreement...Regulations for Wheeled Vehicles, Equipment and Parts...or Be Used On Wheeled Vehicles (1998 Agreement) was...globally harmonized vehicle regulations. This 1998...even professional test drivers cannot attain the...

2012-08-24

227

The design and construction of electronic motor control and network interface hardware for advance concept urban mobility vehicles  

E-print Network

Over the past several years, the Smart Cities Group at MIT's Media Lab has engaged in research to develop several advanced concepts for vehicles to improve urban mobility. This research has focused on developing a modular ...

Morrissey, Bryan L. (Bryan Lawrence)

2008-01-01

228

75 FR 17590 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Roof Crush Resistance  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...strength for driver and passenger...for motor vehicles with a GVWR...varies from vehicle model to...complete vehicles by larger...chassis-cab vehicle is a moving truck. The driver of a chassis-cab...behind the driver and front...delivery vehicle. These specialized vehicles are...

2010-04-07

229

77 FR 71163 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Windshield Zone Intrusion  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...pedestrians struck by vehicles. As a result, the agency believes that vehicle designs with regard...multipurpose passenger vehicles, trucks, and buses with a gross vehicle weight rating of...at establishing vehicle design criteria that will result in vehicles with hoods and...

2012-11-29

230

75 FR 22532 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Cargo Carrying Capacity  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...000 pounds and a vehicle capacity weight...modifications, these vehicles are unlikely to...likely that the vehicle's load-carrying...needs of handicapped drivers or passengers usually...to the unloaded vehicle weight of the vehicle...applies to used vehicles as well as new...

2010-04-29

231

40 CFR 1037.615 - Hybrid vehicles and other advanced technologies.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...vehicles equipped with Rankine-cycle engines, electric vehicles, and fuel cell vehicles. You may not generate...based on measured emissions from the fuel cell vehicle. (e) For electric vehicles, calculate CO2 credits using an FEL of...

2014-07-01

232

40 CFR 1037.615 - Hybrid vehicles and other advanced technologies.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...vehicles equipped with Rankine-cycle engines, electric vehicles, and fuel cell vehicles. You may not generate...based on measured emissions from the fuel cell vehicle. (e) For electric vehicles, calculate CO2 credits using an FEL of...

2013-07-01

233

40 CFR 1037.615 - Hybrid vehicles and other advanced technologies.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...vehicles equipped with Rankine-cycle engines, electric vehicles, and fuel cell vehicles. You may not generate...based on measured emissions from the fuel cell vehicle. (e) For electric vehicles, calculate CO2 credits using an FEL of...

2012-07-01

234

Advanced Infant Car Seat Would Increase Highway Safety  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An advanced infant car seat has been proposed to increase highway safety by reducing the incidence of crying, fussy behavior, and other child-related distractions that divert an adult driver s attention from driving. In addition to a conventional infant car seat with safety restraints, the proposed advanced infant car seat would include a number of components and subsystems that would function together as a comprehensive infant-care system that would keep its occupant safe, comfortable, and entertained, and would enable the driver to monitor the baby without having to either stop the car or turn around to face the infant during driving. The system would include a vibrator with bulb switch to operate; the switch would double as a squeeze toy that would make its own specific sound. A music subsystem would include loudspeakers built into the seat plus digital and analog circuitry that would utilize plug-in memory modules to synthesize music or a variety of other sounds. The music subsystem would include a built-in sound generator that could synthesize white noise or a human heartbeat to calm the baby to sleep. A second bulb switch could be used to control the music subsystem and would double as a squeeze toy that would make a distinct sound. An anti-noise sound-suppression system would isolate the baby from potentially disturbing ambient external noises. This subsystem would include small microphones, placed near the baby s ears, to detect ambient noise. The outputs of the microphone would be amplified and fed to the loudspeakers at appropriate amplitude and in a phase opposite that of the detected ambient noise, such that the net ambient sound arriving at the baby s ears would be almost completely cancelled. A video-camera subsystem would enable the driver to monitor the baby visually while continuing to face forward. One or more portable miniature video cameras could be embedded in the side of the infant car seat (see figure) or in a flip-down handle. The outputs of the video cameras would be transmitted by radio or infrared to a portable, miniature receiver/video monitor unit that would be attached to the dashboard of the car. The video-camera subsystem can also be used within transmission/reception range when the seat was removed from the car. The system would include a biotelemetric and tracking subsystem, which would include a Global Positioning System receiver for measuring its location. This subsystem would transmit the location of the infant car seat (even if the seat were not in a car) along with such biometric data as the baby s heart rate, perspiration rate, urinary status, temperature, and rate of breathing. Upon detecting any anomalies in the biometric data, this subsystem would send a warning to a paging device installed in the car or carried by the driver, so that the driver could pull the car off the road to attend to the baby. A motion detector in this subsystem would send a warning if the infant car seat were to be moved or otherwise disturbed unexpectedly while the infant was seated in it: this warning function, in combination with the position- tracking function, could help in finding a baby who had been kidnapped with the seat. Removable rechargeable batteries would enable uninterrupted functioning of all parts of the system while transporting the baby to and from the car. The batteries could be recharged via the cigarette-lighter outlet in the car or by use of an external AC-powered charger.

Dabney, Richard; Elrod, Susan

2004-01-01

235

14 CFR Appendix A to Part 417 - Flight Safety Analysis Methodologies and Products for a Launch Vehicle Flown With a Flight Safety...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...debris risk analysis. (3) A...for in the analysis and the probability...scenario. This information must include...Flight safety system fails to function...The following information for each launch...during destruct system delays. Burn...in vehicle design, flight termination...release hazard analysis A...

2010-01-01

236

Evaluation of a pilot program in rural schools to increase bicycle and motor vehicle safety.  

PubMed

Concerned with high bicycle-and motor vehicle-related mortality rates among children, Idaho's South Central District Health Department provided a competition to increase use of 1) seat belts, 2) motor vehicle rear seating, and 3) bicycle helmets among children attending elementary schools in the eight rural counties it serves. Nine of the 44 elementary schools in the health district chose to participate in the contest. Eight schools addressed increasing helmet use, four schools also addressed increasing seat belt use and rear seating, and one school addressed safety in general. A $1,000 prize was awarded to each of four schools judged to have the highest levels of student and community involvement, outreach, creativity, and changes in safety behavior (based on perceptions of outside judges). In 1997, baseline observations were collected for 1) seat belt use and rear seating for children in 28 schools, and for 2) bicycle helmet use among children in 25 schools. In 1998, follow up data were collected for 1) seat belt and rear seating in 42 schools, and 2) bicycle helmet use in 35 schools. Data were analyzed using SAS. Adjusting for differences in baseline rates, regression analysis was used to compare 1997 and 1998 rates for seat belt use, rear seating, and bicycle helmet use for those schools having baseline data. Results showed that although there was no significant difference between participating and non-participating schools in rear-seating behaviors, there was an increase in seat belt and bicycle helmet use for participating schools. Since schools self-selected participation, it is unknown whether those schools were fundamentally different from nonparticipating schools. PMID:10794205

Floerchinger-Franks, G; Machala, M; Goodale, K; Gerberding, S

2000-04-01

237

Abstract--Software modules of an advanced vehicle can be updated using Remote Software Upload (RSU) techniques. The  

E-print Network

, an advanced vehicle incorporates various advanced features, such as drive-by- wire, telematics, pre-crash-mail: smahmud@ece.eng.@wayne.edu. both consumers' and auto manufacturers' time and money [1]. When a particular makes eavesdropping, data altering, theft of service, and denial of service (DoS) attacks easier

Mahmud, Syed Masud

238

Alertinfra: a safety tool for infrastructure diagnosis devoted to heavy vehicles Cerezo, V. Bouteldja, M. and Conche, C. 1  

E-print Network

. Bouteldja, M. and Conche, C. 1 ALERTINFRAPL: A SAFETY TOOL FOR INFRASTRUCTURE DIAGNOSIS DEVOTED TO HEAVY, Département Laboratoire de Lyon, France F. CONCHE CETE de Lyon, Département Laboratoire de Clermont- Ferrand vehicles Cerezo, V. Bouteldja, M. and Conche, C. 2 1. Introduction This paper presents the results

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

239

14 CFR Appendix C to Part 417 - Flight Safety Analysis Methodologies and Products for an Unguided Suborbital Launch Vehicle Flown...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...The following information for each launch...changes in vehicle design, flight termination...flight safety analysis must include...the types of analysis output formats...EFG coordinate system measured in...the following information regarding its...collision avoidance analysis must screen...

2010-01-01

240

Protecting You/Protecting Me: Effects of an Alcohol Prevention and Vehicle Safety Program on Elementary Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes an evaluation of Protecting You/Protecting Me (PY/PM), a classroom-based, alcohol-use prevention and vehicle safety program for elementary students in first through fifth grades developed by Mothers Against Drunk Driving. PY/PM lessons and activities focus on teaching children about (1) their brains (why their brain is…

Bell, Mary Lou; Kelley-Baker, Tara; Rider, Raamses; Ringwalt, Christopher

2005-01-01

241

Pilot vehicle interface on the advanced fighter technology integration F-16  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper focuses on the work load aspects of the pilot vehicle interface in regard to the new technologies tested during AMAS Phase II. Subjects discussed in this paper include: a wide field-of-view head-up display; automated maneuvering attack system/sensor tracker system; master modes that configure flight controls and mission avionics; a modified helmet mounted sight; improved multifunction display capability; a voice interactive command system; ride qualities during automated weapon delivery; a color moving map; an advanced digital map display; and a g-induced loss-of-consciousness and spatial disorientation autorecovery system.

Dana, W. H.; Smith, W. B.; Howard, J. D.

1986-01-01

242

Application of advanced multidisciplinary analysis and optimization methods to vehicle design synthesis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Advanced multidisciplinary analysis and optimization methods, namely system sensitivity analysis and non-hierarchical system decomposition, are applied to reduce the cost and improve the visibility of an automated vehicle design synthesis process. This process is inherently complex due to the large number of functional disciplines and associated interdisciplinary couplings. Recent developments in system sensitivity analysis as applied to complex non-hierarchic multidisciplinary design optimization problems enable the decomposition of these complex interactions into sub-processes that can be evaluated in parallel. The application of these techniques results in significant cost, accuracy, and visibility benefits for the entire design synthesis process.

Consoli, Robert David; Sobieszczanski-Sobieski, Jaroslaw

1990-01-01

243

Electric vehicle traction motors - The development of an advanced motor concept  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An axial-field permanent magnet traction motor is described, similar to several advanced motors that are being developed in the United States. This type of machine has several advantages over conventional dc motors, particularly in the electric vehicle application. The rapidly changing cost of magnetic materials, particularly cobalt, makes it important to study the utilization of permanent magnet materials in such machines. The impact of different magnets on machine design is evaluated, and the advantages of using iron powder composites in the armature are assessed.

Campbell, P.

1980-01-01

244

Human-System Safety Methods for Development of Advanced Air Traffic Management Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) is supporting the National Aeronautics and Space Administration in the development of advanced air traffic management (ATM) systems as part of the Advanced Air Transportation Technologies program. As part of this program INEEL conducted a survey of human-system safety methods that have been applied to complex technical systems, to identify lessons learned

1999-01-01

245

Testing of Passive Safety System Performance for Higher Power Advanced Reactors  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the results of NERI research on the testing of advanced passive safety performance for the Westinghouse AP1000 design. The objectives of this research were: (a) to assess the AP1000 passive safety system core cooling performance under high decay power conditions for a spectrum of breaks located at a variety of locations, (b) to compare advanced thermal hydraulic computer code predictions to the APEX high decay power test data and (c) to develop new passive safety system concepts that could be used for Generation IV higher power reactors.

brian G. Woods; Jose Reyes, Jr.; John Woods; John Groome; Richard Wright

2004-12-31

246

Environmental, health, and safety issues of sodium-sulfur batteries for electric and hybrid vehicles. Volume 1, Cell and battery safety  

SciTech Connect

This report is the first of four volumes that identify and assess the environmental, health, and safety issues involved in using sodium-sulfur (Na/S) battery technology as the energy source in electric and hybrid vehicles that may affect the commercialization of Na/S batteries. This and the other reports on recycling, shipping, and vehicle safety are intended to help the Electric and Hybrid Propulsion Division of the Office of Transportation Technologies in the US Department of Energy (DOE/EHP) determine the direction of its research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) program for Na/S battery technology. The reports review the status of Na/S battery RD&D and identify potential hazards and risks that may require additional research or that may affect the design and use of Na/S batteries. This volume covers cell design and engineering as the basis of safety for Na/S batteries and describes and assesses the potential chemical, electrical, and thermal hazards and risks of Na/S cells and batteries as well as the RD&D performed, under way, or to address these hazards and risks. The report is based on a review of the literature and on discussions with experts at DOE, national laboratories and agencies, universities, and private industry. Subsequent volumes will address environmental, health, and safety issues involved in shipping cells and batteries, using batteries to propel electric vehicles, and recycling and disposing of spent batteries. The remainder of this volume is divided into two major sections on safety at the cell and battery levels. The section on Na/S cells describes major component and potential failure modes, design, life testing and failure testing, thermal cycling, and the safety status of Na/S cells. The section on batteries describes battery design, testing, and safety status. Additional EH&S information on Na/S batteries is provided in the appendices.

Ohi, J.M.

1992-09-01

247

All terrain vehicle ownership, use, and self reported safety behaviours in rural children  

PubMed Central

Objectives—To describe all terrain vehicle (ATV) ownership, access, use, and safety behaviours in rural Manitoba children. Methods—Questionnaire administered to a convenience sample of grade 6 students attending an agricultural fair. Results—162 grade 6 children participated. The mean age was 11.4 years, and 46% were male. 125 students (77%) reported having access to ATVs, including 69 four wheeled, 24 three wheeled, and four both three and four wheeled ATVs. ATV experience was reported in 95 students, significantly more often in males and among those with a family owned ATV, with no difference between children living on a farm and in a town. Use of helmets and protective clothing was inadequate (10–40%), and dangerous riding habits common, with males and children living on a farm reporting significantly fewer desirable behaviours. Conclusions—ATVs are commonly used by children in rural Manitoba, with inadequate protective gear and dangerous riding habits. Mandatory rider training, consumer and dealer education, and legislation enforcement could improve ATV safety in this population. PMID:9595331

Warda, L.; Klassen, T.; Buchan, N.; Zierler, A.

1998-01-01

248

Current status of environmental, health, and safety issues of lithium ion electric vehicle batteries  

SciTech Connect

The lithium ion system considered in this report uses lithium intercalation compounds as both positive and negative electrodes and has an organic liquid electrolyte. Oxides of nickel, cobalt, and manganese are used in the positive electrode, and carbon is used in the negative electrode. This report presents health and safety issues, environmental issues, and shipping requirements for lithium ion electric vehicle (EV) batteries. A lithium-based electrochemical system can, in theory, achieve higher energy density than systems using other elements. The lithium ion system is less reactive and more reliable than present lithium metal systems and has possible performance advantages over some lithium solid polymer electrolyte batteries. However, the possibility of electrolyte spills could be a disadvantage of a liquid electrolyte system compared to a solid electrolyte. The lithium ion system is a developing technology, so there is some uncertainty regarding which materials will be used in an EV-sized battery. This report reviews the materials presented in the open literature within the context of health and safety issues, considering intrinsic material hazards, mitigation of material hazards, and safety testing. Some possible lithium ion battery materials are toxic, carcinogenic, or could undergo chemical reactions that produce hazardous heat or gases. Toxic materials include lithium compounds, nickel compounds, arsenic compounds, and dimethoxyethane. Carcinogenic materials include nickel compounds, arsenic compounds, and (possibly) cobalt compounds, copper, and polypropylene. Lithiated negative electrode materials could be reactive. However, because information about the exact compounds that will be used in future batteries is proprietary, ongoing research will determine which specific hazards will apply.

Vimmerstedt, L.J.; Ring, S.; Hammel, C.J.

1995-09-01

249

A Soft-Switching Inverter for High-Temperature Advanced Hybrid Electric Vehicle Traction Motor Drives  

SciTech Connect

The state-of-the-art hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) require the inverter cooling system to have a separate loop to avoid power semiconductor junction over temperatures because the engine coolant temperature of 105?C does not allow for much temperature rise in silicon devices. The proposed work is to develop an advanced soft-switching inverter that will eliminate the device switching loss and cut down the power loss so that the inverter can operate at high-temperature conditions while operating at high switching frequencies with small current ripple in low inductance based permanent magnet motors. The proposed tasks also include high-temperature packaging and thermal modeling and simulation to ensure the packaged module can operate at the desired temperature. The developed module will be integrated with the motor and vehicle controller for dynamometer and in-vehicle testing to prove its superiority. This report will describe the detailed technical design of the soft-switching inverters and their test results. The experiments were conducted both in module level for the module conduction and switching characteristics and in inverter level for its efficiency under inductive and dynamometer load conditions. The performance will be compared with the DOE original specification.

None, None

2012-01-31

250

Biconic cargo return vehicle with an advanced recovery system. Volume 1: Conceptual design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The conceptual design of the biconic Cargo Return Vehicle (CRV) is presented. The CRV will be able to meet all of the Space Station Freedom (SSF's) resupply needs. Worth note is the absence of a backup recovery chute in case of Advanced Recovery System (ARS) failure. The high reliability of ram-air parachutes does not warrant the penalty weight that such a system would create on successful missions. The CRV will launch vertically integrated with an Liquid Rocket Booster (LRB) vehicle and meets all NASA restrictions on fuel type for all phases of the mission. Because of the downscaled Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle (OMV) program, the CRV has been designed to be able to transfer cargo by docking directly to the Space Station Freedom as well as with OMV assistance. The CRV will cover enough crossrange to reach its primary landing site, Edwards Airforce Base, and all secondary landing sites with the exception of one orbit. Transportation back to KSC will be via the Boeing Super Guppy. Due to difficulties with man-rating the CRV, it will not be used in a CERV role. A brief summary of the CRV's specifications is given.

1990-01-01

251

Advanced onboard storage concepts for natural gas-fueled automotive vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The evaluation of several advanced concepts for storing natural gas at reduced pressure is presented. The advanced concepts include adsorption on high surface area carbon, adsorption in high porosity zeolite, storage in clathration compounds, and storage by dissolution in liquid solvents. High surface area carbons with high packing density are the best low pressure storage mediums. A simple mathematical model is used to compare adsorption storage on a state of the art carbon with compression storage. The model indicates that a vehicle using adsorption storage of natural gas at 3.6 MPa will have 36 percent of the range, on the EPA city cycle, of a vehicle operating on a compression storage system having the same physical size and a peak storage pressure of 21 MPa. Preliminary experiments and current literature suggest that the storage capacity of state of the art carbons could be improved by as much as 50 percent, and that adsorption systems having a capacity equal to compression storage at 14 MPa are possible without exceeding a maximum pressure of 3.6 MPa.

Remick, R. J.; Elkins, R. H.; Camara, E. H.; Bulicz, T.

1984-06-01

252

75 FR 7370 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Door Locks and Door Retention Components  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...the FRE did not include vehicle structural changes...the earlier model year vehicles tested at VRTC failed...more recent model year vehicles, which had the addition...are not aware of any vehicle requiring significant...warning system to alert the driver when the door is...

2010-02-19

253

Study of advanced electric propulsion system concept using a flywheel for electric vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Advanced electric propulsion system concepts with flywheels for electric vehicles are evaluated and it is predicted that advanced systems can provide considerable performance improvement over existing electric propulsion systems with little or no cost penalty. Using components specifically designed for an integrated electric propulsion system avoids the compromises that frequently lead to a loss of efficiency and to inefficient utilization of space and weight. A propulsion system using a flywheel power energy storage device can provide excellent acceleration under adverse conditions of battery degradation due either to very low temperatures or high degrees of discharge. Both electrical and mechanical means of transfer of energy to and from the flywheel appear attractive; however, development work is required to establish the safe limits of speed and energy storage for advanced flywheel designs and to achieve the optimum efficiency of energy transfer. Brushless traction motor designs using either electronic commutation schemes or dc-to-ac inverters appear to provide a practical approach to a mass producible motor, with excellent efficiency and light weight. No comparisons were made with advanced system concepts which do not incorporate a flywheel.

Younger, F. C.; Lackner, H.

1979-01-01

254

Advanced spacecraft fire safety: Proposed projects and program plan  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A detailed review identifies spacecraft fire safety issues and the efforts for their resolution, particularly for the threats posed by the increased on-orbit duration, size, and complexity of the Space Station Freedom. Suggestions provided by a survey of Wyle consultants and outside fire safety experts were combined into 30 research and engineering projects. The projects were then prioritized with respect to urgency to meet Freedom design goals, status of enabling technology, cost, and so on, to yield 14 highest priority projects, described in terms of background, work breakdown structure, and schedule. These highest priority projects can be grouped into the thematic areas of fire detection, fire extinguishment, risk assessment, toxicology and human effects, and ground based testing. Recommendations for overall program management stress the need for NASA Headquarters and field center coordination, with information exchange through spacecraft fire safety oversight committees.

Youngblood, Wallace W.; Vedha-Nayagam, M.

1989-01-01

255

Safety evaluation methodology for advanced coal extraction systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Qualitative and quantitative evaluation methods for coal extraction systems were developed. The analysis examines the soundness of the design, whether or not the major hazards have been eliminated or reduced, and how the reduction would be accomplished. The quantitative methodology establishes the approximate impact of hazards on injury levels. The results are weighted by peculiar geological elements, specialized safety training, peculiar mine environmental aspects, and reductions in labor force. The outcome is compared with injury level requirements based on similar, safer industries to get a measure of the new system's success in reducing injuries. This approach provides a more detailed and comprehensive analysis of hazards and their effects than existing safety analyses.

Zimmerman, W. F.

1981-01-01

256

TransAtlas: A U.S. Map of Fuels and Vehicles Data from the Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles (AFDC)  

DOE Data Explorer

Data stored in the Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (AFDC) can provide insight to policymakers, entrepreneurs, fuel users, and other parties interested in reducing petroleum consumption. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory analyzes transportation-related data and identifies trends related to alternative fuels and vehicles. These analyses are posted in the AFDC as technical reports and Excel spreadsheets that can be manipulated by outside users. To provide the most robust collection of information possible, this section also includes links to data analyses from outside the AFDC. These sources are noted in each file. There are also interactive map applications and some PDF documents.

257

Nuclear safety  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Topics dealing with nuclear safety are addressed which include the following: general safety requirements; safety design requirements; terrestrial safety; SP-100 Flight System key safety requirements; potential mission accidents and hazards; key safety features; ground operations; launch operations; flight operations; disposal; safety concerns; licensing; the nuclear engine for rocket vehicle application (NERVA) design philosophy; the NERVA flight safety program; and the NERVA safety plan.

Buden, D.

1991-01-01

258

Applications of advanced intervention technologies to enhance microbial food safety  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Food safety issues may arise due to chemical and/or microbial contaminations. Foodborne pathogens typically are the major reasons in food related outbreaks that result in human sickness/death, product disposal/waste and other economic losses. The food industry is continuously seeking better interv...

259

Introduction: Aims and Requirements of Future Aerospace Vehicles. Chapter 1  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The goals and system-level requirements for the next generation aerospace vehicles emphasize safety, reliability, low-cost, and robustness rather than performance. Technologies, including new materials, design and analysis approaches, manufacturing and testing methods, operations and maintenance, and multidisciplinary systems-level vehicle development are key to increasing the safety and reducing the cost of aerospace launch systems. This chapter identifies the goals and needs of the next generation or advanced aerospace vehicle systems.

Rodriguez, Pedro I.; Smeltzer, Stanley S., III; McConnaughey, Paul (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

260

Current status of environmental, health, and safety issues of lithium polymer electric vehicle batteries  

SciTech Connect

Lithium solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) batteries are being investigated by researchers worldwide as a possible energy source for future electric vehicles (EVs). One of the main reasons for interest in lithium SPE battery systems is the potential safety features they offer as compared to lithium battery systems using inorganic and organic liquid electrolytes. However, the development of lithium SPE batteries is still in its infancy, and the technology is not envisioned to be ready for commercialization for several years. Because the research and development (R&D) of lithium SPE battery technology is of a highly competitive nature, with many companies both in the United States and abroad pursuing R&D efforts, much of the information concerning specific developments of lithium SPE battery technology is proprietary. This report is based on information available only through the open literature (i.e., information available through library searches). Furthermore, whereas R&D activities for lithium SPE cells have focused on a number of different chemistries, for both electrodes and electrolytes, this report examines the general environmental, health, and safety (EH&S) issues common to many lithium SPE chemistries. However, EH&S issues for specific lithium SPE cell chemistries are discussed when sufficient information exists. Although lithium batteries that do not have a SPE are also being considered for EV applications, this report focuses only on those lithium battery technologies that utilize the SPE technology. The lithium SPE battery technologies considered in this report may contain metallic lithium or nonmetallic lithium compounds (e.g., lithium intercalated carbons) in the negative electrode.

Corbus, D.; Hammel, C.J.

1995-02-01

261

Current status of environmental, health, and safety issues of lithium polymer electric vehicle batteries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lithium solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) batteries are being investigated by researchers worldwide as a possible energy source for future electric vehicles (EV's). One of the main reasons for interest in lithium SPE battery systems is the potential safety features they offer as compared to lithium battery systems using inorganic and organic liquid electrolytes. However, the development of lithium SPE batteries is still in its infancy, and the technology is not envisioned to be ready for commercialization for several years. Because the research and development (R&D) of lithium SPE battery technology is of a highly competitive nature, with many companies both in the United States and abroad pursuing R&D efforts, much of the information concerning specific developments of lithium SPE battery technology is proprietary. This report is based on information available only through the open literature (i.e., information available through library searches). Furthermore, whereas R&D activities for lithium SPE cells have focused on a number of different chemistries, for both electrodes and electrolytes, this report examines the general environmental, health, and safety (EH&S) issues common to many lithium SPE chemistries. However, EH&S issues for specific lithium SPE cell chemistries are discussed when sufficient information exists. Although lithium batteries that do not have a SPE are also being considered for EV applications, this report focuses only on those lithium battery technologies that utilize the SPE technology. The lithium SPE battery technologies considered in this report may contain metallic lithium or nonmetallic lithium compounds (e.g., lithium intercalated carbons) in the negative electrode.

Corbus, D.; Hammel, C. J.

1995-02-01

262

Aeroassisted manned transfer vehicle (TAXI) for advanced Mars Transportation: NASA/USRA 1987 Senior Design Project  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A conceptual design study of an aeroassisted orbital transfer vehicle is discussed. Nicknamed TAXI, it will ferry personnel and cargo: (1) between low Earth orbit and a spacecraft circling around the Sun in permanent orbit intersecting gravitational fields of Earth and Mars, and (2) between the cycling spacecraft and a Mars orbiting station, co-orbiting with Phobos. Crew safety and mission flexibility (in terms of ability to provide a wide range of delta-V) were given high priority. Three versions were considered, using the same overall configuration based on a low L/D aerobrake with the geometry of a raked off elliptical cone with ellipsoidal nose and a toroidal skirt. The propulsion system consists of three gimballed LOX/LH2 engines firing away from the aerobrake. The versions differ mainly in the size of the aeroshields and propellant tanks. TAXI A version resulted from an initial effort to design a single transfer vehicle able to meet all delta-V requirements during the 15-year period (2025 to 2040) of Mars mission operations. TAXI B is designed to function with the cycling spacecraft moving in a simplified, nominal trajectory. On Mars missions, TAXI B would be able to meet the requirements of all the missions with a relative approach velocity near Mars of less than 9.3 km/sec. Finally, TAXI C is a revision of TAXI A, a transfer vehicle designed for missions with a relative velocity near Mars larger than 9.3 km/sec. All versions carry a crew of 9 (11 with modifications) and a cargo of 10000 lbm. Trip duration varies from 1 day for transfer from LEO to the cycling ship to nearly 5 days for transfer from the ship to the Phobos orbit.

1987-01-01

263

Space transfer vehicle concepts and requirements study. Volume 2, book 4: Integrated advanced technology development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Space Transfer Vehicle (STV) program provides both an opportunity and a requirement to increase our upper stage capabilities with the development and applications of new technologies. Issues such as man rating, space basing, reusability, and long lunar surface storage times drive the need for new technology developments and applications. In addition, satisfaction of mission requirements such as lunar cargo delivery capability and lunar landing either require new technology development or can be achieved in a more cost-effective manner with judicious applications of advanced technology. During the STV study, advanced technology development requirements and plans have been addressed by the Technology/Advanced Development Working Group composed of NASA and contractor representatives. This report discusses the results to date of this working group. The first section gives an overview of the technologies that have potential or required applications for the STV and identifies those technologies baselined for the STV. Figures are provided that list the technology categories and show the priority placed on those technology categories for either the space-based or ground-based options. The second section covers the plans and schedules for incorporating the technologies into the STV program.

Weber, Gary A.

1991-01-01

264

Evaluating the impact of advanced vehicle and fuel technologies in U.S. light duty vehicle fleet  

E-print Network

The unrelenting increase in oil use by the U.S. light-duty vehicle (LDV) fleet presents an extremely challenging energy and environmental problem. A variety of propulsion technologies and fuels have the promise to reduce ...

Bandivadekar, Anup P

2008-01-01

265

Intelligent Vehicle Health Management  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As a part of the overall goal of developing Integrated Vehicle Health Management systems for aerospace vehicles, the NASA Faculty Fellowship Program (NFFP) at Marshall Space Flight Center has performed a pilot study on IVHM principals which integrates researched IVHM technologies in support of Integrated Intelligent Vehicle Management (IIVM). IVHM is the process of assessing, preserving, and restoring system functionality across flight and ground systems (NASA NGLT 2004). The framework presented in this paper integrates advanced computational techniques with sensor and communication technologies for spacecraft that can generate responses through detection, diagnosis, reasoning, and adapt to system faults in support of INM. These real-time responses allow the IIVM to modify the affected vehicle subsystem(s) prior to a catastrophic event. Furthermore, the objective of this pilot program is to develop and integrate technologies which can provide a continuous, intelligent, and adaptive health state of a vehicle and use this information to improve safety and reduce costs of operations. Recent investments in avionics, health management, and controls have been directed towards IIVM. As this concept has matured, it has become clear the INM requires the same sensors and processing capabilities as the real-time avionics functions to support diagnosis of subsystem problems. New sensors have been proposed, in addition, to augment the avionics sensors to support better system monitoring and diagnostics. As the designs have been considered, a synergy has been realized where the real-time avionics can utilize sensors proposed for diagnostics and prognostics to make better real-time decisions in response to detected failures. IIVM provides for a single system allowing modularity of functions and hardware across the vehicle. The framework that supports IIVM consists of 11 major on-board functions necessary to fully manage a space vehicle maintaining crew safety and mission objectives: Guidance and Navigation; Communications and Tracking; Vehicle Monitoring; Information Transport and Integration; Vehicle Diagnostics; Vehicle Prognostics; Vehicle mission Planning; Automated Repair and Replacement; Vehicle Control; Human Computer Interface; and Onboard Verification and Validation. Furthermore, the presented framework provides complete vehicle management which not only allows for increased crew safety and mission success through new intelligence capabilities, but also yields a mechanism for more efficient vehicle operations. The representative IVHM technologies for computer platform using heterogeneous communication, 3) coupled electromagnetic oscillators for enhanced communications, 4) Linux-based real-time systems, 5) genetic algorithms, 6) Bayesian Networks, 7) evolutionary algorithms, 8) dynamic systems control modeling, and 9) advanced sensing capabilities. This paper presents IVHM technologies developed under NASA's NFFP pilot project and the integration of these technologies forms the framework for IIVM.

Paris, Deidre E.; Trevino, Luis; Watson, Michael D.

2005-01-01

266

AN ADVANCED TOOL FOR APPLIED INTEGRATED SAFETY MANAGEMENT  

SciTech Connect

WESKEM, LLC's Environmental, Safety and Health (ES&H) Department had previously assessed that a lack of consistency, poor communication and using antiquated communication tools could result in varying operating practices, as well as a failure to capture and disseminate appropriate Integrated Safety Management (ISM) information. To address these issues, the ES&H Department established an Activity Hazard Review (AHR)/Activity Hazard Analysis (AHA) process for systematically identifying, assessing, and controlling hazards associated with project work activities during work planning and execution. Depending on the scope of a project, information from field walkdowns and table-top meetings are collected on an AHR form. The AHA then documents the potential failure and consequence scenarios for a particular hazard. Also, the AHA recommends whether the type of mitigation appears appropriate or whether additional controls should be implemented. Since the application is web based, the information is captured into a single system and organized according to the >200 work activities already recorded in the database. Using the streamlined AHA method improved cycle time from over four hours to an average of one hour, allowing more time to analyze unique hazards and develop appropriate controls. Also, the enhanced configuration control created a readily available AHA library to research and utilize along with standardizing hazard analysis and control selection across four separate work sites located in Kentucky and Tennessee. The AHR/AHA system provides an applied example of how the ISM concept evolved into a standardized field-deployed tool yielding considerable efficiency gains in project planning and resource utilization. Employee safety is preserved through detailed planning that now requires only a portion of the time previously necessary. The available resources can then be applied to implementing appropriate engineering, administrative and personal protective equipment controls in the field.

Potts, T. Todd; Hylko, James M.; Douglas, Terence A.

2003-02-27

267

System safety and hazard analysis for the Advanced Technology Solar Telescope  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Advanced Technology Solar Telescope (ATST) is a four-meter class instrument being built to perform diffractionlimited observations of the sun. This paper describes how ATST has dealt with system safety and in particular hazard analysis during the design and development (D&D) phase. For ATST the development of a system safety plan and the oversight of the hazard analysis fell, appropriately, to systems engineering. We have adopted the methodology described in MIL-STD-882E, "Standard Practice for System Safety." While these methods were developed for use by the U.S. Department of Defense, they are readily applicable to the safety needs of telescope projects. We describe the details of our process, how it was implemented by the ATST design team, and some useful lessons learned. We conclude with a discussion of our safety related plans during the construction phase of ATST and beyond.

Hubbard, Robert P.

2010-07-01

268

75 FR 25927 - Vehicle/Track Interaction Safety Standards; High-Speed and High Cant Deficiency Operations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...behavior of rail vehicles. These models require...accurate knowledge of vehicle parameters, including...passenger car. (2) Vehicle type means vehicles with variations...passenger car. (2) Vehicle type means vehicles with...

2010-05-10

269

Cardiac safety screens: molecular, cellular, and optical advancements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Identifying cardiac safety is becoming increasingly important for new drugs under development, since it is compulsory for the approval of almost all pharmaceutical drugs. In contrast to conventional electrophysiological in vitro assays that are based on a single entity, the hERG channel, primary cardiomyocytes based readouts seem to be more comprehensive. Such an action potential readout for those cells can be performed with contact-free optical methods. Here we reveal the details of both, the optical arrangement and the procedure to screen cardiac myocytes based on naïve action potentials. Furthermore we evaluate the differences between neonatal and adult cardiac myocytes from rats based on a selection of test substances (quinidine, 4-aminopyridine and E-4031) and relate it to the human situation. Finally the results are discussed in the context of emerging genetically encoded potential sensors and latest development in optical detection technologies.

Kaestner, Lars; Tian, Qinghai; Lipp, Peter

2011-07-01

270

Advanced transportation system studies technical area 2(TA-2): Heavy lift launch vehicle development. volume 1; Executive summary  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of the TA-2 contract was to provide advanced launch vehicle concept definition and analysis to assist NASA in the identification of future launch vehicle requirements. Contracted analysis activities included vehicle sizing and performance analysis, subsystem concept definition, propulsion subsystem definition (foreign and domestic), ground operations and facilities analysis, and life cycle cost estimation. This document is part of the final report for the TA-2 contract. The final report consists of three volumes: Volume 1 is the Executive Summary, Volume 2 is Technical Results, and Volume 3 is Program Cost Estimates. The document-at-hand, Volume 1, provides a summary description of the technical activities that were performed over the entire contract duration, covering three distinct launch vehicle definition activities: heavy-lift (300,000 pounds injected mass to low Earth orbit) launch vehicles for the First Lunar Outpost (FLO), medium-lift (50,000-80,000 pounds injected mass to low Earth orbit) launch vehicles, and single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO) launch vehicles (25,000 pounds injected mass to a Space Station orbit).

McCurry, J.

1995-01-01

271

Advanced weigh-in-motion system for weighing vehicles at high speed  

SciTech Connect

A state-of-the-art, Advanced Weigh-In-Motion (WIM) system has been designed, installed, and tested on the west bound side of Interstate I-75/I-40 near the Knox County Weigh Station. The project is a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and International Road Dynamics, Inc. (IRD) sponsored by the Office of Uranium Programs, Facility and Technology Management Division of the Department of Energy under CRADA No. ORNL95-0364. ORNL, IRD, the Federal Highway Administration, the Tennessee Department of Safety and the Tennessee Department of Transportation have developed a National High Speed WIM Test Facility for test and evaluation of high-speed WIM systems. The WIM system under evaluation includes a Single Load Cell WIM scale system supplied and installed by IRD. ORNL developed a stand-alone, custom data acquisition system, which acquires the raw signals from IRD`s in-ground single load cell transducers. Under a separate contract with the Federal Highway Administration, ORNL designed and constructed a laboratory scale house for data collection, analysis and algorithm development. An initial advanced weight-determining algorithm has been developed. The new advanced WIM system provides improved accuracy and can reduce overall system variability by up to 30% over the existing high accuracy commercial WIM system.

Beshears, D.L.; Muhs, J.D.; Scudiere, M.B. [and others

1998-02-01

272

An advanced deterministic method for spent fuel criticality safety analysis  

SciTech Connect

Over the past two decades, criticality safety analysts have come to rely to a large extent on Monte Carlo methods for criticality calculations. Monte Carlo has become popular because of its capability to model complex, non-orthogonal configurations or fissile materials, typical of real world problems. Over the last few years, however, interest in determinist transport methods has been revived, due shortcomings in the stochastic nature of Monte Carlo approaches for certain types of analyses. Specifically, deterministic methods are superior to stochastic methods for calculations requiring accurate neutron density distributions or differential fluxes. Although Monte Carlo methods are well suited for eigenvalue calculations, they lack the localized detail necessary to assess uncertainties and sensitivities important in determining a range of applicability. Monte Carlo methods are also inefficient as a transport solution for multiple pin depletion methods. Discrete ordinates methods have long been recognized as one of the most rigorous and accurate approximations used to solve the transport equation. However, until recently, geometric constraints in finite differencing schemes have made discrete ordinates methods impractical for non-orthogonal configurations such as reactor fuel assemblies. The development of an extended step characteristic (ESC) technique removes the grid structure limitations of traditional discrete ordinates methods. The NEWT computer code, a discrete ordinates code built upon the ESC formalism, is being developed as part of the SCALE code system. This paper will demonstrate the power, versatility, and applicability of NEWT as a state-of-the-art solution for current computational needs.

DeHart, M.D.

1998-01-01

273

Reactor Accident Analysis Methodology for the Advanced Test Reactor Critical Facility Documented Safety Analysis Upgrade  

SciTech Connect

The regulatory requirement to develop an upgraded safety basis for a DOE nuclear facility was realized in January 2001 by issuance of a revision to Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations Section 830 (10 CFR 830).1 Subpart B of 10 CFR 830, “Safety Basis Requirements,” requires a contractor responsible for a DOE Hazard Category 1, 2, or 3 nuclear facility to either submit by April 9, 2001 the existing safety basis which already meets the requirements of Subpart B, or to submit by April 10, 2003 an upgraded facility safety basis that meets the revised requirements.1 10 CFR 830 identifies Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Regulatory Guide 1.70, “Standard Format and Content of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants”2 as a safe harbor methodology for preparation of a DOE reactor documented safety analysis (DSA). The regulation also allows for use of a graded approach. This report presents the methodology that was developed for preparing the reactor accident analysis portion of the Advanced Test Reactor Critical Facility (ATRC) upgraded DSA. The methodology was approved by DOE for developing the ATRC safety basis as an appropriate application of a graded approach to the requirements of 10 CFR 830.

Gregg L. Sharp; R. T. McCracken

2003-06-01

274

Reactor Accident Analysis Methodology for the Advanced Test Reactor Critical Facility Documented Safety Analysis Upgrade  

SciTech Connect

The regulatory requirement to develop an upgraded safety basis for a DOE Nuclear Facility was realized in January 2001 by issuance of a revision to Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations Section 830 (10 CFR 830). Subpart B of 10 CFR 830, ''Safety Basis Requirements,'' requires a contractor responsible for a DOE Hazard Category 1, 2, or 3 nuclear facility to either submit by April 9, 2001 the existing safety basis which already meets the requirements of Subpart B, or to submit by April 10, 2003 an upgraded facility safety basis that meets the revised requirements. 10 CFR 830 identifies Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Regulatory Guide 1.70, ''Standard Format and Content of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants'' as a safe harbor methodology for preparation of a DOE reactor documented safety analysis (DSA). The regulation also allows for use of a graded approach. This report presents the methodology that was developed for preparing the reactor accident analysis portion of the Advanced Test Reactor Critical Facility (ATRC) upgraded DSA. The methodology was approved by DOE for developing the ATRC safety basis as an appropriate application of a graded approach to the requirements of 10 CFR 830.

Sharp, G.L.; McCracken, R.T.

2003-05-13

275

Development of a Robust and Cost-Effective Friction Stir Welding Process for Use in Advanced Military Vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To respond to the advent of more lethal threats, recently designed aluminum-armor-based military-vehicle systems have resorted to an increasing use of higher strength aluminum alloys (with superior ballistic resistance against armor piercing (AP) threats and with high vehicle-light weighing potential). Unfortunately, these alloys are not very amenable to conventional fusion-based welding technologies and in-order to obtain high-quality welds, solid-state joining technologies such as Friction stir welding (FSW) have to be employed. However, since FSW is a relatively new and fairly complex joining technology, its introduction into advanced military vehicle structures is not straight forward and entails a comprehensive multi-step approach. One such (three-step) approach is developed in the present work. Within the first step, experimental and computational techniques are utilized to determine the optimal tool design and the optimal FSW process parameters which result in maximal productivity of the joining process and the highest quality of the weld. Within the second step, techniques are developed for the identification and qualification of the optimal weld joint designs in different sections of a prototypical military vehicle structure. In the third step, problems associated with the fabrication of a sub-scale military vehicle test structure and the blast survivability of the structure are assessed. The results obtained and the lessons learned are used to judge the potential of the current approach in shortening the development time and in enhancing reliability and blast survivability of military vehicle structures.

Grujicic, M.; Arakere, G.; Pandurangan, B.; Hariharan, A.; Yen, C.-F.; Cheeseman, B. A.

2011-02-01

276

77 FR 29247 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Occupant Crash Protection  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...crash protection systems, such as air bags. As a result of various rulemakings that...document also makes a correction to the air bag warning label requirements for vehicle...label requirements for vehicles with air bags are superseded by different,...

2012-05-17

277

DECREASING THE AGE OF VEHICLE FLEETS: IS IT WORTH IT FROM A SAFETY PERSPECTIVE  

E-print Network

as a significant factor in crash probability. A cursory analysis of national data showed a significant increase% of personal autos in the United States are over ten years of age. Older vehicles generally pollute more in fatal crash involvement rates for vehicles of age 10 or older. On a national level, we estimated

McGowen, Patrick

278

Advances in Electric Drive Vehicle Modeling with Subsequent Experimentation and Analysis  

E-print Network

are investigating electric drive vehicle technology. In an effort to provide University of Kansas students and researchers with a stand-alone tool for predicting electric vehicle performance, this work covers the development and validation of various models...

Hausmann, Austin Joseph

2012-08-31

279

Enhancing vehicle safety management in training deployments : an application of system dynamics  

E-print Network

Organization Sierra-Tango is employing a systematic and methodical safety framework to manage risks in all their operational and training activities. While this safety system has shown itself to be reasonably effective in ...

Lim, Kelvin F. H. (Kelvin Fang Hui)

2008-01-01

280

Human-System Safety Methods for Development of Advanced Air Traffic Management Systems  

SciTech Connect

The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) is supporting the National Aeronautics and Space Administration in the development of advanced air traffic management (ATM) systems as part of the Advanced Air Transportation Technologies program. As part of this program INEEL conducted a survey of human-system safety methods that have been applied to complex technical systems, to identify lessons learned from these applications and provide recommendations for the development of advanced ATM systems. The domains that were surveyed included offshore oil and gas, commercial nuclear power, commercial aviation, and military. The survey showed that widely different approaches are used in these industries, and that the methods used range from very high-level, qualitative approaches to very detailed quantitative methods such as human reliability analysis (HRA) and probabilistic safety assessment (PSA). In addition, the industries varied widely in how effectively they incorporate human-system safety assessment in the design, development, and testing of complex technical systems. In spite of the lack of uniformity in the approaches and methods used, it was found that methods are available that can be combined and adapted to support the development of advanced air traffic management systems.

Nelson, W.R.

1999-05-24

281

40 CFR 86.1866-12 - CO2 credits for advanced technology vehicles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1866-12 CO2...

2014-07-01

282

40 CFR 86.1866-12 - CO2 credits for advanced technology vehicles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1866-12 CO2...

2013-07-01

283

ADVANCES IN SIX-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM DYNAMICS AND CONTROL OF UNDERWATER VEHICLES  

E-print Network

of a low-speed, fully actuated, neutrally buoyant underwater vehicle and the first reported use of TLSADVANCES IN SIX-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM DYNAMICS AND CONTROL OF UNDERWATER VEHICLES by Stephen C. Martin #12;Abstract This thesis addresses the topics of (1) high level control of underwater vehicles; (2

Whitcomb, Louis L.

284

Magnetometer and differential carrier phase GPS-aided INS for advanced vehicle control  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the design, analysis, implementation, and experimental results of a triple redundancy navigation system incorporating magnetometer, inertial, and carrier phase differential Global Positioning System (GPS) measurements. The navigation system is able to accurately estimate vehicle attitude (including yaw) as long as the vehicle velocity is not zero. The motivating application was lateral vehicle control for intelligent highway systems.

Yunchun Yang; Jay A. Farrell

2003-01-01

285

Increasing the safety of children's vehicle travel: From effective risk communication to behavior change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: When installed and used correctly, child safety seats reduce the risk of fatal injury by 71% for infants and 54% for toddlers. However, four out of five safety seats are unintentionally misused. Yet, parents fail to participate in safety-seat checks and other child seat interventions aimed at correcting misuse. Method: Such lack of participation is the focus of this

Kelli England Will; E. Scott Geller

2004-01-01

286

U.S. Department of Energy Vehicle Technologies Program -- Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity -- Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Charging Infrastructure Review  

SciTech Connect

Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) are under evaluation by various stake holders to better understand their capability and potential benefits. PHEVs could allow users to significantly improve fuel economy over a standard HEV and in some cases, depending on daily driving requirements and vehicle design, have the ability to eliminate fuel consumption entirely for daily vehicle trips. The cost associated with providing charge infrastructure for PHEVs, along with the additional costs for the on-board power electronics and added battery requirements associated with PHEV technology will be a key factor in the success of PHEVs. This report analyzes the infrastructure requirements for PHEVs in single family residential, multi-family residential and commercial situations. Costs associated with this infrastructure are tabulated, providing an estimate of the infrastructure costs associated with PHEV deployment.

Kevin Morrow; Donald Darner; James Francfort

2008-11-01

287

Advances in Liposuction: Five Key Principles with Emphasis on Patient Safety and Outcomes  

PubMed Central

Summary: Since Illouz’s presentation of a technique for lipoplasty at the 1982 Annual Meeting of the American Society of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgeons, liposuction has become one of the most commonly performed aesthetic surgery procedures. The evolution of liposuction has seen refinements in technique and improvement of patient safety-related standards of care. Based on long-term experience with body contouring surgery, 5 principles of advanced liposuction are presented: preoperative evaluation and planning, intraoperative monitoring—safety measures, the role of wetting solutions and fluid resuscitation, circumferential contouring and complication prevention, and outcomes measurement. PMID:25289270

Tabbal, Geo N.; Ahmad, Jamil; Lista, Frank

2013-01-01

288

1997 hybrid electric vehicle specifications  

SciTech Connect

The US DOE sponsors Advanced Vehicle Technology competitions to help educate the public and advance new vehicle technologies. For several years, DOE has provided financial and technical support for the American Tour de Sol. This event showcases electric and hybrid electric vehicles in a road rally across portions of the northeastern United States. The specifications contained in this technical memorandum apply to vehicles that will be entered in the 1997 American Tour de Sol. However, the specifications were prepared to be general enough for use by other teams and individuals interested in developing hybrid electric vehicles. The purpose of the specifications is to ensure that the vehicles developed do not present a safety hazard to the teams that build and drive them or to the judges, sponsors, or public who attend the competitions. The specifications are by no means the definitive sources of information on constructing hybrid electric vehicles - as electric and hybrid vehicles technologies advance, so will the standards and practices for their construction. In some cases, the new standards and practices will make portions of these specifications obsolete.

Sluder, S.; Larsen, R.; Duoba, M.

1996-10-01

289

Advanced Photon Source experimental beamline Safety Assessment Document: Addendum to the Advanced Photon Source Accelerator Systems Safety Assessment Document (APS-3.2.2.1.0)  

SciTech Connect

This Safety Assessment Document (SAD) addresses commissioning and operation of the experimental beamlines at the Advanced Photon Source (APS). Purpose of this document is to identify and describe the hazards associated with commissioning and operation of these beamlines and to document the measures taken to minimize these hazards and mitigate the hazard consequences. The potential hazards associated with the commissioning and operation of the APS facility have been identified and analyzed. Physical and administrative controls mitigate identified hazards. No hazard exists in this facility that has not been previously encountered and successfully mitigated in other accelerator and synchrotron radiation research facilities. This document is an updated version of the APS Preliminary Safety Analysis Report (PSAR). During the review of the PSAR in February 1990, the APS was determined to be a Low Hazard Facility. On June 14, 1993, the Acting Director of the Office of Energy Research endorsed the designation of the APS as a Low Hazard Facility, and this Safety Assessment Document supports that designation.

NONE

1995-01-01

290

Developing a Comprehensive Software Suite for Advanced Reactor Performance and Safety Analysis  

SciTech Connect

This paper provides an introduction to the reactor analysis capabilities of the nuclear power reactor simulation tools that are being developed as part of the U.S. Department of Energy s Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation (NEAMS) Toolkit. The NEAMS Toolkit is an integrated suite of multi-physics simulation tools that leverage high-performance computing to reduce uncertainty in the prediction of performance and safety of advanced reactor and fuel designs. The Toolkit effort is comprised of two major components, the Fuels Product Line (FPL), which provides tools for fuel performance analysis, and the Reactor Product Line (RPL), which provides tools for reactor performance and safety analysis. This paper provides an overview of the NEAMS RPL development effort.

Pointer, William David [ORNL] [ORNL; Bradley, Keith S [ORNL] [ORNL; Fischer, Paul F [ORNL] [ORNL; Smith, Micheal A [ORNL] [ORNL; Tautges, Timothy J [ORNL] [ORNL; Ferencz, Robert M [ORNL] [ORNL; Martineau, Richard C [ORNL] [ORNL; Jain, Rajeev [ORNL] [ORNL; Obabko, Aleksandr [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL)] [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Billings, Jay Jay [ORNL] [ORNL

2013-01-01

291

78 FR 53386 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Occupant Crash Protection  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...This document denies a rulemaking petition submitted by BMW Group, BMW of North America, LLC, to amend the Federal motor vehicle...II. Petition On October 23, 2012, BMW Group, BMW of North America, LLC, (herein...

2013-08-29

292

Connected Vehicle Technology  

MedlinePLUS

... Sheet: Improving Safety and Mobility Through Connected Vehicle Technology The U.S. Department of Transportation is committed to ... stage of roadway safety in America, connected vehicle technology shows great promise in transforming the way Americans ...

293

Recent advances in MRI technology: Implications for image quality and patient safety  

PubMed Central

Recent advances in MRI technology are presented, with emphasis on how this new technology impacts clinical operations (better image quality, faster exam times, and improved throughput). In addition, implications for patient safety are discussed with emphasis on the risk of patient injury due to either high local specific absorption rate (SAR) or large cumulative energy doses delivered during long exam times. Patient comfort issues are examined as well. PMID:23961024

Sobol, Wlad T.

2012-01-01

294

A two stage launch vehicle for use as an advanced space transportation system for logistics support of the space station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report describes the preliminary design specifications for an Advanced Space Transportation System consisting of a fully reusable flyback booster, an intermediate-orbit cargo vehicle, and a shuttle-type orbiter with an enlarged cargo bay. It provides a comprehensive overview of mission profile, aerodynamics, structural design, and cost analyses. These areas are related to the overall feasibility and usefullness of the proposed system.

1987-01-01

295

Advanced Turbine Technology Applications Project (ATTAP) and Hybrid Vehicle Turbine Engine Technology Support project (HVTE-TS): Final summary report  

SciTech Connect

This final technical report was prepared by Rolls-Royce Allison summarizing the multiyear activities of the Advanced Turbine Technology Applications Project (ATTAP) and the Hybrid Vehicle Turbine Engine Technology Support (HVTE-TS) project. The ATTAP program was initiated in October 1987 and continued through 1993 under sponsorship of the US Department of Energy (DOE), Energy Conservation and Renewable Energy, Office of Transportation Technologies, Propulsion Systems, Advanced Propulsion Division. ATTAP was intended to advance the technological readiness of the automotive ceramic gas turbine engine. The target application was the prime power unit coupled to conventional transmissions and powertrains. During the early 1990s, hybrid electric powered automotive propulsion systems became the focus of development and demonstration efforts by the US auto industry and the Department of energy. Thus in 1994, the original ATTAP technology focus was redirected to meet the needs of advanced gas turbine electric generator sets. As a result, the program was restructured to provide the required hybrid vehicle turbine engine technology support and the project renamed HVTE-TS. The overall objective of the combined ATTAP and HVTE-TS projects was to develop and demonstrate structural ceramic components that have the potential for competitive automotive engine life cycle cost and for operating 3,500 hr in an advanced high temperature turbine engine environment. This report describes materials characterization and ceramic component development, ceramic components, hot gasifier rig testing, test-bed engine testing, combustion development, insulation development, and regenerator system development. 130 figs., 12 tabs.

NONE

1998-12-01

296

Galerkin CFD solvers for use in a multi-disciplinary suite for modeling advanced flight vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work extends existing Galerkin CFD solvers for use in a multi-disciplinary suite. The suite is proposed as a means of modeling advanced flight vehicles, which exhibit strong coupling between aerodynamics, structural dynamics, controls, rigid body motion, propulsion, and heat transfer. Such applications include aeroelastics, aeroacoustics, stability and control, and other highly coupled applications. The suite uses NASA STARS for modeling structural dynamics and heat transfer. Aerodynamics, propulsion, and rigid body dynamics are modeled in one of the five CFD solvers below. Euler2D and Euler3D are Galerkin CFD solvers created at OSU by Cowan (2003). These solvers are capable of modeling compressible inviscid aerodynamics with modal elastics and rigid body motion. This work reorganized these solvers to improve efficiency during editing and at run time. Simple and efficient propulsion models were added, including rocket, turbojet, and scramjet engines. Viscous terms were added to the previous solvers to create NS2D and NS3D. The viscous contributions were demonstrated in the inertial and non-inertial frames. Variable viscosity (Sutherland's equation) and heat transfer boundary conditions were added to both solvers but not verified in this work. Two turbulence models were implemented in NS2D and NS3D: Spalart-Allmarus (SA) model of Deck, et al. (2002) and Menter's SST model (1994). A rotation correction term (Shur, et al., 2000) was added to the production of turbulence. Local time stepping and artificial dissipation were adapted to each model. CFDsol is a Taylor-Galerkin solver with an SA turbulence model. This work improved the time accuracy, far field stability, viscous terms, Sutherland?s equation, and SA model with NS3D as a guideline and added the propulsion models from Euler3D to CFDsol. Simple geometries were demonstrated to utilize current meshing and processing capabilities. Air-breathing hypersonic flight vehicles (AHFVs) represent the ultimate application of the suite. The current models are accurate at low supersonic speed and reasonable for engineering approximation at hypersonic speeds. Improvements to extend the models fully into the hypersonic regime are given in the Recommendations section.

Moffitt, Nicholas J.

297

76 FR 11417 - Public Workshop and Hearing for Rear Visibility; Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard, Rearview...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Gulbransen Kids Transportation Safety Act of 2007 (75 FR 76186...The workshop will be held in a lab environment. The agency will...Gulbransen Kids Transportation Safety Act. Technical Workshop Procedures...workshop will be located in a lab environment, NHTSA...

2011-03-02

298

Collision safety of a hard-shell low-mass vehicle  

SciTech Connect

Low-mass vehicles and in particular low-mass electric vehicles as produced today in very small quantities are in general not designed for crashworthiness in collisions. Particular problems of compact low-mass cars are: reduced length of the car front, low mass compared to other vehicles, and heavy batteries in the case of an electric car. With the intention of studying design improvements, three frontal crash tests were run last year: the first one with a commercial, lightweight electric car; the second with a reinforced version of the same car; and the last one with a car based on a different structural design with a `hard-shell` car body. Crash tests showed that the latter solution made better use of the small zone available for continuous energy absorption. The paper discusses further the problem of frontal collisions between vehicles of different weight and, in particular, the side collision. A side-collision test was run with the hard-shell vehicle following the ECE lateral-impact test procedure at 50 km/h and led to results for the EuroSIDI-dummy well below current injury tolerance criteria.

Kaeser, R.; Walz, F.H.; Brunner, A.

1994-06-01

299

Collision safety of a hard-shell low-mass vehicle.  

PubMed

Low-mass vehicles and in particular low-mass electric vehicles as produced today in very small quantities are in general not designed for crashworthiness in collisions. Particular problems of compact low-mass cars are: reduced length of the car front, low mass compared to other vehicles, and heavy batteries in the case of an electric car. With the intention of studying design improvements, three frontal crash tests were run last year: the first one with a commercial, lightweight electric car; the second with a reinforced version of the same car; and the last one with a car based on a different structural design with a "hard-shell" car body. Crash tests showed that the latter solution made better use of the small zone available for continuous energy absorption. The paper discusses further the problem of frontal collisions between vehicles of different weight and, in particular, the side collision. A side-collision test was run with the hard-shell vehicle following the ECE lateral-impact test procedure at 50 km/h and led to results for the EuroSID1-dummy well below current injury tolerance criteria. PMID:8011053

Kaeser, R; Walz, F H; Brunner, A

1994-06-01

300

Report of the Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) safety workshop, Knoxville, Tennessee, October 25--26, 1988  

SciTech Connect

On October 25--26, 1988, about 60 people took part in an Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) Safety Workshop, organized in cooperation with the Oak Ridge Operations (ORO) Office of the Department of Energy (DOE) and held in Knoxville, Tennessee. After a plenary session at which ANS Project staff presented status reports on the ANS design, research and development (R and D), and safety analysis efforts, the workshop broke into three working groups, each covering a different topic: Environmental and Waste Management, Applicable Regulatory Safety Criteria and Goals, and Reactor Concepts. Each group was asked to review the Project's approach to safety-related issues and to provide guidance on future reactor safety needs or directions for the Project. With the help of able chairmen, assisted by reporters and secretarial support, the working groups were extremely successful. Draft reports from each group were prepared before the workshop closed, and the major findings of each group were presented for review and discussion by the entire workshop attendance. This report contains the final version of the group reports, incorporating the results of the overall review by all the workshop participants.

Buchanan, J.R.; Dumont, J.N.; Kendrick, C.M.; Row, T.H.; Thompson, P.B.; West, C.D.; Marchaterre, J.F.; Muhlheim, M.D.; McBee, M.R. (comp.)

1988-12-01

301

Overview of the Safety Issues Associated with the Compressed Natural Gas Fuel System and Electric Drive System in a Heavy Hybrid Electric Vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report evaluates the hazards that are unique to a compressed-natural-gas (CNG)-fueled heavy hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) design compared with a conventional heavy vehicle. The unique design features of the heavy HEV are the CNG fuel system for the internal-combustion engine (ICE) and the electric drive system. This report addresses safety issues with the CNG fuel system and the electric

Samuel C. Nelson

2002-01-01

302

The Institute for Advanced Vehicle Systems (IAVS), part of the College of Engineering and Computer  

E-print Network

with vehicles such as the Toyota Echo and the Ford Focus but with 30% less mass. In addition, the LMV will match-mass vehicle is approxi- mately 10 inches longer than the Toyota to maxi- mize the occupant space is comparable to the Toyota Yaris hatch- back. Luggage space would be equivalent to the Toyota Echo through

Lu, Yi

303

Teaching Advanced Vehicle Dynamics Using a Project Based Learning (PBL) Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents an interesting teaching experiment carried out at XXX University. The author offered a new course in computational/analytical vehicle dynamics to senior undergraduate students, graduate students and practicing engineers. The objective of the course was to present vehicle dynamics theory with practical applications using…

Redkar, Sangram

2012-01-01

304

HybridPACK2 - advanced cooling concept and package technology for Hybrid Electric Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hybrid electric vehicle technology demands for power modules which are highly reliable, compact, economical and rugged enough to withstand mechanical, electrical and thermal shocks. Increasing the power density of the latest power module is the top most trend in power semiconductor development; similar trend is seen in the hybrid electric vehicle technology more due to the space and weight constraints.

Zhihong Liang; Lei Li

2008-01-01

305

Real time determination of road coefficient of friction for IVHS and advanced vehicle control  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents methods for estimating road coefficient of friction (?) in real time using an extended Kalman filter (EKF) and Bayesian decision making. The EKF estimates the motion and tire forces of an eight degree-of-freedom vehicle based on vehicle-mounted sensors. The filter requires no a priori knowledge of ? and does not require a tire force model. The resulting

Laura R. Ray

1995-01-01

306

KELVIN: A Second Generation Land Vehicle 2002 Florida Conference on Recent Advances in Robotics  

E-print Network

vehicles have applications in all walks of life. The challenge of creating a vehicle that can perform: the sensor system, the actuation system, and the communication system. These systems are coordinated is a bank of two 12-volt marine batteries in series to produce 24 volts. The integrated systems battery

Schwartz, Eric M.

307

77 FR 19132 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Bus Emergency Exits and Window Retention and Release  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Pursuant to this provision, State common law tort causes of action against motor vehicle...implied preemption of such State common law tort causes of action by virtue of NHTSA's...if someone obtained a State common law tort judgment against the...

2012-03-30

308

78 FR 15920 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Tire Selection and Rims  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Pursuant to this provision, State common law tort causes of action against motor vehicle...implied preemption of such State common law tort causes of action by virtue of NHTSA's...if someone obtained a State common law tort judgment against the...

2013-03-13

309

76 FR 53648 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards: Occupant Crash Protection  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Pursuant to this provision, State common law tort causes of action against motor vehicle...implied preemption of such State common law tort causes of action by virtue of NHTSA's...if someone obtained a State common law tort judgment against the...

2011-08-29

310

What Every Technician Must Know: Safety First with Hybrid & Electric Vehicles  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page provides a 2011 presentation on hybrid and electric vehicle technology program by Scott Rill and Janna Oakes of Arapahoe Community College, for ATEEC/CSM's Sustainable Energy Education and Training (SEET) Technology Workshop for high school and community college energy technology instructors. This resource is free to download. Users must first create a login with ATEEC's website to access the file.

Oakes, Janna; Rill, Scott

2013-08-14

311

61 FR 60635 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Air Brake Systems; Air Compressor Cut-In  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...automatic activation of the air compressor on a powered vehicle whenever...1996 final rule, the air compressor was required to automatically...balance between protection valve settings between the tractors...determined that the change in compressor cut-in pressure will...

1996-11-29

312

49 CFR 575.301 - Vehicle Labeling of Safety Rating Information.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...section. (2) The label must depict the star ratings for that vehicle as reported to...Rated” or “To Be Rated,” the star graphic indicating each rating, as...and symbols on the label (including the star graphic specified in paragraph...

2010-10-01

313

75 FR 68663 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Rear Impact Guards; Rear Impact Protection; Technical...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Technical Report, on the Effectiveness of Underride Guards for Heavy Trailers AGENCY...The report's title is: The Effectiveness of Underride Guards for Heavy Trailers. DATES...the size requirements for the guards, while Safety...

2010-11-08

314

All-Terrain Vehicle Safety. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Commerce, Consumer Protection, and Competitiveness of the Committee on Energy and Commerce. House of Representatives, One Hundredth Congress. Second Session on H.R. 3991.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Witnesses testified on the merits of the All Terrain Vehicle (ATV) User Safety and Equity Act, a bill that would declare three-wheel ATVs to be banned as hazardous products under the Consumer Product Safety Act, and would direct the Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) to promulgate consumer product safety rules for ATVs. This act prohibits…

Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Energy and Commerce.

315

Updating United States Advanced Battery Consortium and Department of Energy battery technology targets for battery electric vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Battery electric vehicles (BEVs) offer significant potential to reduce the nation's consumption of petroleum based products and the production of greenhouse gases however, their widespread adoption is limited largely by the cost and performance limitations of modern batteries. With recent growth in efforts to accelerate BEV adoption (e.g. the Department of Energy's (DOE) EV Everywhere Grand Challenge) and the age of existing BEV battery technology targets, there is sufficient motivation to re-evaluate the industry's technology targets for battery performance and cost. Herein we document the analysis process that supported the selection of the United States Advanced Battery Consortium's (USABC) updated BEV battery technology targets. Our technology agnostic approach identifies the necessary battery performance characteristics that will enable the vehicle level performance required for a commercially successful, mass market full BEV, as guided by the workgroup's OEM members. The result is an aggressive target, implying that batteries need to advance considerably before BEVs can be both cost and performance competitive with existing petroleum powered vehicles.

Neubauer, Jeremy; Pesaran, Ahmad; Bae, Chulheung; Elder, Ron; Cunningham, Brian

2014-12-01

316

Enabling Vehicular Safety Applications over LTE Seiya Kato, Matti Hiltunen, Kaustubh Joshi, and Richard Schlichting  

E-print Network

that use vehicle to vehicle (V2V) and vehicle to infrastructure (V2I) communication. Most current proposals. Here, the technical feasibility of an alternative architecture is explored, one that uses a combination next generation Advanced Driving Assistance Systems (ADAS) for vehicular safety augment car sensors

Fisher, Kathleen

317

Advanced transportation system studies technical area 2 (TA-2): Heavy lift launch vehicle development. volume 3; Program Cost estimates  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of the TA-2 contract was to provide advanced launch vehicle concept definition and analysis to assist NASA in the identification of future launch vehicle requirements. Contracted analysis activities included vehicle sizing and performance analysis, subsystem concept definition, propulsion subsystem definition (foreign and domestic), ground operations and facilities analysis, and life cycle cost estimation. The basic period of performance of the TA-2 contract was from May 1992 through May 1993. No-cost extensions were exercised on the contract from June 1993 through July 1995. This document is part of the final report for the TA-2 contract. The final report consists of three volumes: Volume 1 is the Executive Summary, Volume 2 is Technical Results, and Volume 3 is Program Cost Estimates. The document-at-hand, Volume 3, provides a work breakdown structure dictionary, user's guide for the parametric life cycle cost estimation tool, and final report developed by ECON, Inc., under subcontract to Lockheed Martin on TA-2 for the analysis of heavy lift launch vehicle concepts.

McCurry, J. B.

1995-01-01

318

> 070131-073Vehicle  

E-print Network

. INTRODUCTION The design and deployment of network centric vehicle control frameworks in a systematic manner> 070131-073Vehicle for Network Centric Operations H. Ferreira from Porto University. Swordfish has an advanced control architecture for multi-vehicle operations

Marques, Eduardo R. B.

319

Efficient, High-Torque Electric Vehicle Motor: Advanced Electric Vehicle Motors with Low or No Rare Earth Content  

SciTech Connect

REACT Project: QM Power will develop a new type of electric motor with the potential to efficiently power future generations of EVs without the use of rare-earth-based magnets. Many of today’s EV motors use rare earth magnets to efficiently provide torque to the wheels. QM Power’s motors would contain magnets that use no rare earth minerals, are light and compact, and can deliver more power with greater efficiency and at reduced cost. Key innovations in this project include a new motor design with iron-based magnetic materials, a new motor control technique, and advanced manufacturing techniques that substantially reduce the cost of the motor. The ultimate goal of this project is to create a cost-effective EV motor that offers the rough peak equivalent of 270 horsepower.

None

2012-01-01

320

Development of Production-Intent Plug-In Hybrid Vehicle Using Advanced Lithium-Ion Battery Packs with Deployment to a Demonstration Fleet  

SciTech Connect

The primary goal of this project was to speed the development of one of the first commercially available, OEM-produced plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV). The performance of the PHEV was expected to double the fuel economy of the conventional hybrid version. This vehicle program incorporated a number of advanced technologies, including advanced lithium-ion battery packs and an E85-capable flex-fuel engine. The project developed, fully integrated, and validated plug-in specific systems and controls by using GM’s Global Vehicle Development Process (GVDP) for production vehicles. Engineering Development related activities included the build of mule vehicles and integration vehicles for Phases I & II of the project. Performance data for these vehicles was shared with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The deployment of many of these vehicles was restricted to internal use at GM sites or restricted to assigned GM drivers. Phase III of the project captured the first half or Alpha phase of the Engineering tasks for the development of a new thermal management design for a second generation battery module. The project spanned five years. It included six on-site technical reviews with representatives from the DOE. One unique aspect of the GM/DOE collaborative project was the involvement of the DOE throughout the OEM vehicle development process. The DOE gained an understanding of how an OEM develops vehicle efficiency and FE performance, while balancing many other vehicle performance attributes to provide customers well balanced and fuel efficient vehicles that are exciting to drive. Many vehicle content and performance trade-offs were encountered throughout the vehicle development process to achieve product cost and performance targets for both the OEM and end customer. The project team completed two sets of PHEV development vehicles with fully integrated PHEV systems. Over 50 development vehicles were built and operated for over 180,000 development miles. The team also completed four GM engineering development Buy-Off rides/milestones. The project included numerous engineering vehicle and systems development trips including extreme hot, cold and altitude exposure. The final fuel economy performance demonstrated met the objectives of the PHEV collaborative GM/DOE project. Charge depletion fuel economy of twice that of the non-PHEV model was demonstrated. The project team also designed, developed and tested a high voltage battery module concept that appears to be feasible from a manufacturability, cost and performance standpoint. The project provided important product development and knowledge as well as technological learnings and advancements that include multiple U.S. patent applications.

No, author

2013-09-29

321

Mechanical design of a missteered beam safety monitor at the Advanced Photon Source  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A missteered beam safety monitor (MBSM) has been designed to protect the accelerator ring of the Advanced Photon Source against incursions of the missteered synchrotron radiation. When the orbit of the particle beam in the accelerator shifts out of its safety limits, the photon beam from the bending magnet will pass through the square apertures on the cooled mask of the MBSM and will heat up a very thin tungsten wire (0.025 mm in diameter) behind the mask. Acting as a resistance thermometer, the electrical resistance of the tungsten wire increases proportionally with temperature rise. As soon as the electrical resistance of the tungsten wire reaches a preset point, a signal is triggered immediately to dump the particle beam in the accelerator. The tungsten wire is inclined to the photon beam at 4.5 degrees in the vertical direction to prevent it from being overheated by the high power photon beam. Detailed mechanical design and thermal analysis are presented.

Chang, J.; Shu, D.; Decker, G.; Nian, T.; Kuzay, T. M.; Lumpkin, A.; Wang, X.

1996-09-01

322

The Eyeball ROV : an underwater Remotely Operated Vehicle featuring advances in rotational actuation, communication, and localization  

E-print Network

The design for a spherical Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV) with a camera, called the Eyeball ROV due to motions similar to the human eye, is presented in this thesis. The ROV features an actuation scheme that utilizes a ...

Rust, Ian Charles

2011-01-01

323

Advanced design of valve-regulated lead–acid battery for hybrid electric vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel design of lead-acid battery has been developed for use in hybrid electric vehicles HEVs . The battery has current take-offs at both ends of each of the positive and negative plates. This feature markedly reduces battery operating temperatures, improves battery . capacity, and extends cycle-life under HEV duty. The battery also performs well under partial-state-of-charge PSoC rfast-charge, electric-vehicle

L. T. Lam; R. H. Newnham; H. Ozgun; F. A. Fleming

2000-01-01

324

Safety in numbers: target prevalence affects the detection of vehicles during simulated driving.  

PubMed

The "low-prevalence effect" refers to the fact that observers often fail to detect rare targets (<5 % prevalence) during visual search tasks. Previous research has demonstrated robust prevalence effects in real-world tasks that employ static images, such as airport luggage screening. No published research has examined prevalence effects in dynamic tasks, such as driving. We conducted a driving simulator experiment to investigate whether target prevalence effects influence the detection of other vehicles while driving. The target vehicles were motorcycles and buses, with prevalence being manipulated both within and between subjects: Half of the subjects experienced a high prevalence of motorcycles with a low prevalence of buses, and half experienced a high prevalence of buses with a low prevalence of motorcycles. Consistent with our hypotheses, drivers detected high-prevalence targets faster than low-prevalence targets for both vehicle types. Overall, our results support the notion that increasing the prevalence of visual search targets makes them more salient, and consequently easier to detect. PMID:24464593

Beanland, Vanessa; Lenné, Michael G; Underwood, Geoffrey

2014-04-01

325

75 FR 17604 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Roof Crush Resistance  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Traffic Safety Administration, 1200 New Jersey Avenue, SE., West...included in the introductory text of S7.2 of FMVSS No. 216a. As corrected, S7.2 specifically cross-references...revising S3.1(a)(4) and S7.2 introductory text to...

2010-04-07

326

NREL's emulation tool helps manufacturers ensure the safety and reliability of electric vehicle batteries.  

E-print Network

challenging failure mechanisms of lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries--a battery internal short circuit (ISC). When in a short circuit between electrodes during use. As electric car manufacturers turn to Li-ion batteries Achievement NREL's emulation tool triggers internal short circuits to assess and improve Li-ion battery safety

327

76 FR 53660 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Seat Belt Assemblies  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...denying the petition because the petitioner did not demonstrate a safety need for such a...serious injuries. Given that the petitioner did not go into the specifics \\3\\ of how the...appropriately actuate the invention, but it did not give specifics on how it would...

2011-08-29

328

Accounting for the Variation of Driver Aggression in the Simulation of Conventional and Advanced Vehicles (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect

This presentation discusses a method of accounting for realistic levels of driver aggression to higher-level vehicle studies, including the impact of variation in real-world driving characteristics (acceleration and speed) on vehicle energy consumption and different powertrains (e.g., conventionally powered vehicles versus electrified drive vehicles [xEVs]). Aggression variation between drivers can increase fuel consumption by more than 50% or decrease it by more than 20% from average. The normalized fuel consumption deviation from average as a function of population percentile was found to be largely insensitive to powertrain. However, the traits of ideal driving behavior are a function of powertrain. In conventional vehicles, kinetic losses dominate rolling resistance and aerodynamic losses. In xEVs with regenerative braking, rolling resistance and aerodynamic losses dominate. The relation of fuel consumption predicted from real-world drive data to that predicted by the industry-standard HWFET, UDDS, LA92, and US06 drive cycles was not consistent across powertrains, and varied broadly from the mean, median, and mode of real-world driving. A drive cycle synthesized by NREL's DRIVE tool accurately and consistently reproduces average real-world for multiple powertrains within 1%, and can be used to calculate the fuel consumption effects of varying levels of driver aggression.

Neubauer, J.; Wood, E.

2013-05-01

329

Design and Transient Analysis of Passive Safety Cooling Systems for Advanced Nuclear Reactors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Pebble Bed Advanced High Temperature Reactor (PB-AHTR) is a pebble fueled, liquid salt cooled, high temperature nuclear reactor design that can be used for electricity generation or other applications requiring the availability of heat at elevated temperatures. A stage in the design evolution of this plant requires the analysis of the plant during a variety of potential transients to understand the primary and safety cooling system response. This study focuses on the performance of the passive safety cooling system with a dual purpose, to assess the capacity to maintain the core at safe temperatures and to assist the design process of this system to achieve this objective. The analysis requires the use of complex computational tools for simulation and verification using analytical solutions and comparisons with experimental data. This investigation builds upon previous detailed design work for the PB-AHTR components, including the core, reactivity control mechanisms and the intermediate heat exchanger, developed in 2008. In addition the study of this reference plant design employs a wealth of auxiliary information including thermal-hydraulic physical phenomena correlations for multiple geometries and thermophysical properties for the constituents of the plant. Finally, the set of performance requirements and limitations imposed from physical constrains and safety considerations provide with a criteria and metrics for acceptability of the design. The passive safety cooling system concept is turned into a detailed design as a result from this study. A methodology for the design of air-cooled passive safety systems was developed and a transient analysis of the plant, evaluating a scrammed loss of forced cooling event was performed. Furthermore, a design optimization study of the passive safety system and an approach for the validation and verification of the analysis is presented. This study demonstrates that the resulting point design responds properly to the transient event and maintains the core and reactor components at acceptable temperatures within allowable safety margins. It is also demonstrated that the transition from steady full-power, forced-cooling mode to steady decay-heat, natural-circulation mode is stable, predictable and well characterized.

Galvez, Cristhian

2011-12-01

330

77 FR 46677 - Vehicle Certification; Contents of Certification Labels  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...motorcycles, and low-speed vehicles (those vehicle types not identified by...Requirements for Motor Vehicles (Except the Vehicle Identification Number...Part 567 Labeling, Motor vehicle safety, Motor vehicles. In consideration...

2012-08-06

331

Overview of the Safety Issues Associated with the Compressed Natural Gas Fuel System and Electric Drive System in a Heavy Hybrid Electric Vehicle  

SciTech Connect

This report evaluates the hazards that are unique to a compressed-natural-gas (CNG)-fueled heavy hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) design compared with a conventional heavy vehicle. The unique design features of the heavy HEV are the CNG fuel system for the internal-combustion engine (ICE) and the electric drive system. This report addresses safety issues with the CNG fuel system and the electric drive system. Vehicles on U. S. highways have been propelled by ICEs for several decades. Heavy-duty vehicles have typically been fueled by diesel fuel, and light-duty vehicles have been fueled by gasoline. The hazards and risks posed by ICE vehicles are well understood and have been generally accepted by the public. The economy, durability, and safety of ICE vehicles have established a standard for other types of vehicles. Heavy-duty (i.e., heavy) HEVs have recently been introduced to U. S. roadways, and the hazards posed by these heavy HEVs can be compared with the hazards posed by ICE vehicles. The benefits of heavy HEV technology are based on their potential for reduced fuel consumption and lower exhaust emissions, while the disadvantages are the higher acquisition cost and the expected higher maintenance costs (i.e., battery packs). The heavy HEV is more suited for an urban drive cycle with stop-and-go driving conditions than for steady expressway speeds. With increasing highway congestion and the resulting increased idle time, the fuel consumption advantage for heavy HEVs (compared with conventional heavy vehicles) is enhanced by the HEVs' ability to shut down. Any increase in fuel cost obviously improves the economics of a heavy HEV. The propulsion system for a heavy HEV is more complex than the propulsion system for a conventional heavy vehicle. The heavy HEV evaluated in this study has in effect two propulsion systems: an ICE fueled by CNG and an electric drive system with additional complexity and failure modes. This additional equipment will result in a less reliable vehicle with a lower availability than a conventional heavy vehicle. Experience with heavy HEVs to date supports this observation. The key safety concern for the electric drive system is the higher voltages and currents that are required in the electric drive system. Faults that could expose personnel to these electric hazards must be considered, addressed, and minimized. The key issue for the CNG-fueled ICE is containment of the high-pressure natural gas. Events that can result in a release of natural gas with the possibility of subsequent ignition are of concern. These safety issues are discussed. The heavy HEV has the potential to have a safety record that is comparable to that of the conventional vehicle, but adequate attention to detail will be required.

Nelson, S.C.

2002-11-14

332

Thermal Management of Batteries in Advanced Vehicles Using Phase-Change Materials (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect

This Powerpoint presentation examines battery thermal management using PCM and concludes excellent performance in limiting peak temperatures at short period extensive battery use; although, vehicle designers will need to weigh the potential increase in mass and cost associated with adding PCM against the anticipated benefits.

Kim, G.-H.; Gonder, J.; Lustbader, J.; Pesaran, A.

2007-12-01

333

Advanced Technologies for Light-Duty Vehicles (released in AEO2006)  

EIA Publications

A fundamental concern in projecting the future attributes of light-duty vehicles-passenger cars, sport utility vehicles, pickup trucks, and minivans-is how to represent technological change and the market forces that drive it. There is always considerable uncertainty about the evolution of existing technologies, what new technologies might emerge, and how consumer preferences might influence the direction of change. Most of the new and emerging technologies expected to affect the performance and fuel use of light-duty vehicles over the next 25 years are represented in the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS); however, the potential emergence of new, unforeseen technologies makes it impossible to address all the technology options that could come into play. The previous section of Issues in Focus discussed several potential technologies that currently are not represented in NEMS. This section discusses some of the key technologies represented in NEMS that are expected to be implemented in light-duty vehicles over the next 25 years.

2006-01-01

334

Evaluation of Advanced Thermal Protection Techniques for Future Reusable Launch Vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method for integrating Aeroheating analysis into conceptual reusable launch vehicle RLV design is presented in this thesis. This process allows for faster turn-around time to converge a RLV design through the advent of designing an optimized thermal protection system (TPS). It consists of the coupling and automation of four computer software packages: MINIVER, TPSX, TCAT and ADS. MINIVER is an Aeroheating code that produces centerline radiation equilibrium temperatures, convective heating rates, and heat loads over simplified vehicle geometries. These include flat plates and swept cylinders that model wings and leading edges, respectively. TPSX is a NASA Ames material properties database that is available on the World Wide Web. The newly developed Thermal Calculation Analysis Tool (TCAT) uses finite difference methods to carry out a transient in-depth I-D conduction analysis over the center mold line of the vehicle. This is used along with the Automated Design Synthesis (ADS) code to correctly size the vehicle's thermal protection system JPS). The numerical optimizer ADS uses algorithms that solve constrained and unconstrained design problems. The resulting outputs for this process are TPS material types, unit thicknesses, and acreage percentages. TCAT was developed for several purposes. First, it provides a means to calculate the transient in-depth conduction seen by the surface of the TPS material that protects a vehicle during ascent and reentry. Along with the in-depth conduction, radiation from the surface of the material is calculated along with the temperatures at the backface and interior parts of the TPS material. Secondly, TCAT contributes added speed and automation to the overall design process. Another motivation in the development of TCAT is optimization.

Olds, John R.; Cowart, Kris

2001-01-01

335

Advanced design of valve-regulated lead-acid battery for hybrid electric vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel design of lead-acid battery has been developed for use in hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). The battery has current take-offs at both ends of each of the positive and negative plates. This feature markedly reduces battery operating temperatures, improves battery capacity, and extends cycle-life under HEV duty. The battery also performs well under partial-state-of-charge (PSoC)/fast-charge, electric-vehicle operation. The improvements in performance are attributed to more uniform utilization of the plate active-materials. The battery, combined with an internal-combustion engine and a new type of supercapacitor, will be used to power an HEV, which is being designed and constructed by an Australian industry-government consortium.

Lam, L. T.; Newnham, R. H.; Ozgun, H.; Fleming, F. A.

336

Advanced launch vehicle upper stages using liquid propulsion and metallized propellants  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Metallized propellants are liquid propellants with a metal additive suspended in a gelled fuel or oxidizer. Typically, aluminum particles are the metal additives. These propellants provide increase in the density and/or the specific impulse of the propulsion system. Using metallized propellants for volume- and mass-constrained upper stages can deliver modest increases in performance for Low Earth Orbit to Geosynchronous Earth Orbit and other Earth orbital transfer missions. Metallized propellants, however, can enable very fast planetary missions with a single-stage upper stage system. Trade studies comparing metallized propellant stage performance with non-metallized upper stages and the Inertial Upper Stage are presented. These upper stages are both one- and two-stage vehicles that provide the added energy to send payloads to altitudes and onto trajectories that are unattainable with only the launch vehicle. The stage designs are controlled by the volume and the mass constraints of the Space Transportation System and Space Transportation System-Cargo launch vehicles. The influences of the density and specific impulse increases enabled by metallized propellants are examined for a variety of different stage and propellant combinations.

Palaszewski, B. A.

1990-01-01

337

Advanced Launch Vehicle Upper Stages Using Liquid Propulsion and Metallized Propellants  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Metallized propellants are liquid propellants with a metal additive suspended in a gelled fuel or oxidizer. Typically, aluminum (Al) particles are the metal additive. These propellants provide increase in the density and/or the specific impulse of the propulsion system. Using metallized propellant for volume-and mass-constrained upper stages can deliver modest increases in performance for low earth orbit to geosynchronous earth orbit (LEO-GEO) and other earth orbital transfer missions. Metallized propellants, however, can enable very fast planetary missions with a single-stage upper stage system. Trade studies comparing metallized propellant stage performance with non-metallized upper stages and the Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) are presented. These upper stages are both one- and two-stage vehicles that provide the added energy to send payloads to altitudes and onto trajectories that are unattainable with only the launch vehicle. The stage designs are controlled by the volume and the mass constraints of the Space Transportation System (STS) and Space Transportation System-Cargo (STS-C) launch vehicles. The influences of the density and specific impulse increases enabled by metallized propellants are examined for a variety of different stage and propellant combinations.

Palaszewski, Bryan A.

1990-01-01

338

Role of Process Control in Improving Space Vehicle Safety A Space Shuttle External Tank Example  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Developing a safe and reliable space vehicle requires good design and good manufacturing, or in other words "design it right and build it right". A great design can be hard to build or manufacture mainly due to difficulties related to quality. Specifically, process control can be a challenge. As a result, the system suffers from low quality which leads to low reliability and high system risk. The Space Shuttle has experienced some of those cases, but has overcome these difficulties through extensive redesign efforts and process enhancements. One example is the design of the hot gas temperature sensor on the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME), which resulted in failure of the sensor in flight and led to a redesign of the sensor. The most recent example is the Space Shuttle External Tank (ET) Thermal Protection System (TPS) reliability issues that contributed to the Columbia accident. As a result, extensive redesign and process enhancement activities have been performed over the last two years to minimize the sensitivities and difficulties of the manual TPS application process.

Safie, Fayssal M.; Nguyen, Son C.; Burleson, Keith W.

2006-01-01

339

78 FR 42153 - Decision That Certain Nonconforming Motor Vehicles Are Eligible for Importation  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Vehicle Safety Standards. Vehicle Eligibility Number For Subject Vehicles: The importer of a vehicle admissible under any final...vehicle is eligible for entry. Vehicle eligibility numbers assigned to vehicles admissible under this...

2013-07-15

340

Improved methodology for integral analysis of advanced reactors employing passive safety  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

After four decades of experience with pressurized water reactors, a new generation of nuclear plants are emerging. These advanced designs employ passive safety which relies on natural forces, such as gravity and natural circulation. The new concept of passive safety also necessitates improvement in computational tools available for best-estimate analyses. The system codes originally designed for high pressure conditions in the presence of strong momentum sources such as pumps are challenged in many ways. Increased interaction of the primary system with the containment necessitates a tool for integral analysis. This study addresses some of these concerns. An improved tool for integral analysis coupling primary system with containment calculation is also presented. The code package is based on RELAP5 and CONTAIN programs, best-estimate thermal-hydraulics code for primary system analysis and containment code for containment analysis, respectively. The suitability is demonstrated with a postulated small break loss of coolant accident analysis of Westinghouse AP600 plant. The thesis explains the details of the analysis including the coupling model.

Muftuoglu, A. Kursad

341

The Vehicle Technologies Market Report  

E-print Network

The Vehicle Technologies Market Report Center for Transportation Analysis 2360 Cherahala Boulevard Efficiency Transportation: Energy Environment Safety Security Vehicle Technologies T he Oak Ridge National Laboratory's Center for Transportation Analysis developed and published the first Vehicle Technologies Market

342

The JRC-ITU approach to the safety of advanced nuclear fuel cycles  

SciTech Connect

The JRC-ITU safety studies of advanced fuels and cycles adopt two main axes. First the full exploitation of still available and highly relevant knowledge and samples from past fuel preparation and irradiation campaigns (complementing the limited number of ongoing programmes). Secondly, the shift of focus from simple property measurement towards the understanding of basic mechanisms determining property evolution and behaviour of fuel compounds during normal, off-normal and accident conditions. The final objective of the second axis is the determination of predictive tools applicable to systems and conditions different from those from which they were derived. State of the art experimental facilities, extensive networks of partnerships and collaboration with other organizations worldwide, and a developing programme for training and education are essential in this approach. This strategy has been implemented through various programs and projects. The SUPERFACT programme constitutes the main body of existing knowledge on the behavior in-pile of MOX fuel containing minor actinides. It encompassed all steps of a closed fuel cycle. Another international project investigating the safety of a closed cycle is METAPHIX. In this case a U-Pu19-Zr10 metal alloy containing Np, Am and Cm constitutes the fuel. 9 test pins have been prepared and irradiated. In addition to the PIE (Post Irradiation Examination), pyrometallurgical separation of the irradiated fuel has been performed, to demonstrate all the steps of a multiple recycling closed cycle and characterize their safety relevant aspects. Basic studies like thermodynamic fuel properties, fuel-cladding-coolant interactions have also been carried out at JRC-ITU.

Fanghaenel, T.; Rondinella, V.V.; Somers, J.; Konings, R.; Erdmann, N.; Uffelen, P. van; Glatz, J.P. [European Commission, Joint Research Centre - JRC, Institute for Transuranium Elements - ITU, Postfach 2340, 76125 Karlsruhe (Germany)

2013-07-01

343

Assessment of modular construction for safety-related structures at advanced nuclear power plants  

SciTech Connect

Modular construction techniques have been successfully used in a number of industries, both domestically and internationally. Recently, the use of structural modules has been proposed for advanced nuclear power plants. The objective in utilizing modular construction is to reduce the construction schedule, reduce construction costs, and improve the quality of construction. This report documents the results of a program which evaluated the proposed use of modular construction for safety-related structures in advanced nuclear power plant designs. The program included review of current modular construction technology, development of licensing review criteria for modular construction, and initial validation of currently available analytical techniques applied to concrete-filled steel structural modules. The program was conducted in three phases. The objective of the first phase was to identify the technical issues and the need for further study in order to support NRC licensing review activities. The two key findings were the need for supplementary review criteria to augment the Standard Review Plan and the need for verified design/analysis methodology for unique types of modules, such as the concrete-filled steel module. In the second phase of this program, Modular Construction Review Criteria were developed to provide guidance for licensing reviews. In the third phase, an analysis effort was conducted to determine if currently available finite element analysis techniques can be used to predict the response of concrete-filled steel modules.

Braverman, J.; Morante, R.; Hofmayer, C.

1997-03-01

344

Environmentally Responsible Aviation N plus 2 Advanced Vehicle Concepts NRA Status  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Environmentally Responsible Aviation Project (ERA) has a NASA Research Announcement (NRA) that is performing a systems study and conceptual design. The purpose of the systems study is to determine possible configurations that are capable of simultaneously meeting NASA's Subsonic N+2 Metrics for reducing Noise, Emissions and Fuel Burn. The conceptual design portion of the contract is to perform a conceptual design ofa Subscale Testbed Vehicle to demonstrate and test both the configuration and the technologies that are required to allow that configuration to meet the goals. This briefing is an update on the status of that NRA presented to the Turbo Expo conference in June 2011.

Mangelsdorf, Mark F.

2011-01-01

345

Optimal Design of Integrated Systems Health Management (ISHM) Systems for improving safety in NASA's Exploration Vehicles: A Two-Level Multidisciplinary Design Approach  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Integrated Vehicle Health Management (ISHM) systems are used to detect, assess, and isolate functional failures in order to improve safety of space systems such as Orbital Space Planes (OSPs). An ISHM system, as a whole, consists of several subsystems that monitor different components of an OSP including: Spacecraft, Launch Vehicle, Ground Control, and the International Space Station. In this research, therefore, we propose a new methodology to design and optimize ISHM as a distributed system with multiple disciplines (that correspond to different subsystems of OSP safety). A paramount amount of interest has been given in the literature to the multidisciplinary design optimization of problems with such architecture (as will be reviewed in the full paper).

Mehr, Ali Farhang; Tumer, Irem; Barszcz, Eric

2005-01-01

346

Design, fabrication and test of graphite/polyimide composite joints and attachments for advanced aerospace vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development of several types of graphite/polyimide (GR/PI) bonded and bolted joints is reported. The program consists of two concurrent tasks: (1) design and test of specific built up attachments; and (2) evaluation of standard advanced bonded joint concepts. A data base for the design and analysis of advanced composite joints for use at elevated temperatures (561K (550 deg F)) to design concepts for specific joining applications, and the fundamental parameters controlling the static strength characteristics of such joints are evaluated. Data for design and build GR/PI of lightly loaded flight components for advanced space transportation systems and high speed aircraft are presented. Results for compression and interlaminar shear strengths of Celion 6000/PMR-15 laminates are given. Static discriminator test results for type 3 and type 4 bonded and bolted joints and final joint designs for TASK 1.4 scale up fabrication and testing are presented.

1981-01-01

347

Orbit Transfer Vehicle (OTV) advanced expander cycle engine point design study. Task 7: Engine data summary  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A performance optimized engine system design for a man-rated advanced LOX/hydrogen expander cycle engine was investigated. The data are presented in tables, figures, and drawings. The following categories of data for the advanced expander cycle engine are presented: engine operating specification and pressure schedule; engine system layout drawing; major component layout drawings, including thrust chamber and nozzle, extendible nozzle actuating mechanism and seal, LOX turbopump, LOX boost pump, hydrogen turbopump, hydrogen boost pump, and propellant control valves; engine performance and service life prediction; engine weight; and engine envelope. The data represent updates based upon current results from the design and analyses tasks performed under contract. Futher iterations in the designs and data can be expected as the advanced expander cycle engine design matures.

Christensen, K. L.

1980-01-01

348

How Past Loss of Control Accidents May Inform Safety Cases for Advanced Control Systems on Commercial Aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes five loss of control accidents involving commercial aircraft, and derives from those accidents three principles to consider when developing a potential safety case for an advanced flight control system for commercial aircraft. One, among the foundational evidence needed to support a safety case is the availability to the control system of accurate and timely information about the status and health of relevant systems and components. Two, an essential argument to be sustained in the safety case is that pilots are provided with adequate information about the control system to enable them to understand the capabilities that it provides. Three, another essential argument is that the advanced control system will not perform less safely than a good pilot.

Holloway, C. M.; Johnson, C. W.

2008-01-01

349

Surface Catalytic Efficiency of Advanced Carbon Carbon Candidate Thermal Protection Materials for SSTO Vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The catalytic efficiency (atom recombination coefficients) for advanced ceramic thermal protection systems was calculated using arc-jet data. Coefficients for both oxygen and nitrogen atom recombination on the surfaces of these systems were obtained to temperatures of 1650 K. Optical and chemical stability of the candidate systems to the high energy hypersonic flow was also demonstrated during these tests.

Stewart, David A.

1996-01-01

350

Antenna Advancement Techniques and Integration of RFID Electronics on Organic Substrates for UHF RFID Applications in Automotive Sensing and Vehicle Security  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, design requirements and advanced approaches for improved performance UHF radio frequency identification (RFID) tags are presented. Organic substrates are examined as highly potential candidates for RFID fabrications. An inkjet-printed tag on paper substrate is realized for ultra-low- cost mass production. RFID with sensor integration is also demonstrated for automotive sensing and vehicle security applications. Measurements are performed

Li Yang; Amin Rida; Jiexin Li; Manos M. Tentzeris

2007-01-01

351

Powertrain & Vehicle Research Centre  

E-print Network

Powertrain & Vehicle Research Centre Low Carbon Powertrain Development S Akehurst, EPSRC Advanced Viewing Trade-Offs and Finding Optima Realism Advanced Engine Test Vehicle Test Rolling Road Powertrain Simulation Basic Engine Test Vehicle Test Cost & Complexity Towards Final Product Lean Powertrain Development

Burton, Geoffrey R.

352

Advanced engine study for mixed-mode orbit-transfer vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Engine design, performance, weight and envelope data were established for three mixed-mode orbit-transfer vehicle engine candidates. Engine concepts evaluated are the tripropellant, dual-expander and plug cluster. Oxygen, RP-1 and hydrogen are the propellants considered for use in these engines. Theoretical performance and propellant properties were established for bipropellant and tripropellant mixes of these propellants. RP-1, hydrogen and oxygen were evaluated as coolants and the maximum attainable chamber pressures were determined for each engine concept within the constraints of the propellant properties and the low cycle thermal fatigue (300 cycles) requirement. The baseline engine design and component operating characteristics are determined at a thrust level of 88,964N (20,000 lbs) and a thrust split of 0.5. The parametric data is generated over ranges of thrust and thrust split of 66.7 to 400kN (15 to 90 klb) and 0.4 to 0.8, respectively.

Mellish, J. A.

1978-01-01

353

Advanced Usage of Vehicle Sketch Pad for CFD-Based Conceptual Design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Conceptual design is the most fluid phase of aircraft design. It is important to be able to perform large scale design space exploration of candidate concepts that can achieve the design intent to avoid more costly configuration changes in later stages of design. This also means that conceptual design is highly dependent on the disciplinary analysis tools to capture the underlying physics accurately. The required level of analysis fidelity can vary greatly depending on the application. Vehicle Sketch Pad (VSP) allows the designer to easily construct aircraft concepts and make changes as the design matures. More recent development efforts have enabled VSP to bridge the gap to high-fidelity analysis disciplines such as computational fluid dynamics and structural modeling for finite element analysis. This paper focuses on the current state-of-the-art geometry modeling for the automated process of analysis and design of low-boom supersonic concepts using VSP and several capability-enhancing design tools.

Ordaz, Irian; Li, Wu

2013-01-01

354

General Vehicle Performance Specifications for the UPRM AUV Vehicle Specifications  

E-print Network

General Vehicle Performance Specifications for the UPRM AUV Vehicle Specifications Vehicle Characteristics Specification Maximum Depth 700m with 1.5 safety factor Vehicle power 2kWHr Li Ion Rechargeable Transducer 700m rated Paroscientific Depth Sensor will be integrated into the vehicle navigation stream

Gilbes, Fernando

355

Design, fabrication and test of graphite/polyimide composite joints and attachments for advanced aerospace vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design and evaluation of built-up attachments and bonded joint concepts for use at elevated temperatures is documented. Joint concept screening, verification of GR/PI material, fabrication of design allowables panels, definition of test matrices, and analysis of bonded and bolted joints are among the tasks completed. The results provide data for the design and fabrication of lightly loaded components for advanced space transportation systems and high speed aircraft.

Koumal, D. E.

1979-01-01

356

ANL's electric vehicle battery activities for USABC. [US Advanced Battery Consortium (USABC)  

SciTech Connect

The Electrochemical Technology Program at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) provides advanced battery R D; technology transfer to industry; technical analyses, assessments, modeling, and databases; and independent testing and post-test analyses of advanced batteries. These capabilities and services are being offered to the US Advanced Battery Consortium (USABC) and Cooperative Research and Development Agreements (CRADA) are being negotiated for USABC-sponsored work at ANL. A small portion of DOE's cost share for USABC projects has been provided to ANL to continue R D and testing activities on key technologies that were previously supported directly by DOE. This report summarizes progress on these USABC projects during the period of April I through September 30, 1992. In this report, the objective, background, technical progress, and status are described for each task. The work is organized into the following task areas: 1.0 Lithium/Sulfide Batteries; 2.0 Nickel/Metal Hydride Support 3.0 EV Battery Performance and Life Evaluation.

Not Available

1992-01-01

357

Safety and efficacy of laparoscopy-assisted gastrectomy for advanced gastric cancer in the elderly  

PubMed Central

To evaluate safety and efficacy of laparoscopy-assisted radical gastrectomy (LARG) for advanced gastric cancer patients aged 70 years or older. Clinical data were retrospectively collected from patients with IIA-IIIC gastric cancer who underwent LARG (n = 30) and open radical gastrectomy (ORG, n = 34) in Department of Gastrointestinal Surgery in the Ningbo First Hospital from January 2012 to December 2013. The mean operative time was longer in the LARG group than in the ORG group but there was no statistical difference between the two groups. The intraoperative blood loss (120 ± 52.7 ml vs 227.3 ± 146.9 ml), incidence of postoperative complication (23.0% vs 47%) were lower in the LARG group than those in the ORG group. In addition, the time to first flatus (2.9 ± 0.8 d vs 4.6 ± 1.2 d), time to first ambulation (1.2 ± 0.4 vs 4.1 ± 1.0 d), time of nasogastric intubation (2.5 ± 1.0 d vs 3.5 ± 1.4 d), and postoperative hospital stay (13.0 ± 4.2 d vs 16.9 ± 4.1 d) were significantly shorter in the LARG group than in the ORG group, respectively. No statistical difference in the number of harvested lymph nodes was noted between the two groups (30.2 ± 12.0 vs 28.1 ± 11.8, P > 0.05). LARG is safer, more effective and less invasive for the elderly patients with advanced gastric cancer. PMID:25419398

Qiu, Jiang-Feng; Yang, Bing; Fang, Lei; Li, Yi-Ping; Shi, Yi-Jiu; Yu, Xiu-Chong; Zhang, Mou-Cheng

2014-01-01

358

Parametric Analysis of a Hover Test Vehicle using Advanced Test Generation and Data Analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Large complex aerospace systems are generally validated in regions local to anticipated operating points rather than through characterization of the entire feasible operational envelope of the system. This is due to the large parameter space, and complex, highly coupled nonlinear nature of the different systems that contribute to the performance of the aerospace system. We have addressed the factors deterring such an analysis by applying a combination of technologies to the area of flight envelop assessment. We utilize n-factor (2,3) combinatorial parameter variations to limit the number of cases, but still explore important interactions in the parameter space in a systematic fashion. The data generated is automatically analyzed through a combination of unsupervised learning using a Bayesian multivariate clustering technique (AutoBayes) and supervised learning of critical parameter ranges using the machine-learning tool TAR3, a treatment learner. Covariance analysis with scatter plots and likelihood contours are used to visualize correlations between simulation parameters and simulation results, a task that requires tool support, especially for large and complex models. We present results of simulation experiments for a cold-gas-powered hover test vehicle.

Gundy-Burlet, Karen; Schumann, Johann; Menzies, Tim; Barrett, Tony

2009-01-01

359

VaMoRs-P: an advanced platform for visual autonomous road vehicle guidance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A sedan Mercedes 500 SEL has been equipped with active bifocal vision systems. Road and object recognition is performed both in a look-ahead and in a look-back region; this allows to servo-maintain an internal representation of the entire situation around in the vehicle using the 4D approach to dynamic machine vision. Obstacles are detected and tracked both in the forward and in the backward viewing range up to about 100 meters distance; up to 5 objects may be tracked in parallel in each hemisphere. A fixation type viewing direction control with the capability of saccadic shifts for attention focusing has been developed. The overall system comprises about 5 dozen transputers T-222 (16-bit, for image processing and communication) and T-800 (32-bit, for number crunching and knowledge processing) plus a PC as transputer host. A description of the parallel processing architecture is given allowing frequent data driven bottom-up and model driven top-down integration steps for efficient and robust object tracking (4D approach).

Maurer, Markus; Behringer, Reinhold; Dickmanns, Dirk; Hildebrandt, Thomas; Thomanek, Frank; Schiehlen, Joachim; Dickmanns, Ernst D.

1995-01-01

360

Advanced electric propulsion system concept for electric vehicles. Addendum 1: Voltage considerations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The two electric vehicle propulsion systems that best met cost and performance goals were examined to assess the effect of battery pack voltage on system performance and cost. A voltage range of 54 to 540 V was considered for a typical battery pack capacity of 24 k W-hr. The highest battery specific energy (W-hr/kg) and the lowest cost ($/kW-hr) were obtained at the minimum voltage level. The flywheel system traction motor is a dc, mechanically commutated with shunt field control, and due to the flywheel the traction motor and the battery are not subject to extreme peaks of power demand. The basic system uses a permanent-magnet motor with electronic commutation supplied by an ac power control unit. In both systems battery cost were the major factor in system voltage selection, and a battery pack with the minimum voltage of 54 V produced the lowest life-cycle cost. The minimum life-cycle cost for the basic system with lead-acid batteries was $0.057/km and for the flywheel system was $0.037/km.

Raynard, A. E.; Forbes, F. E.

1980-01-01

361

Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation Waste Integrated Performance and Safety Codes (NEAMS Waste IPSC).  

SciTech Connect

The objective of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation Waste Integrated Performance and Safety Codes (NEAMS Waste IPSC) is to provide an integrated suite of computational modeling and simulation (M&S) capabilities to quantitatively assess the long-term performance of waste forms in the engineered and geologic environments of a radioactive-waste storage facility or disposal repository. Achieving the objective of modeling the performance of a disposal scenario requires describing processes involved in waste form degradation and radionuclide release at the subcontinuum scale, beginning with mechanistic descriptions of chemical reactions and chemical kinetics at the atomic scale, and upscaling into effective, validated constitutive models for input to high-fidelity continuum scale codes for coupled multiphysics simulations of release and transport. Verification and validation (V&V) is required throughout the system to establish evidence-based metrics for the level of confidence in M&S codes and capabilities, including at the subcontiunuum scale and the constitutive models they inform or generate. This Report outlines the nature of the V&V challenge at the subcontinuum scale, an approach to incorporate V&V concepts into subcontinuum scale modeling and simulation (M&S), and a plan to incrementally incorporate effective V&V into subcontinuum scale M&S destined for use in the NEAMS Waste IPSC work flow to meet requirements of quantitative confidence in the constitutive models informed by subcontinuum scale phenomena.

Schultz, Peter Andrew

2011-12-01

362

Criticality Safety Evaluation for the Advanced Test Reactor U-Mo Demonstration Elements  

SciTech Connect

The Reduced Enrichment Research Test Reactors (RERTR) fuel development program is developing a high uranium density fuel based on a (LEU) uranium-molybdenum alloy. Testing of prototypic RERTR fuel elements is necessary to demonstrate integrated fuel performance behavior and scale-up of fabrication techniques. Two RERTR-Full Size Demonstration fuel elements based on the ATR-Reduced YA elements (all but one plate fueled) are to be fabricated for testing in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR). The two fuel elements will be irradiated in alternating cycles such that only one element is loaded in the reactor at a time. Existing criticality analyses have analyzed Standard (HEU) ATR elements (all plates fueled) from which controls have been derived. This criticality safety evaluation (CSE) documents analysis that determines the reactivity of the Demonstration fuel elements relative to HEU ATR elements and shows that the Demonstration elements are bound by the Standard HEU ATR elements and existing HEU ATR element controls are applicable to the Demonstration elements.

Leland M. Montierth

2010-12-01

363

Modeling the Behaviour of an Advanced Material Based Smart Landing Gear System for Aerospace Vehicles  

SciTech Connect

The last two decades have seen a substantial rise in the use of advanced materials such as polymer composites for aerospace structural applications. In more recent years there has been a concerted effort to integrate materials, which mimic biological functions (referred to as smart materials) with polymeric composites. Prominent among smart materials are shape memory alloys, which possess both actuating and sensory functions that can be realized simultaneously. The proper characterization and modeling of advanced and smart materials holds the key to the design and development of efficient smart devices/systems. This paper focuses on the material characterization; modeling and validation of the model in relation to the development of a Shape Memory Alloy (SMA) based smart landing gear (with high energy dissipation features) for a semi rigid radio controlled airship (RC-blimp). The Super Elastic (SE) SMA element is configured in such a way that it is forced into a tensile mode of high elastic deformation. The smart landing gear comprises of a landing beam, an arch and a super elastic Nickel-Titanium (Ni-Ti) SMA element. The landing gear is primarily made of polymer carbon composites, which possess high specific stiffness and high specific strength compared to conventional materials, and are therefore ideally suited for the design and development of an efficient skid landing gear system with good energy dissipation characteristics. The development of the smart landing gear in relation to a conventional metal landing gear design is also dealt with.

Varughese, Byji; Dayananda, G. N.; Rao, M. Subba [National Aerospace Laboratories, P.B. No: 1779, Airport Road, Bangalore-560017 (India)

2008-07-29

364

Modeling the Behaviour of an Advanced Material Based Smart Landing Gear System for Aerospace Vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The last two decades have seen a substantial rise in the use of advanced materials such as polymer composites for aerospace structural applications. In more recent years there has been a concerted effort to integrate materials, which mimic biological functions (referred to as smart materials) with polymeric composites. Prominent among smart materials are shape memory alloys, which possess both actuating and sensory functions that can be realized simultaneously. The proper characterization and modeling of advanced and smart materials holds the key to the design and development of efficient smart devices/systems. This paper focuses on the material characterization; modeling and validation of the model in relation to the development of a Shape Memory Alloy (SMA) based smart landing gear (with high energy dissipation features) for a semi rigid radio controlled airship (RC-blimp). The Super Elastic (SE) SMA element is configured in such a way that it is forced into a tensile mode of high elastic deformation. The smart landing gear comprises of a landing beam, an arch and a super elastic Nickel-Titanium (Ni-Ti) SMA element. The landing gear is primarily made of polymer carbon composites, which possess high specific stiffness and high specific strength compared to conventional materials, and are therefore ideally suited for the design and development of an efficient skid landing gear system with good energy dissipation characteristics. The development of the smart landing gear in relation to a conventional metal landing gear design is also dealt with.

Varughese, Byji; Dayananda, G. N.; Rao, M. Subba

2008-07-01

365

A basic requirement of autonomous vehicles is that of guarantee-ing the safety of the vehicle by avoiding hazardous situations. This  

E-print Network

of the above policies provides the most compact expression of the relationships between speed, reaction time of the vehicle by avoiding hazardous situations. This paper analyses this requirement in general terms of real-time in canonical form. 1 Introduction The need for high throughput perception algorithms has been acknowledged

Kelly, Alonzo

366

49 CFR 575.301 - Vehicle labeling of safety rating information (applicable unless a vehicle is subject to § 575.302).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...section. (2) The label must depict the star ratings for that vehicle as reported to...Rated” or “To Be Rated,” the star graphic indicating each rating, as...and symbols on the label (including the star graphic specified in paragraph...

2011-10-01

367

49 CFR 575.301 - Vehicle labeling of safety rating information (applicable unless a vehicle is subject to § 575.302).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...section. (2) The label must depict the star ratings for that vehicle as reported to...Rated” or “To Be Rated,” the star graphic indicating each rating, as...and symbols on the label (including the star graphic specified in paragraph...

2013-10-01

368

49 CFR 575.301 - Vehicle labeling of safety rating information (applicable unless a vehicle is subject to § 575.302).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...section. (2) The label must depict the star ratings for that vehicle as reported to...Rated” or “To Be Rated,” the star graphic indicating each rating, as...and symbols on the label (including the star graphic specified in paragraph...

2014-10-01

369

49 CFR 575.301 - Vehicle labeling of safety rating information (applicable unless a vehicle is subject to § 575.302).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...section. (2) The label must depict the star ratings for that vehicle as reported to...Rated” or “To Be Rated,” the star graphic indicating each rating, as...and symbols on the label (including the star graphic specified in paragraph...

2012-10-01

370

Study of the suit inflation effect on crew safety during landing using a full-pressure IVA suit for new-generation reentry space vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, manned space capsules have been recognized as beneficial and reasonable human space vehicles again. The Dragon capsule already achieved several significant successes. The Orion capsule is going to be sent to a high-apogee orbit without crews for experimental purposes in September 2014. For such human-rated space capsules, the study of acceleration impacts against the human body during splashdown is essential to ensure the safety of crews. Moreover, it is also known that wearing a full pressure rescue suit significantly increases safety of a crew, compared to wearing a partial pressure suit. This is mainly because it enables the use of a personal life support system independently in addition to that which installed in the space vehicle. However, it is unclear how the inflation of the full pressure suit due to pressurization affects the crew safety during splashdown, especially in the case of the new generation manned space vehicles. Therefore, the purpose of this work is to investigate the effect of the suit inflation on crew safety against acceleration impact during splashdown. For this objective, the displacements of the safety harness in relation with the suit, a human surrogate, and the crew seats during pressurizing the suit in order to determine if the safety and survivability of a crew can be improved by wearing a full pressure suit. For these tests, the DL/H-1 full pressure IVA suit, developed by Pablo de Leon and Gary L. Harris, will be used. These tests use image analysis techniques to determine the displacements. It is expected, as a result of these tests, that wearing a full pressure suit will help to mitigate the impacts and will increase the safety and survivability of a crew during landing since it works as a buffer to mitigate impact forces during splashdown. This work also proposes a future plan for sled test experiments using a sled facility such as the one in use by the Civil Aerospace Medical Institute (CAMI) for experimental validation of the work presented as part of this thesis.

Wataru, Suzuki

371

A Public-Private Consortium Advances Cardiac Safety Evaluation: Achievements of the HESI Cardiac Safety Technical Committee  

EPA Science Inventory

The evaluation of cardiovascular side-effects is a critical element in the development of all new drugs and chemicals. Cardiac safety issues have been and continue to be a major cause of attrition and withdrawal due to Adverse Drug Reactions (ADRs) in pharmaceutical drug developm...

372

Research and development of advanced lead-acid batteries for electric vehicle propulsion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose was to develop an advanced lead-acid battery based on the concept of forced flow of electrolyte through porous electrodes for enhanced battery performance. The objectives were: specific energy of 42 Wh/kg, energy density of 70 Wh/l, and cycle life of 100 cycles. Accomplishments were: 35 flow-through cells with reduced construction time, higher fiber content in the positive active materials (PAM) with increased strength by a factor of 3, high-density PAM for increased life without utilization losses, confirmation of solid-state relaxation theory, methods for measuring permeability, 31 cycles achieved in C-450, oxygen recombination in many test cells, electrolyte reservoir can be below the top of the cells, and completed designs for positive and negative flow-through grids and for the injection molds to produce the grid/plastic laminates.

Andrew, M. G.; Bowman, D. E.

1987-04-01

373

Applications of near infrared spectroscopy in food safety evaluation and control: a review of recent research advances.  

PubMed

Abstract Food safety is of critical public concern, and has drawn great attention in society. Consequently, developments of rapid, robust and accurate methods and techniques for food safety evaluation and control are required. As a nondestructive and convenient tool, near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) has been widely shown to be a promising technique for food safety inspection and control due to its huge advantages of rapidity, noninvasive measurement, ease of use, and minimal sample preparation. This review presents the fundamentals of NIRS and focuses on recent advances on its applications, during the last ten years of food safety control, in meat, fish and fishery products, edible oils, milk and dairy products, grains and grain products, fruits and vegetables, and others. Based upon these applications, it can be demonstrated that NIRS combined with chemometric methods is a powerful tool for food safety surveillance and for the elimination of the occurrence of food safety problems. Some disadvantages that need to be solved or investigated regarding further development of NIRS are also discussed. PMID:24689758

Qu, Jia-Huan; Liu, Dan; Cheng, Jun-Hu; Sun, Da-Wen; Ma, Ji; Pu, Hongbin; Zeng, Xin-An

2014-04-01

374

Leveraging Intelligent Vehicle Technologies to Maximize Fuel Economy (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect

Advancements in vehicle electronics, along with communication and sensing technologies, have led to a growing number of intelligent vehicle applications. Example systems include those for advanced driver information, route planning and prediction, driver assistance, and crash avoidance. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory is exploring ways to leverage intelligent vehicle systems to achieve fuel savings. This presentation discusses several potential applications, such as providing intelligent feedback to drivers on specific ways to improve their driving efficiency, and using information about upcoming driving to optimize electrified vehicle control strategies for maximum energy efficiency and battery life. The talk also covers the potential of Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) and related technologies to deliver significant fuel savings in addition to providing safety and convenience benefits.

Gonder, J.

2011-11-01

375

Worldwide advanced nuclear power reactors with passive and inherent safety: What, why, how, and who  

Microsoft Academic Search

The political controversy over nuclear power, the accidents at Three Mile Island (TMI) and Chernobyl, international competition, concerns about the carbon dioxide greenhouse effect and technical breakthroughs have resulted in a segment of the nuclear industry examining power reactor concepts with PRIME safety characteristics. PRIME is an acronym for Passive safety, Resilience, Inherent safety, Malevolence resistance, and Extended time after

C. W. Forsberg; W. J. Reich

1991-01-01

376

Safety.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses safety issues in science, including: allergic reactions to peanuts used in experiments; explosions in lead/acid batteries; and inspection of pressure vessels, such as pressure cookers or model steam engines. (MKR)

Education in Science, 1996

1996-01-01

377

Advanced Concepts for Pressure-Channel Reactors: Modularity, Performance and Safety  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Based on an analysis of the development of advanced concepts for pressure-tube reactor technology, we adapt and adopt the pressure-tube reactor advantage of modularity, so that the subdivided core has the potential for optimization of the core, safety, fuel cycle and thermal performance independently, while retaining passive safety features. In addition, by adopting supercritical water-cooling, the logical developments from existing supercritical turbine technology and “steam” systems can be utilized. Supercritical and ultra-supercritical boilers and turbines have been operating for some time in coal-fired power plants. Using coolant outlet temperatures of about 625°C achieves operating plant thermal efficiencies in the order of 45-48%, using a direct turbine cycle. In addition, by using reheat channels, the plant has the potential to produce low-cost process heat, in amounts that are customer and market dependent. The use of reheat systems further increases the overall thermal efficiency to 55% and beyond. With the flexibility of a range of plant sizes suitable for both small (400 MWe) and large (1400 MWe) electric grids, and the ability for co-generation of electric power, process heat, and hydrogen, the concept is competitive. The choice of core power, reheat channel number and exit temperature are all set by customer and materials requirements. The pressure channel is a key technology that is needed to make use of supercritical water (SCW) in CANDU®1 reactors feasible. By optimizing the fuel bundle and fuel channel, convection and conduction assure heat removal using passive-moderator cooling. Potential for severe core damage can be almost eliminated, even without the necessity of activating the emergency-cooling systems. The small size of containment structure lends itself to a small footprint, impacts economics and building techniques. Design features related to Canadian concepts are discussed in this paper. The main conclusion is that development of SCW pressure-channel nuclear reactors is feasible and significant benefits can be expected over other thermal-energy systems.

Duffey, Romney B.; Pioro, Igor L.; Kuran, Sermet

378

Design, fabrication and test of graphite/polyimide composite joints and attachments for advanced aerospace vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results of an experimental program to develop several types of graphite/polyimide (GR/PI) bonded and bolted joints for lightly loaded flight components for advanced space transportation systems and high speed aircraft are presented. Tasks accomplished include: a literature survey; design of static discriminator specimens; design allowables testing; fabrication of test panels and specimens; small specimen testing; and standard joint testing. Detail designs of static discriminator specimens for each of the four major attachment types are presented. Test results are given for the following: (1) transverse tension of Celion 3000/PMR-15 laminate; (2) net tension of a laminate for both a loaded and unloaded bolt hole; (3) comparative testing of bonded and co-cured doublers along with pull-off tests of single and double bonded angles; (4) single lap shear tests, transverse tension and coefficient of thermal expansion tests of A7F (LARC-13 amide-imide modified) adhesive; and (5) tension tests of standard single lap, double lap, and symmetric step lap bonded joints. Also, included are results of a finite element analysis of a single lap bonded composite joint.

Barclay, D. L.

1980-01-01

379

An Evaluation of High Temperature Airframe Seals for Advanced Hypersonic Vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

High temperature seals are required for advanced hypersonic airframe applications. In this study, both spring tube thermal barriers and innovative wafer seal systems were evaluated under relevant hypersonic test conditions (temperatures, pressures, etc.) via high temperature compression testing and room temperature flow assessments. Thermal barriers composed of a Rene 41 spring tube filled with Saffil insulation and overbraided with a Nextel 312 sheath showed acceptable performance at 1500 F in both short term and longer term compression testing. Nextel 440 thermal barriers with Rene 41 spring tubes and Saffil insulation demonstrated good compression performance up to 1750 F. A silicon nitride wafer seal/compression spring system displayed excellent load performance at temperatures as high as 2200 F and exhibited room temperature leakage values that were only 1/3 those for the spring tube rope seals. For all seal candidates evaluated, no significant degradation in leakage resistance was noted after high temperature compression testing. In addition to these tests, a superalloy seal suitable for dynamic seal applications was optimized through finite element techniques.

DeMange, Jeffrey J.; Dunlap, Patrick H.; Steinetz, Bruce M.; Drlik, Gary J.

2007-01-01

380

Evaluation of the safety and usability of touch gestures in operating in-vehicle information systems with visual occlusion.  

PubMed

Nowadays, many automobile manufacturers are interested in applying the touch gestures that are used in smart phones to operate their in-vehicle information systems (IVISs). In this study, an experiment was performed to verify the applicability of touch gestures in the operation of IVISs from the viewpoints of both driving safety and usability. In the experiment, two devices were used: one was the Apple iPad, with which various touch gestures such as flicking, panning, and pinching were enabled; the other was the SK EnNavi, which only allowed tapping touch gestures. The participants performed the touch operations using the two devices under visually occluded situations, which is a well-known technique for estimating load of visual attention while driving. In scrolling through a list, the flicking gestures required more time than the tapping gestures. Interestingly, both the flicking and simple tapping gestures required slightly higher visual attention. In moving a map, the average time taken per operation and the visual attention load required for the panning gestures did not differ from those of the simple tapping gestures that are used in existing car navigation systems. In zooming in/out of a map, the average time taken per pinching gesture was similar to that of the tapping gesture but required higher visual attention. Moreover, pinching gestures at a display angle of 75° required that the participants severely bend their wrists. Because the display angles of many car navigation systems tends to be more than 75°, pinching gestures can cause severe fatigue on users' wrists. Furthermore, contrary to participants' evaluation of other gestures, several participants answered that the pinching gesture was not necessary when operating IVISs. It was found that the panning gesture is the only touch gesture that can be used without negative consequences when operating IVISs while driving. The flicking gesture is likely to be used if the screen moving speed is slower or if the car is in heavy traffic. However, the pinching gesture is not an appropriate method of operating IVISs while driving in the various scenarios examined in this study. PMID:24231034

Kim, Huhn; Song, Haewon

2014-05-01

381

Road safety issues for bus transport management.  

PubMed

Because of the low percentage of crashes involving buses and the assumption that public transport improves road safety by reducing vehicular traffic, public interest in bus safety is not as great as that in the safety of other types of vehicles. It is possible that less attention is paid to the significance of crashes involving buses because the safety level of bus systems is considered to be adequate. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the knowledge and perceptions of bus managers with respect to safety issues and the potential effectiveness of various technologies in achieving higher safety standards. Bus managers were asked to give their opinions on safety issues related to drivers (training, skills, performance evaluation and behaviour), vehicles (maintenance and advanced devices) and roads (road and traffic safety issues) in response to a research survey. Kendall's algorithm was used to evaluate the level of concordance. The results showed that the majority of the proposed items were considered to have great potential for improving bus safety. The data indicated that in the experience of the participants, passenger unloading and pedestrians crossing near bus stops are the most dangerous actions with respect to vulnerable users. The final results of the investigation showed that start inhibition, automatic door opening, and the materials and internal architecture of buses were considered the items most strongly related to bus passenger safety. Brake assistance and vehicle monitoring systems were also considered to be very effective. With the exception of driver assistance systems for passenger and pedestrian safety, the perceptions of the importance of other driver assistance systems for vehicle monitoring and bus safety were not unanimous among the bus company managers who participated in this survey. The study results showed that the introduction of new technologies is perceived as an important factor in improving bus safety, but a better understanding of their actual effectiveness and related risk factor avoidance must be developed to permit their useful implementation in bus fleets. PMID:23850401

Cafiso, Salvatore; Di Graziano, Alessandro; Pappalardo, Giuseppina

2013-11-01

382

The Evolution of Flexible Insulation as Thermal Protection Systems for Reusable Launch Vehicles: AFRSI (Advanced Flexible Reusable Surface Insulation) to CRI (Conformal Reusable Insulation)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This viewgraph presentation gives an overview of the evolution of flexible insulation as a thermal protection system for reusable launch vehicles, Advanced Flexible Reusable Surface Insulation (AFRSI) to Conformal Reusable Insulation (CRI). Details are given on the approved use of AFRIS on the Shuttle Orbiter in June 1980, the first flight of AFRIS on STS-6, windward blanket development, composite flexible blanket insulation, and flight demonstrations.

Rezin, Marc; Oka, Kris; Arnold, Jim (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

383

Postmarket safety in Canada: are significant therapeutic advances and biologics less safe than other drugs? A cohort study  

PubMed Central

Objectives Examine the probability of new active substances (NASs) approved in Canada between 1 January 1997 and 31 March 2012 acquiring a serious postmarket safety warning. Design Cohort study. Data sources Annual reports of the Therapeutic Products Directorate and the Biologic and Genetic Therapies Directorate; evaluations of therapeutic innovation from the Patented Medicine Prices Review Board and Prescrire International; MedEffect Canada website. Interventions Postmarket regulatory safety warning or withdrawal from market due to safety reasons. Primary and secondary outcome measures Compare the probability of acquiring a postmarket safety warning in Canada in four different groups of drugs: (1) traditional medications versus biologics; (2) medications that offer significant new therapeutic benefits versus those that do not. Determine how well the type of review that an NAS received from Health Canada predicted the product's postmarket therapeutic value. Results The probability of a traditional NAS acquiring a serious safety warning and/or being withdrawn was 29.9% (95% CI 21.8% to 40.2%) vs 27.3% (95% CI 18.2% to 39.7%) for an NAS of biological origin (p=0.47, log-rank test). For medications that were significant therapeutic advances the probability was 40.2% (95% CI 24.5% to 60.9%) vs 33.9% (95% CI 26.4% to 42.7%) for those that were not (p=0.18, log-rank test). Health Canada was 77.4% accurate in predicting the therapeutic importance of an NAS. Conclusions There was no difference in postmarket regulatory safety action between traditional medications and biologics and no difference between drugs with significant therapeutic benefits and those without. Although these results draw on Canadian data, they are likely to be relevant internationally. Further research should assess whether the current level of premarket safety evaluation is acceptable. PMID:24549164

Lexchin, Joel

2014-01-01

384

Long-term safety and sustained efficacy of extended-release pramipexole in early and advanced Parkinson's disease  

PubMed Central

Background and purpose To assess the long-term safety and efficacy of pramipexole as a once-daily (q.d.) extended-release oral formulation in early or advanced Parkinson's disease (PD). Methods In two double-blind (DB) studies of early PD and one of advanced PD, active-treatment arms received pramipexole immediate release (IR) or extended release (ER), with exposure lasting up to 33 weeks. In open-label (OL) extensions that followed immediately, subjects took ER q.d. for up to 80 weeks, with dosage adjustment permitted (range 0.375–4.5 mg q.d.). Results Of 590 subjects completing an early-PD DB study, 511 entered the early-PD OL extension; 408 completed it. Reported adverse events (AEs) with incidence ?10.0% were somnolence (15.1%), peripheral edema (11.7%) and back pain (10.6%). Of 465 subjects completing the advanced-PD DB study, 391 entered the advanced-PD OL extension; 329 completed it. Reported AEs with incidence ?10.0% were dyskinesia (27.4%) and somnolence (13.6%). Impulse control disorders were identified by semi-structured interview in 13 subjects (1.4% of 902). In exploratory analyses, adjusted mean Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) Parts II + III scores (excluding ex-placebo recipients) remained substantially improved from DB baseline scores prior to pramipexole introduction, at ?6.6 and ?6.3 points amongst ex-DB-ER and ex-DB-IR recipients after 113 weeks of pramipexole (33 DB plus 80 OL) in early PD, and ?11.5 and ?9.1 after up to 113 weeks (up to 33 DB plus 80 OL) in advanced PD. Conclusions These results support the long-term safety and efficacy of pramipexole ER in early and advanced PD. AEs were typical for dopaminergic medications, and UPDRS scores suggested sustained symptomatic benefit. PMID:24834511

Hauser, R A; Schapira, A H V; Barone, P; Mizuno, Y; Rascol, O; Busse, M; Debieuvre, C; Fraessdorf, M; Poewe, W; Pramipexole ER Studies Group

2014-01-01

385

Powertrain & Vehicle Research Centre  

E-print Network

Powertrain & Vehicle Research Centre Low Carbon Powertrain Development S. Akehurst, EPSRC Advanced Research Fellow A vehicles powertrain is a complex combination of interacting sub-systems which include complexity ·More efficient Vehicles, quicker to market, reduced cost to consumer The Optimisation Task

Burton, Geoffrey R.

386

Structural sensor testing for space vehicle applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Boeing Company is funded by Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) to perform research and development activities on Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) and Assessment Techniques for Advanced Aerospace Vehicles. This effort includes two SHM aspects, i.e., on-board sensors and ground based NDE techniques. The first aspect focuses on prototyping a SHM system that integrates several different types of sensors to generate structural health information based on real-time or near real-time sensor data. The second aspect focuses on a ground system that provides a linkage between the on-board sensors and ground based NDE techniques with a prototype system capable of rapidly gathering and interpreting structural health information. They can be viewed as two parts of a SHM system that are complimentary to one another. Developing such an SHM system is intended to help advance aerospace vehicle's safety and reliability, satisfy the required turnaround time, reduce cost and cycle time in design, operation and maintenance. The primary vehicle platform considered for this program is the Space Operation Vehicle (SOV)1, a future high speed vehicle. The baseline vehicle description will be used to determine system requirements for a SHM/NDE system and to evaluate candidate technologies throughout the technology down select process. This paper will discuss an evaluation test in which candidate sensors and NDE methods are applied to space structure components tested at a simulated flight load environment.

Huang, Jerry; Rose, John; Gordon, Jason; Boucher, Robert

2005-05-01

387

US Department of Energy - Office of FreedomCar and Vehicle Technologies and US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention - National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health InterAgency Agreement Research on \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

The US Department of Energy-Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies (now the DOE-Office of FreedomCar and Vehicle Technologies) signed an Interagency Agreement (IAA) with National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), No.01-15 DOE, 9\\/4\\/01, for 'The analysis of genotoxic activities of exhaust emissions from mobile natural gas, diesel, and spark-ignition engines'; subsequently modified on 3\\/27\\/02 (DOE IAG No.01-15-02M1); subsequently modified

William E. Wallace

2006-01-01

388

Launch Services Safety Overview  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA/KSC Launch Services Division Safety (SA-D) services include: (1) Assessing the safety of the launch vehicle (2) Assessing the safety of NASA ELV spacecraft (S/C) / launch vehicle (LV) interfaces (3) Assessing the safety of spacecraft processing to ensure resource protection of: - KSC facilities - KSC VAFB facilities - KSC controlled property - Other NASA assets (4) NASA personnel safety (5) Interfacing with payload organizations to review spacecraft for adequate safety implementation and compliance for integrated activities (6) Assisting in the integration of safety activities between the payload, launch vehicle, and processing facilities

Loftin, Charles E.

2008-01-01

389

Development and validation of nonthermal and advanced thermal food safety intervention technologies  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Alternative nonthermal and thermal food safety interventions are gaining acceptance by the food processing industry and consumers. These technologies include high pressure processing, ultraviolet and pulsed light, ionizing radiation, pulsed and radiofrequency electric fields, cold atmospheric plasm...

390

Effect and safety of duodenal levodopa infusion in advanced Parkinson's disease: a retrospective multicenter outcome assessment in patient routine care.  

PubMed

Duodenal levodopa infusion represents an effective strategy to manage motor and non-motor complications in patients with advanced Parkinson's disease (PD). However, most published clinical series regard small numbers of patients and do not exceed 1 year follow-up. In this multi-national observational cohort study conducted in seven specialised PD clinics and university hospitals we assessed long-term safety and outcome of chronic treatment with intra-duodenal levodopa infusions in a large population of patients with advanced PD. The starting population consisted of 98 treated patients (safety population). We report clinical outcomes of 73 patients with subsequent efficacy assessment(s) (efficacy population) over a follow-up period up to 2 years. Follow-up periods and collection of clinical observations varied based on individual routine care program. At last follow-up there was a significant (p ? 0.05) reduction in duration of "Off" periods as well as dyskinesia duration and severity that was associated with an improvement of quality of life. Twenty three patients (25.3 % of the safety population) withdraw, due to adverse drug reaction (5), procedure and device related events (7), compliance (3) and lack of efficacy (8). The mean duration for last value reported after baseline (LV) was 608 ± 292 days (median: 697 days). Our results demonstrate significant and sustained benefit over a long observation period in motor complications and in quality of life following a change from oral pulsatile to continuous levodopa delivery. The relatively large number of withdrawals reflects the current use of duodenal levodopa infusion in very advanced PD patients. PMID:23595879

Antonini, A; Odin, P; Opiano, L; Tomantschger, V; Pacchetti, C; Pickut, B; Gasser, U E; Calandrella, D; Mancini, F; Zibetti, M; Minafra, B; Bertaina, I; De Deyn, P; Cras, C; Wolf, E; Spielberger, S; Poewe, W

2013-11-01

391

Adaptations of advanced safety and reliability techniques to petroleum and other industries  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The underlying philosophy of the general approach to failure reduction and control is presented. Safety and reliability management techniques developed in the industries which have participated in the U.S. space and defense programs are described along with adaptations to nonaerospace activities. The examples given illustrate the scope of applicability of these techniques. It is indicated that any activity treated as a 'system' is a potential user of aerospace safety and reliability management techniques.

Purser, P. E.

1974-01-01

392

Study of Cost Effective Large Advanced Pressurized Water Reactors that Employ Passive Safety Features  

SciTech Connect

A report of DOE sponsored portions of AP1000 Design Certification effort. On December 16, 1999, The United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission issued Design Certification of the AP600 standard nuclear reactor design. This culminated an 8-year review of the AP600 design, safety analysis and probabilistic risk assessment. The AP600 is a 600 MWe reactor that utilizes passive safety features that, once actuated, depend only on natural forces such as gravity and natural circulation to perform all required safety functions. These passive safety systems result in increased plant safety and have also significantly simplified plant systems and equipment, resulting in simplified plant operation and maintenance. The AP600 meets NRC deterministic safety criteria and probabilistic risk criteria with large margins. A summary comparison of key passive safety system design features is provided in Table 1. These key features are discussed due to their importance in affecting the key thermal-hydraulic phenomenon exhibited by the passive safety systems in critical areas. The scope of some of the design changes to the AP600 is described. These changes are the ones that are important in evaluating the passive plant design features embodied in the certified AP600 standard plant design. These design changes are incorporated into the AP1000 standard plant design that Westinghouse is certifying under 10 CFR Part 52. In conclusion, this report describes the results of the representative design certification activities that were partially supported by the Nuclear Energy Research Initiative. These activities are unique to AP1000, but are representative of research activities that must be driven to conclusion to realize successful licensing of the next generation of nuclear power plants in the United States.

Winters, J. W.; Corletti, M. M.; Hayashi, Y.

2003-11-12

393

Advanced photon source proposal for upgrading the radiation safety of x-ray labs  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are two adjacent x-ray labs in building 360, each having two entrance doors. Lab A240 has two x-ray machines and lab A248 has one. All machines are equipped with sliding safety windows and microswitches to monitor the state of the windows - open or closed. Two modes of operation are possible. (1) Secure Mode in which all safety windows

1991-01-01

394

49 CFR 575.302 - Vehicle labeling of safety rating information (compliance required for model year 2012 and later...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...section. (2) The label must depict the star ratings for that vehicle as reported to...Rated” or “To Be Rated,” the star graphic indicating each rating, as well...and symbols on the label (including the star graphic specified in paragraph...

2014-10-01

395

49 CFR 575.302 - Vehicle labeling of safety rating information (compliance required for model year 2012 and later...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...section. (2) The label must depict the star ratings for that vehicle as reported to...Rated” or “To Be Rated,” the star graphic indicating each rating, as well...and symbols on the label (including the star graphic specified in paragraph...

2011-10-01

396

49 CFR 575.302 - Vehicle labeling of safety rating information (compliance required for model year 2012 and later...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...section. (2) The label must depict the star ratings for that vehicle as reported to...Rated” or “To Be Rated,” the star graphic indicating each rating, as well...and symbols on the label (including the star graphic specified in paragraph...

2013-10-01

397

49 CFR 575.302 - Vehicle labeling of safety rating information (compliance required for model year 2012 and later...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...section. (2) The label must depict the star ratings for that vehicle as reported to...Rated” or “To Be Rated,” the star graphic indicating each rating, as well...and symbols on the label (including the star graphic specified in paragraph...

2012-10-01

398

The effect of touch-key size on the usability of In-Vehicle Information Systems and driving safety during simulated driving.  

PubMed

Investigating the effect of touch-key size on usability of In-Vehicle Information Systems (IVISs) is one of the most important research issues since it is closely related to safety issues besides its usability. This study investigated the effects of the touch-key size of IVISs with respect to safety issues (the standard deviation of lane position, the speed variation, the total glance time, the mean glance time, the mean time between glances, and the mean number of glances) and the usability of IVISs (the task completion time, error rate, subjective preference, and NASA-TLX) through a driving simulation. A total of 30 drivers participated in the task of entering 5-digit numbers with various touch-key sizes while performing simulated driving. The size of the touch-key was 7.5 mm, 12.5 mm, 17.5 mm, 22.5 mm and 27.5 mm, and the speed of driving was set to 0 km/h (stationary state), 50 km/h and 100 km/h. As a result, both the driving safety and the usability of the IVISs increased as the touch-key size increased up to a certain size (17.5 mm in this study), at which they reached asymptotes. We performed Fitts' law analysis of our data, and this revealed that the data from the dual task experiment did not follow Fitts' law. PMID:23759791

Kim, Heejin; Kwon, Sunghyuk; Heo, Jiyoon; Lee, Hojin; Chung, Min K

2014-05-01

399

Electric vehicle fleet operations in the United States  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy (DOE) is actively supporting the development and commercialization of advanced electric vehicles, batteries, and propulsion systems. As part of this effort, the DOE Field Operations Program is performing commercial validation testing of electric vehicles and supporting the development of an electric vehicle infrastructure. These efforts include the evaluation of electric vehicles in baseline performance, accelerated reliability, and fleet operations testing. The baseline performance testing focuses on parameters such as range, acceleration, and battery charging. This testing, performed in conjunction with EV America, has included the baseline performance testing of 16 electric vehicle models from 1994 through 1997. During 1997, the Chevrolet S10 and Ford Ranger electric vehicles were tested. During 1998, several additional electric vehicles from original equipment manufacturers will also be baseline performance tested. This and additional information is made available to the public via the Program`s web page (http://ev.inel.gov/sop). In conjunction with industry and other groups, the Program also supports the Infrastructure Working Council in its development of electric vehicle communications, charging, health and safety, and power quality standards. The Field Operations Program continues to support the development of electric vehicles and infrastructure in conjunction with its qualified vehicle test partners: Electric Transportation Applications, and Southern California Edison. The Field Operations Program is managed by the Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Company at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory.

Francfort, J.E. [Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Lab.; O`Hara, D. [Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States)

1998-03-01

400

Recent Advances in Near-Net-Shape Fabrication of Al-Li Alloy 2195 for Launch Vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recent applications in launch vehicles use 2195 processed to Super Lightweight Tank specifications. Potential benefits exist by tailoring heat treatment and other processing parameters to the application. Assess the potential benefits and advocate application of Al-Li near-net-shape technologies for other launch vehicle structural components. Work with manufacturing and material producers to optimize Al-Li ingot shape and size for enhanced near-net-shape processing. Examine time dependent properties of 2195 critical for reusable applications.

Wagner, John; Domack, Marcia; Hoffman, Eric

2007-01-01

401

Motorcycle Safety Guide: People Who Ride, People Who Die  

MedlinePLUS

... page: About CDC.gov . Injury Prevention & Control : Motor Vehicle Safety Motorcycle Safety Table of Contents Overview People ... Saving Lives & Protecting People Home & Recreational Safety Motor Vehicle Safety Traumatic Brain Injury Injury Response Violence Prevention ...

402

Recent Advances in Image Assisted Neurosurgical Procedures: Improved Navigational Accuracy and Patient Safety  

SciTech Connect

Neurosurgical procedures require precise planning and intraoperative support. Recent advances in image guided technology have provided neurosurgeons with improved navigational support for more effective and safer procedures. A number of exemplary cases will be presented.

Olivi, Alessandro, M.D.

2010-08-28

403

NASA technical advances in aircraft occupant safety. [clear air turbulence detectors, fire resistant materials, and crashworthiness  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's aviation safety technology program examines specific safety problems associated with atmospheric hazards, crash-fire survival, control of aircraft on runways, human factors, terminal area operations hazards, and accident factors simulation. While aircraft occupants are ultimately affected by any of these hazards, their well-being is immediately impacted by three specific events: unexpected turbulence encounters, fire and its effects, and crash impact. NASA research in the application of laser technology to the problem of clear air turbulence detection, the development of fire resistant materials for aircraft construction, and to the improvement of seats and restraint systems to reduce crash injuries are reviewed.

Enders, J. H.

1978-01-01

404

Fusion of cooperative localization data with dynamic object information using data communication for preventative vehicle safety applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cooperative sensors allow for reliable detection, classification and localization of objects in the vehicle's surroundings - even without a line-of-sight contact to the object. The sensor principle is based on a communication signal between the vehicle and a transponder attached to the object of interest - a pedestrian, for example. Thereby, localization information is gathered by measuring the round-trip time-of-flight (RTOF) and evaluating the angle-of-arrival (AOA) of the incident signal. After that, tracking algorithms are used to recover the kinematic state of the object providing a basis for situation assessment. This paper investigates possibilities and benefits of extending this principle by the communication of information from inertial sensors which are locally attached to the transponder. Furthermore, this paper presents a robust approach for fusing the localization data with dynamic object information using the Dempster-Shafer theory. The approach is evaluated by performing real-world experiments for the analysis of pedestrian accidents.

Kloeden, H.; Schwarz, D.; Rasshofer, R. H.; Biebl, E. M.

2013-07-01

405

Safety and pharmacokinetics of paclitaxel and the oral mTOR inhibitor everolimus in advanced solid tumours  

PubMed Central

Everolimus displays antiproliferative effects on cancer cells, yields antiangiogenic activity in established tumours, and shows synergistic activity with paclitaxel in preclinical models. This study assessed the safety and the pharmacokinetic interactions of everolimus and paclitaxel in patients with advanced malignancies. Everolimus was dose escalated from 15 to 30?mg and administered with paclitaxel 80?mg?m?2 on days 1, 8, and 15 every 28 days. Safety was assessed weekly, and dose-limiting toxicity (DLT) was evaluated in cycle 1. A total of 16 patients (median age 54.5 years, range 33–69) were entered; 11 had prior taxane therapy for breast (n=5), ovarian (n=3), and vaginal cancer (n=1) or angiosarcoma (n=2). Grade 3 neutropenia in six patients met the criteria for DLT in two patients receiving everolimus 30?mg weekly. Other drug-related grade 3 toxicities were leucopenia, anaemia, thrombocytopenia, stomatitis, asthenia, and increased liver enzymes. Tumour stabilisation reported in 11 patients exceeded 6 months in 2 patients with breast cancer. Everolimus showed an acceptable safety profile at the dose of 30?mg when combined with weekly paclitaxel 80?mg?m?2, warranting further clinical investigation. PMID:19127256

Campone, M; Levy, V; Bourbouloux, E; Berton Rigaud, D; Bootle, D; Dutreix, C; Zoellner, U; Shand, N; Calvo, F; Raymond, E

2009-01-01

406

Evaluating the safety of calcipotriene 30 g per day in patients with psoriasis: a parallel group, vehicle-controlled study.  

PubMed

Elevated blood and urine calcium levels have been reported with the use of high doses of calcipotriene ointment in patients with psoriasis. The objective of this study was to evaluate key measures of calcium metabolism in patients with psoriasis under supervised dosing conditions in a vehicle-controlled study. Of the 24 patients enrolled, 12 each were administered 15 g of ointment containing calcipotriene or vehicle twice a day for 14 days. Blood and urine samples and 24-hour urine collections were obtained at selected time points. All 24 patients completed the study with no significant differences between treatments in any of the laboratory parameters. Trend analysis failed to show any significant differences over time with the exception of calcium, which showed significant changes common to both the calcipotriene and vehicle groups, suggesting that these changes were unrelated to treatment. The results of this study show that the use of calcipotriene ointment at a dose of 30 g per day for 14 days did not produce any significant alterations in blood or urine calcium concentrations and was well tolerated. PMID:9590465

Blum, R; Schwartzel, E; Siskin, S; Epinette, W W

1998-04-01

407

Advanced silver zinc battery development for the SRB and ET range safety subsystems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This document presents in viewgraph format the design and development of silver zinc (AgZn) batteries for the solid rocket booster (SRB) and external tank (ET) range safety subsystems. Various engineering techniques, including composite separator systems, new electrode processing techniques, and new restraint techniques, were used to meet difficult requirements.

Adamedes, Zoe

1994-01-01

408

System safety education focused on flight safety  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The measures necessary for achieving higher levels of system safety are analyzed with an eye toward maintaining the combat capability of the Air Force. Several education courses were provided for personnel involved in safety management. Data include: (1) Flight Safety Officer Course, (2) Advanced Safety Program Management, (3) Fundamentals of System Safety, and (4) Quantitative Methods of Safety Analysis.

Holt, E.

1971-01-01

409

Early Intervention for Alcohol Use Prevention and Vehicle Safety Skills: Evaluating the "Protecting You/Protecting Me" Curriculum  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study reports the evaluation results of the "Protecting You/Protecting Me" (PY/PM) alcohol use prevention and safety curriculum for third, fourth, and fifth graders when taught by high school peer leaders. The primary goal of the PY/PM prevention program, developed by Mothers Against Drunk Driving (MADD), is to prevent injury and death…

Bohman, Thomas M.; Barker, Edward D.; Bell, Mary Lou; Lewis, Carol M.; Holleran, Lori; Pomeroy, Elizabeth

2004-01-01

410

Using a Wheelchair as a Seat in a Motor Vehicle: An Overview of Wheelchair Transportation Safety and Related Standards  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is the first of a series of six articles on the topic of transportation safety for wheelchair-seated travelers and will highlight some of the basic issues and principles that have been considered in the development of voluntary standards for wheelchair tiedown and occupant restraints systems (WTORS) as well as for wheelchairs that are used as…

Schneider, Larry

2007-01-01

411

Advances in thermal hydraulic and neutronic simulation for reactor analysis and safety  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes several large-scale computational models developed at Argonne National Laboratory for the simulation and analysis of thermal-hydraulic and neutronic events in nuclear reactors and nuclear power plants. The impact of advanced parallel computing technologies on these computational models is emphasized.

Tentner, A.M.; Blomquist, R.N.; Canfield, T.R.; Ewing, T.F.; Garner, P.L.; Gelbard, E.M.; Gross, K.C.; Minkoff, M.; Valentin, R.A.

1993-03-01

412

Safety and Economical Requirements of Conceptual Fusion Power Reactors in Co-Existing Advanced Fission Plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

An EPR fission plant is expected to operate from 2010 to 2070. In this time range a new generation of advanced fission reactors and several stages of fusion reactors from ITER to DEMO will emerge. Their viability in the competitive socio-economic environment and also their possible synergy benefits are discussed in this paper. The studied cases involve the Finnish EPR,

R. Salomaa; S. Sipilä; V. Tulkki; G. Zemulis

413

The Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration's National Registry of Certified Medical Examiners and medical certification of interstate commercial motor vehicle drivers.  

PubMed

On April 18, 2012, the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA) announced plans to develop a National Registry of Certified Medical Examiners. The new plan requires all medical examiners who conduct physical examinations for interstate commercial motor vehicle (CMV) drivers to meet the following criteria: (1) complete specific training about FMCSA's physical qualification standards; (2) pass a test to verify understanding of those standards; and (3) maintain and demonstrate competence through periodic training and testing. By May 21, 2014, all certified medical examiners must be in the National Registry database, after which all drivers must receive a medical examination from a certified medical examiner. Health care practitioners who wish to become certified medical examiners must meet the training and testing requirements set forth by FMCSA. After training and testing requirements are met, health care practitioners are added to the National Registry. In addition, certified medical examiners must complete refresher training every 5 years and recertify every 10 years. Medical examiners who fail to meet and maintain federal standards will not be included in the National Registry. This article provides information related to U.S. Department of Transportation driver medical certification regulations. These changes impact drivers, employers, medical examiners, and occupational health nurses and safety specialists who manage the certification of drivers. PMID:24144004

Guzik, Arlene

2013-11-01

414

Mars Lander/Rover vehicle development: An advanced space design project for USRA and NASA/OAST  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The accomplishments of the Utah State University (USU) Mars Lander/Rover (MLR) design class during the Winter Quarter are delineated and explained. Environment and trajectory, ground systems, balloon system, and payload system are described. Results from this effort will provide a valid and useful basis for further studies of Mars exploratory vehicles.

1987-01-01

415

2013 Annual Conference on Advances in Cognitive Systems: Workshop on Goal Reasoning Towards Applying Goal Autonomy for Vehicle Control  

E-print Network

Applying Goal Autonomy for Vehicle Control Mark Wilson MARK.WILSON@NRL.NAVY.MIL Naval Research Laboratory, Navy Center for Applied Research in AI, Washington, DC 20375 Bryan Auslander BRYAN Research Laboratory, Physical Acoustics, Code 7130, Washington, DC 20375 David W. Aha DAVID

Gupta, Kalyan Moy

416

Longitudinal Control of a Platoon of Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a systematic analysis of a longitudinal control law for a platoon of non-identical vehicles using a non-linear model to represent the vehicle dynamics of each vehicle within the platoon. The basic idea is to take full advantage of recent advances in communication and measurement and using these advances in longitudinal control of a platoon of vehicles: in

Shahab Sheikholeslam; Charles A. Desoer

1990-01-01

417

2006 NASA Range Safety Annual Report  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Throughout 2006, Range Safety was involved in a number of exciting and challenging activities and events, from developing, implementing, and supporting Range Safety policies and procedures-such as the Space Shuttle Launch and Landing Plans, the Range Safety Variance Process, and the Expendable Launch Vehicle Safety Program procedures-to evaluating new technologies. Range Safety training development is almost complete with the last course scheduled to go on line in mid-2007. Range Safety representatives took part in a number of panels and councils, including the newly formed Launch Constellation Range Safety Panel, the Range Commanders Council and its subgroups, the Space Shuttle Range Safety Panel, and the unmanned aircraft systems working group. Space based range safety demonstration and certification (formerly STARS) and the autonomous flight safety system were successfully tested. The enhanced flight termination system will be tested in early 2007 and the joint advanced range safety system mission analysis software tool is nearing operational status. New technologies being evaluated included a processor for real-time compensation in long range imaging, automated range surveillance using radio interferometry, and a space based range command and telemetry processor. Next year holds great promise as we continue ensuring safety while pursuing our quest beyond the Moon to Mars.

TenHaken, Ron; Daniels, B.; Becker, M.; Barnes, Zack; Donovan, Shawn; Manley, Brenda

2007-01-01

418

Safety and pharmacokinetics of novel selective vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 inhibitor YN968D1 in patients with advanced malignancies  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: YN968D1 (Apatinib) selectively inhibits phosphorylation of VEGFR-2 and tumor angiogenesis in mice model. The study was conducted to determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD), safety profile, pharmacokinetic variables, and antitumor activity in advanced solid malignancies. METHODS: This dose-escalation study was conducted according to the Chinese State Food and Drug Administration (SFDA) recommendations in patients with advanced solid tumors to

Jin Li; Xinmin Zhao; Lei Chen; Haiyi Guo; Fangfang Lv; Ka Jia; Ke Yv; Fengqing Wang; Chuan Li; Jun Qian; Chunlei Zheng; Yunxia Zuo

2010-01-01

419

Final safety evaluation report related to the certification of the advanced boiling water reactor design. Volume 2: Appendices  

SciTech Connect

This safety evaluation report (SER) documents the technical review of the US Advanced Boiling Water Reactor (ABWR) standard design by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff. The application for the ABWR design was initially submitted by the General Electric Company, now GE Nuclear Energy (GE), in accordance with the procedures of Appendix O of Part 50 of Title 10 of the code of Federal Regulations (10 CFR Part 50). Later GE requested that its application be considered as an application for design approval and subsequent design certification pursuant to 10 CFR {section} 52.45. The ABWR is a single-cycle, forced-circulation, boiling water reactor (BWR) with a rated power of 3,926 megawatts thermal (MWt) and a design power of 4,005 MWt. To the extent feasible and appropriate, the staff relied on earlier reviews for those ABWR design features that are substantially the same as those previously considered. Unique features of the ABWR design include internal recirculation pumps, fine-motion control rod drives, microprocessor-based digital logic and control systems, and digital safety systems. On the basis of its evaluation and independent analyses, the NRC staff concludes that, subject to satisfactory resolution of the confirmatory items identified in Section 1.8 of this SER, GE`s application for design certification meets the requirements of Subpart B of 10 CFR Part 52 that are applicable and technically relevant to the US ABWR standard design.

Not Available

1994-07-01

420

ORNL's NRC-sponsored HTGR safety and licensing analysis activities for Fort St. Vrain and advanced reactors  

SciTech Connect

The ORNL safety analysis program for the HTGR was established in 1974 to provide technical assistance to the USNRC on licensing questions for both Fort St. Vrain and advanced plant concepts. The emphasis has been on development of major component and system dynamic simulation codes, and use of these codes to analyze specific licensing-related scenarios. The program has also emphasized code verification, using Fort St. Vrain data where applicable, and comparing results with industry-generated codes. By the use of model and parameter adjustment routines, safety-significant uncertainties have been identified. A major part of the analysis work has been done for the Fort St. Vrain HTGR, and has included analyses of FSAR accident scenario re-evaluations, the core block oscillation problem, core support thermal stress questions, technical specification upgrade review, and TMI action plan applicability studies. The large, 2240-MW(t) cogeneration lead plant design was analyzed in a multi-laboratory cooperative effort to estimate fission product source terms from postulated severe accidents.

Ball, S.J.; Cleveland, J.C.; Harrington, R.M.

1985-01-01

421

Vehicle Maintenance Procedure Outline the procedure for vehicle maintenance at University of Michigan (U-M).  

E-print Network

Vehicle Maintenance Procedure Objective Outline the procedure for vehicle maintenance at University of Michigan (U-M). Procedure 1. Your U-M vehicle has a mechanical and/or safety issue. 2. Contact Garage of the vehicle or if needed, have the vehicle towed to the maintenance facility. 4. If a loaner is needed while

Kirschner, Denise

422

Mars Lander/Rover vehicle development: An advanced space design project for USRA and NASA/OAST  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results of the studies on one particular part of the Mars Lander/Rover (MLR) system are contained: the Balloon Rover. This component vehicle was selected for further research and design because of the lack of technical literature on this subject, as compared to surface rover technology. Landing site selection; balloon system development and deployment; optics and communications; and the payload power supply are described.

1987-01-01

423

Advanced Transportation System Studies Technical Area 2 (TA-2) Heavy Lift Launch Vehicle Development Contract. Volume 2; Technical Results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The sections in this report include: Single Stage to Orbit (SSTO) Design Ground-rules; Operations Issues and Lessons Learned; Vertical-Takeoff/Landing Versus Vertical-Takeoff/Horizontal-Landing; SSTO Design Results; SSTO Simulation Results; SSTO Assessment Results; SSTO Sizing Tool User's Guide; SSto Turnaround Assessment Report; Ground Operations Assessment First Year Executive Summary; Health Management System Definition Study; Major TA-2 Presentations; First Lunar Outpost Heavy Lift Launch Vehicle Design and Assessment; and the section, Russian Propulsion Technology Assessment Reports.

1995-01-01

424

Accelerated Monte Carlo Simulation for Safety Analysis of the Advanced Airspace Concept  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Safe separation of aircraft is a primary objective of any air traffic control system. An accelerated Monte Carlo approach was developed to assess the level of safety provided by a proposed next-generation air traffic control system. It combines features of fault tree and standard Monte Carlo methods. It runs more than one order of magnitude faster than the standard Monte Carlo method while providing risk estimates that only differ by about 10%. It also preserves component-level model fidelity that is difficult to maintain using the standard fault tree method. This balance of speed and fidelity allows sensitivity analysis to be completed in days instead of weeks or months with the standard Monte Carlo method. Results indicate that risk estimates are sensitive to transponder, pilot visual avoidance, and conflict detection failure probabilities.

Thipphavong, David

2010-01-01

425

FED-A, an advanced performance FED based on low safety factor and current drive  

SciTech Connect

The FED-A study aims to quantify the potential improvement in cost-effectiveness of the Fusion Engineering Device (FED) by assuming low safety factor q (less than 2 as opposed to about 3) at the plasma edge and noninductive current drive (as opposed to only inductive current drive). The FED-A performance objectives are set to be : (1) ignition assuming International Tokamak Reactor (INTOR) plamsa confinement scaling, but still achieving a fusion power amplification Q greater than or equal to 5 when the confinement is degraded by a factor of 2; (2) neutron wall loading of about 1 MW/m/sup 2/, with 0.5 MW/m/sup 2/ as a conservative lower bound; and (3) more clearly power-reactor-like operations, such as steady state.

Peng, Y.K.M.; Rutherford, P.H.

1983-08-01

426

Waste management to improve food safety and security for health advancement.  

PubMed

Economic growth inevitably influences the food chain. Growing demand with changes in lifestyle and health consciousness encourage use of packaged and pre-prepared foods. The needs of environmental protection from waste generated are largely overlooked, and a lack of knowledge about the impact on the environment and its health effects constitute food security/safety problems. Food production and waste generation directly affect resource (i.e., energy and water) consumption and often contaminate the environment. More pressure on food production has inculcated the use of pesticides, herbicides, antibiotics and chemical fertilizers which add to current global pollution. At least half of food grown is discarded before and after it reaches consumers. It is estimated that one third to half of landfill waste comes from the food sector. This landfill releases green house gases (GHG) as well as leachate which worsen soil and water quality and safety. Pharmaceutical and chemical contaminations from residential, industrial and agricultural sources make their way into nearby water and soil and can eventually affect our food systems. Phthalates, PFOA, BPA, commonly used in plastics and personal care products, are found in unacceptable concentrations in Taiwanese waters. They, too, contribute to food contamination and long-term health risk. Existing waste management strategies warrant more stringent norms for waste reduction at source. Awareness through education could reduce food waste and its consequences. This review encompasses impacts of food production systems on the environment, pollution which results from food waste, costs and economic advantages in food waste management, and health consequences of waste. PMID:19965345

Lin, Angela Yu-Chen; Huang, Susana Tzy-Ying; Wahlqvist, Mark L

2009-01-01

427

Vascular effects, efficacy and safety of nintedanib in patients with advanced, refractory colorectal cancer: a prospective phase I subanalysis  

PubMed Central

Background Nintedanib is a potent, oral angiokinase inhibitor that targets VEGF, PDGF and FGF signalling, as well as RET and Flt3. The maximum tolerated dose of nintedanib was evaluated in a phase I study of treatment-refractory patients with advanced solid tumours. In this preplanned subanalysis, the effect of nintedanib on the tumour vasculature, along with efficacy and safety, was assessed in 30 patients with colorectal cancer (CRC). Methods Patients with advanced CRC who had failed conventional treatment, or for whom no therapy of proven efficacy existed, were treated with nintedanib ranging from 50–450 mg once-daily (n?=?14) or 150–250 mg twice-daily (n?=?16) for 28 days. After a 1-week rest, further courses were permitted in the absence of progression or undue toxicity. The primary objective was the effect on the tumour vasculature using dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) and expressed as the initial area under the DCE-MRI contrast agent concentration–time curve after 60 seconds (iAUC60) or the volume transfer constant between blood plasma and extravascular extracellular space (Ktrans). Results Patients received a median of 4.0 courses (range: 1–13). Among 21 evaluable patients, 14 (67%) had a ?40% reduction from baseline in Ktrans and 13 (62%) had a ?40% decrease from baseline in iAUC60, representing clinically relevant effects on tumour blood flow and permeability, respectively. A ?40% reduction from baseline in Ktrans was positively associated with non-progressive tumour status (Fisher’s exact: p?=?0.0032). One patient achieved a partial response at 250 mg twice-daily and 24 (80%) achieved stable disease lasting ?8 weeks. Time to tumour progression (TTP) at 4 months was 26% and median TTP was 72.5 days (95% confidence interval: 65–114). Common drug-related adverse events (AEs) included nausea (67%), vomiting (53%) and diarrhoea (40%); three patients experienced drug-related AEs???grade 3. Four patients treated with nintedanib once-daily had an alanine aminotransferase and/or aspartate aminotransferase increase???grade 3. No increases?>?grade 2 were seen in the twice-daily group. Conclusions Nintedanib modulates tumour blood flow and permeability in patients with advanced, refractory CRC, while achieving antitumour activity and maintaining an acceptable safety profile. PMID:25012508

2014-01-01

428

Intelligent behaviors through vehicle-to-vehicle and vehicle-to-infrastructure communication  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The last decade has seen a significant increase in intelligent safety devices on private automobiles. These devices have both increased and augmented the situational awareness of the driver and in some cases provided automated vehicle responses. To date almost all intelligent safety devices have relied on data directly perceived by the vehicle. This constraint has a direct impact on the types of solutions available to the vehicle. In an effort to improve the safety options available to a vehicle, numerous research laboratories and government agencies are investing time and resources into connecting vehicles to each other and to infrastructure-based devices. This work details several efforts in both the commercial vehicle and the private auto industries to increase vehicle safety and driver situational awareness through vehicle-to-vehicle and vehicle-to-infrastructure communication. It will specifically discuss intelligent behaviors being designed to automatically disable non-compliant vehicles, warn tractor trailer vehicles of unsafe lane maneuvers such as lane changes, passing, and merging, and alert drivers to non-line-of-sight emergencies.

Garcia, Richard D.; Sturgeon, Purser; Brown, Mike

2012-06-01

429

An Innovative Approach for Data Collection and Handling to Enable Advancements in Micro Air Vehicle Persistent Surveillance  

E-print Network

AHRS Attitude Heading Reference Sensor ASCII American Standard Code for Information Interchange AVGCS Aerovironment Inc. Ground Control Station CCD Charged-Coupled Device CMOS Complementary Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor DARPA Defense Advanced Research... advantage over [our] adversaries.? Mr. Wilson and the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) believe that MAVs are the technology that will give us this advantage. Due to the infancy of the work, researchers are recognizing a number...

Goodnight, Ryan David

2010-10-12

430

School Bus Safety Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication provides a summary and update of school bus-safety activities conducted by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA). This report discusses Congressional mandates and NHTSA's actions to improve school-bus safety (which include programs that affect human behavior and motor-vehicle safety performance), the magnitude…

National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

431

Federal regulations for adaptive vehicles in Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Motor Vehicle Safety Act was enacted in Canada in 1971, following a similar Act in the United States, enacted in 1966. The Act regulates the manufacture of vehicles and authorizes the research, development and enforcement of safety standards in areas of occupant protection, crash avoidance, vehicle crash performance, etc., to save lives, prevent injuries and to avoid damage to

Harry George Baergen

2010-01-01

432

Remotely Operated Vehicles  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this video adapted from the Marine Advanced Technology Education (MATE) Center, learn how some students are putting to work both technical skills as well as soft skills, such as teamwork and problem solving, in creating underwater remotely operated vehicles.

WGBH Educational Foundation

2011-10-25

433

A School-Based Study of Adolescent All-Terrain Vehicle Exposure, Safety Behaviors, and Crash Experience  

PubMed Central

PURPOSE More youth are killed every year in the United States in all-terrain vehicle (ATV) crashes than on bicycles, and since 2001, one-fifth of all ATV fatalities have involved victims aged 15 years or younger. Effectively preventing pediatric ATV-related deaths and injuries requires knowledge about youth riding practices. Our objective was to examine ATV use, crash prevalence, and riding behaviors among adolescent students in a rural state. METHODS We administered a cross-sectional survey to 4,684 youths aged 11 to 16 years at 30 schools across Iowa from November 2010 to April 2013. Descriptive and comparative analyses were performed. RESULTS Regardless of rurality, at least 75% of students reported having been on an ATV, with 38% of those riding daily or weekly. Among ATV riders, 57% had been in a crash. Most riders engaged in risky behaviors, including riding with passengers (92%), on public roads (81%), or without a helmet (64%). Almost 60% reported engaging in all 3 behaviors; only 2% engaged in none. Multivariable modeling revealed male youth, students riding daily/weekly, and those reporting both riding on public roads and with passengers were 1.61 (95% CI, 1.36–1.91), 3.73 (95% CI, 3.10–4.50), and 3.24 (95% CI, 2.09–5.04) times more likely to report a crash, respectively. CONCLUSIONS Three-fourths of youths surveyed were exposed to ATVs. The majority of riders had engaged in unsafe behaviors and experienced a crash. Given this widespread use and the potentially considerable morbidity of pediatric ATV crashes, prevention efforts, including anticipatory guidance by primary care clinicians serving families at risk, should be a higher priority. PMID:25024238

Jennissen, Charles A.; Harland, Karisa K.; Wetjen, Kristel; Peck, Jeffrey; Hoogerwerf, Pam; Denning, Gerene M.

2014-01-01

434

Sensor Systems for Vehicle Environment Perception in a Highway Intelligent Space System  

PubMed Central

A Highway Intelligent Space System (HISS) is proposed to study vehicle environment perception in this paper. The nature of HISS is that a space sensors system using laser, ultrasonic or radar sensors are installed in a highway environment and communication technology is used to realize the information exchange between the HISS server and vehicles, which provides vehicles with the surrounding road information. Considering the high-speed feature of vehicles on highways, when vehicles will be passing a road ahead that is prone to accidents, the vehicle driving state should be predicted to ensure drivers have road environment perception information in advance, thereby ensuring vehicle driving safety and stability. In order to verify the accuracy and feasibility of the HISS, a traditional vehicle-mounted sensor system for environment perception is used to obtain the relative driving state. Furthermore, an inter-vehicle dynamics model is built and model predictive control approach is used to predict the driving state in the following period. Finally, the simulation results shows that using the HISS for environment perception can arrive at the same results detected by a traditional vehicle-mounted sensors system. Meanwhile, we can further draw the conclusion that using HISS to realize vehicle environment perception can ensure system stability, thereby demonstrating the method's feasibility. PMID:24834907

Tang, Xiaofeng; Gao, Feng; Xu, Guoyan; Ding, Nenggen; Cai, Yao; Ma, Mingming; Liu, Jianxing

2014-01-01

435

Sensor systems for vehicle environment perception in a Highway Intelligent Space System.  

PubMed

A Highway Intelligent Space System (HISS) is proposed to study vehicle environment perception in this paper. The nature of HISS is that a space sensors system using laser, ultrasonic or radar sensors are installed in a highway environment and communication technology is used to realize the information exchange between the HISS server and vehicles, which provides vehicles with the surrounding road information. Considering the high-speed feature of vehicles on highways, when vehicles will be passing a road ahead that is prone to accidents, the vehicle driving state should be predicted to ensure drivers have road environment perception information in advance, thereby ensuring vehicle driving safety and stability. In order to verify the accuracy and feasibility of the HISS, a traditional vehicle-mounted sensor system for environment perception is used to obtain the relative driving state. Furthermore, an inter-vehicle dynamics model is built and model predictive control approach is used to predict the driving state in the following period. Finally, the simulation results shows that using the HISS for environment perception can arrive at the same results detected by a traditional vehicle-mounted sensors system. Meanwhile, we can further draw the conclusion that using HISS to realize vehicle environment perception can ensure system stability, thereby demonstrating the method's feasibility. PMID:24834907

Tang, Xiaofeng; Gao, Feng; Xu, Guoyan; Ding, Nenggen; Cai, Yao; Ma, Mingming; Liu, Jianxing

2014-01-01

436

Task 4 supporting technology. Part 2: Detailed test plan for thermal seals. Thermal seals evaluation, improvement and test. CAN8-1, Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV), advanced technology demonstrator: X-33. Leading edge and seals thermal protection system technology demonstration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objective is to develop the advanced thermal seals to a technology readiness level (TRL) of 6 to support the rapid turnaround time and low maintenance requirements of the X-33 and the future reusable launch vehicle (RLV). This program is divided into three subtasks: (1) orbiter thermal seals operation history review; (2) material, process, and design improvement; and (3) fabrication and evaluation of the advanced thermal seals.

Hogenson, P. A.; Lu, Tina

1995-01-01

437

Task 4 supporting technology. Part 2: Detailed test plan for thermal seals. Thermal seals evaluation, improvement and test. CAN8-1, Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV), advanced technology demonstrator: X-33. Leading edge and seals thermal protection system technology demonstration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objective is to develop the advanced thermal seals to a technology readiness level (TRL) of 6 to support the rapid turnaround time and low maintenance requirements of the X-33 and the future reusable launch vehicle (RLV). This program is divided into three subtasks: (1) orbiter thermal seals operation history review; (2) material, process, and design improvement; and (3) fabrication and evaluation of the advanced thermal seals.

Hogenson, P. A.; Lu, Tina

1995-05-01

438

Advanced quadrupole ion trap instrumentation for low level vehicle emissions measurements. CRADA final report for number ORNL93-0238  

SciTech Connect

Quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometry has been evaluated for its potential use in vehicle emissions measurements in vehicle test facilities as an analyzer for the top 15 compounds contributing to smog generation. A variety of ionization methods were explored including ion trap in situ chemical ionization, atmospheric sampling glow discharge ionization, and nitric oxide chemical ionization in a glow discharge ionization source coupled with anion trap mass spectrometer. Emphasis was placed on the determination of hydrocarbons and oxygenated hydrocarbons at parts per million to parts per billion levels. Ion trap in situ water chemical ionization and atmospheric sampling glow discharge ionization were both shown to be amenable to the analysis of arenes, alcohols, aldehydes and, to some degree, alkenes. Atmospheric sampling glow discharge also generated molecular ions of methyl-t-butyl ether (MTBE). Neither of these ionization methods, however, were found to generate diagnostic ions for the alkanes. Nitric oxide chemical ionization, on the other hand, was found to yield diagnostic ions for alkanes, alkenes, arenes, alcohols, aldehydes, and MTBE. The ability to measure a variety of hydrocarbons present at roughly 15 parts per billion at measurement rates of 3 Hz was demonstrated. These results have demonstrated that the ion trap has an excellent combination of sensitivity, specificity, speed, and flexibility with respect to the technical requirements of the top 15 analyzer.

McLuckey, S.A.; Buchanan, M.V.; Asano, K.G.; Hart, K.J.; Goeringer, D.E. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Dearth, M.A. [Ford Motor Co., Dearborn, MI (United States). Environmental Research Consortium

1997-09-01

439

49 CFR 571.404 - Standard No. 404; Platform lift installations in motor vehicles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...404; Platform lift installations in motor vehicles. 571.404 Section 571.404 Transportation...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR VEHICLE SAFETY STANDARDS Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards § 571.404...

2013-10-01

440

49 CFR 571.404 - Standard No. 404; Platform lift installations in motor vehicles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...404; Platform lift installations in motor vehicles. 571.404 Section 571.404 Transportation...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR VEHICLE SAFETY STANDARDS Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards § 571.404...

2012-10-01

441

49 CFR 567.4 - Requirements for manufacturers of motor vehicles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...applicable Federal motor vehicle safety, bumper, and theft prevention standards in effect...applicable Federal motor vehicle safety and theft prevention standards in effect...applicable Federal motor vehicle theft prevention...

2010-10-01

442

78 FR 73169 - Registered Importers of Vehicles Not Originally Manufactured To Conform to the Federal Motor...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...applicable Federal motor vehicle safety standards...requirements of the Theft Prevention Standard...Importation of Vehicles and Equipment Subject to the Federal Motor Vehicle Safety, Bumper and Theft Prevention...

2013-12-05

443

49 CFR 567.7 - Requirements for persons who alter certified vehicles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...continued conformity of the altered vehicle with applicable Federal motor vehicle safety, Bumper, and Theft Prevention standards, and ...conforms to all applicable Federal Motor Vehicle Safety, Bumper and Theft Prevention Standards...

2010-10-01

444

DOE Project: Optimization of Advanced Diesel Engine Combustion Strategies "University Research in Advanced Combustion and Emissions Control" Office of FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies Program  

SciTech Connect

The goal of the present technology development was to increase the efficiency of internal combustion engines while minimizing the energy penalty of meeting emissions regulations. This objective was achieved through experimentation and the development of advanced combustion regimes and emission control strategies, coupled with advanced petroleum and non-petroleum fuel formulations. To meet the goals of the project, it was necessary to improve the efficiency of expansion work extraction, and this required optimized combustion phasing and minimized in-cylinder heat transfer losses. To minimize fuel used for diesel particulate filter (DPF) regeneration, soot emissions were also minimized. Because of the complex nature of optimizing production engines for real-world variations in fuels, temperatures and pressures, the project applied high-fidelity computing and high-resolution engine experiments synergistically to create and apply advanced tools (i.e., fast, accurate predictive models) developed for low-emission, fuel-efficient engine designs. The companion experiments were conducted using representative single- and multi-cylinder automotive and truck diesel engines.

Reitz, Rolf; Foster, D.; Ghandhi, J.; Rothamer, D.; Rutland, C.; Sanders, S.; Trujillo, M.

2012-10-26

445

National Advanced Driving Simulator  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The National Advanced Driving Simulator (NADS) is housed at the University of Iowa and is associated with the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. Visitors to the NADS Website can see a slideshow overview of the facility, read about the experimental program, and view simulations (QuickTime). Multi-body dynamics, software engineering, tire soil, simulation technology, and electrical engineering are some of the topics discussed at the NADS site. Data on mass, moment of inertia, and center of mass for vehicles ranging from a station wagon to a Hummer can be viewed via the Vehicle Models page (.pdf). This is a cool site for taking a glimpse at the latest in automotive engineering and computer simulation technologies.

446

49 CFR 213.333 - Automated vehicle inspection systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...331, Track surface. (d) A qualifying...which enable field forces to easily locate...vehicle/track interaction safety limits...measure wheel/rail forces. If the wheel/rail force limits in the...vehicle/track interaction safety...

2010-10-01

447

Optimizing Optics For Remotely Controlled Underwater Vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The past decade has shown a dramatic increase in the use of unmanned tethered vehicles in worldwide marine fields. These vehicles are used for inspection, debris removal and object retrieval. With advanced robotic technology, remotely operated vehicles (ROVs) are now able to perform a variety of jobs previously accomplished only by divers. The ROVs can be used at greater depths and for riskier jobs, and safety to the diver is increased, freeing him for safer, more cost-effective tasks requiring human capabilities. Secondly, the ROV operation becomes more cost effective to use as work depth increases. At 1000 feet a diver's 10 minutes of work can cost over $100,000 including support personnel, while an ROV operational cost might be 1/20 of the diver cost per day, based on the condition that the cost for ROV operation does not change with depth, as it does for divers. In the ROV operation the television lens must be as good as the human eye, with better light gathering capability than the human eye. The RCV-150 system is an example of these advanced technology vehicles. With the requirements of manueuverability and unusual inspection, a responsive, high performance, compact vehicle was developed. The RCV-150 viewing subsystem consists of a television camera, lights, and topside monitors. The vehicle uses a low light level Newvicon television camera. The camera is equipped with a power-down iris that closes for burn protection when the power is off. The camera can pan f 50 degrees and tilt f 85 degrees on command from the surface. Four independently controlled 250 watt quartz halogen flood lamps illuminate the viewing area as required; in addition, two 250 watt spotlights are fitted. A controlled nine inch CRT monitor provides real time camera pictures for the operator. The RCV-150 vehicle component system consists of the vehicle structure, the vehicle electronics, and hydraulic system which powers the thruster assemblies and the manipulator. For this vehicle, a light weight, high response hydraulic system was developed in a very small package.

Billet, A. B.

1984-09-01

448

Safety and continuity of second- and third-line therapy with paclitaxel or irinotecan for advanced and recurrent gastric cancer  

PubMed Central

In the treatment of advanced or recurrent gastric cancer, the prolongation of survival depends on the use of second-line therapy, with paclitaxel (PTX) or irinotecan (CPT-11) as the key agents. The present study aimed to retrospectively investigate the safety and continuity of weekly PTX and CPT-11 monotherapy as second- or third-line treatment for advanced or recurrent gastric cancer. A total of 62 patients who had received PTX or CPT-11 for gastric cancer at the Ogaki Municipal Hospital (Ogaki, Japan) were retrospectively reviewed. Of the 47 patients who received PTX as second-line therapy, 13 (27.7%) received third-line therapy with CPT-11. Second-line PTX and third-line CPT-11 were discontinued due to progressive disease (PD) in 27 and 7 cases, respectively, and deterioration in the performance status (PS) in 20 and 4 cases, respectively. Only 1 case of discontinuation due to adverse events (AEs) was reported for third-line CPT-11. Furthermore, of the 15 patients who received CPT-11 as second-line treatment, 11 (73.3%) then received PTX as third-line treatment. Second-line CPT-11 and third-line PTX were discontinued due to PD in 9 and 6 cases, respectively, and deterioration in the PS in 4 and 5 cases, respectively, whereas there was only 1 case of discontinuation due to AEs for second-line CPT-11. Severe AEs for PTX and CPT-11 were infrequent; however, the frequency of diarrhea was high when PTX was administered as third-line therapy (63.6%), whereas the frequency of malaise was high when CPT-11 was administered as second- (73.3%) and third-line (76.9%) therapy. In conclusion, severe AEs due to PTX and CPT-11 as second- and third-line treatment for advanced or recurrent gastric cancer are infrequent and patients are generally able to continue treatment. However, the possibility of diarrhea with third-line PTX and malaise with second- and third-line CPT-11 treatment should be considered when planning chemotherapy. PMID:24772319

KIMURA, MICHIO; USAMI, EISEKI; KANEMATSU, TETSUFUMI; IWAI, MINA; YOSHIMURA, TOMOAKI; MORI, HIROMI; SUGIYAMA, TADASHI; TERAMACHI, HITOMI

2014-01-01

449

Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation (NEAMS) Waste Integrated Performance and Safety Codes (IPSC) : FY10 development and integration.  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the progress in fiscal year 2010 in developing the Waste Integrated Performance and Safety Codes (IPSC) in support of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation (NEAMS) Campaign. The goal of the Waste IPSC is to develop an integrated suite of computational modeling and simulation capabilities to quantitatively assess the long-term performance of waste forms in the engineered and geologic environments of a radioactive waste storage or disposal system. The Waste IPSC will provide this simulation capability (1) for a range of disposal concepts, waste form types, engineered repository designs, and geologic settings, (2) for a range of time scales and distances, (3) with appropriate consideration of the inherent uncertainties, and (4) in accordance with robust verification, validation, and software quality requirements. Waste IPSC activities in fiscal year 2010 focused on specifying a challenge problem to demonstrate proof of concept, developing a verification and validation plan, and performing an initial gap analyses to identify candidate codes and tools to support the development and integration of the Waste IPSC. The current Waste IPSC strategy is to acquire and integrate the necessary Waste IPSC capabilities wherever feasible, and develop only those capabilities that cannot be acquired or suitably integrated, verified, or validated. This year-end progress report documents the FY10 status of acquisition, development, and integration of thermal-hydrologic-chemical-mechanical (THCM) code capabilities, frameworks, and enabling tools and infrastructure.

Criscenti, Louise Jacqueline; Sassani, David Carl; Arguello, Jose Guadalupe, Jr.; Dewers, Thomas A.; Bouchard, Julie F.; Edwards, Harold Carter; Freeze, Geoffrey A.; Wang, Yifeng; Schultz, Peter Andrew

2011-02-01

450

Final safety evaluation report related to the certification of the Advanced Boiling Water Reactor design. Supplement 1  

SciTech Connect

This report supplements the final safety evaluation report (FSER) for the US Advanced Boiling Water Reactor (ABWR) standard design. The FSER was issued by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff as NUREG-1503 in July 1994 to document the NRC staff`s review of the US ABWR design. The US ABWR design was submitted by GE Nuclear Energy (GE) in accordance with the procedures of Subpart B to Part 52 of Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations. This supplement documents the NRC staff`s review of the changes to the US ABWR design documentation since the issuance of the FSER. GE made these changes primarily as a result of first-of-a-kind-engineering (FOAKE) and as a result of the design certification rulemaking for the ABWR design. On the basis of its evaluations, the NRC staff concludes that the confirmatory issues in NUREG-1503 are resolved, that the changes to the ABWR design documentation are acceptable, and that GE`s application for design certification meets the requirements of Subpart B to 10 CFR Part 52 that are applicable and technically relevant to the US ABWR design.

NONE

1997-05-01

451

Cooperative robotic sentry vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As part of a project for the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, Sandia National Laboratories' Intelligent Systems and Robotics Center is developing and testing the feasibility of a cooperative team of robotic sentry vehicles to guard a perimeter and to perform a surround task. This paper describes on-going activities in the development of these robotic sentry vehicles. To date, we have developed a robotic perimeter detection system which consists of eight 'Roving All Terrain Lunar Explorer Rovers' (RATLER), a laptop-based base-station, and several Miniature Intrusion Detection Sensors (MIDS). A radio frequency receiver on each of the RATLER vehicles alerts the sentry vehicles of alarms from the hidden MIDS. When an alarm is received, each vehicle decides whether it should investigate the alarm based on the proximity of itself and the other vehicles to the alarm. As one vehicle attends an alarm, the other vehicles adjust their position around the perimeter to better prepare for another alarm. For the surround task, both potential field and A* search path planners have been added to the base-station and vehicles. At the base-station, the operator specifies goal and exclusion regions on a GIS map. The path planner generates vehicles paths that are previewed by the operator. Once the operator has validated the path, the appropriate information is downloaded t the vehicles. For the potential field path planner, the polygons and line segments that represent the obstacles and goals are downloaded to the vehicles, instead of the simulated paths. On board the vehicles, the same potential field path planner generates the path except that it uses the true location of itself and the nearest neighboring vehicle. For the A* path planner, the actual path is downloaded to the vehicles because of limited on-board computational power.

Feddema, John T.; Lewis, Christopher L.; Klarer, Paul; Eisler, G. R.; Caprihan, Rahul

1999-08-01

452

78 FR 57822 - Lease and Interchange of Vehicles; Motor Carriers of Passengers  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...operation of commercial vehicles, specifically `policies...operational safety of motor vehicles, including driver's hours of service and vehicle inspection and repair and...examined Capricorn's vehicles and drivers, showing...

2013-09-20

453

A Framework for Integration of IVHM Technologies for Intelligent Integration for Vehicle Management  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As a part of the overall goal of developing Integrated Vehicle Health Management (IVHM) systems for aerospace vehicles, the NASA Faculty Fellowship Program (NFFP) at Marshall Space Flight Center has performed a pilot study on IVHM principals which integrates researched IVHM technologies in support of Integrated Intelligent Vehicle Management (IIVM). IVHM is the process of assessing, preserving, and restoring system functionality across flight and ground systems (NASA NGLT 2004). The framework presented in this paper integrates advanced computational techniques with sensor and communication technologies for spacecraft that can generate responses through detection, diagnosis, reasoning, and adapt to system faults in support of IIVM. These real-time responses allow the IIVM to modify the effected vehicle subsystem(s) prior to a catastrophic event. Furthermore, the objective of this pilot program is to develop and integrate technologies which can provide a continuous, intelligent, and adaptive health state of a vehicle and use this information to improve safety and reduce costs of operations. Recent investments in avionics, health management, and controls have been directed towards IIVM. As this concept has matured, it has become clear the IIVM requires the same sensors and processing capabilities as the real-time avionics functions to support diagnosis of subsystem problems. New sensors have been proposed, in addition, to augment the avionics sensors to support better system monitoring and diagnostics. As the designs have been considered, a synergy has been realized where the real-time avionics can utilize sensors proposed for diagnostics and prognostics to make better real-time decisions in response to detected failures. IIVM provides for a single system allowing modularity of functions and hardware across the vehicle. The framework that supports IIVM consists of 11 major on-board functions necessary to fully manage a space vehicle maintaining crew safety and mission objectives: Guidance and Navigation; Communications and Tracking; Vehicle Monitoring; Information Transport and Integration; Vehicle Diagnostics; Vehicle Prognostics; Vehicle mission Planning; Automated Repair and Replacement; Vehicle Control; Human Computer Interface; and Onboard Verification and Validation. Furthermore, the presented framework provides complete vehicle management which not only allows for increased crew safety and mission success through new intelligence capabilities, but also yields a mechanism for more efficient vehicle operations. The representative IVHM technologies for IIVH includes: 1) robust controllers for use in re-usable launch vehicles, 2) scaleable/flexible computer platform using heterogeneous communication, 3) coupled electromagnetic oscillators for enhanced communications, 4) Linux-based real-time systems, 5) genetic algorithms, 6) Bayesian Networks, 7) evolutionary algorithms, 8) dynamic systems control modeling, and 9) advanced sensing capabilities. This paper presents IVHM technologies developed under NASA's NFFP pilot project. The integration of these IVHM technologies forms the framework for IIVM.

Paris, Deidre E.; Trevino, Luis; Watson, Mike

2005-01-01

454

Protection against malevolent use of vehicles at Nuclear Power Plants. Vehicle barrier system selection guidance  

SciTech Connect

This manual provides a simplified procedure for selecting land vehicle barriers that will stop the design basis vehicle threat adopted by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Proper selection and construction of vehicle barriers should prevent intrusion of the design basis vehicle. In addition, vital safety related equipment should survive a design basis vehicle bomb attack when vehicle barriers are properly selected, sited, and constructed. This manual addresses passive vehicle barriers, active vehicle barriers, and site design features that can be used to reduce vehicle impact velocity.

Nebuda, D.T.

1994-08-01

455

Electric vehicle performance in 1994 DOE competitions  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy (DOE) through Argonne National Laboratory sponsored and recorded energy data of electric vehicles (EVs) at five competitions in 1994. Each competition provided different test conditions (closed-track, on-road, and dynamometer). The data gathered at these competitions includes energy efficiency, range, acceleration, and vehicle characteristics. The results of the analysis show that the vehicles performed as expected. Some of the EVs were also tested on dynamometers and compared to gasoline vehicles, including production vehicles with advanced battery systems. Although the EVs performed well at these competitions, the results show that only the vehicles with advanced technologies perform as well or better than conventional gasoline vehicles.

Quong, S.; Duoba, M.; Larsen, R.; LeBlanc, N.; Gonzales, R.; Buitrago, C.

1995-06-01

456

Challenge problem and milestones for : Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation (NEAMS) waste Integrated Performance and Safety Codes (IPSC).  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the specification of a challenge problem and associated challenge milestones for the Waste Integrated Performance and Safety Codes (IPSC) supporting the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation (NEAMS) Campaign. The NEAMS challenge problems are designed to demonstrate proof of concept and progress towards IPSC goals. The goal of the Waste IPSC is to develop an integrated suite of modeling and simulation capabilities to quantitatively assess the long-term performance of waste forms in the engineered and geologic environments of a radioactive waste storage or disposal system. The Waste IPSC will provide this simulation capability (1) for a range of disposal concepts, waste form types, engineered repository designs, and geologic settings, (2) for a range of time scales and distances, (3) with appropriate consideration of the inherent uncertainties, and (4) in accordance with robust verification, validation, and software quality requirements. To demonstrate proof of concept and progress towards these goals and requirements, a Waste IPSC challenge problem is specified that includes coupled thermal-hydrologic-chemical-mechanical (THCM) processes that describe (1) the degradation of a borosilicate glass waste form and the corresponding mobilization of radionuclides (i.e., the processes that produce the radionuclide source term), (2) the associated near-field physical and chemical environment for waste emplacement within a salt formation, and (3) radionuclide transport in the near field (i.e., through the engineered components - waste form, waste package, and backfill - and the immediately adjacent salt). The initial details of a set of challenge milestones that collectively comprise the full challenge problem are also specified.

Freeze, Geoffrey A.; Wang, Yifeng; Howard, Robert; McNeish, Jerry A.; Schultz, Peter Andrew; Arguello, Jose Guadalupe, Jr.

2010-09-01

457

Multicenter safety study of mFOLFOX6 for unresectable advanced/recurrent colorectal cancer in elderly patients  

PubMed Central

Background Combination chemotherapy with oxaliplatin plus 5-fluorouracil/leucovorin (FOLFOX) has become a standard regimen for colorectal cancer. An increase of adverse events with combination chemotherapy is predicted in elderly patients, and it remains controversial whether they should receive the same chemotherapy as younger patients. Accordingly, this study of modified FOLFOX6 (mFOLFOX6) therapy was performed to compare its safety between elderly and non-elderly patients. Methods We prospectively studies 14 non-elderly patients aged <70 years old and 8 elderly patients aged ? 70 years with unresectable advanced/recurrent colorectal cancer who received mFOLFOX6 therapy during the period from March 2006 to March 2007. Adverse events and the response to treatment were compared between the elderly and non-elderly groups. Results The main adverse events were neutropenia and peripheral neuropathy, which occurred in 62.5% (? grade 3) and 87.5% (? grade 1) of elderly patients. The grade and frequency of adverse events were similar in the elderly and non-elderly groups. In some patients with neutropenia, treatment could be continued without reducing the dose of oxaliplatin by deleting bolus 5-fluorouracil. A correlation was found between the cumulative dose of oxaliplatin and the severity of neuropathy, and there were 2 elderly and 3 younger patients in whom discontinuation of treatment was necessary due to peripheral neuropathy. The median number of treatment cycles was 10.0 and 9.5 in the non-elderly and elderly groups, respectively. The response rate was 60.0% in the non-elderly and 50.0% in the elderly group, while the disease control rate was 100% and 83.3% respectively, showing no age-related difference. Conclusion mFOLFOX6 therapy was well-tolerated and effective in both non-elderly and elderly patients. However, discontinuation of treatment was sometimes necessary due to peripheral neuropathy, which is dose-limiting toxicity of this therapy. PMID:19664225

Sugimoto, Shinichi; Katano, Kuniyuki; Kanazawa, Akiyoshi; Yoshimura, Hiroshi; Kidani, Akihiko; Takeda, Hiroshi; Makino, Masato; Ozaki, Nobuhiro; Tanaka, Tsuneo; Ikeguchi, Masahide

2009-01-01

458

Stereotactic body radiation therapy with concurrent full-dose gemcitabine for locally advanced pancreatic cancer: a pilot trial demonstrating safety  

PubMed Central

Background Concurrent chemoradiation is a standard option for locally advanced pancreatic cancer (LAPC). Concurrent conventional radiation with full-dose gemcitabine has significant toxicity. Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) may provide the opportunity to administer radiation in a shorter time frame with similar efficacy and reduced toxicity. This Pilot study assessed the safety of concurrent full-dose gemcitabine with SBRT for LAPC. Methods Patients received gemcitabine, 1000 mg/m2 for 6 cycles. During week 4 of cycle 1, patients received SBRT (25 Gy delivered in five consecutive daily fractions of 5 Gy prescribed to the 75-83% isodose line). Acute and late toxicities were assessed using NIH CTCAE v3. Tumor response was assessed by RECIST. Patients underwent an esophagogastroduodenoscopy at baseline, 2, and 6 months to assess the duodenal mucosa. Quality of life (QoL) data was collected before and after treatment using the QLQ-C30 and QLQ-PAN26 questionnaires. Results Between September 2009 and February 2011, 11 patients enrolled with one withdrawal during radiation therapy. Patients had grade 1 to 2 gastrointestinal toxicity from the start of SBRT to 2 weeks after treatment. There were no grade 3 or greater radiation-related toxicities or delays for cycle 2 of gemcitabine. On endoscopy, there were no grade 2 or higher mucosal toxicities. Two patients had a partial response. The median progression free and overall survival were 6.8 and 12.2 months, respectively. Global QoL did not change between baseline and immediately after radiation treatment. Conclusions SBRT with concurrent full dose gemcitabine is safe when administered to patients with LAPC. There is no delay in administration of radiation or chemotherapy, and radiation is completed with minimal toxicity. PMID:23452509

2013-01-01

459

77 FR 74745 - Used Motor Vehicle Trade Regulation Rule  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...converters in U.S. vehicle exhaust systems...component of motor vehicles after the Rule's...seat belts. Dual driver and front passenger...are mandated for vehicles built after September...for all passenger vehicles manufactured after...obvious importance to vehicle safety. The...

2012-12-17

460

AUTO-2920 - Introduction to Electric Vehicle Propulsion Systems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This four credit course offered by Macomb Community College provides practical training in the theory and basic design aspects of electric vehicle propulsion systems and is a required course for MCC’s Electric Vehicle Development Technology Certificate. Primary subjects covered include rationale for electric vehicles (EVs), safety, battery technologies, basic battery testing, electric machine (motor) types, electric machine operation, power management, power inverters, DC to DC converters, accessory systems, and potential future technologies. Educational materials included are the first day handout, detailed course outcomes, homework (no solutions), labs, pre/post assessments, presentations, sample quizzes/exams, syllabus, and more. If you’re an instructor and need access to homework solutions or complete exams/quizzes, please contact the CAAT. This course is composed of nine modules that can be used to supplement existing courses or can be taught together as a complete course. These modules are The Need for EVs, EV Safety, Introduction to Battery Chemistry, Battery Pack Integration with Vehicle Systems, Electric Machines (DC Motors, AD Induction Asynchronous Motors, Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor, and Switched Reluctance Motors), Power Inverter/Electronic Motor Controls, DC to DC Converters, Vehicle Accessory Systems, and Introduction to Advancing Technology (Fuel Cells, Ultra Capacitors, and Hydraulic Propulsion)