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1

Advanced Range Safety System for High Energy Vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The advanced range safety system project is a collaboration between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and the United States Air Force to develop systems that would reduce costs and schedule for safety approval for new classes of unmanned high-energy vehicles. The mission-planning feature for this system would yield flight profiles that satisfy the mission requirements for the user while providing an increased quality of risk assessment, enhancing public safety. By improving the speed and accuracy of predicting risks to the public, mission planners would be able to expand flight envelopes significantly. Once in place, this system is expected to offer the flexibility of handling real-time risk management for the high-energy capabilities of hypersonic vehicles including autonomous return-from-orbit vehicles and extended flight profiles over land. Users of this system would include mission planners of Space Launch Initiative vehicles, space planes, and other high-energy vehicles. The real-time features of the system could make extended flight of a malfunctioning vehicle possible, in lieu of an immediate terminate decision. With this improved capability, the user would have more time for anomaly resolution and potential recovery of a malfunctioning vehicle.

Claxton, Jeffrey S.; Linton, Donald F.

2002-01-01

2

System safety engineering in the development of advanced surface transportation vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Applications of system safety engineering to the development of advanced surface transportation vehicles are described. As a pertinent example, the paper describes a safety engineering efforts tailored to the particular design and test requirements of the Tracked Air Cushion Research Vehicle (TACRV). The test results obtained from this unique research vehicle provide significant design data directly applicable to the development of future tracked air cushion vehicles that will carry passengers in comfort and safety at speeds up to 300 miles per hour.

Arnzen, H. E.

1971-01-01

3

Advanced vehicle technology assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is a summary of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory assessment of advanced electric and hybrid vehicles for potential development by the early 1990s is summarized. The primary objective is to recommend subsystem research priorities based on a comparison of alternatives as part of complete vehicle systems with equivalent performance. The assessment includes evaluations of candidate technologies as well as

K. S. Hardy; V. P. Roan

1985-01-01

4

Vehicle Safety. Managing Liability Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This monograph discusses the safety of vehicles owned, leased, maintained, and operated by colleges and universities. First, the risks by colleges and universities is discussed. First, the risks associated with college vehicles are outlined, including the liability that comes with staff/faculty and student drivers and such special concerns as…

Newby, Deborah, Ed.

5

Vehicle Battery Safety Roadmap Guidance  

SciTech Connect

The safety of electrified vehicles with high capacity energy storage devices creates challenges that must be met to assure commercial acceptance of EVs and HEVs. High performance vehicular traction energy storage systems must be intrinsically tolerant of abusive conditions: overcharge, short circuit, crush, fire exposure, overdischarge, and mechanical shock and vibration. Fail-safe responses to these conditions must be designed into the system, at the materials and the system level, through selection of materials and safety devices that will further reduce the probability of single cell failure and preclude propagation of failure to adjacent cells. One of the most important objectives of DOE's Office of Vehicle Technologies is to support the development of lithium ion batteries that are safe and abuse tolerant in electric drive vehicles. This Roadmap analyzes battery safety and failure modes of state-of-the-art cells and batteries and makes recommendations on future investments that would further DOE's mission.

Doughty, D. H.

2012-10-01

6

Advanced Vehicle Testing and Evaluation  

SciTech Connect

The objective of the United States (U.S.) Department of Energy?s (DOEs) Advanced Vehicle Testing and Evaluation (AVTE) project was to provide test and evaluation services for advanced technology vehicles, to establish a performance baseline, to determine vehicle reliability, and to evaluate vehicle operating costs in fleet operations. Vehicles tested include light and medium-duty vehicles in conventional, hybrid, and all-electric configurations using conventional and alternative fuels, including hydrogen in internal combustion engines. Vehicles were tested on closed tracks and chassis dynamometers, as well as operated on public roads, in fleet operations, and over prescribed routes. All testing was controlled by procedures developed specifically to support such testing. Testing and evaluations were conducted in the following phases: ? Development of test procedures, which established testing procedures; ? Baseline performance testing, which established a performance baseline; ? Accelerated reliability testing, which determined vehicle reliability; ? Fleet testing, used to evaluate vehicle economics in fleet operation, and ? End of test performance evaluation. Test results are reported by two means and posted by Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to their website: quarterly progress reports, used to document work in progress; and final test reports. This final report documents work conducted for the entirety of the contract by the Clarity Group, Inc., doing business as ECOtality North America (ECOtality). The contract was performed from 1 October 2005 through 31 March 2013. There were 113 light-duty on-road (95), off-road (3) and low speed (15) vehicles tested.

Garetson, Thomas

2013-03-31

7

Motor vehicle safety during pregnancy  

PubMed Central

Motor vehicle crashes during pregnancy are the leading cause of traumatic fetal mortality and serious maternal injury morbidity and mortality in the United States, injuring approximately 92,500 pregnant women each year. Little is known about the circumstances surrounding these crash events and the maternal characteristics that may increase women’s vulnerability to crash-related injuries during pregnancy. Even less is known about the effects of crashes on fetal outcomes. Crash simulation studies using female anthropomorphic test devices and computational models have been conducted to better understand the mechanisms of maternal and fetal injuries and death resulting from motor vehicle crashes. In addition, several case reports describing maternal and fetal outcomes following crashes have been published in the literature. Only a few population-based studies have explored the association between motor vehicle crashes and adverse maternal and/or fetal outcomes and even fewer have examined the effectiveness of seat belts and/or airbags in reducing the risk of these outcomes. This paper reviews what is presently known about motor vehicle crashes during pregnancy, their effects on maternal and fetal outcomes, and the role of vehicle safety devices and other safety approaches in mitigating the occurrence and severity of maternal crashes and subsequent injuries. In addition, this paper suggests interventions targeted towards the prevention of crashes during pregnancy.

Vladutiu, Catherine J.; Weiss, Harold B.

2013-01-01

8

78 FR 76265 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Small Business Impacts of Motor Vehicle Safety  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA...National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Section 610...Automotive Fuel Economy Reports. 538...Exemption from Motor Vehicle Safety and Bumper Standards....

2013-12-17

9

How important is vehicle safety in the new vehicle purchase process?  

PubMed

Whilst there has been a significant increase in the amount of consumer interest in the safety performance of privately owned vehicles, the role that it plays in consumers' purchase decisions is poorly understood. The aims of the current study were to determine: how important vehicle safety is in the new vehicle purchase process; what importance consumers place on safety options/features relative to other convenience and comfort features, and how consumers conceptualise vehicle safety. In addition, the study aimed to investigate the key parameters associated with ranking 'vehicle safety' as the most important consideration in the new vehicle purchase. Participants recruited in Sweden and Spain completed a questionnaire about their new vehicle purchase. The findings from the questionnaire indicated that participants ranked safety-related factors (e.g., EuroNCAP (or other) safety ratings) as more important in the new vehicle purchase process than other vehicle factors (e.g., price, reliability etc.). Similarly, participants ranked safety-related features (e.g., advanced braking systems, front passenger airbags etc.) as more important than non-safety-related features (e.g., route navigation systems, air-conditioning etc.). Consistent with previous research, most participants equated vehicle safety with the presence of specific vehicle safety features or technologies rather than vehicle crash safety/test results or crashworthiness. The key parameters associated with ranking 'vehicle safety' as the most important consideration in the new vehicle purchase were: use of EuroNCAP, gender and education level, age, drivers' concern about crash involvement, first vehicle purchase, annual driving distance, person for whom the vehicle was purchased, and traffic infringement history. The findings from this study are important for policy makers, manufacturers and other stakeholders to assist in setting priorities with regard to the promotion and publicity of vehicle safety features for particular consumer groups (such as younger consumers) in order to increase their knowledge regarding vehicle safety and to encourage them to place highest priority on safety in the new vehicle purchase process. PMID:18460367

Koppel, Sjaanie; Charlton, Judith; Fildes, Brian; Fitzharris, Michael

2008-05-01

10

Autonomous system for launch vehicle range safety  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Autonomous Flight Safety System (AFSS) is a launch vehicle subsystem whose ultimate goal is an autonomous capability to assure range safety (people and valuable resources), flight personnel safety, flight assets safety (recovery of valuable vehicles and cargo), and global coverage with a dramatic simplification of range infrastructure. The AFSS is capable of determining current vehicle position and predicting the impact point with respect to flight restriction zones. Additionally, it is able to discern whether or not the launch vehicle is an immediate threat to public safety, and initiate the appropriate range safety response. These features provide for a dramatic cost reduction in range operations and improved reliability of mission success. .

Ferrell, Bob; Haley, Sam

2001-02-01

11

Vehicle-to-vehicle safety messaging in DSRC  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper studies the design of layer-2 protocols for a vehicle to send safety messages to other vehicles. The target is to send vehicle safety messages with high reliability and low delay. The communication is one-to-many, local, and geo-significant. The vehicular communication network is ad-hoc, highly mobile, and with large numbers of contending nodes. The messages are very short, have

Qing Xu; Tony K. Mak; Jeff Ko; Raja Sengupta

2004-01-01

12

Advanced Reactor Safety Research Division.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Advanced Reactor Safety Research Programs Quarterly Progress Report describes current activities and technical progress in the programs at Brookhaven National Laboratory sponsored by the USNRC Division of Reactor Safety Research. The projects reported...

R. J. Cerbone T. Ginsberg J. G. Guppy C. Sastre

1981-01-01

13

Advanced Vehicle system concepts. [nonpetroleum passenger transportation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Various nonpetroleum vehicle system concepts for passenger vehicles in the 1990's are being considered as part of the Advanced Vehicle (AV) Assessment at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The vehicle system and subsystem performance requirements, the projected characteristics of mature subsystem candidates, and promising systems are presented. The system candidates include electric and hybrid vehicles powered by electricity with or without a nonpetroleum power source. The subsystem candidates include batteries (aqueous-mobile, flow, high-temperature, and metal-air), fuel cells (phosphoric acid, advanced acids, and solid polymer electrolyte), nonpetroleum heat engines, advanced dc and ac propulsion components, power-peaking devices, and transmissions.

Hardy, K. S.; Langendoen, J. M.

1983-01-01

14

Teaching Technology by Assessing Vehicle Safety  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

According to the National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, motor vehicle crashes are the leading cause of death among Americans aged 2-34. Many states have adopted periodic motor vehicle inspection (PMVI) to ensure the safety of the highways, and states that have adopted PMVI report a reduction in highway fatalities. Deaths and injuries…

Lazaros, Edward J.

2012-01-01

15

Recycling readiness of advanced batteries for electric vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Maximizing the reclamation\\/recycle of electric-vehicle (EV) batteries is considered to be essential for the successful commercialization of this technology. Since the early 1990s, the US Department of Energy has sponsored the ad hoc advanced battery readiness working group to review this and other possible barriers to the widespread use of EVs, such as battery shipping and in-vehicle safety. Regulation is

Jungst

1997-01-01

16

Advanced technologies for rocket single-stage-to-orbit vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A single-stage-to-orbit vertical takeoff/horizontal landing rocket vehicle was studied to determine the benefits of advanced technology. Advanced technologies that were included in the study were variable mixture ratio oxygen/hydrogen rocket engines and materials, structures, and subsystem technologies currently being developed in the National Aero-Space Plane Program. The application of advanced technology results in an 85 percent reduction in vehicle dry weight. With advanced materials, an external thermal protection system, like the Space Shuttle tiles, was not required. Compared to an all-airbreathing horizontal takeoff/horizontal landing vehicle using the same advanced technologies and mission requirements, the rocket vehicle is lighter in dry weight and has fewer subsystems. To increase reliability and safety, operational features were included in the rocket vehicle-robust subsystems, 5 percent additional margin, no slush hydrogen, fail-operational with an engine out, and a crew escape module. The resulting vehicle grew in dry weight and was still lower in dry weight than the airbreathing vehicle.

Wilhite, Alan W.; Bush, Lance B.; Cruz, Christopher I.; Lepsch, Roger A.; Morris, W. Douglas; Stanley, Douglas O.; Wurster, Kathryn E.

1991-01-01

17

10 CFR 611.3 - Advanced technology vehicle.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Advanced technology vehicle. 611.3 Section...ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY VEHICLES MANUFACTURER ASSISTANCE...General § 611.3 Advanced technology vehicle. In order to...

2013-01-01

18

10 CFR 611.3 - Advanced technology vehicle.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 false Advanced technology vehicle. 611.3 Section...ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY VEHICLES MANUFACTURER ASSISTANCE...General § 611.3 Advanced technology vehicle. In order to...

2011-01-01

19

10 CFR 611.3 - Advanced technology vehicle.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 false Advanced technology vehicle. 611.3 Section...ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY VEHICLES MANUFACTURER ASSISTANCE...General § 611.3 Advanced technology vehicle. In order to...

2012-01-01

20

10 CFR 611.3 - Advanced technology vehicle.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Advanced technology vehicle. 611.3 Section...ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY VEHICLES MANUFACTURER ASSISTANCE...General § 611.3 Advanced technology vehicle. In order to...

2010-01-01

21

10 CFR 611.3 - Advanced technology vehicle.  

...2014-01-01 false Advanced technology vehicle. 611.3 Section...ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY VEHICLES MANUFACTURER ASSISTANCE...General § 611.3 Advanced technology vehicle. In order to...

2014-01-01

22

Feasibility of advanced vehicle control systems (AVCS) for transit buses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the course of developing automated vehicle-roadway systems, opportunities to deploy vehicle control systems art intermediate stages of development may emerge. Some of these systems may provide a significant efficiency or safety enhancement to existing operations with manually driven vehicles. Under certain circumstances, transit buses provide an ideal testbed for such systems. The work presented here represents a feasibility study for the application of advanced vehicle control systems (AVCS) to transit bus operations. The paper explores past and present research relevant to automatic control for buses and recommends specific operations which could be better performed by AVCS- assisted or controlled vehicles. A survey of feasible technologies for the guidance and control of the buses is also presented.

Larsen, Robert

1997-01-01

23

Advanced orbit transfer vehicle propulsion system study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A reuseable orbit transfer vehicle concept was defined and subsequent recommendations for the design criteria of an advanced LO2/LH2 engine were presented. The major characteristics of the vehicle preliminary design include a low lift to drag aerocapture capability, main propulsion system failure criteria of fail operational/fail safe, and either two main engines with an attitude control system for backup or three main engines to meet the failure criteria. A maintenance and servicing approach was also established for the advanced vehicle and engine concepts. Design tradeoff study conclusions were based on the consideration of reliability, performance, life cycle costs, and mission flexibility.

Cathcart, J. A.; Cooper, T. W.; Corringrato, R. M.; Cronau, S. T.; Forgie, S. C.; Harder, M. J.; Mcallister, J. G.; Rudman, T. J.; Stoneback, V. W.

1985-01-01

24

75 FR 76185 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard, Rearview Mirrors; Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Institute for Highway Safety (IIHS), and Kids and Cars. Finally, 14 individuals commented...that a single eyepoint should be used. Kids and Cars stated that eyepoints should be...countermeasures to certain vehicle types. Kids and Cars stated that all vehicles...

2010-12-07

25

Advanced Vehicle Concepts and Implications for NextGen  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report presents the results of a major NASA study of advanced vehicle concepts and their implications for the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen). Comprising the efforts of dozens of researchers at multiple institutions, the analyses presented here cover a broad range of topics including business-case development, vehicle design, avionics, procedure design, delay, safety, environmental impacts, and metrics. The study focuses on the following five new vehicle types: Cruise-efficient short takeoff and landing (CESTOL) vehicles Large commercial tiltrotor aircraft (LCTRs) Unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) Very light jets (VLJs) Supersonic transports (SST). The timeframe of the study spans the years 2025-2040, although some analyses are also presented for a 3X scenario that has roughly three times the number of flights as today. Full implementation of NextGen is assumed.

Blake, Matt; Smith, Jim; Wright, Ken; Mediavilla Ricky; Kirby, Michelle; Pfaender, Holger; Clarke, John-Paul; Volovoi, Vitali; Dorbian, Christopher; Ashok, Akshay; Reynolds, Tom; Waitz, Ian; Hileman, James; Arunachalam, Sarav; Hedrick, Matt; Vempati, Lakshmi; Laroza, Ryan; denBraven, Wim; Henderson, Jeff

2010-01-01

26

Advances in fuel cell vehicle design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Factors such as global warming, dwindling fossil fuel reserves, and energy security concerns combine to indicate that a replacement for the internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicle is needed. Fuel cell vehicles have the potential to address the problems surrounding the ICE vehicle without imposing any significant restrictions on vehicle performance, driving range, or refuelling time. Though there are currently some obstacles to overcome before attaining the widespread commercialization of fuel cell vehicles, such as improvements in fuel cell and battery durability, development of a hydrogen infrastructure, and reduction of high costs, the fundamental concept of the fuel cell vehicle is strong: it is efficient, emits zero harmful emissions, and the hydrogen fuel can be produced from various renewable sources. Therefore, research on fuel cell vehicle design is imperative in order to improve vehicle performance and durability, increase efficiency, and reduce costs. This thesis makes a number of key contributions to the advancement of fuel cell vehicle design within two main research areas: powertrain design and DC/DC converters. With regards to powertrain design, this research first analyzes various powertrain topologies and energy storage system types. Then, a novel fuel cell-battery-ultracapacitor topology is presented which shows reduced mass and cost, and increased efficiency, over other promising topologies found in the literature. A detailed vehicle simulator is created in MATLAB/Simulink in order to simulate and compare the novel topology with other fuel cell vehicle powertrain options. A parametric study is performed to optimize each powertrain and general conclusions for optimal topologies, as well as component types and sizes, for fuel cell vehicles are presented. Next, an analytical method to optimize the novel battery-ultracapacitor energy storage system based on maximizing efficiency, and minimizing cost and mass, is developed. This method can be applied to any system utilizing the novel battery-ultracapacitor energy storage system and is not limited in application to only fuel cell vehicles. With regards to DC/DC converters, it is important to design efficient and light-weight converters for use in fuel cell and other electric vehicles to improve overall vehicle fuel economy. Thus, this research presents a novel soft-switching method, the capacitor-switched regenerative snubber, for the high-power DC/DC boost converters commonly used in fuel cell vehicles. This circuit is shown to increase the efficiency and reduce the overall mass of the DC/DC boost converter.

Bauman, Jennifer

27

Use of Advanced In-Vehicle Technology by Young and Older Early Adopters: Survey Results on Adaptive Cruise Control Systems. Traffic Safety Facts.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Adaptive cruise control (ACC) is an in-vehicle convenience feature designed to maintain a set speed and, when applicable, adjust the set speed to maintain a specified distance from a lead vehicle. When following another vehicle, the ACC system will automa...

2008-01-01

28

Advanced wiring technique and hardware application: Airplane and space vehicle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An advanced wiring system is described which achieves the safety/reliability required for present and future airplane and space vehicle applications. Also, present wiring installation techniques and hardware are analyzed to establish existing problem areas. An advanced wiring system employing matrix interconnecting unit, plug to plug trunk bundles (FCC or ribbon cable) is outlined, and an installation study presented. A planned program to develop, lab test and flight test key features of these techniques and hardware as a part of the SST technology follow-on activities is discussed.

Ernst, H. L.; Eichman, C. D.

1972-01-01

29

Advanced Secondary Batteries for Electric Vehicle Propulsion.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A number of near-term and advanced secondary batteries that are projected to meet performance and cost requirements for electric vehicle applications are currently under development in the U.S.A. Development of the near-term battery technology has been ac...

N. P. Yao

1978-01-01

30

Highway Safety Program Manual: Volume 2: Motor Vehicle Registration.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Volume 2 of the 19-volume Highway Safety Program Manual (which provides guidance to State and local governments on preferred highway safety practices) describes the purposes and specific objectives of motor vehicle registration. Federal authority for vehicle registration and general policies regarding vehicle registration systems are outlined.…

National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

31

Vehicle Safety Communications - Applications (VSC-A) Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Vehicle Safety Communications Applications (VSC-A) Project was a three-year project (December 2006-December 2009) to develop and test communications-based vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) safety systems to determine if Dedicated Short Range Communications (DS...

B. Bellur C. Basnayake D. Cunningham D. Jiang D. Masselink D. McGlohon F. Ahmed-Zaid F. Bai G. Brown H. Elzein H. Krishnan J. Ivan J. Kenney J. Lovell J. Stinnett K. Hong K. Tirey L. Caminiti L. Tellis M. Maile P. Mudalige S. Bai S. Brovold S. VanSickle V. Rai Z. Popovic

2011-01-01

32

78 FR 13853 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Denial of Petition for Rulemaking; Vehicle Rollover...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...establish a Federal motor vehicle safety standard (FMVSS) to prevent...1\\ See Traffic Safety Facts 2009 (Early Edition...equipped with ESC systems. Many automotive manufacturers equipped their...relevant for promulgating a safety standard for Mr....

2013-03-01

33

Advanced vehicle systems assessment. Volume 3: Systems assessment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The systems analyses integrate the advanced component and vehicle characteristics into conceptual vehicles with identical performance (for a given application) and evaluates the vehicles in typical use patterns. Initial and life-cycle costs are estimated and compared to conventional reference vehicles with comparable technological advances, assuming the vehicles will be in competition in the early 1990s. Electric vans, commuter vehicles, and full-size vehicles, in addition to electric/heat-engine hybrid and fuel-cell powered vehicles, are addressed in terms of performance and economics. System and subsystem recommendations for vans and two-passenger commuter vehicles are based on the economic analyses in this volume.

Hardy, K.

1985-01-01

34

Recycling readiness of advanced batteries for electric vehicles  

SciTech Connect

Maximizing the reclamation/recycle of electric-vehicle (EV) batteries is considered to be essential for the successful commercialization of this technology. Since the early 1990s, the US Department of Energy has sponsored the ad hoc advanced battery readiness working group to review this and other possible barriers to the widespread use of EVs, such as battery shipping and in-vehicle safety. Regulation is currently the main force for growth in EV numbers and projections for the states that have zero-emission vehicle (ZEV) programs indicate about 200,000 of these vehicles would be offered to the public in 2003 to meet those requirements. The ad hoc Advanced Battery Readiness Working Group has identified a matrix of battery technologies that could see use in EVs and has been tracking the state of readiness of recycling processes for each of them. Lead-acid, nickel/metal hydride, and lithium-ion are the three EV battery technologies proposed by the major automotive manufacturers affected by ZEV requirements. Recycling approaches for the two advanced battery systems on this list are partly defined, but could be modified to recover more value from end-of-life batteries. The processes being used or planned to treat these batteries are reviewed, as well as those being considered for other longer-term technologies in the battery recycling readiness matrix. Development efforts needed to prepare for recycling the batteries from a much larger EV population than exists today are identified.

Jungst, R.G.

1997-09-01

35

Assessment of Vehicle Safety Problems for Special Driving Populations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report describes vehicle safety problems reported in interviews with 460 physically limited drivers and 41 physically limited non-drivers. The problems reported involved operation of primary and secondary controls, operating other vehicle mechanisms (...

A. J. McKnight F. Masten M. A. Green R. J. Koppa

1979-01-01

36

Vehicle safety telemetry for automated highways  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The emphasis in current, automatic vehicle testing and diagnosis is primarily centered on the proper operation of the engine. Lateral and longitudinal guidance technologies, including speed control and headway sensing for collision avoidance, are reviewed. The principal guidance technique remains the buried wire. Speed control and headway sensing, even though they show the same basic elements in braking and fuel systems, are proceeding independently. The applications of on-board electronic and microprocessor techniques were investigated; each application (emission control, spark advance, or anti-slip braking) is being treated as an independent problem is proposed. A unified bus system of distributed processors for accomplishing the various functions and testing required for vehicles equipped to use automated highways.

Hansen, G. R.

1977-01-01

37

Underwater vehicle navigation: recent advances and new challenges  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper surveys recent advances in underwater vehicle navigation and identi?es future research challenges. Improvements in underwater navigation sensor technology and underwater navigation algorithms are enabling novel underwater vehicles and novel underwater vehicle missions. This paper ?rst reviews advances in underwater navigation sensor technology. Second, advances in deterministic and stochastic underwater navigation methodologies and algorithms are reviewed. Finally, future challenges

James C. Kinsey; Ryan M. Eustice; Louis L. Whitcomb

2006-01-01

38

Recycling of Advanced Batteries for Electric Vehicles  

SciTech Connect

The pace of development and fielding of electric vehicles is briefly described and the principal advanced battery chemistries expected to be used in the EV application are identified as Ni/MH in the near term and Li-ion/Li-polymer in the intermediate to long term. The status of recycling process development is reviewed for each of the two chemistries and future research needs are discussed.

JUNGST,RUDOLPH G.

1999-10-06

39

Advanced propulsion concepts for orbital transfer vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Studies of the United States Space Transportation System show that in the mid-to-late 1990s expanded capabilities for Orbital Transfer Vehicles (OTV) will be needed to meet increased payload requirements for transporting materials and possible men to geosynchronous orbit. NASA is conducting a technology program in support of an advanced propulsion system for future OTVs. This program is briefly described with results to date of the first program element, the Conceptual Design and Technology Definition studies.

Cooper, L. P.

1982-01-01

40

Propulsion issues for advanced orbit transfer vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Studies of the United States Space Transportation System show that in the mid to late 1990s expanded capabilities for orbital transfer vehicles (OTV) will be needed to meet increased payload requirements for transporting materials and possibly men to geosynchronous orbit. Discussion and observations relative to the propulsion system issues of space basing, aeroassist compatibility, man ratability and enhanced payload delivery capability are presented. These issues will require resolution prior to the development of a propulsion system for the advanced OTV. The NASA program in support of advanced propulsion for an OTV is briefly described along with conceptual engine design characteristics.

Cooper, L. P.

1984-01-01

41

77 FR 24560 - National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Electric Vehicle Safety Technical Symposium  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...18, 2012 to discuss safety considerations for electric...standards bodies, and automotive and battery manufacturers...vehicles; and other safety issues, including those...design parameters, and safety testing. Technical...standards bodies, and automotive and battery...

2012-04-24

42

Launch vehicle flight control augmentation using smart materials and advanced composites (CDDF Project 93-05)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Marshall Space Flight Center has a rich heritage of launch vehicles that have used aerodynamic surfaces for flight stability such as the Saturn vehicles and flight control such as on the Redstone. Recently, due to aft center-of-gravity locations on launch vehicles currently being studied, the need has arisen for the vehicle control augmentation that is provided by these flight controls. Aerodynamic flight control can also reduce engine gimbaling requirements, provide actuator failure protection, enhance crew safety, and increase vehicle reliability, and payload capability. In the Saturn era, NASA went to the Moon with 300 sq ft of aerodynamic surfaces on the Saturn V. Since those days, the wealth of smart materials and advanced composites that have been developed allow for the design of very lightweight, strong, and innovative launch vehicle flight control surfaces. This paper presents an overview of the advanced composites and smart materials that are directly applicable to launch vehicle control surfaces.

Barret, C.

1995-01-01

43

Advanced control design for hybrid turboelectric vehicle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The new environment standards are a challenge and opportunity for industry and government who manufacture and operate urban mass transient vehicles. A research investigation to provide control scheme for efficient power management of the vehicle is in progress. Different design requirements using functional analysis and trade studies of alternate power sources and controls have been performed. The design issues include portability, weight and emission/fuel efficiency of induction motor, permanent magnet and battery. A strategic design scheme to manage power requirements using advanced control systems is presented. It exploits fuzzy logic, technology and rule based decision support scheme. The benefits of our study will enhance the economic and technical feasibility of technological needs to provide low emission/fuel efficient urban mass transit bus. The design team includes undergraduate researchers in our department. Sample results using NASA HTEV simulation tool are presented.

Abban, Joseph; Norvell, Johnesta; Momoh, James A.

1995-01-01

44

Advanced control design for hybrid turboelectric vehicle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The new environment standards are a challenge and opportunity for industry and government who manufacture and operate urban mass transient vehicles. A research investigation to provide control scheme for efficient power management of the vehicle is in progress. Different design requirements using functional analysis and trade studies of alternate power sources and controls have been performed. The design issues include portability, weight and emission/fuel efficiency of induction motor, permanent magnet and battery. A strategic design scheme to manage power requirements using advanced control systems is presented. It exploits fuzzy logic, technology and rule based decision support scheme. The benefits of our study will enhance the economic and technical feasibility of technological needs to provide low emission/fuel efficient urban mass transit bus. The design team includes undergraduate researchers in our department. Sample results using NASA HTEV simulation tool are presented.

Abban, Joseph; Norvell, Johnesta; Momoh, James A.

1995-08-01

45

Predicting Production Costs for Advanced Aerospace Vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

For early design concepts, the conventional approach to cost is normally some kind of parametric weight-based cost model. There is now ample evidence that this approach can be misleading and inaccurate. By the nature of its development, a parametric cost model requires historical data and is valid only if the new design is analogous to those for which the model was derived. Advanced aerospace vehicles have no historical production data and are nowhere near the vehicles of the past. Using an existing weight-based cost model would only lead to errors and distortions of the true production cost. This paper outlines the development of a process-based cost model in which the physical elements of the vehicle are soared according to a first-order dynamics model. This theoretical cost model, first advocated by early work at MIT, has been expanded to cover the basic structures of an advanced aerospace vehicle. Elemental costs based on the geometry of the design can be summed up to provide an overall estimation of the total production cost for a design configuration. This capability to directly link any design configuration to realistic cost estimation is a key requirement for high payoff MDO problems. Another important consideration in this paper is the handling of part or product complexity. Here the concept of cost modulus is introduced to take into account variability due to different materials, sizes, shapes, precision of fabrication, and equipment requirements. The most important implication of the development of the proposed process-based cost model is that different design configurations can now be quickly related to their cost estimates in a seamless calculation process easily implemented on any spreadsheet tool.

Bao, Han P.; Samareh, J. A.; Weston, R. P.

2002-01-01

46

Assessment of Candidate Vehicles for Advanced-Battery Demonstration.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A first-level assessment is provided of candidate vehicles which might be utilized for the purpose of demonstrating the performance capabilities of advanced battery propulsion systems. The demonstration vehicle design target was defined as a five-passenge...

L. Forrest W. B. Lee W. M. Smalley

1981-01-01

47

Functional Requirements for the Integrated Vehicle-Based Safety Systems (IVBSS) - Light Vehicle Platform.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of the Integrated Vehicle-Based Safety System (IVBSS) project is to evaluate the potential safety benefits and driver acceptance of an integrated set of crash-warning technologies installed on both heavy truck and light vehicle platforms. IVBS...

D. Bezzina D. LeBlanc D. Pomerleau M. Gabel T. Tiernan

2008-01-01

48

Advanced APS Impacts on Vehicle Payloads  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Advanced auxiliary propulsion system (APS) technology has the potential to both, increase the payload capability of earth-to-orbit (ETO) vehicles by reducing APS propellant mass, and simplify ground operations and logistics by reducing the number of fluids on the vehicle and eliminating toxic, corrosive propellants. The impact of integrated cryogenic APS on vehicle payloads is addressed. In this system, launch propulsion system residuals are scavenged from integral launch propulsion tanks for use in the APS. Sufficient propellant is preloaded into the APS to return to earth with margin and noncomplete scavenging assumed. No propellant conditioning is required by the APS, but ambient heat soak is accommodated. High temperature rocket materials enable the use of the unconditioned hydrogen/oxygen in the APS and are estimated to give APS rockets specific impulse of up to about 444 sec. The payload benefits are quantified and compared with an uprated monomethyl hydrazine/nitrogen tetroxide system in a conservative fashion, by assuming a 25.5 percent weight growth for the hydrogen/oxygen system and a 0 percent weight growth for the uprated system. The combination and scavenging and high performance gives payload impacts which are highly mission specific. A payload benefit of 861 kg (1898 lbm) was estimated for a Space Station Freedom rendezvous mission and 2099 kg (4626 lbm) for a sortie mission, with payload impacts varying with the amount of launch propulsion residual propellants. Missions without liquid propellant scavenging were estimated to have payload penalties, however, operational benefits were still possible.

Schneider, Steven J.; Reed, Brian D.

1989-01-01

49

Advanced APS impacts on vehicle payloads  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Advanced auxiliary propulsion system (APS) technology has the potential to both, increase the payload capability of earth-to-orbit (ETO) vehicles by reducing APS propellant mass, and simplify ground operations and logistics by reducing the number of fluids on the vehicle and eliminating toxic, corrosive propellants. The impact of integrated cryogenic APS on vehicle payloads is addressed. In this system, launch propulsion system residuals are scavenged from integral launch propulsion tanks for use in the APS. Sufficient propellant is preloaded into the APS to return to earth with margin and noncomplete scavenging assumed. No propellant conditioning is required by the APS, but ambient heat soak is accommodated. High temperature rocket materials enable the use of the unconditioned hydrogen/oxygen in the APS and are estimated to give APS rockets specific impulse of up to about 444 sec. The payload benefits are quantified and compared with an uprated monomethylhydrazine/nitrogen tetroxide system in a conservative fashion, by assuming a 25.5 percent weight growth for the hydrogen/oxygen system and a 0 percent weight growth for the uprated system. The combination of scavenging and high performance gives payload impacts which are highly mission specific. A payload benefit of 861 kg (1898 lbm) was estimated for a Space Station Freedom rendezvous mission and 2099 kg (4626 lbm) for a sortie mission, with payload impacts varying with the amount of launch propulsion residual propellants. Missions without liquid propellant scavenging were estimated to have payload penalties, however, operational benefits were still possible.

Schneider, Steven J.; Reed, Brian D.

1989-01-01

50

Radio-controlled Electric Vehicles: Issues Relating to the Safety of Unmanned Electric Vehicles and Robots  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the development and performance of a compact, unmanned, radio-controlled electric vehicle. This vehicle is controlled by radio while it appears that a dog is the driver. The main purpose of this research is to show a dog driving a vehicle in order to conduct traffic safety campaigns, but this paper also describes the diver- sion of this

Shigeyuki Minami; Masaaki Doi; Takashi Masuzawa

2006-01-01

51

Advanced Subsystems for Practical Electric Vehicles. Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Subsystems Technology Development Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Electric and Hybrid Vehicle (EHV) Subsystem Technology Program of the US Department of Energy (DOE) is charged with developing the advanced technology base, other than energy storage, necessary for practical electric and hybrid vehicles. The success o...

1979-01-01

52

A road safety performance indicator for vehicle fleet compatibility.  

PubMed

This paper discusses the development and the application of a safety performance indicator which measures the intrinsic safety of a country's vehicle fleet related to fleet composition. The indicator takes into account both the 'relative severity' of individual collisions between different vehicle types, and the share of those vehicle types within a country's fleet. The relative severity is a measure for the personal damage that can be expected from a collision between two vehicles of any type, relative to that of a collision between passenger cars. It is shown how this number can be calculated using vehicle mass only. A sensitivity analysis is performed to study the dependence of the indicator on parameter values and basic assumptions made. The indicator is easy to apply and satisfies the requirements for appropriate safety performance indicators. It was developed in such a way that it specifically scores the intrinsic safety of a fleet due to its composition, without being influenced by other factors, like helmet wearing. For the sake of simplicity, and since the required data is available throughout Europe, the indicator was applied to the relative share of three of the main vehicle types: passenger cars, heavy goods vehicles and motorcycles. Using the vehicle fleet data from 13EU Member States and Norway, the indicator was used to rank the countries' safety performance. The UK was found to perform best in terms of its fleet composition (value is 1.07), while Greece has the worst performance with the highest indicator value (1.41). PMID:23953768

Christoph, Michiel; Vis, Martijn Alexander; Rackliff, Lucy; Stipdonk, Henk

2013-11-01

53

Driver Issues: Commercial Motor Vehicle Safety Literature Review.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of this project was to provide the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA) with a more complete understanding of the non-regulatory factors which make for safer commercial motor vehicle (CMV) drivers. Through the review of availa...

H. Howarth L. Barr N. Arnopolskaya S. Alton T. Di Domenico

2007-01-01

54

Analysis of Event Data Recorder Data for Vehicle Safety Improvement.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Volpe Center performed a comprehensive engineering analysis of Event Data Recorder (EDR) data supplied by NHTSA to assess its accuracy and usefulness in crash reconstruction and improvement of vehicle safety systems. The Volpe Center gathered and anal...

M. P. DaSilva

2008-01-01

55

29 CFR 500.100 - Vehicle safety obligations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... REGULATIONS MIGRANT AND SEASONAL AGRICULTURAL WORKER PROTECTION Motor Vehicle...Transportation of Migrant and Seasonal Agricultural Workers, Housing Safety and Health...obligations. Each farm labor contractor, agricultural employer and agricultural...

2013-07-01

56

29 CFR 500.102 - Applicability of vehicle safety standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... REGULATIONS MIGRANT AND SEASONAL AGRICULTURAL WORKER PROTECTION Motor Vehicle...Transportation of Migrant and Seasonal Agricultural Workers, Housing Safety and Health...used by any farm labor contractor, agricultural employer or agricultural...

2013-07-01

57

Advanced power reactors with improved safety characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The primary objective of nuclear safety is the protection of individuals, society and environment against radiological hazards from accidental releases of radioactive materials contained in nuclear reactors.At a worldwide scale, several advanced reactor concepts are currently being considered, some of them already at a design stage. Essential safety objectives include both further strengthening the prevention of accidents and improving the

A. Birkhofer

1995-01-01

58

In-vehicle vibration study of child safety seats  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports experimental measurements of the in-vehicle vibrational behaviour of stage 0&1 child safety seats. Road tests were performed for eight combinations of child, child seat and automobile. Four accelerometers were installed in the vehicles and orientated to measure as closely as possible in the vertical direction; two were attached to the floor and two located at the human

J. Giacomin; S. Gallo

2003-01-01

59

Advanced vehicle systems assessment. Volume 4: Supporting analyses  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Volume 4 (Supporting Analyses) is part of a five-volume report, Advanced Vehicle Systems Assessment. Thirty-nine individuals, knowledgeable in advanced technology, were interviewed to obtain their preferences. Rankings were calculated for the eight groups they represented, using multiplicative and additive utility models. The four topics for consideration were: (1) preferred range for various battery technologies; (2) preferred battery technology for each of a variety of travel ranges; (3) most promising battery technology, vehicle range combination; and (4) comparison of the most preferred electric vehicle with the methanol-fuled, spark-ignition engine vehicle and with the most preferred of the hybrid vehicles.

Hardy, K.

1985-01-01

60

Advancements in remotely controlled underwater vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Technological improvements during the past six years have increased several times the operational capabilities of Remotely Operated Vehicles in underwater work. These vehicles are used for inspection, debris removal, object retrieval, and structural cleaning. With this expanded use has come similar dramatic new technology for the vehicle systems. This extends the vehicle operational capabilities and gets more power into a

A. Billet

1985-01-01

61

Advanced concepts in electric vehicle design  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1994, the Eco-Vehicle Project was begun to develop an electric vehicle (EV) using a ground-up design approach that incorporates unique designs specific to an EV. The Eco-Vehicle will be a high-performance, but ultrasmall, battery-powered vehicle. New designs for the Eco-Vehicle include an in-wheel motor drive system, a hollow load floor which will house the batteries, and a new battery

Hiroshi Shimizu; Junji Harada; Colby Bland; Kiyomoto Kawakami; Lam Chan

1997-01-01

62

Integrated Vehicle Thermal Management for Advanced Vehicle Propulsion Technologies  

SciTech Connect

A critical element to the success of new propulsion technologies that enable reductions in fuel use is the integration of component thermal management technologies within a viable vehicle package. Vehicle operation requires vehicle thermal management systems capable of balancing the needs of multiple vehicle systems that may require heat for operation, require cooling to reject heat, or require operation within specified temperature ranges. As vehicle propulsion transitions away from a single form of vehicle propulsion based solely on conventional internal combustion engines (ICEs) toward a wider array of choices including more electrically dominant systems such as plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), new challenges arise associated with vehicle thermal management. As the number of components that require active thermal management increase, so do the costs in terms of dollars, weight, and size. Integrated vehicle thermal management is one pathway to address the cost, weight, and size challenges. The integration of the power electronics and electric machine (PEEM) thermal management with other existing vehicle systems is one path for reducing the cost of electric drive systems. This work demonstrates techniques for evaluating and quantifying the integrated transient and continuous heat loads of combined systems incorporating electric drive systems that operate primarily under transient duty cycles, but the approach can be extended to include additional steady-state duty cycles typical for designing vehicle thermal management systems of conventional vehicles. The work compares opportunities to create an integrated low temperature coolant loop combining the power electronics and electric machine with the air conditioning system in contrast to a high temperature system integrated with the ICE cooling system.

Bennion, K.; Thornton, M.

2010-04-01

63

NASA's advanced space transportation system launch vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Some insight is provided into the advanced transportation planning and systems that will evolve to support long term mission requirements. The general requirements include: launch and lift capacity to low earth orbit (LEO); space based transfer systems for orbital operations between LEO and geosynchronous equatorial orbit (GEO), the Moon, and Mars; and Transfer vehicle systems for long duration deep space probes. These mission requirements are incorporated in the NASA Civil Needs Data Base. To accomplish these mission goals, adequate lift capacity to LEO must be available: to support science and application missions; to provide for construction of the Space Station Freedom; and to support resupply of personnel and supplies for its operations. Growth in lift capacity must be time phased to support an expanding mission model that includes Freedom Station, the Mission to Planet Earth, and an expanded robotic planetary program. The near term increase in cargo lift capacity associated with development of the Shuttle-C is addressed. The joint DOD/NASA Advanced Launch System studies are focused on a longer term new cargo capability that will significantly reduce costs of placing payloads in space.

Branscome, Darrell R.

1991-01-01

64

Hybrid Electic Vehicle (HEV) Safety Considerations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This module consists of a presentation and lab both concerning HEV safety and were developed to enhance automotive courses with HEV technologies through a seed grant from the CAAT. Some safety considerations discussed are wire sheathing color, safety gloves, insulated tools, multimeters, high voltage disabling procedures, and HEV smart keys. The lab will familiarize technicians with the safety precautions associated with working on HEVs such as dealing with high voltage and isolating these potentially dangerous circuits.

College, Lewis A.

65

Safety Climate of Commercial Vehicle Operation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Enhancing the safety culture within trucking and motor coach industries has become a key area of concern given the potential impact it has on crashes and overall safety. Many organizations recognize that safety is compromised if the culture within their o...

D. M. Neyens J. Short L. N. Boyle Y. Peng

2010-01-01

66

National Highway Traffic Safety Administration: Vehicle and Equipment Information  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The National Highway Transportation Safety Administration makes it easy to track down the safety reliability records of automobiles with their newly redesigned web site. The Vehicle and Equipment page offers information on safety problems and issues, testing results, regulations and standards, and research and development. Of particular interest are searchable databases on recalls, technical service bulletins, consumer complaints, and compliance investigations; each search retrieves information specific to the make, model, and year the user enters. The vehicle owners' questionnaire can be used to submit a report of car defects that the NHTSA should investigate.

1997-01-01

67

Advanced vehicle systems assessment. Volume 5: Appendices  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An appendix to the systems assessment for the electric hybrid vehicle project is presented. Included are battery design, battery cost, aluminum vehicle construction, IBM PC computer programs and battery discharge models.

Hardy, K.

1985-01-01

68

Vehicle-to-Vehicle Communication: Fair Transmit Power Control for Safety-Critical Information  

Microsoft Academic Search

Direct radio-based vehicle-to-vehicle communication can help prevent accidents by providing accurate and up-to-date local status and hazard information to the driver. In this paper, we assume that two types of messages are used for traffic safety-related communication: 1) Periodic messages (ldquobeaconsrdquo) that are sent by all vehicles to inform their neighbors about their current status (i.e., position) and 2) event-driven

Marc Torrent-Moreno; Jens Mittag; Paolo Santi; Hannes Hartenstein

2009-01-01

69

76 FR 53072 - Certification; Importation of Vehicles and Equipment Subject to Federal Safety, Bumper, and Theft...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...TRANSPORTATION National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 49 CFR Parts 567, 591...Vehicles and Equipment Subject to Federal Safety, Bumper, and Theft Prevention Standards...To Conform to the Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards AGENCY: National Highway...

2011-08-25

70

75 FR 7370 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Door Locks and Door Retention Components  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...procedures for Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard (FMVSS) No. 206...Ford), Advocates for Highway Safety (Advocates), and Thomas...consistent with Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) Standard...other Federal motor vehicle safety standards such...

2010-02-19

71

76 FR 2631 - Certification; Importation of Vehicles and Equipment Subject to Federal Safety, Bumper, and Theft...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...TRANSPORTATION National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 49 CFR Parts 567, 591...Vehicles and Equipment Subject to Federal Safety, Bumper, and Theft Prevention Standards...To Conform to the Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards AGENCY: National Highway...

2011-01-14

72

Assessment of candidate vehicles for advanced-battery demonstration  

Microsoft Academic Search

A first-level assessment is provided of candidate vehicles which might be utilized for the purpose of demonstrating the performance capabilities of advanced battery propulsion systems. The demonstration vehicle design target was defined as a five-passenger automobile with an all-electric drive system incorporating (1) advanced batteries, and (2) advanced technology powertrain elements. The battery systems selected for examination were lithium\\/iron sulfide,

L. Forrest; W. B. Lee; W. M. Smalley

1981-01-01

73

Deriving and Validating a Road Safety Performance Indicator for Vehicle Fleet Passive Safety  

PubMed Central

Road safety performance indicators (RSPI) are policy tools which describe the extent of insecure operational safety conditions within traffic systems. This study describes the production of an RSPI which represents the presence within a country’s vehicle fleet, of vehicles that may not effectively protect an occupant in a collision. This work is highly original, as it uses the entire vehicle database of European Union Member States in order to estimate the average level of passive safety offered by the entire fleet in each country. The EuroNCAP safety ratings and vehicle age of each vehicle in each fleet have been obtained to calculate the RSPI. The methodology used could be adopted as an international standard.

Page, Marianne; Rackliff, Lucy

2006-01-01

74

10 CFR 611.202 - Advanced Technology Vehicle Manufacturing Facility Award Program.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-01-01 false Advanced Technology Vehicle Manufacturing Facility Award... ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY VEHICLES MANUFACTURER ASSISTANCE PROGRAM...Funding Awards § 611.202 Advanced Technology Vehicle Manufacturing Facility...

2010-01-01

75

10 CFR 611.202 - Advanced Technology Vehicle Manufacturing Facility Award Program.  

... 2014-01-01 false Advanced Technology Vehicle Manufacturing Facility Award... ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY VEHICLES MANUFACTURER ASSISTANCE PROGRAM...Funding Awards § 611.202 Advanced Technology Vehicle Manufacturing Facility...

2014-01-01

76

10 CFR 611.202 - Advanced Technology Vehicle Manufacturing Facility Award Program.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-01-01 false Advanced Technology Vehicle Manufacturing Facility Award... ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY VEHICLES MANUFACTURER ASSISTANCE PROGRAM...Funding Awards § 611.202 Advanced Technology Vehicle Manufacturing Facility...

2012-01-01

77

10 CFR 611.202 - Advanced Technology Vehicle Manufacturing Facility Award Program.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-01-01 false Advanced Technology Vehicle Manufacturing Facility Award... ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY VEHICLES MANUFACTURER ASSISTANCE PROGRAM...Funding Awards § 611.202 Advanced Technology Vehicle Manufacturing Facility...

2011-01-01

78

10 CFR 611.202 - Advanced Technology Vehicle Manufacturing Facility Award Program.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-01-01 false Advanced Technology Vehicle Manufacturing Facility Award... ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY VEHICLES MANUFACTURER ASSISTANCE PROGRAM...Funding Awards § 611.202 Advanced Technology Vehicle Manufacturing Facility...

2013-01-01

79

10 CFR 611.202 - Advanced Technology Vehicle Manufacturing Facility Award Program.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-01-01 false Advanced Technology Vehicle Manufacturing Facility Award... § 611.202 Advanced Technology Vehicle Manufacturing Facility Award...issue, under the Advanced Technology Vehicle Manufacturing Facility Award...

2009-01-01

80

49 CFR 575.301 - Vehicle labeling of safety rating information (applicable unless a vehicle is subject to § 575.302).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Vehicle labeling of safety rating information (applicable unless a vehicle is subject to ç 575.302). 575.301 Section... Vehicle labeling of safety rating information (applicable unless a vehicle is subject to § 575.302). (a) Purpose...

2013-10-01

81

Motor vehicle safety: current concepts and challenges for emergency physicians.  

PubMed

Motor vehicle travel is the primary means of transportation in the United States, providing freedom in travel and enterprise for many people. Motor vehicle crashes are the leading cause of death for the young and contribute to a high degree of morbidity and mortality for all ages. Motor vehicle crashes produce an enormous burden for society in terms of suffering, disability, death, and costs. Motor vehicle crash injury prevention is developing as a focused discipline to implement proven interventions involving technology and behavior known to prevent or reduce the severity of motor vehicle crash injury. Emergency physicians have an important role in advocating motor vehicle safety and injury prevention, both in the emergency department and within the community. PMID:10459097

Peterson, T D; Tilman Jolly, B; Runge, J W; Hunt, R C

1999-09-01

82

75 FR 60036 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; New Pneumatic Tires for Motor Vehicles With a GVWR of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...TRANSPORTATION National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 571 [Docket...RIN 2127-AK17 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; New Pneumatic Tires for Motor...Motorcycles AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA),...

2010-09-29

83

Safety considerations for sodium-sulfur batteries for electric vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Safety issues and current transport (shipment and in-vehicle use) and environmental regulations applicable to sodium-sulfur batteries for electric vehicles are summarized, and an assessment technique is suggested for evaluating hazards relative to commonly accepted risks. It is found that shipment regulations do not directly apply to sodium-sulfur batteries. Disposal hazards need to be quantified and decommissioning procedures need to be

Frank Stodolsky

1989-01-01

84

Robust flight design for an advanced launch system vehicle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Current launch vehicle trajectory design philosophies are generally based on maximizing payload capability. This approach results in an expensive trajectory design process for each mission. Two concepts of robust flight design have been developed to significantly reduce this cost: Standardized Trajectories and Command Multiplier Steering (CMS). These concepts were analyzed for an Advanced Launch System (ALS) vehicle, although their applicability is not restricted to any particular vehicle. Preliminary analysis has demonstrated the feasibility of these concepts at minimal loss in payload capability.

Dhand, Sanjeev K.; Wong, Kelvin K.

1991-01-01

85

Ares I Integrated Vehicle System Safety Team  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Complex systems require integrated analysis teams which sometimes are divided into subsystem teams. Proper division of the analysis in to subsystem teams is important. Safety analysis is one of the most difficult aspects of integration.

Wetherholt, Jon; McNairy, Lisa; Shackelford, Carla

2009-01-01

86

Advanced propulsion system for hybrid vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to evaluate a number of hybrid propulsion systems for application in several different vehicle sizes. A conceptual design was prepared for the most promising configuration. The program was divided into several tasks during which the various system configurations were parametrically evaluated and compared, design tradeoffs performed, and a conceptual design produced. Fifteen vehicle\\/propulsion system

L. V. Norrup; A. T. Lintz

1980-01-01

87

RESEARCH NEEDS FOR ADVANCED SAFETY CONCEPTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY In spite of momentarily stagnating construction of new nuclear power plants research with respect to a still more improvement of safety features must go on. Advanced designs of nuclear plants promise a big step forward in minimising the risk. Research activities in the fields of thermal hydraulics neutron physics and severe accident mitigation are presented. Public acceptance of nuclear

F. MAYINGER

88

Alternative Fuel and Advanced Vehicle Tools (AFAVT), AFDC (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect

The Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Web site offers a collection of calculators, interactive maps, and informational tools to assist fleets, fuel providers, and others looking to reduce petroleum consumption in the transportation sector.

Not Available

2010-01-01

89

Advanced protection technology for ground combat vehicles.  

PubMed

Just as highway drivers use radar detectors to attempt to stay ahead of police armed with the latest radar technology, the Armed Forces are locked in a spiral to protect combat vehicles and their crews against the latest threats in both the contemporary operating environment and the anticipated operating environment (ie, beyond 2020). In response to bigger, heavier, or better-protected vehicles, adversaries build and deploy larger explosive devices or bombs. However, making improvements to combat vehicles is much more expensive than deploying larger explosives. In addition, demand is increasing for lighter-weight vehicles capable of rapid deployment. Together, these two facts give the threat a clear advantage in the future. To protect vehicles and crews, technologies focusing on detection and hit avoidance, denial of penetration, and crew survivability must be combined synergistically to provide the best chance of survival on the modern battlefield. PMID:22865132

Bosse, Timothy G

2012-01-01

90

RAMS approach for reusable launch vehicle advanced studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The emerging of reusable single stage to orbit concept as credible launchers in the turn of the century is changing some technical and technological approaches in the way of doing future launcher advanced studies. Among others (such as operations through the "aircraft-like operations" concept), the RAMS approach (reliability, availability, maintainability and safety) has to be implemented from the very beginning of a concept study, especially for the SSTOs ones in order to meet the "able" requirements (affordable, reusable, reliable, available and operable). Beyond the "traditional" considerations applied to expendable launchers and/or man rated space transportation systems, the RAMS involvement in reusable launcher advanced studies and concept trade-offs must allow to perform the best balance between costs, performance and related risks. For instance, in the framework of SSTOs key technologies identification studies performed at Aerospatiale, the RAMS have been involved from the beginning of the preliminary design task. This approach has shown that the assessment of the main propulsion failure risks and associated probabilities of occurrence have strongly affected the vehicle design within the mission management and technical aspects such as main propulsion specifications, ascent trajectory shaping and landing phase scenario (VTOVL configuration). This paper intends to describe this RAMS approach and addresses how it has been applied on trade-off on VTOVL concept.

Tatry, PH.; Deneu, F.; Simonotti, J. L.

91

Advanced propulsion system concept for hybrid vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A series hybrid system, utilizing a free piston Stirling engine with a linear alternator, and a parallel hybrid system, incorporating a kinematic Stirling engine, are analyzed for various specified reference missions/vehicles ranging from a small two passenger commuter vehicle to a van. Parametric studies for each configuration, detail tradeoff studies to determine engine, battery and system definition, short term energy storage evaluation, and detail life cycle cost studies were performed. Results indicate that the selection of a parallel Stirling engine/electric, hybrid propulsion system can significantly reduce petroleum consumption by 70 percent over present conventional vehicles.

Bhate, S.; Chen, H.; Dochat, G.

1980-01-01

92

Advanced ac powertrain for electric vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The design of an ac propulsion system for an electric vehicle includes a three-phase induction motor, transistorized PWM inverter\\/battery charger, microprocessor-based controller, and two-speed automatic transaxle. This system was built and installed in a Mercury Lynx test bed vehicle as part of a Department of Energy propulsion system development program. An integral part of the inverter is a 4-kw battery

J. M. Slicker; L. Kalns

1985-01-01

93

Natural Gas Vehicle Cylinder Safety, Training and Inspection Project  

SciTech Connect

Under the auspices of the National Energy Technology Laboratory and the US Department of Energy, the Clean Vehicle Education Foundation conducted a three-year program to increase the understanding of the safe and proper use and maintenance of vehicular compressed natural gas (CNG) fuel systems. High-pressure fuel systems require periodic inspection and maintenance to insure safe and proper operation. The project addressed the needs of CNG fuel containers (cylinders) and associated high-pressure fuel system components related to existing law, codes and standards (C&S), available training and inspection programs, and assured coordination among vehicle users, public safety officials, fueling station operators and training providers. The program included a public and industry awareness campaign, establishment and administration of a cylinder inspector certification training scholarship program, evaluation of current safety training and testing practices, monitoring and investigation of CNG vehicle incidents, evaluation of a cylinder recertification program and the migration of CNG vehicle safety knowledge to the nascent hydrogen vehicle community.

Hank Seiff

2008-12-31

94

Preventive Safety: Warning System for Control Loss of Two-Wheeled Vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present study aims at identifying existing and emerging Intelligent Transport System (ITS) that have the possibility to enhance the safety of motorcycle rider. A review of the literature revealed that very few commercially available ITS currently exist specifically for motorcycles, although several emerging technologies were identified. Consultations with international experts in ITS, motorcycle safety, motorcycle manufacturers and various road safety research organizations confirmed this report. However, there are emerging and existing technologies for other vehicles that have the potential to address key motorcycle safety issues. In spite of the emergence of active and passive safety, these systems in most cases do not avoid the accident. The purpose of this paper is to provide assistance to the rider by incorporating a warning system for accident situations, which can alert the driver sufficiently in advance so that he can anticipate the accident.

Slimi, Hamid; Arioui, Hichem; Nouveliere, Lydie; Mammar, Saïd

2009-03-01

95

Safety Issues with Hydrogen as a Vehicle Fuel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydrogen is considered to be one of the most promising, and by far the most environmentally friendly, fuels to replace diesel and petrol in the future. However, public knowledge about hydrogen must increase if hydrogen is going to be accepted as a common vehicle fuel. The safety aspects must be thoroughly and objectively addressed as a single accident very well

Mårten Niklasson; David Gårsjö; Anders Folkesson; Per Alvfors; Eva Sunnerstedt; Joakim Hägvall

96

Vehicle-to-vehicle wireless communication protocols for enhancing highway traffic safety  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents an overview of highway cooperative collision avoidance (CCA), which is an emerging vehicular safety application using the IEEE- and ASTM-adopted Dedicated Short Range Communication (DSRC) standard. Along with a description of the DSRC architecture, we introduce the concept of CCA and its implementation requirements in the context of a vehicle-to-vehicle wireless network, primarily at the Medium Access

Subir Biswas; R. Tatchikou; F. Dion

2006-01-01

97

Advances in hypersonic vehicle synthesis with application to studies of advanced thermal protection system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report summarizes the work entitled 'Advances in Hypersonic Vehicle Synthesis with Application to Studies of Advanced Thermal Protection Systems.' The effort was in two areas: (1) development of advanced methods of trajectory and propulsion system optimization; and (2) development of advanced methods of structural weight estimation. The majority of the effort was spent in the trajectory area.

Ardema, Mark D.

1995-01-01

98

29 CFR 500.103 - Activities not subject to vehicle safety standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... REGULATIONS MIGRANT AND SEASONAL AGRICULTURAL WORKER PROTECTION Motor Vehicle...Transportation of Migrant and Seasonal Agricultural Workers, Housing Safety and Health...vehicle safety standards. (a) Agricultural machinery and equipment...

2013-07-01

99

First Responder Safety Training for Electric and Hybrid Vehicles  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This module was created to educate first responders on the hazards of electric, hybrid, fuel cell, and other alternative fuel vehicles applying to collisions, fires, floods, and more. These materials were used in a four hour first responders training workshop developed by START (specialized training in advanced rescue techniques) and funded by the CAAT.

100

Status of advanced propulsion for space based orbital transfer vehicle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new Orbital Transfer Vehicle (OTV) propulsion system will be required to meet the needs of space missions beyond the mid-1990's. As envisioned, the advanced OTV will be used in conjunction with Earth-to-orbit vehicles, Space Station, and Orbit Maneuvering Vehicle. The OTV will transfer men, large space structures, and conventional payloads between low Earth and higher energy orbits. Space probes carried by the OTV will continue the exploration of the solar system. When lunar bases are established, the OTV will be their transportation link to Earth. NASA is currently funding the development of technology for advanced propulsion concepts for future Orbital Transfer Vehicles. Progress in key areas during 1986 is presented.

Cooper, L. P.; Scheer, D. D.

1986-01-01

101

Status of advanced propulsion for space based orbital transfer vehicle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new Orbital Transfer Vehicle (OTV) propulsion system will be required to meet the needs of space missions beyond the mid-1990's. As envisioned, the advanced OTV will be used in conjunction with earth-to-orbit vehicles, Space Station, and Orbit Maneuvering Vehicle. The OTV will transfer men, large space structures, and conventional payloads between low earth and higher energy orbits. Space probes carried by the OTV will continue the exploration of the solar system. When lunar bases are established, the OTV will be their transportation link to earth. NASA is currently funding the development of technology for advanced propulsion concepts for future Orbital Transfer Vehicles. Progress in key areas during 1986 is presented.

Cooper, Larry P.; Scheer, Dean D.

1986-01-01

102

Continuously variable transmission: Assessment of applicability to advance electric vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A brief historical account of the evolution of continuously variable transmissions (CVT) for automotive use is given. The CVT concepts which are potentially suitable for application with electric and hybrid vehicles are discussed. The arrangement and function of several CVT concepts are cited along with their current developmental status. The results of preliminary design studies conducted on four CVT concepts for use in advanced electric vehicles are discussed.

Loewenthal, S. H.; Parker, R. J.

1981-01-01

103

Attitudes Toward In-Vehicle Advanced Alcohol Detection Technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: Efforts are underway to develop advanced alcohol detection technologies suitable for use in all vehicles to prevent driving with an illegal blood alcohol concentration (BAC). Attitudes toward having this technology in all vehicles were assessed.Methods: A nationally representative sample of people 18 and older was interviewed by telephone.Results: Eighty-four percent of survey respondents supported requiring alcohol ignition interlocks in

Anne T. McCartt; Joann K. Wells; Eric R. Teoh

2010-01-01

104

Issues affecting advanced passive light-water reactor safety analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Next generation commercial reactor designs emphasize enhanced safety through improved safety system reliability and performance by means of system simplification and reliance on immutable natural forces for system operation. Simulating the performance of these safety systems will be central to analytical safety evaluation of advanced passive reactor designs. Yet the characteristically small driving forces of these safety systems pose challenging

R. J. Beelman; C. D. Fletcher; S. M. Modro

1992-01-01

105

Advanced continuously variable transmissions for electric and hybrid vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A brief survey of past and present continuously variable transmissions (CVT) which are potentially suitable for application with electric and hybrid vehicles is presented. Discussion of general transmission requirements and benefits attainable with a CVT for electric vehicle use is given. The arrangement and function of several specific CVT concepts are cited along with their current development status. Lastly, the results of preliminary design studies conducted under a NASA contract for DOE on four CVT concepts for use in advanced electric vehicles are reviewed.

Loewenthal, S. H.

1980-01-01

106

Improved Range Safety Analysis for Space Vehicles Using Range Safety Template Toolkit  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper discusses an alternative to traditional methodologies for space launch and re-entry vehicle range safety analysis using the Range Safety Template Toolkit (RSTT), developed by Australia's Defense Science and Technology Organization (DSTO) in partnership with Aerospace Concepts Pty Ltd. RSTT offers rapid generation of mission-specific safety templates that comply with internationally-recognized standards for range risk criteria. Compared to some traditional methods, RSTT produces more accurate assessments of risk to personnel and infrastructure. This provides range operators with greater confidence in the range safety products, enhancing their ability to rigorously manage safety on their ranges. RSTT also offers increased precision of risk analysis and iteration of mission design allowing greater flexibility in planning range operations with rapid feedback on the safety impact of mission changes. These concepts are explored through examples involving a suborbital sounding rocket, demonstrating how traditional range safety assumptions may be reassessed using the RSTT robust probabilistic methodology.

Tisato, J.; Vuletich, I.; Brett, M.; Williams, W.; Wilson, S.

2012-01-01

107

Advanced batteries for electric vehicle applications  

SciTech Connect

A technology assessment is given for electric batteries with potential for use in electric powered vehicles. Parameters considered include: specific energy, specific power, energy density, power density, cycle life, service life, recharge time, and selling price. Near term batteries include: nickel/cadmium and lead-acid batteries. Mid term batteries include: sodium/sulfur, sodium/nickel chloride, nickel/metal hydride, zinc/air, zinc/bromine, and nickel/iron systems. Long term batteries include: lithium/iron disulfide and lithium- polymer systems. Performance and life testing data for these systems are discussed. (GHH)

Henriksen, G.L.

1993-08-01

108

Application of the GSFUDS to advanced batteries and vehicles  

SciTech Connect

The GSFUDS approach to determining appropriate battery test power profiles is applied to various combinations of advanced batteries and electric vehicles. Computer simulations are used to show that the SFUDS velocity driving profile developed for the IDSEP electric vehicle also yielded energy consumption (Wh/km) and peak power values for other vehicles of greatly different characteristics that are in good agreement with the corresponding values for the same vehicles on the FUDS driving cycle. The computer results also showed that the GSFUDS power steps expressed as multiples of the average power, Pav are applicable to electric vehicles in general for the SFUDS driving profile if the peak power step is altered to reflect the changes in the vehicle design. A general procedure is given for presenting battery test data in terms of the constant power and GSFUDS Ragone curves from which the vehicle range can be determined for the FUDS and other driving cycles for different vehicle designs. 5 refs., 6 figs., 6 tabs.

Burke, A.F.; Cole, G.H.

1990-01-01

109

70 FR 49223 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Roof Crush Resistance  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Vehicle Safety Standards; Roof Crush Resistance AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety...agency's safety standard on roof crush resistance in several ways. First, we are proposing...C. Consumer Information on Rollover Resistance D. Development of Comprehensive...

2005-08-23

110

76 FR 41181 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Lamps, Reflective Devices, and Associated Equipment  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...an environmental, health or safety risk that NHTSA has reason...the environmental health or safety effects of the proposed rule...regarding NHTSA's vehicle safety authority) or otherwise impractical...Materials (ASTM), the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE), and...

2011-07-13

111

78 FR 54209 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Lamps, Reflective Devices, and Associated Equipment  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...TRANSPORTATION National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 571 [Docket...RIN 2127-AL41 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Lamps, Reflective Devices...Equipment AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA),...

2013-09-03

112

76 FR 53660 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Seat Belt Assemblies  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, 1200...Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard (FMVSS) No...situations. III. The Automotive Occupant Restraints...showing a real world safety problem, the agency...petition using the National Automotive Sampling System...

2011-08-29

113

76 FR 52880 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Side Impact Protection  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...TRANSPORTATION National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 571 [Docket...RIN 2127-AK82 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Side Impact Protection AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA),...

2011-08-24

114

78 FR 3843 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; New Pneumatic and Certain Specialty Tires  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...TRANSPORTATION National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 49 CFR Part...2127-AK42 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; New Pneumatic and...bodies, such as the Society of Automotive Engineers. The NTTAA directs...Regulation 30 and Japanese Safety Regulations, which...

2013-01-17

115

77 FR 19132 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Bus Emergency Exits and Window Retention and Release  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...TRANSPORTATION National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 571 [Docket...RIN 2127-AK20 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Bus Emergency Exits and Window...Release AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA),...

2012-03-30

116

77 FR 19155 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Seat Belt Assembly Anchorages; Incorporation by Reference  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...TRANSPORTATION National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 571 [Docket...RIN 2127-AL05 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Seat Belt Assembly Anchorages...Reference AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA),...

2012-03-30

117

Advanced electromagnetic methods for aerospace vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

High- and low-frequency methods to analyze various radiation elements located on aerospace vehicles with combinations of conducting, nonconducting, and energy absorbing surfaces and interfaces. The focus was on developing fundamental concepts, techniques, and algorithms which would remove some of the present limitations in predicting radiation characteristics of antennas on complex aerospace vehicles. In order to accomplish this, the following subjects were examined: (1) the development of techniques for rigorous analysis of surface discontinuities of metallic and nonmetallic surfaces using the equivalent surface impedance concept and Green's function; (2) the effects of anisotropic material on antenna radiation patterns through the use of an equivalent surface impedance concept which is incorporated into the existing numerical electromagnetics computer codes; and (3) the fundamental concepts of precipitation static (P-Static), such as formulations and analytical models. A computer code was used to model the P-Static process on a simple structure. Measurement techniques were also developed to characterized the electrical properties at microwave frequencies. Samples of typical materials used in airframes were tested and the results are included.

Balanis, Constantine A.; Choi, Jachoon; El-Sharawy, El-Budawy; Hashemi-Yeganeh, Shahrokh; Birtcher, Craig R.

1990-01-01

118

An Exploratory Study of the Relationship Between Socioeconomic Status and Motor Vehicle Safety Features  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The purpose of this study was to assess the association between motor vehicle owners' socioeconomic status (SES) and the safety of their motor vehicles.Methods: Truncated vehicle identification numbers (VINs) were obtained from the Maryland Motor Vehicle Administration office. ZIP code–level income and educational data were assigned to each VIN. Software was used to identify safety-related vehicle characteristics including crash

Deborah C. Girasek; Brett Taylor

2010-01-01

119

Advanced batteries for electrically powered underwater vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electric propulsion systems have numerous benefits for unmanned, untethered submersibles. However, the low energy density and low specific energy of conventional batteries have made electric systems large and heavy. Four advanced battery technologies, currently under development at Gould, are substantially smaller and lighter than conventional batteries having equivalent power and energy capabilities. Rechargeable high temperature lithium alloy-iron sulfide cells which

S. Specht

1987-01-01

120

Fuel Properties Database from the Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (AFDC)  

DOE Data Explorer

This database contains information on advanced petroleum and non-petroleum based fuels, as well as key data on advanced compression ignition fuels. Included are data on physical, chemical, operational, environmental, safety, and health properties. These data result from tests conducted according to standard methods (mostly American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM). The source and test methods for each fuel data set are provided with the information. The database can be searched in various ways and can output numbers or explanatory text. Heavy vehicle chassis emission data are also available for some fuels.

121

Advanced electromagnetic methods for aerospace vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Advanced Helicopter Electromagnetics (AHE) Industrial Associates Program continues its research on variety of main topics identified and recommended by the Advisory Task Force of the program. The research activities center on issues that advance technology related to helicopter electromagnetics. While most of the topics are a continuation of previous works, special effort has been focused on some of the areas due to recommendations from the last annual conference. The main topics addressed in this report are: composite materials, and antenna technology. The area of composite materials continues getting special attention in this period. The research has focused on: (1) measurements of the electrical properties of low-conductivity materials; (2) modeling of material discontinuity and their effects on the scattering patterns; (3) preliminary analysis on interaction of electromagnetic fields with multi-layered graphite fiberglass plates; and (4) finite difference time domain (FDTD) modeling of fields penetration through composite panels of a helicopter.

Balanis, Constantine A.; Sun, Weimin; El-Sharawy, El-Budawy; Aberle, James T.; Birtcher, Craig R.; Peng, Jian; Tirkas, Panayiotis A.

1992-01-01

122

Automated Mixed Traffic Vehicle (AMTV) technology and safety study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Technology and safety related to the implementation of an Automated Mixed Traffic Vehicle (AMTV) system are discussed. System concepts and technology status were reviewed and areas where further development is needed are identified. Failure and hazard modes were also analyzed and methods for prevention were suggested. The results presented are intended as a guide for further efforts in AMTV system design and technology development for both near term and long term applications. The AMTV systems discussed include a low speed system, and a hybrid system consisting of low speed sections and high speed sections operating in a semi-guideway. The safety analysis identified hazards that may arise in a properly functioning AMTV system, as well as hardware failure modes. Safety related failure modes were emphasized. A risk assessment was performed in order to create a priority order and significant hazards and failure modes were summarized. Corrective measures were proposed for each hazard.

Johnston, A. R.; Peng, T. K. C.; Vivian, H. C.; Wang, P. K.

1978-01-01

123

Auxiliary propulsion technology for advanced Earth-to-orbit vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The payload which can be delivered to orbit by advanced Earth-to-Orbit vehicles is significantly increased by advanced subsystem technology. Any weight which can be saved by advanced subsystem design can be converted to payload at Main Engine Cut Off (MECO) given the same launch vehicle performance. The auxiliary propulsion subsystem and the impetus for the current hydrogen/oxygen technology program is examined. A review of the auxiliary propulsion requirements of advanced Earth-to-Orbit (ETO) vehicles and their proposed missions is given first. Then the performance benefits of hydrogen/oxygen auxiliary propulsion are illustrated using current shuttle data. The proposed auxiliary propulsion subsystem implementation includes liquid hydrogen/liquid oxygen (LH2/LO2) primary Reaction Control System (RCS) engines and gaseous hydrogen/gaseous oxygen (GH2/GO2) vernier RCS engines. A distribution system for the liquid cryogens to the engines is outlined. The possibility of providing one dual-phase engine that can operate on either liquid or gaseous propellants is being explored, as well as the simultaneous firing of redundant primary RCS thrusters to provide Orbital Maneuvering System (OMS) level impulse. Scavenging of propellants from integral main engine tankage is proposed to utilize main engine tank residuals and to combine launch vehicle and subsystem reserves.

Schneider, Steven J.

1987-01-01

124

Advanced Crew Rescue Vehicle\\/Personnel Launch System  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Advanced Crew Rescue Vehicle (ACRV) will be an essential element of the Space Station to respond to three specific missions, all of which have occurred during the history space exploration by the U.S. and the Soviets: (1) Mission DRM-1: Return of disabled crew members during medical emergencies; (2) Mission DRM-2: Return of crew members from accidents or as a

Jerry W. Craig

1993-01-01

125

Performance Evaluation Of Advanced Battery Technologies For Electric Vehicle Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

At the Argonne Analysis Diagnostic Laboratory, advanced battery technology evaluations are performed under simulated electric vehicle operating conditions. During 1989 and the first quarter of 1990, single cell and multicell modules from seven developers were examined for the Department of Energy and Electric Power Research Institute. The results provide battery users, developers, and program managers with an interim measure of

W. H. DeLuca; A. F. Tummillo; J. E. Kulaga; C. E. Webster; K. R. Gillis; R. L. Hogrefe

1990-01-01

126

Ejection safety for advanced fighter helmets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The old saying, `Safety is paramount.' was never more true than it is in the area of ejection safety for high-speed fighter aircraft. The fighter aircraft of today has been designed to endure tremendous structural loading during dogfight or evasive maneuvers. It can fly faster, turn quicker, stay in the air longer (with in-flight refuel) and carry more bombs than its predecessor. Because of human physiological limits, the human has become the weak link in today's fighter aircraft. The fighter pilot must endure and function with peak performance in conditions that are much worse than anything the majority of us will ever encounter. When these conditions reach a point that human endurance is exceeded, devices such as anti-g suits and positive pressure breathing apparatus help the fighter pilot squeeze out that extra percentage of strength necessary to outperform the opponent. As fighter aircraft become more sophisticated, helmet trackers, helmet displays and noise cancellation devices are being added to the helmet. Yet the fighter pilot's helmet must remain lightweight and be aesthetically appealing, while still offering ballistic protection. It must function with existing life support equipment such as the Combined Advanced Technology Enhanced Design g-Ensemble (COMBAT-EDGE). It must not impede the pilot's ability to perform any action necessary to accomplish the planned mission. The helmet must protect the pilot during the harsh environment of ejection. When the pilot's only resort is to pull the handle and initiate the ejection sequence, the helmet becomes his salvation or instant death. This paper discusses the safety concerns relative to the catapult phase of ejecting from a high-speed fighter while wearing an advanced fighter helmet.

Wiley, Larry L.; Brown, Randall W.; MacMillan, Robert T.

1995-05-01

127

Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard No. 209 (Seat Belt Assemblies). American Safety Equipment Corporation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report contains the results of tests performed on one set of twelve (12) seat belt assemblies in accordance with Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard No. 209. This set of seat belts without retractors was subjected to the following tests: Web width a...

1970-01-01

128

Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard No. 209 (Seat Belt Assemblies). General Safety Corporation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report contains the test data, results and conclusions of tests performed on one set of twelve (12) Type 1 seat belt assemblies for compliance to Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard No. 209. The set of seat belts without retractors was subjected to ...

1970-01-01

129

Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard No. 209 (Seat Belt Assemblies). General Safety Corporation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report contains the test data, results and conclusions of tests performed on one set of twelve (12) Type 1 seat belt assemblies for compliance to Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard No. 209. This set of seat belts without retractors was subjected to...

1970-01-01

130

Vehicle Safety Communications - Applications (VSC-A), Second Annual Report, January 1, 2008 through December 31, 2008.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Vehicle Safety Communications Applications (VSC-A) project is a three year project (December 2006 - December 2009) to develop and test communications-based vehicle-to-vehicle safety systems to determine if Dedicated Short Range Communications (DSRC) a...

B. Bellur C. Basnayake F. Ahmed-Zaid F. Bai G. Brown L. Caminiti S. Bai S. Brovold

2011-01-01

131

Vehicle Safety Communications - Applications (VSC-A) Final Report: Appendix Volume 3 Security.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Vehicle Safety Communications Applications (VSC-A) Project was a three-year project (December 2006 - December 2009) to develop and test communications-based vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) safety systems to determine if Dedicated Short Range Communications (...

B. Bellur C. Basnayake D. Cunningham D. Jiang D. Masselink E. McGlohon F. Ahmed-Zaid F. Bai G. Brown H. Elzein H. Krishnan J. Ivan J. Kenney J. Lovell J. Stinnett K. Hong K. Tirey L. Caminiti L. Tellis M. Maile P. Mudalige S. Bai S. Brovold S. VanSickle V. Rai Z. Popovic

2011-01-01

132

Vehicle Safety Communications - Applications (VSC-A) Final Report: Appendix Volume 2 Communications and Positioning.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Vehicle Safety Communications Applications (VSC-A) Project was a three-year project (December 2006-December 2009) to develop and test communications-based vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) safety systems to determine if Dedicated Short Range Communications (DS...

B. Bellur C. Basnayake D. Cunningham D. Jiang D. Masselink E. McGlohon F. Ahmed-Zaid F. Bai G. Brown H. Elzein H. Krishnan J. Ivan J. Kenney J. Lovell J. Stinnett K. Hong K. Tirey L. Caminiti L. Tellis M. Maile P. Mudalige S. Bai S. Brovold S. VanSickle V. Rai Z. Popovic

2011-01-01

133

76 FR 17808 - Final Vehicle Safety Rulemaking and Research Priority Plan 2011-2013  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...NHTSA Vehicle Safety and Fuel Economy Rulemaking and Research Priority...NHTSA Vehicle Safety and Fuel Economy Rulemaking and Research Priority...vehicles), motorcoaches and fuel economy that must meet Congressional...there may not be a rulemaking planned to be issued by 2013,...

2011-03-31

134

Advanced Photonics Technology for Transportation Security and Safety.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The project continued its focus on two technology areas related to heavy vehicle safety and improved performance: use of long-persistence phosphors (LPPs) in highway and road striping, and inclusion of ultraviolet illumination to headlight configurations ...

2005-01-01

135

A Plan for Advanced Guidance and Control Technology for 2nd Generation Reusable Launch Vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Advanced guidance and control (AG&C) technologies are critical for meeting safety/reliability and cost requirements for the next generation of reusable launch vehicle (RLV). This becomes clear upon examining the number of expendable launch vehicle failures in the recent past where AG&C technologies would have saved a RLV with the same failure mode, the additional vehicle problems where this technology applies, and the costs associated with mission design with or without all these failure issues. The state-of-the-art in guidance and control technology, as well as in computing technology, is at the point where we can took to the possibility of being able to safely return a RLV in any situation where it can physically be recovered. This paper outlines reasons for AG&C, current technology efforts, and the additional work needed for making this goal a reality.

Hanson, John M.; Fogle, Frank (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

136

Advanced electromagnetic methods for aerospace vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Advanced Helicopter Electromagnetics is centered on issues that advance technology related to helicopter electromagnetics. Progress was made on three major topics: composite materials; precipitation static corona discharge; and antenna technology. In composite materials, the research has focused on the measurements of their electrical properties, and the modeling of material discontinuities and their effect on the radiation pattern of antennas mounted on or near material surfaces. The electrical properties were used to model antenna performance when mounted on composite materials. Since helicopter platforms include several antenna systems at VHF and UHF bands, measuring techniques are being explored that can be used to measure the properties at these bands. The effort on corona discharge and precipitation static was directed toward the development of a new two dimensional Voltage Finite Difference Time Domain computer program. Results indicate the feasibility of using potentials for simulating electromagnetic problems in the cases where potentials become primary sources. In antenna technology the focus was on Polarization Diverse Conformal Microstrip Antennas, Cavity Backed Slot Antennas, and Varactor Tuned Circular Patch Antennas. Numerical codes were developed for the analysis of two probe fed rectangular and circular microstrip patch antennas fed by resistive and reactive power divider networks.

Balanis, Constantine A.; El-Sharawy, El-Budawy; Hashemi-Yeganeh, Shahrokh; Aberle, James T.; Birtcher, Craig R.

1991-01-01

137

Control definition study for advanced vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The low speed, high angle of attack flight mechanics of an advanced, canard-configured, supersonic tactical aircraft designed with moderate longitudinal relaxed static stability (Static Margin, SM = 16% C sub W at M = 0.4) was investigated. Control laws were developed for the longitudinal axis (""G'' or maneuver and angle of attack command systems) and for the lateral/directional axes. The performance of these control laws was examined in engineering simulation. A canard deflection/rate requirement study was performed as part of the ""G'' command law evaluation at low angles of attack. Simulated coupled maneuvers revealed the need for command limiters in all three aircraft axes to prevent departure from controlled flight. When modified with command/maneuver limiters, the control laws were shown to be adequate to prevent aircraft departure during aggressive air combat maneuvering.

Lapins, M.; Martorella, R. P.; Klein, R. W.; Meyer, R. C.; Sturm, M. J.

1983-01-01

138

Virtual sensors, application to vehicle tire-road normal forces for road safety  

Microsoft Academic Search

The principal concerns in road safety are understanding and preventing risky situations. A close examination of accident data reveals that losing the vehicle control is responsible for a huge proportion of car accidents. Improving vehicle stabilization is possible when vehicle parameters are known. Unfortunately, some parameters like tire-road forces, which have a major impact on vehicle dynamics, are difficult to

Moustapha Doumiati; Alessandro Victorino; Ali Charara; Daniel Lechner

2009-01-01

139

Advanced Vehicle Testing and Evaluation, Final Report, October 1, 2005-March 31, 2013.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of the United States (U.S.) Department of Energys (DOEs) Advanced Vehicle Testing and Evaluation (AVTE) project was to provide test and evaluation services for advanced technology vehicles, to establish a performance baseline, to determine v...

T. Garetson

2013-01-01

140

An economic study of an advanced technology supersonic cruise vehicle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A description is given of the methods used and the results of an economic study of an advanced technology supersonic cruise vehicle. This vehicle was designed for a maximum range of 4000 n.mi. at a cruise speed of Mach 2.7 and carrying 292 passengers. The economic study includes the estimation of aircraft unit cost, operating cost, and idealized cash flow and discounted cash flow return on investment. In addition, it includes a sensitivity study on the effects of unit cost, manufacturing cost, production quantity, average trip length, fuel cost, load factor, and fare on the aircraft's economic feasibility.

Smith, C. L.; Williams, L. J.

1975-01-01

141

Adaptive Modeling, Engineering Analysis and Design of Advanced Aerospace Vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes initial progress towards the development and enhancement of a set of software tools for rapid adaptive modeling, and conceptual design of advanced aerospace vehicle concepts. With demanding structural and aerodynamic performance requirements, these high fidelity geometry based modeling tools are essential for rapid and accurate engineering analysis at the early concept development stage. This adaptive modeling tool was used for generating vehicle parametric geometry, outer mold line and detailed internal structural layout of wing, fuselage, skin, spars, ribs, control surfaces, frames, bulkheads, floors, etc., that facilitated rapid finite element analysis, sizing study and weight optimization. The high quality outer mold line enabled rapid aerodynamic analysis in order to provide reliable design data at critical flight conditions. Example application for structural design of a conventional aircraft and a high altitude long endurance vehicle configuration are presented. This work was performed under the Conceptual Design Shop sub-project within the Efficient Aerodynamic Shape and Integration project, under the former Vehicle Systems Program. The project objective was to design and assess unconventional atmospheric vehicle concepts efficiently and confidently. The implementation may also dramatically facilitate physics-based systems analysis for the NASA Fundamental Aeronautics Mission. In addition to providing technology for design and development of unconventional aircraft, the techniques for generation of accurate geometry and internal sub-structure and the automated interface with the high fidelity analysis codes could also be applied towards the design of vehicles for the NASA Exploration and Space Science Mission projects.

Mukhopadhyay, Vivek; Hsu, Su-Yuen; Mason, Brian H.; Hicks, Mike D.; Jones, William T.; Sleight, David W.; Chun, Julio; Spangler, Jan L.; Kamhawi, Hilmi; Dahl, Jorgen L.

2006-01-01

142

Advanced electromagnetic methods for aerospace vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Advanced Helicopter Electromagnetics (AHE) Industrial Associates Program has continuously progressed with its research effort focused on subjects identified and recommended by the Advisory Task Force of the program. The research activities in this reporting period have been steered toward practical helicopter electromagnetic problems, such as HF antenna problems and antenna efficiencies, recommended by the AHE members at the annual conference held at Arizona State University on 28-29 Oct. 1992 and the last biannual meeting held at the Boeing Helicopter on 19-20 May 1993. The main topics addressed include the following: Composite Materials and Antenna Technology. The research work on each topic is closely tied with the AHE Consortium members' interests. Significant progress in each subject is reported. Special attention in the area of Composite Materials has been given to the following: modeling of material discontinuity and their effects on towel-bar antenna patterns; guidelines for composite material modeling by using the Green's function approach in the NEC code; measurements of towel-bar antennas grounded with a partially material-coated plate; development of 3-D volume mesh generator for modeling thick and volumetric dielectrics by using FD-TD method; FDTD modeling of horn antennas with composite E-plane walls; and antenna efficiency analysis for a horn antenna loaded with composite dielectric materials.

Balanis, Constantine A.; Sun, Weimin; El-Sharawy, El-Budawy; Aberle, James T.; Birtcher, Craig R.; Peng, Jian; Tirkas, Panayiotis A.; Kokotoff, David; Zavosh, Frank

1993-01-01

143

Advanced electromagnetic methods for aerospace vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Advanced Helicopter Electromagnetics (AHE) Industrial Associates Program has fruitfully completed its fourth year. Under the support of the AHE members and the joint effort of the research team, new and significant progress has been achieved in the year. Following the recommendations by the Advisory Task Force, the research effort is placed on more practical helicopter electromagnetic problems, such as HF antennas, composite materials, and antenna efficiencies. In this annual report, the main topics to be addressed include composite materials and antenna technology. The research work on each topic has been driven by the AHE consortium members' interests and needs. The remarkable achievements and progresses in each subject is reported respectively in individual sections of the report. The work in the area of composite materials includes: modeling of low conductivity composite materials by using Green's function approach; guidelines for composite material modeling by using the Green's function approach in the NEC code; development of 3-D volume mesh generator for modeling thick and volumetric dielectrics by using FD-TD method; modeling antenna elements mounted on a composite Comanche tail stabilizer; and antenna pattern control and efficiency estimate for a horn antenna loaded with composite dielectric materials.

Balanis, Constantine A.; Sun, Weimin; El-Sharawy, El-Budawy; Aberle, James T.; Birtcher, Craig R.; Peng, Jian; Tirkas, Panayiotis A.; Andrew, William V.; Kokotoff, David; Zavosh, Frank

1993-01-01

144

Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard No. 109 (Tires). The Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report pertains to tests conducted by an independent contractor as part of the National Highway Safety Bureau's compliance testing program to determine whether or not motor vehicles and items of motor vehicle equipment comply with applicable Federal M...

1970-01-01

145

75 FR 22532 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Cargo Carrying Capacity  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...cargo carrying information provided by the...label, and will overload their vehicle...important safety information from the vehicle...to ``small overloads.'' Id. Petitioners...provided no data or information showing...

2010-04-29

146

An advanced CSMA inter-vehicle communication system using packet transmission timing decided by the vehicle position  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examine the performance of inter-vehicle communication (IVC) systems using the IEEE802.11b standard CSMA scheme and a proposed system in which packet transmission timing is decided by the vehicle position. For the realization of safety cruise-assist systems by IVC systems, the spread of transceivers on vehicles is important. To improve the equipped rate of transceivers on vehicles, it is necessary

T. Nagaosa; Y. Kobayashi; K. Mori; H. Kobayashi

2004-01-01

147

Design for Safety - The Ares Launch Vehicles Paradigm Change  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The lessons learned from the S&MA early involvement in the Ares I launch vehicle design phases proved that performing an in-line function jointly with engineering is critical for S&MA to have an effective role in supporting the system, element, and component design. These lessons learned were used to effectively support the Ares V conceptual design phase and planning for post conceptual design phases. The Top level Conceptual LOM assessment for Ares V performed by the S&MA community jointly with the engineering Advanced Concept Office (ACO) was influential in the final selection of the Ares V system configuration. Post conceptual phase, extensive reliability effort should be planned to support future Heavy Lift Launch Vehicles (HLLV) design. In-depth reliability analysis involving the design, manufacturing, and system engineering communities is critical to understand design and process uncertainties and system integrated failures.

Safie, Fayssal M.; Maggio, Gaspare

2010-01-01

148

The advancement of an autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

An autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) test-bed was jointly upgraded by DSTO and the University of Adelaide as an introduction of advanced technologies into its system. This AUV will serve as a platform to support further research dealing with underwater robotic operations. The group working on this project incorporated off-the-shelf hardware together with well-developed control algorithms to build an efficient AUV

Kuan Meng Tan; Tommie Liddy; Amir Anvar; Tien-Fu Lu

2008-01-01

149

Motor Vehicle Occupant Safety Survey, 2000. Volume 2. Seat Belt Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The 2002 Motor Vehicle Occupant Safety Survey was the fourth in a series of bennial national telephone surveys on occupant protection issues conducted for the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA). Data collection was conducted by the fir...

A. W. Block

2001-01-01

150

76 FR 11417 - Public Workshop and Hearing for Rear Visibility; Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard, Rearview...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...gross vehicle weight, as specified in the Cameron Gulbransen Kids Transportation Safety Act of 2007 (75 FR 76186). NHTSA's...effective ways of meeting the mandate in the Cameron Gulbransen Kids Transportation Safety Act. Technical Workshop Procedures...

2011-03-02

151

In-vehicle vibration study of child safety seats.  

PubMed

This paper reports experimental measurements of the in-vehicle vibrational behaviour of stage 0&1 child safety seats. Road tests were performed for eight combinations of child, child seat and automobile. Four accelerometers were installed in the vehicles and orientated to measure as closely as possible in the vertical direction; two were attached to the floor and two located at the human interfaces. An SAE pad was placed under the ischial tuberosities of the driver at the seat cushion and a child pad, designed for the purpose of this study, was placed under the child. Four test runs were made over a pave' (cobblestone) surface for the driver's seat and four for the child seat at both 20 km h(-1) and 40 km h(-1). Power spectral densities were determined for all measurement points and acceleration transmissibility functions (ATFs) were estimated from the floor of the vehicle to the human interfaces. The system composed of automobile seat, child seat and child was found to transmit greater vibration than the system composed of automobile seat and driver. The ensemble mean transmissibility in the frequency range from 1 to 60 Hz was found to be 77% for the child seats systems as opposed to 61% for the driver's seats. The acceleration transmissibility for the child seat system was found to be higher than that of the driver's seat at most frequencies above 10 Hz for all eight systems tested. The measured ATFs suggest that the principal whole-body vibration resonance of the children occurred at a mean frequency of 8.5, rather than the 3.5 to 5.0 Hz typically found in the case of seated adults. It can be concluded that current belt-fastened child seats are less effective than the vehicle primary seating systems in attenuating vibrational disturbances. The results also suggest the potential inability of evaluating child comfort by means of existing whole-body vibration standards. PMID:14668171

Giacomin, J; Gallo, S

2003-12-15

152

Quality and safety education for advanced nursing practice.  

PubMed

The Quality and Safety Education for Nurses (QSEN) project is a national initiative to transform nursing education to integrate quality and safety competencies. This article describes a two-year process to generate educational objectives related to quality and safety competency development in graduate programs that prepare advanced practice nurses in clinical roles. Knowledge, skills, and attitudes for each of 6 competencies are proposed to stimulate development of teaching strategies in programs preparing the next generation of advanced practice nurses. PMID:19942035

Cronenwett, Linda; Sherwood, Gwen; Pohl, Joanne; Barnsteiner, Jane; Moore, Shirley; Sullivan, Dori Taylor; Ward, Deborah; Warren, Judith

2009-01-01

153

A WAVE-Compliant MAC Protocol to Support Vehicle-to-Infrastructure Non-Safety Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

IEEE 802.11p is an emerging standard intended to support wireless access in the vehicular environment and to deliver both safety and non-safety applications to vehicles on the roads. Despite the numerous research works related to the design of reliable and timely dissemination of safety messages among vehicles, only a few works have investigated on-the-road delivery of non-safety data traffic, such

Marica Amadeo; Claudia Campolo; Antonella Molinaro; Giuseppe Ruggeri

2009-01-01

154

Vehicle Data for Alternative Fuel Vehicles (AFVs) and Hybrid Fuel Vehicles (HEVs) from the Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (AFCD)  

DOE Data Explorer

The AFDC provides search capabilities for many different models of both light-duty and heavy-duty vehicles. Engine and transmission type, fuel and class, fuel economy and emission certification are some of the facts available. The search will also help users locate dealers in their areas and do cost analyses. Information on alternative fuel vehicles and on advanced technology vehicles, along with calculators, resale and conversion information, links to incentives and programs such as Clean Cities, and dozens of fact sheets and publications make this section of the AFDC a valuable resource for car buyers.

155

Passive safety and the advanced liquid metal reactors  

SciTech Connect

Advanced Liquid Metal Reactors being developed today in the USA are designed to make maximum use of passive safety features. Much of the LMR safety work at Argonne National Laboratory is concerned with demonstrating, both theoretically and experimentally, the effectiveness of the passive safety features. The characteristics that contribute to passive safety are discussed, with particular emphasis on decay heat removal systems, together with examples of Argonne's theoretical and experimental programs in this area.

Hill, D.J.; Pedersen, D.R.; Marchaterre, J.F.

1988-01-01

156

Recovery Act - Sustainable Transportation: Advanced Electric Drive Vehicle Education Program  

SciTech Connect

The collective goals of this effort include: 1) reach all facets of this society with education regarding electric vehicles (EV) and plug–in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV), 2) prepare a workforce to service these advanced vehicles, 3) create web–based learning at an unparalleled level, 4) educate secondary school students to prepare for their future and 5) train the next generation of professional engineers regarding electric vehicles. The Team provided an integrated approach combining secondary schools, community colleges, four–year colleges and community outreach to provide a consistent message (Figure 1). Colorado State University Ventures (CSUV), as the prime contractor, plays a key program management and co–ordination role. CSUV is an affiliate of Colorado State University (CSU) and is a separate 501(c)(3) company. The Team consists of CSUV acting as the prime contractor subcontracted to Arapahoe Community College (ACC), CSU, Motion Reality Inc. (MRI), Georgia Institute of Technology (Georgia Tech) and Ricardo. Collaborators are Douglas County Educational Foundation/School District and Gooru (www.goorulearning.org), a nonprofit web–based learning resource and Google spin–off.

Caille, Gary

2013-12-13

157

Functional Requirements for the Integrated Vehicle-Based Safety Systems (IVBSS) - Heavy Truck Platform.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of the Integrated Vehicle-Based Safety System (IVBSS) project is to evaluate the potential safety benefits and driver acceptance of an integrated set of crash-warning technologies installed on both heavy truck and light vehicle platforms. IVBS...

D. LeBlanc D. Pomerleau H. Sardar M. Nowak Z. Tang

2008-01-01

158

Improving Safety for Slow Moving Vehicles on Iowa's High-Speed Rural Roadways.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Among the variety of road users and vehicle types that travel on U.S. public roadways, slow moving vehicles (SMVs) present unique safety and operations issues. SMVs include vehicles that do not maintain a constant speed of 25 mph, such as large farm equip...

C. Kinzenbau N. Hawkins S. Hallmark

2009-01-01

159

Multibody dynamic simulation of military vehicles for stability, safety, mobility, and load prediction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multibody Dynamic Simulation has been used to successfully simulate a wide variety of military vehicles and predict the safety, mobility, stability, and operating loads of the complete system. The objective is to predict accurate vehicle behavior under any operating condition and provide the basis for making engineering design changes to improve performance. Vehicles used for agriculture, construction, recreation, and military

Dick Kading

2006-01-01

160

Accident Avoidance Test Report-Nissan and Toyota Experimental Safety Vehicles.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Two Experimental Safety Vehicles (ESVs) manufactured by Nissan and Toyota of Japan were tested to evaluate the accident avoidance performance of each vehicle. The report contains a brief description of each vehicle and of each test performed as well as th...

P. Boulay T. Macaulay

1975-01-01

161

An Index For Rating the Total Secondary Safety of Vehicles from Real World Crash Data  

PubMed Central

This study proposes a total secondary safety index for light passenger vehicles that rates the relative performance of vehicles in protecting both their own occupants and other road users in the full range of real world crash circumstances. The index estimates the risk of death or serious injury to key road users in crashes involving light passenger vehicles across the full range of crash types. The proposed index has been estimated from real world crash data from Australasia and was able to identify vehicles that have superior or inferior total secondary safety characteristics compared with the average vehicle.

Newstead, S.; Watson, L.; Cameron, M.

2007-01-01

162

Weight and cost forecasting for advanced manned space vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A mass and cost estimating computerized methology for predicting advanced manned space vehicle weights and costs was developed. The user friendly methology designated MERCER (Mass Estimating Relationship/Cost Estimating Relationship) organizes the predictive process according to major vehicle subsystem levels. Design, development, test, evaluation, and flight hardware cost forecasting is treated by the study. This methodology consists of a complete set of mass estimating relationships (MERs) which serve as the control components for the model and cost estimating relationships (CERs) which use MER output as input. To develop this model, numerous MER and CER studies were surveyed and modified where required. Additionally, relationships were regressed from raw data to accommodate the methology. The models and formulations which estimated the cost of historical vehicles to within 20 percent of the actual cost were selected. The result of the research, along with components of the MERCER Program, are reported. On the basis of the analysis, the following conclusions were established: (1) The cost of a spacecraft is best estimated by summing the cost of individual subsystems; (2) No one cost equation can be used for forecasting the cost of all spacecraft; (3) Spacecraft cost is highly correlated with its mass; (4) No study surveyed contained sufficient formulations to autonomously forecast the cost and weight of the entire advanced manned vehicle spacecraft program; (5) No user friendly program was found that linked MERs with CERs to produce spacecraft cost; and (6) The group accumulation weight estimation method (summing the estimated weights of the various subsystems) proved to be a useful method for finding total weight and cost of a spacecraft.

Williams, Raymond

1989-01-01

163

Advanced Heating and Cooling Systems in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource was developed through a seed grant from the CAAT and discusses the advanced air conditioning systems placed in HEVs and safety precautions to follow when servicing them. These systems are high voltage A/C compressors and the components controlling them (A/C ECU, HV ECU, and Converter Control Circuit). Safety precautions discussed include Class 0 insulated gloves, insulated tools, color coding of wire looms to indicate voltage, CAT III and IV multimeter use, and properly disabling high voltage circuits. For educators looking to modify current courses, a syllabus is included with highlighted fields where HEV systems and safety were incorporated into an existing automotive heating and cooling course at Lewis and Clark Community College.

College, Lewis A.

164

Reusable cryogenic foam insulation for advanced aerospace vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Future high-speed aircraft and aerospace vehicles using cryogenic propellants will require an advanced reusable insulation system for the propellant tank structure. This cryogenic insulation system must be lightweight, structurally and thermally efficient, and capable of multiple reuse without cracking or degraded performance. This paper presents recent progress in the development of a reusable cryogenic foam insulation system having a maximum service temperature of 400 F. The system consists of preshaped, precut blocks of rigid polymethacrylimide foam insulation, wrapped with a high-temperature Kapton and aluminum foil vapor barrier which is adhesively bonded to the propellant tank wall.

Mcauliffe, Patrick S.; Taylor, Allan H.; Sparks, Larry L.; Dube, William P.

1991-01-01

165

Hybrid and electric advanced vehicle systems (heavy) simulation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A computer program to simulate hybrid and electric advanced vehicle systems (HEAVY) is described. It is intended for use early in the design process: concept evaluation, alternative comparison, preliminary design, control and management strategy development, component sizing, and sensitivity studies. It allows the designer to quickly, conveniently, and economically predict the performance of a proposed drive train. The user defines the system to be simulated using a library of predefined component models that may be connected to represent a wide variety of propulsion systems. The development of three models are discussed as examples.

Hammond, R. A.; Mcgehee, R. K.

1981-01-01

166

Advanced Suspension and Control Algorithm for U.S. Army Ground Vehicles.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report documents the research study conducted on advanced suspension and control algorithms for U.S. Army ground vehicles. It is extremely important to isolate the vehicle body and its contents from terrain- induced vibrations. This enhancement will ...

M. Murugan R. Brown

2013-01-01

167

Safety Cases for Advanced Control Software: Safety Case Patterns.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report results from a contract tasking University of York. The project will undertake one activity: Produce a unified (generic) approach to developing safety cases for adaptive avionics and software and identifying a 'way ahead' to develop and valida...

J. A. McDermid R. Alexander T. P. Kelly Z. Kurd

2007-01-01

168

Advanced aeroservoelastic stabilization techniques for hypersonic flight vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Advanced high performance vehicles, including Single-Stage-To-Orbit (SSTO) hypersonic flight vehicles, that are statically unstable, require higher bandwidth flight control systems to compensate for the instability resulting in interactions between the flight control system, the engine/propulsion dynamics, and the low frequency structural modes. Military specifications, such as MIL-F-9490D and MIL-F-87242, tend to limit treatment of structural modes to conventional gain stabilization techniques. The conventional gain stabilization techniques, however, introduce low frequency effective time delays which can be troublesome from a flying qualities standpoint. These time delays can be alleviated by appropriate blending of gain and phase stabilization techniques (referred to as Hybrid Phase Stabilization or HPS) for the low frequency structural modes. The potential of using HPS for compensating structural mode interaction was previously explored. It was shown that effective time delay was significantly reduced with the use of HPS; however, the HPS design was seen to have greater residual response than a conventional gain stablized design. Additional work performed to advance and refine the HPS design procedure, to further develop residual response metrics as a basis for alternative structural stability specifications, and to develop strategies for validating HPS design and specification concepts in manned simulation is presented. Stabilization design sensitivity to structural uncertainties and aircraft-centered requirements are also assessed.

Chan, Samuel Y.; Cheng, Peter Y.; Myers, Thomas T.; Klyde, David H.; Magdaleno, Raymond E.; Mcruer, Duane T.

1992-01-01

169

14 CFR 417.233 - Analysis for an unguided suborbital launch vehicle flown with a wind weighting safety system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...suborbital launch vehicle flown with a wind weighting safety system. 417.233 Section...suborbital launch vehicle flown with a wind weighting safety system. For each launch of...suborbital launch vehicle flown with a wind weighting safety system, in addition to the...

2009-01-01

170

14 CFR 417.233 - Analysis for an unguided suborbital launch vehicle flown with a wind weighting safety system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...suborbital launch vehicle flown with a wind weighting safety system. 417.233 Section...suborbital launch vehicle flown with a wind weighting safety system. For each launch of...suborbital launch vehicle flown with a wind weighting safety system, in addition to the...

2010-01-01

171

A multi-dimensional construct of commercial motor vehicle operators' attitudes toward safety regulations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to develop a measurement scale to assess over-the-road commercial motor vehicle operators' attitudes toward safety regulations. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A literature review of the current USA motor carrier safety literature and general safety literature is conducted to determine the existence of a construct and measurement scale suitable for assessing truck drivers' attitudes toward

Matthew A. Douglas; Stephen M. Swartz

2009-01-01

172

78 FR 15920 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Tire Selection and Rims  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...result in degradation of safety. The agency has reviewed...System and the National Automotive Sampling System General...VOQs) to identify safety problems related to...regarding NHTSA's vehicle safety authority) or otherwise...International, the Society of Automotive Engineers...

2013-03-13

173

U.S. Department of Energy -- Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity: Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Testing and Demonstration Activities  

Microsoft Academic Search

The U.S. Department of Energys (DOE) Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA) tests plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) in closed track, dynamometer and onroad testing environments. The onroad testing includes the use of dedicated drivers on repeated urban and highway driving cycles that range from 10 to 200 miles, with recharging between each loop. Fleet demonstrations with onboard data collectors are

James E. Francfort; Donald Karner; John G. Smart

2009-01-01

174

Increasing the Fuel Economy and Safety of New Light-DutyVehicles  

SciTech Connect

One impediment to increasing the fuel economy standards forlight-duty vehicles is the long-standing argument that reducing vehiclemass to improve fuel economy will inherently make vehicles less safe.This technical paper summarizes and examines the research that is citedin support of this argument, and presents more recent research thatchallenges it. We conclude that the research claiming that lightervehicles are inherently less safe than heavier vehicles is flawed, andthat other aspects of vehicle design are more important to the on-roadsafety record of vehicles. This paper was prepared for a workshop onexperts in vehicle safety and fuel economy, organized by the William andFlora Hewlett Foundation, to discuss technologies and designs that can betaken to simultaneously improve vehicle safety and fuel economy; theworkshop was held in Washington DC on October 3, 2006.

Wenzel, Tom; Ross, Marc

2006-09-18

175

Automated Transfer Vehicle (ATV) Critical Safety Software Overview  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The European Automated Transfer Vehicle is an unmanned transportation system designed to dock to International Space Station (ISS) and to contribute to the logistic servicing of the ISS. Concisely, ATV control is realized by a nominal flight control function (using computers, softwares, sensors, actuators). In order to cover the extreme situations where this nominal chain can not ensure safe trajectory with respect to ISS, a segregated proximity flight safety function is activated, where unsafe free drift trajectories can be encountered. This function relies notably on a segregated computer, the Monitoring and Safing Unit (MSU) ; in case of major ATV malfunction detection, ATV is then controlled by MSU software. Therefore, this software is critical because a MSU software failure could result in catastrophic consequences. This paper provides an overview both of this software functions and of the software development and validation method which is specific considering its criticality. First part of the paper describes briefly the proximity flight safety chain. Second part deals with the software functions. Indeed, MSU software is in charge of monitoring nominal computers and ATV corridors, using its own navigation algorithms, and, if an abnormal situation is detected, it is in charge of the ATV control during the Collision Avoidance Manoeuvre (CAM) consisting in an attitude controlled braking boost, followed by a Post-CAM manoeuvre : a Sun-pointed ATV attitude control during up to 24 hours on a safe trajectory. Monitoring, navigation and control algorithms principles are presented. Third part of this paper describes the development and validation process : algorithms functional studies , ADA coding and unit validations ; algorithms ADA code integration and validation on a specific non real-time MATLAB/SIMULINK simulator ; global software functional engineering phase, architectural design, unit testing, integration and validation on target computer.

Berthelier, D.

2002-01-01

176

41 CFR 102-34.250 - Do Federal employees in Government motor vehicles have to use all safety devices and follow all...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...employees in Government motor vehicles have to use all safety devices and follow all safety guidelines? 102-34.250 Section 102-34...employees in Government motor vehicles have to use all safety devices and follow all safety...

2013-07-01

177

32 CFR 636.33 - Vehicle safety inspection criteria.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...plastic, or taped glass will be employed in lieu of glass. (12) Windshield Wipersâevery vehicle, except motorcycles, will be equipped with operable windshield wipers. (13) Tiresâevery vehicle will be equipped with serviceable...

2013-07-01

178

Inter-vehicle communications: assessing information dissemination under safety constraints  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main goal of inter-vehicle communication technologies is to provide each vehicle with the required information about its surrounding in order to assist the driver avoiding potential dangers. The required information level, or awareness, can be achieved by the exchange of periodic status messages (beacons) among neighboring vehicles together with the quick dissemination of information about potential hazards. In previous

Marc Torrent-Moreno

2007-01-01

179

Motor Vehicle Safety: Current Concepts and Challenges for Emergency Physicians  

Microsoft Academic Search

Motor vehicle travel is the primary means of transportation in the United States, providing freedom in travel and enterprise for many people. Motor vehicle crashes are the leading cause of death for the young and contribute to a high degree of morbidity and mortality for all ages. Motor vehicle crashes produce an enormous burden for society in terms of suffering,

Timothy D Peterson; B. Tilman Jolly; Jeffery W Runge; Richard C Hunt

1999-01-01

180

Advanced Control Surface Seal Development for Future Space Vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA s Glenn Research Center (GRC) has been developing advanced high temperature structural seals since the late 1980's and is currently developing seals for future space vehicles as part of the Next Generation Launch Technology (NGLT) program. This includes control surface seals that seal the edges and hinge lines of movable flaps and elevons on future reentry vehicles. In these applications, the seals must operate at temperatures above 2000 F in an oxidizing environment, limit hot gas leakage to protect underlying structures, endure high temperature scrubbing against rough surfaces, and remain flexible and resilient enough to stay in contact with sealing surfaces for multiple heating and loading cycles. For this study, three seal designs were compared against the baseline spring tube seal through a series of compression tests at room temperature and 2000 F and flow tests at room temperature. In addition, canted coil springs were tested as preloaders behind the seals at room temperature to assess their potential for improving resiliency. Addition of these preloader elements resulted in significant increases in resiliency compared to the seals by themselves and surpassed the performance of the baseline seal at room temperature. Flow tests demonstrated that the seal candidates with engineered cores had lower leakage rates than the baseline spring tube design. However, when the seals were placed on the preloader elements, the flow rates were higher as the seals were not compressed as much and therefore were not able to fill the groove as well. High temperature tests were also conducted to asses the compatibility of seal fabrics against ceramic matrix composite (CMC) panels anticipated for use in next generation launch vehicles. These evaluations demonstrated potential bonding issues between the Nextel fabrics and CMC candidates.

DeMange, J. J.; Dunlap, P. H., Jr.; Steinetz, B. M.

2004-01-01

181

Performance evaluation of advanced battery technologies for electric vehicle applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At the Argonne Analysis and Diagnostic Laboratory, advanced battery technology evaluations are performed under simulated electric vehicle operating conditions. During 1989 and the first quarter of 1990, single cell and multicell modules from seven developers were examined for the Department of Energy and Electric Power Research Institute. The results provide battery users, developers, and program managers with an interim measure of the progress being made in battery R&D programs, a comparison of battery technologies, and a source of basic data for modeling and continuing R&D. This paper summarizes the performance and life characterizations of two single cells and seven 3- to 960-cell modules that encompass six technologies (Na/S, Ni/Fe, Ni/Cd, Ni-metal hydride, lead-acid, and Zn/Br).

Deluca, W. H.; Tummillo, A. F.; Kulaga, J. E.; Webster, C. E.; Gillie, K. R.; Hogrefe, R. L.

1990-01-01

182

NASA's Advanced Propulsion Technology Activities for Third Generation Fully Reusable Launch Vehicle Applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's Office of Aeronautics and Space Transportation Technology (OASTT) established the following three major goals, referred to as "The Three Pillars for Success": Global Civil Aviation, Revolutionary Technology Leaps, and Access to Space. The Advanced Space Transportation Program Office (ASTP) at the NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Ala. focuses on future space transportation technologies under the "Access to Space" pillar. The Propulsion Projects within ASTP under the investment area of Spaceliner100, focus on the earth-to-orbit (ETO) third generation reusable launch vehicle technologies. The goals of Spaceliner 100 is to reduce cost by a factor of 100 and improve safety by a factor of 10,000 over current conditions. The ETO Propulsion Projects in ASTP, are actively developing combination/combined-cycle propulsion technologies that utilized airbreathing propulsion during a major portion of the trajectory. System integration, components, materials and advanced rocket technologies are also being pursued. Over the last several years, one of the main thrusts has been to develop rocket-based combined cycle (RBCC) technologies. The focus has been on conducting ground tests of several engine designs to establish the RBCC flowpaths performance. Flowpath testing of three different RBCC engine designs is progressing. Additionally, vehicle system studies are being conducted to assess potential operational space access vehicles utilizing combined-cycle propulsion systems. The design, manufacturing, and ground testing of a scale flight-type engine are planned. The first flight demonstration of an airbreathing combined cycle propulsion system is envisioned around 2005. The paper will describe the advanced propulsion technologies that are being being developed under the ETO activities in the ASTP program. Progress, findings, and future activities for the propulsion technologies will be discussed.

Hueter, Uwe

2000-01-01

183

49 CFR 575.302 - Vehicle labeling of safety rating information (compliance required for model year 2012 and later...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT...vehicle testing conducted by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration under the...highest.â (ii) âSource: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration...

2013-10-01

184

75 FR 68664 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Child Restraint Systems; Booster Seat Effectiveness...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Vehicle Safety Standards; Child Restraint Systems; Booster Seat Effectiveness Estimates...of early graduation from child restraint seats to booster seats and of...rather than the recommended child restraint seats. This effect may be...

2010-11-08

185

75 FR 12123 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Side Impact Protection; Fuel System Integrity; Electric...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Side Impact Protection; Fuel System Integrity; Electric-Powered...Standard (FMVSS) No. 214, ``Side impact protection.'' The final rule incorporated...Dummies B. Location of Seat on the Non-Impact Side C. Seat Cushion Reference...

2010-03-15

186

76 FR 55829 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Electronic Stability Control Systems  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...and the Department of Transportation's regulatory policies and procedures. This...and the Department of Transportation's regulatory policies and procedures. The...requirements of the Vehicle Safety Act, the...

2011-09-09

187

76 FR 43825 - Launch Safety: Lightning Criteria for Expendable Launch Vehicles  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Amendment No. 417-2] RIN 2120-AJ84 Launch Safety: Lightning Criteria for Expendable Launch Vehicles AGENCY...criteria for mitigating against naturally occurring lightning and lightning triggered by the flight of an expendable launch...

2011-07-22

188

FMVSS 105 Brake Tests of the AMF Inc. and Fairchild Industries Experimental Safety Vehicles.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Braking performance tests were conducted on Experimental Safety Vehicles manufactured by AMF Inc. and Fairchild Industries to assess compliance with FMVSS 105 (Hydraulic Service Brake, Emergency Brake, and Parking Brake Systems - Passenger Cars). The test...

1973-01-01

189

NASA technical advances in aircraft occupant safety  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A NASA program to improve aircraft safety is discussed in terms of three areas of concentration: unexpected turbulence encounters, fire, and crash impact. To provide warning of clear air turbulence (CAT) so that the pilot can take evasive action, a laser Doppler system is described, which functions by measuring backscatter frequency radiation occurring in aerosols ahead of the aircraft. The system was found able to detect CAT, but at shorter than optimal ranges (10 km as opposed to 32 km). Fire safety has focused on both the early detection of fires through improved sensing methods, and on the development of fire-retardant materials, i.e., intumescent char-forming protective coatings. Crashworthiness is discussed in terms of the development of a survivable crash envelope and improved seat and restraint systems. To evaluate an aircraft for crashworthiness, finite-element computer programs are currently being developed which analyze both aircraft structural configurations and the intrinsic strength of aircraft materials.

Enders, J. H.

1978-01-01

190

Safe Operation of Commercial Vehicles. Module SH-18. Safety and Health.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This student module on safe operation of commercial vehicles is one of 50 modules concerned with job safety and health. This module discusses causes of vehicle accidents, economic reasons for accident control, and considerations for preventive maintenance. Following the introduction, 11 objectives (each keyed to a page in the text) the student is…

Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

191

Acoustic Characteristics of Hybrid Electric Vehicles and the Safety of Pedestrians Who are Blind.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Quieter cars such as electric vehicles (EVs) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) may reduce auditory cues used by pedestrians to assess the state of nearby traffic and, as a result, their use may have an adverse impact on pedestrian safety. In order to do...

A. Hastings B. Samiljan C. Scarpone J. K. Pollard L. Garay-Vega

2010-01-01

192

The Effect of Automobile Safety on Vehicle Type Choice: An Empirical Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An analysis was made of the extent to which the safety characteristics of new vehicles affect consumer purchase decisions. Using an extensive data set that combines vehicle data collected by the Automobile Club of Southern California Target Car Program with the responses from a national household survey of new car buyers, a statistical model of…

McCarthy, Patrick S.

193

Improving the active safety of road vehicles by sensing forces and moments at the wheels  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper reviews and presents which is the envisaged improvement of the active safety of road vehicles arising from the real time measurement of forces and moments at the wheels. There are many researches undertaken in the world attempting to find devices able to measure accurately the forces and the moments at the wheels of road vehicles. In particular, a

Massimiliano Gobbi; Juan C. Botero; Giampiero Mastinu

2008-01-01

194

Advanced missions safety. Volume 2: Technical discussion, Part 2: Experiment safety, guidelines  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A technical analysis of a portion of the advanced missions safety study is presented. The potential hazards introduced when experimental equipment is carried aboard the Earth Orbit Shuttle are identified. Safety guidelines and requirements for eliminating or reducing these hazards are recommended.

Hinton, M. G., Jr.

1972-01-01

195

NREL - Advanced Vehicles and Fuels Basics - Center for Transportation Technologies and Systems 2010  

ScienceCinema

We can improve the fuel economy of our cars, trucks, and buses by designing them to use the energy in fuels more efficiently. Researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) are helping the nation achieve these goals by developing transportation technologies like: advanced vehicle systems and components; alternative fuels; as well as fuel cells, hybrid electric, and plug-in hybrid vehicles. For a text version of this video visit http://www.nrel.gov/learning/advanced_vehicles_fuels.html

196

An assessment of research and development leadership in advanced batteries for electric vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to the recently enacted California regulations requiring zero emission vehicles be sold in the market place by 1998, electric vehicle research and development (R&D) is accelerating. Much of the R&D work is focusing on the Achilles' heel of electric vehicles -- advanced batteries. This report provides an assessment of the R&D work currently underway in advanced batteries and electric

V. L. Bruch

1994-01-01

197

NREL - Advanced Vehicles and Fuels Basics - Center for Transportation Technologies and Systems 2010  

ScienceCinema

We can improve the fuel economy of our cars, trucks, and buses by designing them to use the energy in fuels more efficiently. Researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) are helping the nation achieve these goals by developing transportation technologies like: advanced vehicle systems and components; alternative fuels; as well as fuel cells, hybrid electric, and plug-in hybrid vehicles. For a text version of this video visit http://www.nrel.gov/learning/advanced_vehicles_fuels.html

None

2013-05-29

198

NREL - Advanced Vehicles and Fuels Basics - Center for Transportation Technologies and Systems 2010  

SciTech Connect

We can improve the fuel economy of our cars, trucks, and buses by designing them to use the energy in fuels more efficiently. Researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) are helping the nation achieve these goals by developing transportation technologies like: advanced vehicle systems and components; alternative fuels; as well as fuel cells, hybrid electric, and plug-in hybrid vehicles. For a text version of this video visit http://www.nrel.gov/learning/advanced_vehicles_fuels.html

None

2010-01-01

199

Specification of advanced safety modeling requirements (Rev. 0).  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy's Global Nuclear Energy Partnership has lead to renewed interest in liquid-metal-cooled fast reactors for the purpose of closing the nuclear fuel cycle and making more efficient use of future repository capacity. However, the U.S. has not designed or constructed a fast reactor in nearly 30 years. Accurate, high-fidelity, whole-plant dynamics safety simulations will play a crucial role by providing confidence that component and system designs will satisfy established design limits and safety margins under a wide variety of operational, design basis, and beyond design basis transient conditions. Current modeling capabilities for fast reactor safety analyses have resulted from several hundred person-years of code development effort supported by experimental validation. The broad spectrum of mechanistic and phenomenological models that have been developed represent an enormous amount of institutional knowledge that needs to be maintained. Complicating this, the existing code architectures for safety modeling evolved from programming practices of the 1970s. This has lead to monolithic applications with interdependent data models which require significant knowledge of the complexities of the entire code in order for each component to be maintained. In order to develop an advanced fast reactor safety modeling capability, the limitations of the existing code architecture must be overcome while preserving the capabilities that already exist. To accomplish this, a set of advanced safety modeling requirements is defined, based on modern programming practices, that focuses on modular development within a flexible coupling framework. An approach for integrating the existing capabilities of the SAS4A/SASSYS-1 fast reactor safety analysis code into the SHARP framework is provided in order to preserve existing capabilities while providing a smooth transition to advanced modeling capabilities. In doing this, the advanced fast reactor safety models will target leadership-class computing architectures for massively-parallel high-fidelity computations while providing continued support for rapid prototyping using modest fidelity computations on multiple-core desktop platforms.

Fanning, T. H.; Tautges, T. J.

2008-06-30

200

76 FR 45436 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Electric-Powered Vehicles; Electrolyte Spillage and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...electrical isolation may degrade over time such as fuel cell stacks in fuel cell vehicles where the coolant may increase in conductivity during vehicle service and thereby result in a reduction of electrical isolation. Since it is anticipated that the...

2011-07-29

201

Vehicle Safety Communications - Applications (VSC-A) Final Report: Appendix Volume 1 System Design and Objective Test.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Vehicle Safety Communications Applications (VSC-A) Project was a three-year project (December 2006-December 2009) to develop and test communications-based vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) safety systems to determine if Dedicated Short Range Communications (DS...

B. Bellur C. Basnayake D. Cunningham D. Jiang D. Masselink E. McGlohon F. Ahmed-Zaid F. Bai G. Brown H. Elzein H. Krishnan J. Ivan J. Kenney J. Lovell J. Stinnett K. Hong K. Tirey L. Caminiti L. Tellis M. Maile P. Mudalige S. Bai S. Brovold S. VanSickle V. Rai Z. Popovic

2011-01-01

202

Patient safety issues in advanced practice nursing students' care settings.  

PubMed

The purpose of this project was to identify and characterize patient safety issues across advanced practice nursing (APN) care settings including ambulatory care visits. A total of 162 registered nurses enrolled in an APN education program completed an online survey. Respondents reported patient safety issues related to diagnosis or management and treatment in almost half of 489 encounters. The most common issues were clinician communication problems with patients, which occurred during 42.4% of encounters. Adoption of information technology may be a pathway for improving patient safety issues in APN practice settings. PMID:21915064

Schnall, Rebecca; Cook, Sarah; John, Rita Marie; Larson, Elaine; Stone, Patricia W; Sullivan, Caroline; Bakken, Suzanne

2012-01-01

203

Passive Safety Features in Advanced Nuclear Power Plant Design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For implementation of advance passive safety features in future nuclear power plant design, a passive safety system has been proposed and its response has been observed for Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA) in the cold leg of a reactor coolant system. In a transient simulation the performance of proposed system is validated against existing safety injection system for a reference power plant of 325 MWe. The existing safety injection system is a huge system and consists of many active components including pumps, valves, piping and Instrumentation and Control (I&C). A good running of the active components of this system is necessary for its functionality as high head safety injection system under design basis accidents. Using reactor simulation technique, the proposed passive safety injection system and existing safety injection system are simulated and tested for their performance under large break LOCA for the same boundary conditions. Critical thermal hydraulic parameters of both the systems are presented graphically and discussed. The results obtained are approximately the same in both the cases. However, the proposed passive safety injection system is a better choice for such type of reactors due to reduction in components with improved safety.

Tahir, M.; Chughtai, I. R.; Aslam, M.

2013-03-01

204

Advanced hydrogen/methanol utilization technology demonstration. Phase II: Hydrogen cold start of a methanol vehicle  

SciTech Connect

This is the Phase 11 Final Report on NREL Subcontract No. XR-2-11175-1 {open_quotes}Advanced Hydrogen/Methane Utilization Demonstration{close_quotes} between the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Alternative Fuels Utilization Program, Golden, Colorado and Hydrogen Consultants, Inc. (HCI), Littleton, Colorado. Mr. Chris Colucci was NREL`s Technical Monitor. Colorado State University`s (CSU) Engines and Energy Conversion Laboratory was HCI`s subcontractor. Some of the vehicle test work was carried out at the National Center for Vehicle Emissions Control and Safety (NCVECS) at CSU. The collaboration of the Colorado School of Mines is also gratefully acknowledged. Hydrogen is unique among alternative fuels in its ability to burn over a wide range of mixtures in air with no carbon-related combustion products. Hydrogen also has the ability to burn on a catalyst, starting from room temperature. Hydrogen can be made from a variety of renewable energy resources and is expected to become a widely used energy carrier in the sustainable energy system of the future. One way to make a start toward widespread use of hydrogen in the energy system is to use it sparingly with other alternative fuels. The Phase I work showed that strong affects could be achieved with dilute concentrations of hydrogen in methane (11). Reductions in emissions greater than the proportion of hydrogen in the fuel provide a form of leverage to stimulate the early introduction of hydrogen. Per energy unit or per dollar of hydrogen, a greater benefit is derived than simply displacing fossil-fueled vehicles with pure hydrogen vehicles.

NONE

1995-05-01

205

Chemical characterization of emissions from advanced technology light-duty vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Results of detailed emissions measurements of seven 2000 model year advanced technology vehicles are reported. Six of the seven vehicles were imported from Europe and Japan and are not yet available for sale in Canada. Three of the vehicles were with direct injection diesel (DDI) technology, three with gasoline direct injection (GDI) technology and one vehicle was a gasoline-electric hybrid. It is expected that vehicles with these technologies will be forming a larger fraction of the Canadian light-duty vehicle fleet in the coming years in response to requirements to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from the transportation sector in support of Canada's ratification of the Kyoto Protocol; and as a result of improving fuel quality (most notably reducing the sulphur content of both diesel and gasoline). It is therefore important to understand the potential impacts on air quality of such changes in the composition of the vehicle fleet. The emissions from these vehicles were characterized over four test cycles representing different driving conditions. Samples of the exhaust were collected for determining methane, non-methane hydrocarbons and carbonyl compounds for the purposes of comparing ozone-forming potential of the emissions. Although these vehicles were not certified to Canadian emissions standards as tested, all vehicles met the then current Tier 1 emission standards, except for one diesel vehicle which did not meet the particulate matter (PM) standard. The DDI vehicles had the highest NO X emissions, the highest specific reactivity and the highest ozone-forming potential of the vehicles tested. When compared to conventional gasoline vehicles, the ozone-forming potential was equivalent. The GDI vehicles had lower NO X emissions, lower specific reactivity and lower ozone-forming potential than the conventional gasoline vehicles. Both the diesel and GDI vehicles had higher PM emissions than the conventional gasoline vehicles. The gasoline-electric hybrid vehicle had the lowest emissions, lowest specific reactivity, lowest ozone-forming potential and highest fuel economy of all vehicles tested.

Graham, Lisa

206

Multibody dynamic simulation of military vehicles for stability, safety, mobility, and load prediction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Multibody Dynamic Simulation has been used to successfully simulate a wide variety of military vehicles and predict the safety, mobility, stability, and operating loads of the complete system. The objective is to predict accurate vehicle behavior under any operating condition and provide the basis for making engineering design changes to improve performance. Vehicles used for agriculture, construction, recreation, and military applications all involve similar modeling requirements and challenges to account for the wide range of operating conditions. Results of the multibody dynamic simulation process produce time-histories of the position, velocity, acceleration, and reaction forces on all parts. These results have been used to characterize the vehicle performance attributes.

Kading, Dick

2006-06-01

207

Welding mechanics for advanced component safety assessment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Numerical methods are nowadays a useful tool for the calculation of distortion and residual stresses as a result from the welding process. Modern finite element codes not only allow for calculation of deformations and stresses due to the welding process but also take into account the change of microstructure due to different heating and cooling rates. As an extension to the pure welding simulation, the field of welding mechanics combines the mechanics and the material behaviour from the welding process with the assessment of service behaviour of welded components. In the paper, new results of experimental and numerical work in the field of welding mechanics are described. Through examples from automotive, nuclear and pipe-line applications it is demonstrated that an equilibrated treatment and a close interaction of "process", "properties" and "defects" are necessary to come up with an advanced fitness-forservice assessment of welded components.

Siegele, Dieter

2011-06-01

208

14 CFR Appendix C to Part 417 - Flight Safety Analysis Methodologies and Products for an Unguided Suborbital Launch Vehicle Flown...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...new vehicle with little or no flight history, a launch operator...changes in vehicle design, flight termination, and guidance and control hardware and software. ...avoidance (a) General. A flight safety analysis must...

2014-01-01

209

61 FR 41739 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Glazing Materials  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...would have the level of abrasion resistance demonstrated by the Fiero GT...vehicle's ``C'' pillar sheet metal to be replaced with a decorative...surface affixed to the sheet metal structure, ``the resistance to fracture of a...

1996-08-12

210

78 FR 55137 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Ejection Mitigation  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...computer aided design (CAD) data for locating the geometric center of the daylight opening. As to the former, as a general practice in compliance testing, the agency typically asks for a variety of information from vehicle manufacturers to...

2013-09-09

211

Collision Investigation Report - Task 1. UCLA Motor Vehicle Safety Project.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Accident configuration; Occupant kinematics, Dodge driver; Occupant kinematics, right front occupant; Copies of pictures printed from accident slides; Police report; (Traffic accident report, vehicle analysis forms, autopsy report).

1968-01-01

212

Environmental, health, and safety issues of sodium-sulfur batteries for electric and hybrid vehicles. Volume 4, In-vehicle safety  

SciTech Connect

This report is the last of four volumes that identify and assess the environmental, health, and safety issues that may affect the commercial-scale use of sodium-sulfur (Na/S) battery technology as the energy source in electric and hybrid vehicles. The reports are intended to help the Electric and Hybrid Propulsion Division of the Office of Transportation Technologies in the US Department of Energy (DOE/EHP) determine the direction of its research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) program for Na/S battery technology. The reports review the status of Na/S battery RD&D and identify potential hazards and risks that may require additional research or that may affect the design and use of Na/S batteries. This volume covers the in-vehicle safety issues of electric vehicles powered by Na/S batteries. The report is based on a review of the literature and on discussions with experts at DOE, national laboratories and agencies, and private industry. It has three major goals: (1) to identify the unique hazards associated with electric vehicle (EV) use; (2) to describe the existing standards, regulations, and guidelines that are or could be applicable to these hazards; and (3) to discuss the adequacy of the existing requirements in addressing the safety concerns of EVs.

Mark, J.

1992-11-01

213

HFE safety reviews of advanced nuclear power plant control rooms  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Advanced control rooms (ACR's) will utilize human-system interface (HSI) technologies that may have significant implications for plant safety in that they will affect the operator's overall role and means of interacting with the system. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) reviews the human factors engineering (HFE) aspects of HSI's to ensure that they are designed to good HFE principles and support performance and reliability in order to protect public health and safety. However, the only available NRC guidance was developed more than ten years ago, and does not adequately address the human performance issues and technology changes associated with ACR's. Accordingly, a new approach to ACR safety reviews was developed based upon the concept of 'convergent validity'. This approach to ACR safety reviews is described.

Ohara, John

1994-01-01

214

Enhancing the NASA Expendable Launch Vehicle Payload Safety Review Process Through Program Activities  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The safety review process for NASA spacecraft flown on Expendable Launch Vehicles (ELVs) has been guided by NASA-STD 8719.8, Expendable Launch Vehicle Payload Safety Review Process Standard. The standard focused primarily on the safety approval required to begin pre-launch processing at the launch site. Subsequent changes in the contractual, technical, and operational aspects of payload processing, combined with lessons-learned supported a need for the reassessment of the standard. This has resulted in the formation of a NASA ELV Payload Safety Program. This program has been working to address the programmatic issues that will enhance and supplement the existing process, while continuing to ensure the safety of ELV payload activities.

Palo, Thomas E.

2007-01-01

215

Advanced Crew Rescue Vehicle/Personnel Launch System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Advanced Crew Rescue Vehicle (ACRV) will be an essential element of the Space Station to respond to three specific missions, all of which have occurred during the history space exploration by the U.S. and the Soviets: (1) Mission DRM-1: Return of disabled crew members during medical emergencies; (2) Mission DRM-2: Return of crew members from accidents or as a result of failures of Space Station systems; and (3) Mission DRM-3: Return of crew members during interruption of Space Shuttle launches. The ACRV will have the ability to transport up to eight astronauts during a 24-hour mission. Not only would the ACRV serve as a lifeboat to provide transportation back to Earth, but it would also be available as a immediately available safe refuge in case the Space Station were severely damaged by space debris or other catastrophe. Upon return to Earth, existing world-wide search and rescue assets operated by the Coast Guard and Department of Defense would be able to retrieve personnel returned to Earth via the ACRV. The operational approach proposed for the ACRV is tailored to satisfying mission requirements for simplicity of operation (no piloting skills or specially trained personnel are required), continuous availability, high reliability and affordability. By using proven systems as the basis for many critical ACRV systems, the ACRV program is more likely to achieve each of these mission requirements. Nonetheless, the need for the ACRV to operate reliably with little preflight preparation after, perhaps, 5 to 10 years in orbit imposes challenges not faced by any previous space system of this complexity. Specific concerns exist regarding micrometeoroid impacts, battery life, and degradation of recovery parachutes while in storage.

Craig, Jerry W.

1993-02-01

216

Advanced Crew Rescue Vehicle/Personnel Launch System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Advanced Crew Rescue Vehicle (ACRV) will be an essential element of the Space Station to respond to three specific missions, all of which have occurred during the history space exploration by the U.S. and the Soviets: (1) Mission DRM-1: Return of disabled crew members during medical emergencies; (2) Mission DRM-2: Return of crew members from accidents or as a result of failures of Space Station systems; and (3) Mission DRM-3: Return of crew members during interruption of Space Shuttle launches. The ACRV will have the ability to transport up to eight astronauts during a 24-hour mission. Not only would the ACRV serve as a lifeboat to provide transportation back to Earth, but it would also be available as a immediately available safe refuge in case the Space Station were severely damaged by space debris or other catastrophe. Upon return to Earth, existing world-wide search and rescue assets operated by the Coast Guard and Department of Defense would be able to retrieve personnel returned to Earth via the ACRV. The operational approach proposed for the ACRV is tailored to satisfying mission requirements for simplicity of operation (no piloting skills or specially trained personnel are required), continuous availability, high reliability and affordability. By using proven systems as the basis for many critical ACRV systems, the ACRV program is more likely to achieve each of these mission requirements. Nonetheless, the need for the ACRV to operate reliably with little preflight preparation after, perhaps, 5 to 10 years in orbit imposes challenges not faced by any previous space system of this complexity. Specific concerns exist regarding micrometeoroid impacts, battery life, and degradation of recovery parachutes while in storage.

Craig, Jerry W.

1993-01-01

217

Advancing electric-vehicle development with pure-lead-tin battery technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electric-vehicle (EV) development continues to make solid progress towards extending vehicle range, reliability and ease of use, aided significantly by technological advances in vehicle systems. There is, however, a widespread misconception that current battery technologies are not capable of meeting even the minimum user requirements that would launch EVs into daily use. Existing pure-lead-tin technology is moving EVs out of

W. A. O'Brien; R. B. Stickel; G. J. May

1997-01-01

218

75 FR 4996 - Safety Requirements for Operators of Small Passenger-Carrying Commercial Motor Vehicles Used in...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration 49 CFR Part...of Small Passenger-Carrying Commercial Motor Vehicles Used in Interstate Commerce AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration...

2010-02-01

219

Fuel-cycle greenhouse gas emissions impacts of alternative transportation fuels and advanced vehicle technologies.  

SciTech Connect

At an international conference on global warming, held in Kyoto, Japan, in December 1997, the United States committed to reduce its greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by 7% over its 1990 level by the year 2012. To help achieve that goal, transportation GHG emissions need to be reduced. Using Argonne's fuel-cycle model, I estimated GHG emissions reduction potentials of various near- and long-term transportation technologies. The estimated per-mile GHG emissions results show that alternative transportation fuels and advanced vehicle technologies can help significantly reduce transportation GHG emissions. Of the near-term technologies evaluated in this study, electric vehicles; hybrid electric vehicles; compression-ignition, direct-injection vehicles; and E85 flexible fuel vehicles can reduce fuel-cycle GHG emissions by more than 25%, on the fuel-cycle basis. Electric vehicles powered by electricity generated primarily from nuclear and renewable sources can reduce GHG emissions by 80%. Other alternative fuels, such as compressed natural gas and liquefied petroleum gas, offer limited, but positive, GHG emission reduction benefits. Among the long-term technologies evaluated in this study, conventional spark ignition and compression ignition engines powered by alternative fuels and gasoline- and diesel-powered advanced vehicles can reduce GHG emissions by 10% to 30%. Ethanol dedicated vehicles, electric vehicles, hybrid electric vehicles, and fuel-cell vehicles can reduce GHG emissions by over 40%. Spark ignition engines and fuel-cell vehicles powered by cellulosic ethanol and solar hydrogen (for fuel-cell vehicles only) can reduce GHG emissions by over 80%. In conclusion, both near- and long-term alternative fuels and advanced transportation technologies can play a role in reducing the United States GHG emissions.

Wang, M. Q.

1998-12-16

220

Clean Cities' Guide to Alternative Fuel and Advanced Medium- and Heavy-Duty Vehicles.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The medium- and heavy-duty vehicle industry is changing rapidly with fleets adopting alternative fuels and advanced technologies to reduce petroleum use and comply with the 2010 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and California Air Resources Board...

2010-01-01

221

SAR (Search and Rescue) Measures of Effectiveness for Advanced Marine Vehicles.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes analytical work that was performed to compute measures of effectiveness (MOEs) of advanced marine vehicles (AMVs) in performing search and rescue (SAR) missions. The report also discusses difficulties that were encountered in analyzi...

J. M. Arrigan

1983-01-01

222

Progress on advanced dc and ac induction drives for electric vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Progress in the development of complete electric vehicle propulsion systems is described, and the results of tests on the Road Load Simulator of two such system representative of advanced dc and ac drive technology are given. One is the system used in the DOE's ETV-1 integrated test vehicle which consists of a shunt-wound dc traction motor under microprocessor control using

1982-01-01

223

An assessment of research and development leadership in advanced batteries for electric vehicles  

SciTech Connect

Due to the recently enacted California regulations requiring zero emission vehicles be sold in the market place by 1998, electric vehicle research and development (R&D) is accelerating. Much of the R&D work is focusing on the Achilles` heel of electric vehicles -- advanced batteries. This report provides an assessment of the R&D work currently underway in advanced batteries and electric vehicles in the following countries: Denmark, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Russia, and the United Kingdom. Although the US can be considered one of the leading countries in terms of advanced battery and electric vehicle R&D work, it lags other countries, particularly France, in producing and promoting electric vehicles. The US is focusing strictly on regulations to promote electric vehicle usage while other countries are using a wide variety of policy instruments (regulations, educational outreach programs, tax breaks and subsidies) to encourage the use of electric vehicles. The US should consider implementing additional policy instruments to ensure a domestic market exists for electric vehicles. The domestic is the largest and most important market for the US auto industry.

Bruch, V.L.

1994-02-01

224

NASA Expendable Launch Vehicle (ELV) Payload Safety Review Process  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Issues addressed by this program: (1) Complicated roles and responsibilities associated with multi-partner projects (2) Working relationships and communications between all organizations involved in the payload safety process (3) Consistent interpretation and implementation of safety requirements from one project to the rest (4) Consistent implementation of the Tailoring Process (5) Clearly defined NASA decision-making-authority (6) Bring Agency-wide perspective to each ElV payload project. Current process requires a Payload Safety Working Group (PSWG) for eac payload with representatives from all involved organizations.

Starbus, Calvert S.; Donovan, Shawn; Dook, Mike; Palo, Tom

2007-01-01

225

Preliminary safety evaluation of the advanced burner test reactor.  

SciTech Connect

Results of a preliminary safety evaluation of the Advanced Burner Test Reactor (ABTR) pre-conceptual design are reported. The ABTR safety design approach is described. Traditional defense-in-depth design features are supplemented with passive safety performance characteristics that include natural circulation emergency decay heat removal and reactor power reduction by inherent reactivity feedbacks in accidents. ABTR safety performance in design-basis and beyond-design-basis accident sequences is estimated based on analyses. Modeling assumptions and input data for safety analyses are presented. Analysis results for simulation of simultaneous loss of coolant pumping power and normal heat rejection are presented and discussed, both for the case with reactor scram and the case without reactor scram. The analysis results indicate that the ABTR pre-conceptual design is capable of undergoing bounding design-basis and beyond-design-basis accidents without fuel cladding failures. The first line of defense for protection of the public against release of radioactivity in accidents remains intact with significant margin. A comparison and evaluation of general safety design criteria for the ABTR conceptual design phase are presented in an appendix. A second appendix presents SASSYS-1 computer code capabilities and modeling enhancements implemented for ABTR analyses.

Dunn, F. E.; Fanning, T. H.; Cahalan, J. E.; Nuclear Engineering Division

2006-09-15

226

Motor Vehicle Safety - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus  

MedlinePLUS

... Japanese (???) Korean (???) Marshallese (kajin Majöl) Portuguese (português) Russian (???????) Somali (af Soomaali) Spanish (español) Ukrainian ( ... PDF Health Information Translations Return to top Portuguese (português) Safety with Car Seats and Booster Seats Segurança ...

227

Pilot safety for the X-24A lifting body vehicle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design and operational characteristics of the X-24A are described in detail. Primary emphasis is placed on the safety considerations incorporated in the design and flight test stages. It is pointed out that the inherently high drag of the lifting body configuration together with its relatively low lift/drag ratio, generated considerable concern with respect to the pilot's ability to perform safe landings from gliding flight. The resulting safety procedures taken at each stage of development are discussed.

Cochrane, J.; Graham, K.

1971-01-01

228

78 FR 2797 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Minimum Sound Requirements for Hybrid and Electric Vehicles  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...assessment of these sounds and engineering judgment, at least one tone...by the Cameron Gulbransen Kids Transportation...accelerating road vehicles--Engineering method...Appendix A--Glossary of Sound Engineering Terms Acoustic...

2013-01-14

229

Advanced vehicle concepts systems and design analysis studies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The work conducted by the ELORET Institute under this Cooperative Agreement includes the modeling of hypersonic propulsion systems and the evaluation of hypersonic vehicles in general and most recently hypersonic waverider vehicles. This work in hypersonics was applied to the design of a two-stage to orbit launch vehicle which was included in the NASA Access to Space Project. Additional research regarded the Oblique All-Wing (OAW) Project at NASA ARC and included detailed configuration studies of OAW transport aircraft. Finally, work on the modeling of subsonic and supersonic turbofan engines was conducted under this research program.

Waters, Mark H.; Huynh, Loc C.

1994-01-01

230

Continuously Variable Transmission: Assessment of Applicability to Advance Electric Vehicles.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A brief historical account of the evolution of continuously variable transmissions (CVT) for automotive use is given. The CVT concepts which are potentially suitable for application with electric and hybrid vehicles are discussed. The arrangement and func...

R. J. Parker S. H. Loewenthal

1981-01-01

231

Continuously Variable Transmission: Assessment of Applicability to Advanced Electric Vehicles.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A brief historical account of the evolution of continuously variable transmissions (CVT) for automotive use is given. CVT concepts which are potentially suitable for application with electric and hybrid vehicles are discussed. The arrangement and function...

S. H. Loewenthal R. J. Parker

1981-01-01

232

Advanced Continuously Variable Transmissions for Electric and Hybrid Vehicles.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A brief survey of past and present continuously variable transmissions (CVT) which are potentially suitable for application with electric and hybrid vehicles is presented. Discussion of general transmission requirements and benefits attainable with a CVT ...

S. H. Loewenthal

1980-01-01

233

Advanced Technology for Lighter and More Cost Effective Space Vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Engineers at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in Huntsville, Alabama, are working with industry partners to develop a new generation of more cost-efficient space vehicles. Lightweight fuel tanks and components under development will be the critical elements in tomorrow's reusable launch vehicles and will tremendously curb the costs of getting to space. In this photo, Tom DeLay, a materials processes engineer for MSFC, uses a new graphite epoxy technology to create lightweight cryogenic fuel lines for futuristic reusable launch vehicles. He is wrapping a water-soluble mandrel, or mold, with a graphite fabric coated with an epoxy resin. Once wrapped, the pipe will be vacuum-bagged and autoclave-cured. The disposable mold will be removed to reveal a thin-walled fuel line. In addition to being much lighter and stronger than metal, this material won't expand or contract as much in the extreme temperatures encountered by launch vehicles.

1998-01-01

234

Building rural motor vehicle safety capacity through community sports  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction\\/objectivePersons living in rural areas are at great risk of motor vehicle injury, as are children ages 4–7 years when prematurely graduated to seat belts designed for adults. Social marketing, individual decision-making and community engagement models were integrated to increase booster seat use through an accepted sport in rural communities. We report on lessons learnt from a multi-state study in

B L Anderson; B K Miller; M E Aitken; D M Daniels

2010-01-01

235

All-Terrain Vehicle Safety and Use Patterns in Central Illinois Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Context: All-terrain vehicles' (ATVs) popularity and associated injuries among children are increasing in the United States. Currently, most known ATV use pattern data are obtained from injured youth and little documented data exist characterizing the typical ATV use patterns and safety practices among American children in general. Purpose: To…

Hafner, John W.; Hough, Scott M.; Getz, Marjorie A.; Whitehurst, Yvette; Pearl, Richard H.

2010-01-01

236

Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard No. 209 (Seat Belt Assemblies). Bay Trim Accessories, LTD.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report contains the test data, results and conclusions of tests performed on one set of twelve (12) Type 1 seat belt assemblies for compliance to Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard No. 209. The set of seat belts without retractors was subjected to ...

1970-01-01

237

Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard No. 209 (Seat Belt Assemblies). Irvin Industries, Inc.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report contains the test data, results and conclusions of tests performed on one set of twelve (12) Type 1 seat belt assemblies for compliance to Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard No. 209. The set of seat belts without retractors was subjected to ...

1970-01-01

238

Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard No. 209 (Seat Belt Assemblies). Beams Manufacturing Company.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report contains the results of tests performed on one set of twelve (12) seat belt assemblies in accordance with Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard No. 209. This set of seat belts without retractors was subjected to the following tests: Web width a...

1970-01-01

239

Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard No. 209 (Seat Belt Assemblies). Daal Seat Belts.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report contains the test data, results and conclusions of tests performed on one set of twelve (12) Type 1 seat belt assemblies for compliance to Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard No. 209. This set of seat belts without retractors was subjected to...

1970-01-01

240

Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard No. 209 (Seat Belt Assemblies). Rose Manufacturing Company.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report contains the results of tests performed on one set of twelve (12) seat belt assemblies in accordance with Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard No. 209. This set of seat belts without retractors was subjected to the following tests: Web width a...

1970-01-01

241

Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard No. 209 (Seat Belt Assemblies). Jim Robins Company.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report contains the test data, results and conclusions of tests performed on one set of twelve (12) Type 1 seat belt assemblies for compliance to Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard No. 209. The set of Jim Robbins seat belts, model 3910 without retr...

1970-01-01

242

Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard No. 209 (Seat Belt Assemblies). Jim Robins Company.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report contains the test data, results and conclusions of tests performed on one set of twelve (12) Type 1 seat belt assemblies for compliance to Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard No. 209. The set of seat belts without retractors was subjected to ...

1970-01-01

243

Effect of joint mechanism on vehicle redirectional capability of water-filled road safety barrier systems.  

PubMed

Portable water-filled barriers (PWFBs) are roadside appurtenances that prevent vehicles from penetrating into temporary construction zones on roadways. PWFBs are required to satisfy the strict regulations for vehicle re-direction in tests. However, many of the current PWFBs fail to re-direct the vehicle at high speeds due to the inability of the joints to provide appropriate stiffness. The joint mechanism hence plays a crucial role in the performance of a PWFB system at high speed impacts. This paper investigates the desired features of the joint mechanism in a PWFB system that can re-direct vehicles at high speeds, while limiting the lateral displacement to acceptable limits. A rectangular "wall" representative of a 30m long barrier system was modeled and a novel method of joining adjacent road barriers was introduced through appropriate pin-joint connections. The impact response of the barrier "wall" and the vehicle was obtained and the results show that a rotational stiffness of 3000kNm/rad at the joints seems to provide the desired features of the PWFB system to re-direct impacting vehicles and restrict the lateral deflection. These research findings will be useful to safety engineers and road barrier designers in developing a new generation of PWFBs for increased road safety. PMID:24887591

Thiyahuddin, M I; Thambiratnam, D P; Gu, Y T

2014-10-01

244

Experiments toward non-contact safety standards for automated industrial vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The performance evaluation of an obstacle detection and segmentation algorithm for Automated Guided Vehicle (AGV) navigation in factory-like environments using a new 3D real-time range camera is the subject of this paper. Our approach expands on the US ASME B56.5 Safety Standard, which now allows for non-contact safety sensors, by performing tests on objects specifically sized in both the US and the British Safety Standards. These successful tests placed the recommended, as well as smaller, material-covered and sized objects on the vehicle path for static measurement. The segmented (mapped) obstacles were then verified in range to the objects and object size using simultaneous, absolute measurements obtained using a relatively accurate 2D scanning laser rangefinder. These 3D range cameras are expected to be relatively inexpensive and used indoors and possibly used outdoors for a vast amount of mobile robot applications building on experimental results explained in this paper.

Bostelman, Roger; Hong, Tsai; Madhavan, Raj

2005-05-01

245

System Interface for an Integrated Intelligent Safety System (ISS) for Vehicle Applications  

PubMed Central

This paper deals with the interface-relevant activity of a vehicle integrated intelligent safety system (ISS) that includes an airbag deployment decision system (ADDS) and a tire pressure monitoring system (TPMS). A program is developed in LabWindows/CVI, using C for prototype implementation. The prototype is primarily concerned with the interconnection between hardware objects such as a load cell, web camera, accelerometer, TPM tire module and receiver module, DAQ card, CPU card and a touch screen. Several safety subsystems, including image processing, weight sensing and crash detection systems, are integrated, and their outputs are combined to yield intelligent decisions regarding airbag deployment. The integrated safety system also monitors tire pressure and temperature. Testing and experimentation with this ISS suggests that the system is unique, robust, intelligent, and appropriate for in-vehicle applications.

Hannan, Mahammad A.; Hussain, Aini; Samad, Salina A.

2010-01-01

246

Foundational development of an advanced nuclear reactor integrated safety code.  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the activities and results of a Sandia LDRD project whose objective was to develop and demonstrate foundational aspects of a next-generation nuclear reactor safety code that leverages advanced computational technology. The project scope was directed towards the systems-level modeling and simulation of an advanced, sodium cooled fast reactor, but the approach developed has a more general applicability. The major accomplishments of the LDRD are centered around the following two activities. (1) The development and testing of LIME, a Lightweight Integrating Multi-physics Environment for coupling codes that is designed to enable both 'legacy' and 'new' physics codes to be combined and strongly coupled using advanced nonlinear solution methods. (2) The development and initial demonstration of BRISC, a prototype next-generation nuclear reactor integrated safety code. BRISC leverages LIME to tightly couple the physics models in several different codes (written in a variety of languages) into one integrated package for simulating accident scenarios in a liquid sodium cooled 'burner' nuclear reactor. Other activities and accomplishments of the LDRD include (a) further development, application and demonstration of the 'non-linear elimination' strategy to enable physics codes that do not provide residuals to be incorporated into LIME, (b) significant extensions of the RIO CFD code capabilities, (c) complex 3D solid modeling and meshing of major fast reactor components and regions, and (d) an approach for multi-physics coupling across non-conformal mesh interfaces.

Clarno, Kevin (Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN); Lorber, Alfred Abraham; Pryor, Richard J.; Spotz, William F.; Schmidt, Rodney Cannon; Belcourt, Kenneth (Ktech Corporation, Albuquerque, NM); Hooper, Russell Warren; Humphries, Larry LaRon

2010-02-01

247

Assessment of launch vehicle advances to enable human mars excursions  

Microsoft Academic Search

A mathematical model is developed for the assessment of the launch mass of a vehicle designed for a human mission to Mars. The mission involves six stages: (i) ascent from Earth surface to low Earth orbit, (ii) outgoing trip from low Earth orbit to low Mars orbit, (iii) descent and landing on Mars, (iv) ascent from Mars surface to low

A. Miele; T. Wang; S. Mancuso

2001-01-01

248

Advanced Batteries for Electric Vehicles: A Look at the Future.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A partial solution to the problem of liquid energy shortages in the U.S. can be solved by the introduction of electric vehicles into the national transportation fleet. A multitude of battery systems are potential candidates for this application. The leadi...

W. J. Walsh

1979-01-01

249

Advanced lead acid battery designs for hybrid electric vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the authors present a high power, lead acid battery design that has demonstrated long life. The design uses horizontal plates with multiple lug connectors to deliver high power for hybrid electric vehicle applications. The horizontal plate configuration helps improve life by allowing for better thermal management and mechanical compression. They use computer models that were previously developed

Dean B. Edwards; Charles Kinney

2001-01-01

250

Recent Advances in Oncology Acupuncture and Safety Considerations in Practice  

PubMed Central

Opinion statement Oncology acupuncture is a new and emerging field of research. Recent advances from published clinical trials have added evidence to support the use of acupuncture for symptom management in cancer patients. Recent new developments include (1) pain and dysfunction after neck dissection; (2) radiation-induced xerostomia in head and neck cancer; (3) aromatase inhibitor-associated arthralgia in breast cancer; (4) hot flashes in breast cancer and prostate cancer; and (5) chemotherapyinduced neutropenia in ovarian cancer. Some interventions are becoming a non-pharmaceutical option for cancer patients, while others still require further validation and confirmation. Meanwhile, owing to the rapid development of the field and increased demands from cancer patients, safety issues concerning oncology acupuncture practice have become imperative. Patients with cancer may be at higher risk developing adverse reactions from acupuncture. Practical strategies for enhancing safety measures are discussed and recommended.

Lu, Weidong; Doherty-Gilman, Anne M.; Rosenthal, David S.

2011-01-01

251

Advanced transportation system study: Manned launch vehicle concepts for two way transportation system payloads to LEO. Program cost estimates document  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report describes Rockwell International's cost analysis results of manned launch vehicle concepts for two way transportation system payloads to low earth orbit during the basic and option 1 period of performance for contract NAS8-39207, advanced transportation system studies. Vehicles analyzed include the space shuttle, personnel launch system (PLS) with advanced launch system (ALS) and national launch system (NLS) boosters, foreign launch vehicles, NLS-2 derived launch vehicles, liquid rocket booster (LRB) derived launch vehicle, and cargo transfer and return vehicle (CTRV).

Duffy, James B.

1993-01-01

252

Safety analysis of the advanced thermionic initiative reactor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Previously, detailed analysis was conducted to assess the technology developed for the Advanced Thermionic Initiative reactor. This analysis included the development of an overall system design code capability and the improvement of analytical models necessary for the assessment of the use of single cell thermionic fuel elements in a low power space nuclear reactor. The present analysis extends this effort to assess the nuclear criticality safety of the ATI reactor for various different scenarios. The analysis discusses the efficacy of different methods of reactor control such as control rods, and control drums.

Lee, Hsing H.; Klein, Andrew C.

1995-01-01

253

Reliability, Safety and Error Recovery for Advanced Control Software  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

For long-duration automated operation of regenerative life support systems in space environments, there is a need for advanced integration and control systems that are significantly more reliable and safe, and that support error recovery and minimization of operational failures. This presentation outlines some challenges of hazardous space environments and complex system interactions that can lead to system accidents. It discusses approaches to hazard analysis and error recovery for control software and challenges of supporting effective intervention by safety software and the crew.

Malin, Jane T.

2003-01-01

254

Progress on advanced dc and ac induction drives for electric vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Progress is reported in the development of complete electric vehicle propulsion systems, and the results of tests on the Road Load Simulator of two such systems representative of advanced dc and ac drive technology are presented. One is the system used in the DOE's ETV-1 integrated test vehicle which consists of a shunt wound dc traction motor under microprocessor control using a transistorized controller. The motor drives the vehicle through a fixed ratio transmission. The second system uses an ac induction motor controlled by transistorized pulse width modulated inverter which drives through a two speed automatically shifted transmission. The inverter and transmission both operate under the control of a microprocessor. The characteristics of these systems are also compared with the propulsion system technology available in vehicles being manufactured at the inception of the DOE program and with an advanced, highly integrated propulsion system upon which technology development was recently initiated.

Schwartz, H. J.

1982-01-01

255

Progress on advanced dc and ac induction drives for electric vehicles  

SciTech Connect

Progress in the development of complete electric vehicle propulsion systems is described, and the results of tests on the Road Load Simulator of two such system representative of advanced dc and ac drive technology are given. One is the system used in the DOE's ETV-1 integrated test vehicle which consists of a shunt-wound dc traction motor under microprocessor control using a transistorized controller. The motor drives the vehicle through a fixed ratio transmission. The second system, under development by the Eaton Corporation, uses an ac induction motor controlled by a transistorized pulse-width modulated inverter which drives through a two-speed automatically shifted transmission. The inverter and transmission both operate under the control of a microprocessor. The characteristics of these systems are also compared with the propulsion system technology available in vehicles being manufactured at the inception of the DOE program and with an advanced, highly integrated propulsion system upon which technology development was recently initiated.

Schwartz, H.J.

1982-01-01

256

Environmental, health, and safety issues of sodium-sulfur batteries for electric and hybrid vehicles  

SciTech Connect

This report is the last of four volumes that identify and assess the environmental, health, and safety issues that may affect the commercial-scale use of sodium-sulfur (Na/S) battery technology as the energy source in electric and hybrid vehicles. The reports are intended to help the Electric and Hybrid Propulsion Division of the Office of Transportation Technologies in the US Department of Energy (DOE/EHP) determine the direction of its research, development, and demonstration (RD D) program for Na/S battery technology. The reports review the status of Na/S battery RD D and identify potential hazards and risks that may require additional research or that may affect the design and use of Na/S batteries. This volume covers the in-vehicle safety issues of electric vehicles powered by Na/S batteries. The report is based on a review of the literature and on discussions with experts at DOE, national laboratories and agencies, and private industry. It has three major goals: (1) to identify the unique hazards associated with electric vehicle (EV) use; (2) to describe the existing standards, regulations, and guidelines that are or could be applicable to these hazards; and (3) to discuss the adequacy of the existing requirements in addressing the safety concerns of EVs.

Mark, J

1992-11-01

257

Integration of Advanced Concepts and Vehicles Into the Next Generation Air Transportation System. Volume 1; Introduction, Key Messages, and Vehicle Attributes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Raytheon, in partnership with NASA, is leading the way in ensuring that the future air transportation continues to be a key driver of economic growth and stability and that this system provides an environmentally friendly, safe, and effective means of moving people and goods. A Raytheon-led team of industry and academic experts, under NASA contract NNA08BA47C, looked at the potential issues and impact of introducing four new classes of advanced aircraft into the next generation air transportation system -- known as NextGen. The study will help determine where NASA should further invest in research to support the safe introduction of these new air vehicles. Small uncrewed or unmanned aerial systems (SUAS), super heavy transports (SHT) including hybrid wing body versions (HWB), very light jets (VLJ), and supersonic business jets (SSBJ) are the four classes of aircraft that we studied. Understanding each vehicle's business purpose and strategy is critical to assessing the feasibility of new aircraft operations and their impact on NextGen's architecture. The Raytheon team used scenarios created by aviation experts that depict vehicles in year 2025 operations along with scripts or use cases to understand the issues presented by these new types of vehicles. The information was then mapped into the Joint Planning and Development Office's (JPDO s) Enterprise Architecture to show how the vehicles will fit into NextGen's Concept of Operations. The team also identified significant changes to the JPDO's Integrated Work Plan (IWP) to optimize the NextGen vision for these vehicles. Using a proven enterprise architecture approach and the JPDO s Joint Planning Environment (JPE) web site helped make the leap from architecture to planning efficient, manageable and achievable. Very Light Jets flying into busy hub airports -- Supersonic Business Jets needing to climb and descend rapidly to achieve the necessary altitude Super-heavy cargo planes requiring the shortest common flight path -- are just a few of the potential new operations in the future National Airspace System. To assess the impact of these new scenarios on overall national airspace operations, the Raytheon team used the capabilities of a suite of tools such as NASA's Airspace Concepts Evaluation System (ACES), the Flight Optimization System (FLOPS), FAA's Aviation Environmental Design Tool (AEDT), Intelligent Automations Kinematic Trajectory Generator (KTG) and the Aviation Safety Risk Model (ASRM). Detailed metroplex modeling, surface delay models for super heavy transports, prioritized routing and corridors for supersonics business jets, and VLJ demand models are some of the models developed by the Raytheon team to study the effect of operating these new vehicles in the future NAS. Using this suite of models, several trade studies were conducted to evaluate these effects in terms of delays, equity in access, safety, and the environment. Looking at the impact of each vehicle, a number of critical issues were identified. The Raytheon team concluded that strict compliance to NextGen's 4-dimensional trajectory (4DT) management will be required to accommodate these vehicles unique operations and increased number of flights in the future air space system. The next section provides a discussion of this and the other key findings from our study.

Zellweger, Andres; Resnick, Herbert; Stevens, Edward; Arkind, Kenneth; Cotton William B.

2010-01-01

258

Advanced batteries for electric vehicle applications: Nontechnical summary  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper provides an overview of the performance characteristics of the most prominent batteries under development for electric vehicles (EV's) and compares these characteristics to the USABC Mid-Term and Long-Term criteria, as well as to typical vehicle-related battery requirements. Most of the battery performance information was obtained from independent tests, conducted using simulated driving power profiles, for DOE and EPRI at Argonne National Laboratory. The EV batteries are categorized as near-term, mid-term, and long-term technologies based on their relative development status, as well as our estimate of their potential availability as commercial EV batteries. Also, the performance capabilities generally increase in going from the near-term to the mid-term and on to the long-term technologies. To date, the USABC has chosen to fund a few selected mid-term and long-term battery technologies.

Henriksen, G. L.

259

Advanced secondary batteries for electric vehicle propulsion. [Battery development goals and status  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of near-term and advanced secondary batteries that are projected to meet performance and cost requirements for electric vehicle applications are currently under development in the U.S.A. Development of the near-term battery technology has been accelerated as a result of the impetus of the Electric and Hybrid Vehicles Research, Development, and Demonstration Act of 1976 (Public Law 94-413). Research

Yao

1978-01-01

260

MSFC Advanced Concepts Office and the Iterative Launch Vehicle Concept Method  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This slide presentation reviews the work of the Advanced Concepts Office (ACO) at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) with particular emphasis on the method used to model launch vehicles using INTegrated ROcket Sizing (INTROS), a modeling system that assists in establishing the launch concept design, and stage sizing, and facilitates the integration of exterior analytic efforts, vehicle architecture studies, and technology and system trades and parameter sensitivities.

Creech, Dennis

2011-01-01

261

Advances in the Use of Tocols as Drug Delivery Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

There has been increasing interest in recent years in the drug delivery applications of tocols and their derivatives. Their\\u000a biocompatibility and potential to deliver both poorly soluble and water-soluble drugs make tocols attractive as drug delivery\\u000a vehicles. This review article will focus primarily on topical, oral, and parenteral drug administration using tocols, although\\u000a other routes of delivery such as pulmonary

Panayiotis P. Constantinides; Jihong Han; Stanley S. Davis

2006-01-01

262

Advances in Doppler-Based Navigation of Underwater Robotic Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

New low-cost commercially available bottom-lockdoppler sonars can augment or replace the acoustic timeof-flight navigation systems commonly employed for threedimensionalunderwater robot vehicle navigation. Thispaper first reviews conventional techniques for underwatervehicle navigation, and describes a doppler-basednavigation system recently developed by the authors. Second,we identify principal limitations to the bottom-trackprecision of doppler based navigation systems. Third, we...

Louis L. Whitcomb; Dana R. Yoerger; Hanumant Singh

1999-01-01

263

A Trial of an All-Terrain Vehicle Safety Education Video in a Community-Based Hunter Education Program  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: All-terrain vehicle (ATV) injury is an increasingly serious problem, particularly among rural youth. There have been repeated calls for ATV safety education, but little study regarding optimal methods or content for such education. The purpose of this study was to determine if an ATV safety video was effective in increasing ATV safety

Williams, Robert S.; Graham, James; Helmkamp, James C.; Dick, Rhonda; Thompson, Tonya; Aitken, Mary E.

2011-01-01

264

Advanced PEFC development for fuel cell powered vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vehicles equipped with fuel cells have been developed with much progress. Outcomes of such development efforts include a Toyota fuel cell electric vehicle (FCEV) using hydrogen as the fuel which was developed and introduced in 1996, followed by another Toyota FCEV using methanol as the fuel, developed and introduced in 1997. In those Toyota FCEVs, a fuel cell system is installed under the floor of each RAV4L, to sports utility vehicle. It has been found that the CO concentration in the reformed gas of methanol reformer can be reduced to 100 ppm in wide ranges of catalyst temperature and gas flow rate, by using the ruthenium (Ru) catalyst as the CO selective oxidizer, instead of the platinum (Pt) catalyst known from some time ago. It has been also found that a fuel cell performance equivalent to that with pure hydrogen can be ensured even in the reformed gas with the carbon monoxide (CO) concentration of 100 ppm, by using the Pt-Ru (platinum ruthenium alloy) electrocatalyst as the anode electrocatalyst of a polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC), instead of the Pt electrocatalyst known from some time ago.

Kawatsu, Shigeyuki

265

U.S. Department of Energy FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies Program Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity Federal Fleet Use of Electric Vehicles  

SciTech Connect

Per Executive Order 13031, “Federal Alternative Fueled Vehicle Leadership,” the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity provided $998,300 in incremental funding to support the deployment of 220 electric vehicles in 36 Federal fleets. The 145 electric Ford Ranger pickups and 75 electric Chrysler EPIC (Electric Powered Interurban Commuter) minivans were operated in 14 states and the District of Columbia. The 220 vehicles were driven an estimated average of 700,000 miles annually. The annual estimated use of the 220 electric vehicles contributed to 39,000 fewer gallons of petroleum being used by Federal fleets and the reduction in emissions of 1,450 pounds of smog-forming pollution. Numerous attempts were made to obtain information from all 36 fleets. Information responses were received from 25 fleets (69% response rate), as some Federal fleet personnel that were originally involved with the Incremental Funding Project were transferred, retired, or simply could not be found. In addition, many of the Department of Defense fleets indicated that they were supporting operations in Iraq and unable to provide information for the foreseeable future. It should be noted that the opinions of the 25 fleets is based on operating 179 of the 220 electric vehicles (81% response rate). The data from the 25 fleets is summarized in this report. Twenty-two of the 25 fleets reported numerous problems with the vehicles, including mechanical, traction battery, and charging problems. Some of these problems, however, may have resulted from attempting to operate the vehicles beyond their capabilities. The majority of fleets reported that most of the vehicles were driven by numerous drivers each week, with most vehicles used for numerous trips per day. The vehicles were driven on average from 4 to 50 miles per day on a single charge. However, the majority of the fleets reported needing gasoline vehicles for missions beyond the capabilities of the electric vehicles, usually because of range limitations. Twelve fleets reported experiencing at least one charge depletion while driving, whereas nine fleets reported not having this problem. Twenty-four of the 25 fleets responded that the electric vehicles were easy to use and 22 fleets indicated that the payload was adequate. Thirteen fleets reported charging problems; eleven fleets reported no charging problems. Nine fleets reported the vehicles broke down while driving; 14 fleets reported no onroad breakdowns. Some of the breakdowns while driving, however, appear to include normal flat tires and idiot lights coming on. In spite of operation and charging problems, 59% of the fleets responded that they were satisfied, very satisfied, or extremely satisfied with the performance of the electric vehicles. As of September 2003, 74 of the electric vehicles were still being used and 107 had been returned to the manufacturers because the leases had concluded.

Mindy Kirpatrick; J. E. Francfort

2003-11-01

266

Results of electric vehicle safety issues survey: Conducted on behalf of ad hoc EV battery readiness working group in-vehicle safety sub-working group  

SciTech Connect

This report documents the results of a survey conducted in the winter of 1994-1995 by the In-Vehicle Safety Sub-Working Group, a working subunit of the DOE-sponsored ad hoc EV Battery Readiness Working Group. The survey was intended to determine the opinions of a group of industry experts regarding the relative importance of a list of some 39 potential safety concerns, grouped into 8 broad areas related to electric vehicles and their battery systems. Participation in the survey was solicited from the members of the Battery Readiness Working Group, along with members of the SAE EV Battery Safety Issues Task Force and selected other knowledgeable individuals. Results of the survey questionnaire were compiled anonymously from the 38 individuals who submitted responses. For each of the issues, survey respondents ranked them as having high, medium or low importance in each of three areas: the severity of events involving this concern, the probability that such events will occur, and the likelihood that mitigating action for such events may be needed beyond normal practices. The accumulated responses from this ranking activity are tabulated, and the response totals are also provided by several subgroupings of respondents. Additionally, large numbers of written comments were provided by respondents, and these are summarized with numbers of responses indicated. A preliminary statistical analysis of the tabulated results was performed but did not provide a satisfactory ranking of the concerns and has not been included in this report. A list is provided of the 15 concerns which a majority of the respondents indicated could be of both medium-to-high severity and medium-to-high probability of occurrence. This list will be reviewed by the Safety Sub-Working Group to determine the status of actions being taken by industry or government to mitigate these concerns, and the likelihood that additional research, standards development or regulation may be warranted to address them.

Hunt, G.L.

1996-06-01

267

Fuel efficiency and automobile safety: Single-vehicle highway fatalities for passenger cars  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports the results of an effort to shed some light on the relationship that might exist between enhanced standards and single-vehicle passenger car highway fatalities. Quantification of this relationship is not an easy task Not surprisingly, the literature on modeling the relationship between fuel economy and highway fatalities is very scant. Our analytic framework consists of two submodels: a corporate average fuel economy (CAFE) submodel and a single-vehicle highway fatalities submodel. Some of the variables that enter the CAFE relationship affect single-vehicle fatalities, as well. The results of this study are not unequivocal in every respect. However, they indicate that enhanced standards and automobile safety need not be at odds with each other. A main message that emerges from this study is the need not to confuse car downsizing with down weighting. Quantatative studies of highway fatalities have mostly treated weight and size interchangeably, and have used only the weight variable in the fatalities equation to avoid dealing with multicollinearity. Such references as {open_quote}size/weight{close_quote} which lump size and weight together as if they were the same variable are not uncommon in the safety literature. Our study indicates that weight and size are not a proxy to each other, and that in single vehicle crashes they are likely to have opposite effects on safety. Men researchers choose to drop the size variable and include only the weight variable in the fatalities equation, the weight estimate may end up with a negative sign, not necessarily because weight has a beneficial effect on safety, but because the omitted size variable has a dominant beneficial effect on safety, which is picked up by the weight variable that appears in the equation. 65 refs., 7 tabs.

Khazzoom, J.D. [San Jose Univ., CA (United States)

1994-12-31

268

Analytical modeling of rail vehicle safety and comfort in short radius curved tracks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study deals with the modeling of rail vehicles' behavior when traveling in curves of short radius. Based on the symmetry of the vehicle and on the nature of the motion, we show that the study of the system behavior can be reduced to the quasi static study of a quarter. We propose in this work, an analytical model able to describe the safety and the comfort by determining derailment and creep forces. The developed model is validated using the software ADAMS and results from the bibliography. The developed model can be easily used to optimize the rail vehicles design and the sensitivity analyses of its performance. To cite this article: M. Nejlaoui et al., C. R. Mecanique 337 (2009).

Nejlaoui, Mohamed; Affi, Zouhaier; Houidi, Ajmi; Romdhane, Lotfi

2009-05-01

269

Advanced Reactor Safety Research Division Quarterly Progress Report, January 1-March 31, 1981.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Advanced Reactor Safety Research Programs Quarterly Progress Report describes current activities and technical progress in the programs at Brookhaven National Laboratory sponsored by the USNRC Division of Reactor Safety Research. The projects reported...

R. J. Cerbone J. G. Guppy T. Ginsberg C. Sastre A. J. Romano

1981-01-01

270

Performance of a Time-of-Flight Range Camera for Intelligent Vehicle Safety Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

A variety of safety-enhancing automobile features can be enabled by microsystems that can sense and analyze the dynamic 3D\\u000a environment inside and outside the vehicle. It is desirable to directly sense the 3D shape of the scene, since the appearance\\u000a of objects in a 2D image is confounded by illumination conditions, surface materials, and object orientation. To overcome\\u000a the disadvantages

Stephen Hsu; Sunil Acharya; Abbas Rafii; Richard New

271

Safety and environmental aspects of zinc--chlorine hydrate batteries for electric-vehicle applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Public acceptance of high-performance cost-effective zinc--chlorine hydrate batteries for the random-use electric-vehicle application will require meeting stringent safety and environmental requirements. These requirements revolve mainly around the question of accidental release and spread of toxic amounts of chlorine gas, the only potential hazard in this battery system. Available information in the areas of physiological effects, environmental impact, and governmental regulation

S. Kodali; G. L. Henriksen; C. C. Whittlesey; C. J. Warde; P. Carr; P. C. Symons

1978-01-01

272

Current status of environmental, health, and safety issues of nickel metal-hydride batteries for electric vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report identifies important environment, health, and safety issues associated with nickel metal-hydride (Ni-MH) batteries and assesses the need for further testing and analysis. Among the issues discussed are cell and battery safety, workplace health and safety, shipping requirements, and in-vehicle safety. The manufacture and recycling of Ni-MH batteries are also examined. This report also overviews the 'FH&S' issues associated

D. Corbus; C. J. Hammel; J. Mark

1993-01-01

273

Evaluation of the benefits of vehicle safety technology: the MUNDS study.  

PubMed

Real-world retrospective evaluation of the safety benefits of new integrated safety technologies is hampered by the lack of sufficient data to assess early reliable benefits. This MUNDS study set out to examine if a "prospective" case-control meta-analysis had the potential to provide more rapid and rigorous analyses of vehicle and infrastructure safety improvements. To examine the validity of the approach, an analysis of the effectiveness of ESC using a consistent analytic strategy across 6 European and Australasian databases was undertaken. It was hypothesised that the approach would be valid if the results of the MUNDS analysis were consistent with those published earlier (this would confirm the suitability of the MUNDS approach). The findings confirm the hypothesis and also found stronger and more robust findings across the range of crash-types, road conditions, vehicle sizes and speed zones than previous. The study recommends that while a number of limitations were identified with the findings that need be addressed in future research, the MUNDS approach nevertheless should be adopted widely for the benefit of all vehicle occupants. PMID:23598087

Fildes, Brian; Keall, Michael; Thomas, Pete; Parkkari, Kalle; Pennisi, Lucia; Tingvall, Claes

2013-06-01

274

Laboratory evaluation of advanced battery technologies for electric vehicle applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During 1988, battery technology evaluations were performed for the Department of Energy and Electric Power Research Institute at the Argonne Analysis and Diagnostic Laboratory. Cells and multicell modules from four developers were examined to determine their performance and life characteristics for electric vehicle propulsion applications. The results provide an interim measure of the progress being made in battery R and D programs, a comparison of battery technologies, and a source of basic data for modeling and continuing R and D. This paper summarizes the performance and life characterizations of twelve single cells and six 3- to 24-cell modules that encompass four technologies (Na/S, Ni/Fe, lead-acid, and Fe/Air).

Deluca, W. H.; Kulaga, J. E.; Hogrefe, R. L.; Tummilo, A. F.; Webster, C. E.

1989-03-01

275

NASA advanced aeronautics design solar powered remotely piloted vehicle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Environmental problems such as the depletion of the ozone layer and air pollution demand a change in traditional means of propulsion that is sensitive to the ecology. Solar powered propulsion is a favorable alternative that is both ecologically harmless as well as cost effective. Integration of solar energy into designs ranging from futuristic vehicles to heating is beneficial to society. The design and construction of a Multi-Purpose Remotely Piloted Vehicle (MPRPV) seeks to verify the feasibility of utilizing solar propulsion as a primary fuel source. This task has been a year long effort by a group of ten students, divided into five teams, each dealing with different aspects of the design. The aircraft was designed to take-off, climb to the design altitude, fly in a sustained figure-eight flight path, and cruise for approximately one hour. This mission requires flight at Reynolds numbers between 150,000 and 200,000 and demands special considerations in the aerodynamic design in order to achieve flight in this regime. Optimal performance requires a light weight configuration with both structural integrity and maximum power availability. The structure design and choice of solar cells for the propulsion was governed by the weight, efficiency, and cost considerations. The final design is a MPRPV weighting 35 N which cruises 7 m/s at the design altitude of 50 m. The configuration includes a wing composed of balsa and foam NACA 6409 airfoil sections and carbon fiber spars, a tail of similar construction, and a truss structure fuselage. The propulsion system consists of 98 10 percent efficient solar cells donated by Mobil Solar, a NiCad battery for energy storage, and a folding propeller regulated by a lightweight and efficient control system. The airfoils and propeller chosen for the design were research and tested during the design process.

Elario, David S.; Guillmette, Neal H.; Lind, Gregory S.; Webster, Jonathan D.; Ferreira, Michael J.; Konstantakis, George C.; Marshall, David L.; Windt, Cari L.

1991-01-01

276

Re-Entry Mission Analysis of the Advanced Re-entry Vehicle (ARV)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents the results of the DEIMOS Space S.L.U. Re-entry Mission Analysis activities obtained in the frame of the Phase A up to PRR milestone of the Advanced Re-entry Vehicle (ARV) ESA project leaded by ASTRIUM. Results presented show how the trajectory and the vehicle design are strictly related and how a feasible and robust solution can be efficiently obtained by considering since the beginning several constraints limiting the design. The process implemented combines the design of key vehicle and trajectory parameters. Once the vehicle design parameters and the conditions at the EIP are fixed, the Mission Analysis is completed by the definition of the optimal trajectory from the deorbiting to the EIP that allow the correct targeting of the EIP conditions but also a safe separation of the different modules and the correct targeting of the desired landing site.

Bonetti, D.; Haya Ramos, R.; Strauch, H.; Bottacini, M.

2011-08-01

277

Safety Changes in the US Vehicle Fleet since Model Year 1990, Based on NASS Data  

PubMed Central

Based on the National Automotive Sampling System Crashworthiness Data System since the 1988–1992 model years, there has been a reduction in the MAIS 3+ injury rate and the Mean HARM for all crash modes. The largest improvement in vehicle safety has been in rollovers. There was an increase in the rollover injury rate in the 1993–1998 model year period, but a reduction since then. When comparing vehicles of the model year 1993 to 1998 with later model vehicles, the most profound difference was the reduction of rollover frequency for SUV’s – down more than 20% when compared to other crash modes. When considering only model years since 2002 the rollover frequency reduction was nearly 40%. A 26% reduction in the rate of moderate and serious injuries for all drivers in rollovers was observed for the model years later than 1998. The overall belt use rate for drivers of late model vehicles with HARM weighted injuries was 62% - up from 54% in earlier model vehicles. However, in rollover crashes, the same belt use rate lagged at 54%.

Eigen, Ana Maria; Digges, Kennerly; Samaha, Randa Radwan

2012-01-01

278

Safety Changes in the US Vehicle Fleet since Model Year 1990, Based on NASS Data.  

PubMed

Based on the National Automotive Sampling System Crashworthiness Data System since the 1988-1992 model years, there has been a reduction in the MAIS 3+ injury rate and the Mean HARM for all crash modes. The largest improvement in vehicle safety has been in rollovers. There was an increase in the rollover injury rate in the 1993-1998 model year period, but a reduction since then. When comparing vehicles of the model year 1993 to 1998 with later model vehicles, the most profound difference was the reduction of rollover frequency for SUV's - down more than 20% when compared to other crash modes. When considering only model years since 2002 the rollover frequency reduction was nearly 40%. A 26% reduction in the rate of moderate and serious injuries for all drivers in rollovers was observed for the model years later than 1998. The overall belt use rate for drivers of late model vehicles with HARM weighted injuries was 62% - up from 54% in earlier model vehicles. However, in rollover crashes, the same belt use rate lagged at 54%. PMID:23169134

Eigen, Ana Maria; Digges, Kennerly; Samaha, Randa Radwan

2012-01-01

279

Vehicle Integration and Evaluation of Advanced Restraint Systems. Restraint System Analysis Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report describes the results of the sled testing and vehicle crash testing that were conducted in order to evaluate the performance of four advanced restraints systems in a compact size automobile. These results were then used to construct a crash sur...

M. U. Fitzpatrick

1977-01-01

280

NREL's Hydrogen-Powered Bus Serves as Showcase for Advanced Vehicle Technologies (AVT) (Brochure)  

SciTech Connect

Brochure describes the hydrogen-powered internal combustion engine (H2ICE) shuttle bus at NREL. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is funding the lease of the bus from Ford to demonstrate market-ready advanced technology vehicles to visitors at NREL.

Not Available

2010-08-01

281

Orbital Transfer Vehicle (OTV) advanced expander cycle engine point design study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Progress in the development of a performance optimized engine system design for an advanced LOX/hydrogen expander cycle engine is reported. Analysis of the components and engine and the resulting drawings is discussed. The status of the orbit transfer vehicle liquid engine transient simulation computer model is given.

Mellish, J. A.

1980-01-01

282

Battery technology for electric and hybrid vehicles: Expert views about prospects for advancement  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we present the results of an expert elicitation on the prospects for advances in battery technology for electric and hybrid vehicles. We find disagreement among the experts on a wide range of topics, including the need for government funding, the probability of getting batteries with Lithium Metal anodes to work, and the probability of building safe Lithium-ion

Erin D. Baker; Haewon Chon; Jeffrey M. Keisler

2010-01-01

283

Progress on Advanced DC and AC Induction Drives for Electric Vehicles.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Progress is reported in the development of complete electric vehicle propulsion systems, and the results of tests on the Road Load Simulator of two such systems representative of advanced dc and ac drive technology are presented. One is the system used in...

H. J. Schwartz

1982-01-01

284

Progress on Advanced DC and AC Induction Drives for Electric Vehicles.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Progress in the development of complete electric vehicle propulsion systems is described, and the results of tests on the Road Load Simulator of two such system representative of advanced dc and ac drive technology are given. One is the system used in the...

H. J. Schwartz

1982-01-01

285

How Safe is Vehicle Safety? The Contribution of Vehicle Technologies to the Reduction in Road Casualties in France from 2000 to 2010  

PubMed Central

In France, over the last 10 years, road fatalities have decreased dramatically by 48%. This reduction is somewhat close to the target fixed by the European Commision in 2001 for the whole of Europe (?50 %). According to the French govnerment, 75% of this reduction was due to the implementation of automatic speed cameras on the roadsides from 2003 onwards. Yet, during this period, there was also a significantly increase in safety technology, new regulations in front and side impacts, and developments in Euro NCAP to improve passive safety in the vehicles. This paper set out to estimate the extent that vehicle safety technologies contributed to the road safety benefits over this decade. Using a combination of databases and fitment rates, the number of fatalities and hospitalized injuries saved in passenger car crashes was estimated for a number of safety technologies, individually and as a package including a 5 star EuroNCAP rating. The additional benefits from other public safety measures were also similarly estimated. The results showed that overall safety measures during this decade saved 240,676 fatalities + serious injuries, of which 173,663 were car occupants. Of these, 27,365 car occupants and 1,083 pedestrian savings could be attributed directly to vehicle safety improvements (11% overall). It was concluded that while public safety measures were responsible for the majority of the savings, enhanced vehicle safety technologies also made a significant improvement in the road toll in France during the last decade. As the take-up rate for these technologies improves, is expected to continue to provide even more benefits in the next 10-year period.

Page, Yves; Hermitte, Thierry; Cuny, Sophie

2011-01-01

286

Advanced korean industrial safety and health policy with risk assessment.  

PubMed

This article describes a systematic roadmap master plan for advanced industrial safety and health policy in Korea, with an emphasis on. Since Korean industries had first emergence of industrial safety and health policy in 1953, enormous efforts have been made on upgrading the relevant laws in order to reflect real situation of industrial work environment in accordance with rapid changes of Korean and global business over three decades. Nevertheless, current policy has major defects; too much techniques-based articles, diverged contents in less organization, combined enforcement and punishments and finally enforcing regulations full of commands and control. These deficiencies have make it difficult to accommodate changes of social, industrial and employment environment in customized fashion. The approach to the solution must be generic at the level of paradigm-shift rather than local modifications and enhancement. The basic idea is to establish a new system integrated with a risk assessment scheme, which encourages employers to apply to their work environment under comprehensive responsibility. The risk assessment scheme is designed to enable to inspect employers' compliances afterwards. A project comprises four yearly phases based on applying zones; initially designating and operating a specified risk zone, gradually expanding the special zones during a period of 3 years (2010-2012) and the final zone expanded to entire nation. In each phase, the intermediate version of the system is updated through a process of precise and unbiased validation in terms of its operability, feasibility and sustainability with building relevant infrastructures as needed. PMID:22953160

Kwon, Hyuckmyun; Cho, Jae Hyun; Moon, Il; Choi, Jaewook; Park, Dooyong; Lee, Youngsoon

2010-09-01

287

Design for Reliability and Safety Approach for the NASA New Launch Vehicle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The United States National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is in the midst of a space exploration program intended for sending crew and cargo to the international Space Station (ISS), to the moon, and beyond. This program is called Constellation. As part of the Constellation program, NASA is developing new launch vehicles aimed at significantly increase safety and reliability, reduce the cost of accessing space, and provide a growth path for manned space exploration. Achieving these goals requires a rigorous process that addresses reliability, safety, and cost upfront and throughout all the phases of the life cycle of the program. This paper discusses the "Design for Reliability and Safety" approach for the NASA new crew launch vehicle called ARES I. The ARES I is being developed by NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in support of the Constellation program. The ARES I consists of three major Elements: A solid First Stage (FS), an Upper Stage (US), and liquid Upper Stage Engine (USE). Stacked on top of the ARES I is the Crew exploration vehicle (CEV). The CEV consists of a Launch Abort System (LAS), Crew Module (CM), Service Module (SM), and a Spacecraft Adapter (SA). The CEV development is being led by NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC). Designing for high reliability and safety require a good integrated working environment and a sound technical design approach. The "Design for Reliability and Safety" approach addressed in this paper discusses both the environment and the technical process put in place to support the ARES I design. To address the integrated working environment, the ARES I project office has established a risk based design group called "Operability Design and Analysis" (OD&A) group. This group is an integrated group intended to bring together the engineering, design, and safety organizations together to optimize the system design for safety, reliability, and cost. On the technical side, the ARES I project has, through the OD&A environment, implemented a probabilistic approach to analyze and evaluate design uncertainties and understand their impact on safety, reliability, and cost. This paper focuses on the use of the various probabilistic approaches that have been pursued by the ARES I project. Specifically, the paper discusses an integrated functional probabilistic analysis approach that addresses upffont some key areas to support the ARES I Design Analysis Cycle (DAC) pre Preliminary Design (PD) Phase. This functional approach is a probabilistic physics based approach that combines failure probabilities with system dynamics and engineering failure impact models to identify key system risk drivers and potential system design requirements. The paper also discusses other probabilistic risk assessment approaches planned by the ARES I project to support the PD phase and beyond.

Safie, Fayssal, M.; Weldon, Danny M.

2007-01-01

288

Advanced electric propulsion system concept for electric vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Seventeen propulsion system concepts for electric vehicles were compared to determine the differences in components and battery pack to achieve the basic performance level. Design tradeoffs were made for selected configurations to find the optimum component characteristics required to meet all performance goals. The anticipated performance when using nickel-zinc batteries rather than the standard lead-acid batteries was also evaluated. The two systems selected for the final conceptual design studies included a system with a flywheel energy storage unit and a basic system that did not have a flywheel. The flywheel system meets the range requirement with either lead-acid or nickel-zinc batteries and also the acceleration of zero to 89 km/hr in 15 s. The basic system can also meet the required performance with a fully charged battery, but, when the battery approaches 20 to 30 percent depth of discharge, maximum acceleration capability gradually degrades. The flywheel system has an estimated life-cycle cost of $0.041/km using lead-acid batteries. The basic system has a life-cycle cost of $0.06/km. The basic system, using batteries meeting ISOA goals, would have a life-cycle cost of $0.043/km.

Raynard, A. E.; Forbes, F. E.

1979-01-01

289

Development of Pneumatic Aerodynamic Devices to Improve the Performance, Economics, and Safety of Heavy Vehicles  

SciTech Connect

Under contract to the DOE Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies, the Georgia Tech Research Institute (GTRI) is developing and evaluating pneumatic (blown) aerodynamic devices to improve the performance, economics, stability and safety of operation of Heavy Vehicles. The objective of this program is to apply the pneumatic aerodynamic aircraft technology previously developed and flight-tested by GTRI personnel to the design of an efficient blown tractor-trailer configuration. Recent experimental results obtained by GTRI using blowing have shown drag reductions of 35% on a streamlined automobile wind-tunnel model. Also measured were lift or down-load increases of 100-150% and the ability to control aerodynamic moments about all 3 axes without any moving control surfaces. Similar drag reductions yielded by blowing on bluff afterbody trailers in current US trucking fleet operations are anticipated to reduce yearly fuel consumption by more than 1.2 billion gallons, while even further reduction is possible using pneumatic lift to reduce tire rolling resistance. Conversely, increased drag and down force generated instantaneously by blowing can greatly increase braking characteristics and control in wet/icy weather due to effective ''weight'' increases on the tires. Safety is also enhanced by controlling side loads and moments caused on these Heavy Vehicles by winds, gusts and other vehicles passing. This may also help to eliminate the jack-knifing problem if caused by extreme wind side loads on the trailer. Lastly, reduction of the turbulent wake behind the trailer can reduce splash and spray patterns and rough air being experienced by following vehicles. To be presented by GTRI in this paper will be results developed during the early portion of this effort, including a preliminary systems study, CFD prediction of the blown flowfields, and design of the baseline conventional tractor-trailer model and the pneumatic wind-tunnel model.

Robert J. Englar

2000-06-19

290

A novel series connected batteries state of high voltage safety monitor system for electric vehicle application.  

PubMed

Batteries, as the main or assistant power source of EV (Electric Vehicle), are usually connected in series with high voltage to improve the drivability and energy efficiency. Today, more and more batteries are connected in series with high voltage, if there is any fault in high voltage system (HVS), the consequence is serious and dangerous. Therefore, it is necessary to monitor the electric parameters of HVS to ensure the high voltage safety and protect personal safety. In this study, a high voltage safety monitor system is developed to solve this critical issue. Four key electric parameters including precharge, contact resistance, insulation resistance, and remaining capacity are monitored and analyzed based on the equivalent models presented in this study. The high voltage safety controller which integrates the equivalent models and control strategy is developed. By the help of hardware-in-loop system, the equivalent models integrated in the high voltage safety controller are validated, and the online electric parameters monitor strategy is analyzed and discussed. The test results indicate that the high voltage safety monitor system designed in this paper is suitable for EV application. PMID:24194677

Jiaxi, Qiang; Lin, Yang; Jianhui, He; Qisheng, Zhou

2013-01-01

291

Development of Micro Air Reconnaissance Vehicle as a Test Bed for Advanced Sensors and Electronics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes the development of a Micro/Mini Air Reconnaissance Vehicle for advanced sensors and electronics at NASA Langley Research Center over the last year. This vehicle is expected to have a total weight of less than four pounds, a design velocity of 40 mph, an endurance of 15-20 minutes, and a maximum range of 5km. The vehicle has wings that are simple to detach yet retain the correct alignment. The upper fuselage surface has a quick release hatch used to access the interior and also to mount the varying propulsion systems. The sensor suite developed for this vehicle consists of a Pitot-static measurement system for determining air speed, an absolute pressure measurement for determining altitude, magnetic direction measurement, and three orthogonal gyros to determine body angular rates. Swarming GPS-guidance and in-flight maneuvering is discussed, as well as design and installation of some other advance sensors like MEMS microphones, infrared cameras, GPS, humidity sensors, and an ultrasonic sonar sensor. Also low cost, small size, high performance control and navigation system for the Micro Air Vehicle is discussed. At the end, laboratory characterization of different sensors, motors, propellers, and batteries will be discussed.

Shams, Qamar A.; Vranas, Thomas L.; Fox, Robert L.; Kuhn, Theodore R.; Ingham, John; Logan, Michael J.; Barnes, Kevin N.; Guenther, Benjamin F.

2002-01-01

292

Wheeled Mobility Device Transportation Safety in Fixed Route and Demand-Responsive Public Transit Vehicles within the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

An overview of the current status of wheelchair transportation safety in fixed route and demand-responsive, non-rail, public transportation vehicles within the US is presented. A description of each mode of transportation is provided, followed by a discussion of the primary issues affecting safety, accessibility and usability. Technologies such as lifts, ramps, securement systems and occupant restraint systems, along with regulations

Karen L. Frost; Linda van Roosmalen; Gina Bertocci; Douglas J. Cross

2012-01-01

293

Direct-hydrogen-fueled proton-exchange-membrane fuel cell system for transportation applications. Hydrogen vehicle safety report  

SciTech Connect

This report reviews the safety characteristics of hydrogen as an energy carrier for a fuel cell vehicle (FCV), with emphasis on high pressure gaseous hydrogen onboard storage. The authors consider normal operation of the vehicle in addition to refueling, collisions, operation in tunnels, and storage in garages. They identify the most likely risks and failure modes leading to hazardous conditions, and provide potential countermeasures in the vehicle design to prevent or substantially reduce the consequences of each plausible failure mode. They then compare the risks of hydrogen with those of more common motor vehicle fuels including gasoline, propane, and natural gas.

Thomas, C.E. [Directed Technologies, Inc., Arlington, VA (United States)

1997-05-01

294

Evaluation of sunscreen safety by in vitro skin permeation studies: effects of vehicle composition.  

PubMed

For sunscreens to be safe and effective, the lowest possible UV-filter percutaneous absorption should be achieved. In this paper, we evaluated in vitro release and permeation through human skin of two UV-filters, octyl methoxycinnammate (OMC) and butyl methoxydibenzoyl methane (BMBM) from six commercial O/W emulsions and we estimated their margin of safety (MoS). OMC and BMBM in vitro release and skin permeation were investigated in Franz-type diffusion cells and permeation data were used to calculate MoS. OMC in vitro skin permeation depended on both its concentration and vehicle composition while BMBM skin permeation depended on its release from the vehicle. MoS values were well beyond the lowest limit accepted for safe products. Although sunscreen skin permeation may depend on many factors, the commercial products investigated are safe under normal "in use" conditions. PMID:23444778

Montenegro, L; Puglisi, G

2013-01-01

295

Advanced traffic management systems and high-occupancy-vehicle systems. Transportation research record  

SciTech Connect

;Contents: Distributed Approach to Real-Time Control of Complex Signalized Networks; MULTIBAND-96: A Program for Variable-Bandwidth Progression Optimization of Multiarterial Traffic Networks; Determination of Timings in Signal Systems with Traffic-Actuated Controllers; Combined Model for Signal Control and Route Choice in Urbn Traffic Networks; Multivariate Optimization Strategies for Real-Time Traffic Control Signals; Implementation Vision for Distributed Control of Traffic Signal Subsystems; Current Developments in SCOOT: Version 3; Estimating Impact of Signal Hardware Improvements; Guidelines for Actuated Controllers in Coordinated Systems; Evaluation of Bus Priority Signal Strategies in Ann Arbor, Michigan; NETSIM-Based Approach to Evaluation of Bus Preemption Strategies; Simulation-Based Methodology for Evaluation of High-Occupancy-Vehicle Facilities; Predicting High-Occupancy-Vehicle Facility Demand; Evaluation of High-Occupancy-Vehicle Lanes on Long Island Expressway; Effect on Congestion and Motorcycle Safety of Motorcycle Travel on High-Occupancy-Vehicle Facilities in Virginia; Development of Arterial High-Occupancy-Vehicle Land Enforcement Techniques; Multiple-Interval Freeway Traffic Flow Forecasting; New Methodology for Smoothing Freeway Loop Detector Data: Introduction to Digital Filtering; Evaluation of Compliance Rates and Travel Time Calculation for Automatic Alternative Route Guidance Systems on Freeways; Algorithm for Controlling Spillback from Ramp Meters; Systemwide Analysis of Freeway Improvements; Transferability of Freeway Incident Detection Algorithms; Deriving Incident Management Measures Using Incident Probability Models and Simulation; and I-880 Field Experiment: Data-Base Development and Incident Delay Estimation Procedures.

NONE

1996-12-31

296

The Application of the NASA Advanced Concepts Office, Launch Vehicle Team Design Process and Tools for Modeling Small Responsive Launch Vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Advanced Concepts Office (ACO) Launch Vehicle Team at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is recognized throughout NASA for launch vehicle conceptual definition and pre-phase A concept design evaluation. The Launch Vehicle Team has been instrumental in defining the vehicle trade space for many of NASA s high level launch system studies from the Exploration Systems Architecture Study (ESAS) through the Augustine Report, Constellation, and now Space Launch System (SLS). The Launch Vehicle Team s approach to rapid turn-around and comparative analysis of multiple launch vehicle architectures has played a large role in narrowing the design options for future vehicle development. Recently the Launch Vehicle Team has been developing versions of their vetted tools used on large launch vehicles and repackaged the process and capability to apply to smaller more responsive launch vehicles. Along this development path the LV Team has evaluated trajectory tools and assumptions against sounding rocket trajectories and air launch systems, begun altering subsystem mass estimating relationships to handle smaller vehicle components, and as an additional development driver, have begun an in-house small launch vehicle study. With the recent interest in small responsive launch systems and the known capability and response time of the ACO LV Team, ACO s launch vehicle assessment capability can be utilized to rapidly evaluate the vast and opportune trade space that small launch vehicles currently encompass. This would provide a great benefit to the customer in order to reduce that large trade space to a select few alternatives that should best fit the customer s payload needs.

Threet, Grady E.; Waters, Eric D.; Creech, Dennis M.

2012-01-01

297

Literature Review on Health and Fatigue Issues Associated with Commercial Motor Vehicle Driver Hours of Work. Commercial Truck and Bus Safety Synthesis 9.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This synthesis will be useful to commercial vehicle operators, federal and state agencies, and others interested in improving commercial vehicle safety. The report provides a review of literature relevant to health and fatigue issues associated with comme...

P. Orris S. Buchanan A. Smiley D. Davis D. Dinges

2005-01-01

298

Ford Motor Company. Sae-Tsiarl-67TK Combination Rear Lamp. Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard No. 108 (Lamps, Reflective Devices and Associated Equipment).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report pertains to tests conducted by an independent contractor as part of the National Highway Safety Bureau's compliance testing program to determine whether or not motor vehicles and items of motor vehicle equipment comply with applicable Federal M...

1969-01-01

299

Advanced Aero-Propulsive Mid-Lift-to-Drag Ratio Entry Vehicle for Future Exploration Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA is currently looking well into the future toward realizing Exploration mission possibilities to destinations including the Earth-Moon Lagrange points, Near-Earth Asteroids (NEAs) and the Moon. These are stepping stones to our ultimate destination Mars. New ideas will be required to conquer the significant challenges that await us, some just conceptions and others beginning to be realized. Bringing these ideas to fruition and enabling further expansion into space will require varying degrees of change, from engineering and integration approaches used in spacecraft design and operations, to high-level architectural capabilities bounded only by the limits of our ideas. The most profound change will be realized by paradigm change, thus enabling our ultimate goals to be achieved. Inherent to achieving these goals, higher entry, descent, and landing (EDL) performance has been identified as a high priority. Increased EDL performance will be enabled by highly-capable thermal protection systems (TPS), the ability to deliver larger and heavier payloads, increased surface access, and tighter landing footprints to accommodate multiple asset, single-site staging. In addition, realizing reduced cost access to space will demand more efficient approaches and reusable launch vehicle systems. Current operational spacecraft and launch vehicles do not incorporate the technologies required for these far-reaching missions and goals, nor what is needed to achieve the desired launch vehicle cost savings. To facilitate these missions and provide for safe and more reliable capabilities, NASA and its partners will need to make ideas reality by gaining knowledge through the design, development, manufacturing, implementation and flight testing of robotic and human spacecraft. To accomplish these goals, an approach is recommended for integrated development and implementation of three paradigm-shifting capabilities into an advanced entry vehicle system with additional application to launch vehicle stage return, thus making ideas reality. These paradigm shifts include the technology maturation of advanced flexible thermal protection materials onto mid lift-to-drag ratio entry vehicles, the development of integrated supersonic aero-propulsive maneuvering, and the implementation of advanced asymmetric launch shrouds. These paradigms have significant overlap with launch vehicle stage return already being developed by the Air Force and several commercial space efforts. Completing the realization of these combined paradigms holds the key to a high-performing entry vehicle system capability that fully leverages multiple technology benefits to accomplish NASA's Exploration missions to atmospheric planetary destinations.

Campbell, C. H.; Stosaric, R. R; Cerimele, C. J.; Wong, K. A.; Valle, G. D.; Garcia, J. A.; Melton, J. E.; Munk, M. M.; Blades, E.; Kuruvila, G.; Picetti, D. J.; Hassan, B.; Kniskern, M. W.

2012-01-01

300

The Integrated Safety-Critical Advanced Avionics Communication and Control (ISAACC) System Concept: Infrastructure for ISHM  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Integrated System Health Management (ISHM) architectures for spacecraft will include hard real-time, critical subsystems and soft real-time monitoring subsystems. Interaction between these subsystems will be necessary and an architecture supporting multiple criticality levels will be required. Demonstration hardware for the Integrated Safety-Critical Advanced Avionics Communication & Control (ISAACC) system has been developed at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center. It is a modular system using a commercially available time-triggered protocol, ?Tp/C, that supports hard real-time distributed control systems independent of the data transmission medium. The protocol is implemented in hardware and provides guaranteed low-latency messaging with inherent fault-tolerance and fault-containment. Interoperability between modules and systems of modules using the TTP/C is guaranteed through definition of messages and the precise message schedule implemented by the master-less Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) communications protocol. "Plug-and-play" capability for sensors and actuators provides automatically configurable modules supporting sensor recalibration and control algorithm re-tuning without software modification. Modular components of controlled physical system(s) critical to control algorithm tuning, such as pumps or valve components in an engine, can be replaced or upgraded as "plug and play" components without modification to the ISAACC module hardware or software. ISAACC modules can communicate with other vehicle subsystems through time-triggered protocols or other communications protocols implemented over Ethernet, MIL-STD- 1553 and RS-485/422. Other communication bus physical layers and protocols can be included as required. In this way, the ISAACC modules can be part of a system-of-systems in a vehicle with multi-tier subsystems of varying criticality. The goal of the ISAACC architecture development is control and monitoring of safety critical systems of a manned spacecraft. These systems include spacecraft navigation and attitude control, propulsion, automated docking, vehicle health management and life support. ISAACC can integrate local critical subsystem health management with subsystems performing long term health monitoring. The ISAACC system and its relationship to ISHM will be presented.

Gwaltney, David A.; Briscoe, Jeri M.

2005-01-01

301

Technology requirements for advanced earth-orbital transportation systems: Summary report. [single stage to orbit vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Areas of advanced technology that are either critical or offer significant benefits to the development of future Earth-orbit transportation systems were identified. Technology assessment was based on the application of these technologies to fully reusable, single-state-to-orbit (SSTO) vehicle concepts with horizontal landing capability. Study guidelines included mission requirements similar to space shuttle, an operational capability beginning in 1995, and main propulsion to be advanced hydrogen-fueled rocket engines. The technical and economic feasibility of this class of SSTO concepts were evaluated as well as the comparative features of three operational take-off modes, which were vertical boost, horizontal sled launch, and horizontal take-off with subsequent inflight fueling. Projections of both normal and accelerated technology growth were made. Figures of merit were derived to provide relative rankings of technology areas. The influence of selected accelerated areas on vehicle design and program costs was analyzed by developing near-optimum point designs.

Haefeli, R. C.; Littler, E. G.; Hurley, J. B.; Winter, M. G.

1977-01-01

302

Launch Vehicle Design and Optimization Methods and Priority for the Advanced Engineering Environment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's Advanced Engineering Environment (AEE) is a research and development program that will improve collaboration among design engineers for launch vehicle conceptual design and provide the infrastructure (methods and framework) necessary to enable that environment. In this paper, three major technical challenges facing the AEE program are identified, and three specific design problems are selected to demonstrate how advanced methods can improve current design activities. References are made to studies that demonstrate these design problems and methods, and these studies will provide the detailed information and check cases to support incorporation of these methods into the AEE. This paper provides background and terminology for discussing the launch vehicle conceptual design problem so that the diverse AEE user community can participate in prioritizing the AEE development effort.

Rowell, Lawrence F.; Korte, John J.

2003-01-01

303

Reusable launch vehicles, enabling technology for the development of advanced upper stages and payloads  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the near future there will be classes of upper stages and payloads that will require initial operation at a high-earth orbit to reduce the probability of an inadvertent reentry that could result in a detrimental impact on humans and the biosphere. A nuclear propulsion system, such as was being developed under the Space Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (SNTP) Program, is an example of such a potential payload. This paper uses the results of a reusable launch vehicle (RLV) study to demonstrate the potential importance of a Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) to test and implement an advanced upper stage (AUS) or payload in a safe orbit and in a cost effective and reliable manner. The RLV is a horizontal takeoff and horizontal landing (HTHL), two-stage-to-orbit (TSTO) vehicle. The results of the study shows that an HTHL is cost effective because it implements airplane-like operation, infrastructure, and flight operations. The first stage of the TSTO is powered by Rocket-Based-Combined-Cycle (RBCC) engines, the second stage is powered by a LOX/LH rocket engine. The TSTO is used since it most effectively utilizes the capability of the RBCC engine. The analysis uses the NASA code POST (Program to Optimize Simulated Trajectories) to determine trajectories and weight in high-earth orbit for AUS/advanced payloads. Cost and reliability of an RLV versus current generation expandable launch vehicles are presented.

Metzger, John D.

1998-01-01

304

Advanced transportation system studies. Technical area 2: Heavy lift launch vehicle development. Volume 2; Technical Results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Sections 10 to 13 of the Advanced Transportation System Studies final report are included in this volume. Section 10 contains a copy of an executive summary that was prepared by Lockheed Space Operations Company (LSOC) to document their support to the TA-2 contract during the first-year period of performance of the contract, May 1992 through May 1993. LSOC participated on the TA-2 contract as part of the concurrent engineering launch system definition team, and provided outstanding heavy lift launch vehicle (HLLV) ground operations requirements and concept assessments for Lockheed Missiles and Space Company (LMSC) through an intercompany work transfer as well as providing specific HLLV ground operations assessments at the direction of NASA KSC through KSC funding that was routed to the TA-2 contract. Section 11 contains a copy of a vehicle-independent, launch system health management requirements assessment. The purpose of the assessment was to define both health management requirements and the associated interfaces between a generic advanced transportation system launch vehicle and all related elements of the entire transportation system, including the ground segment. Section 12 presents the major TA-2 presentations provided to summarize the significant results and conclusions that were developed over the course of the contract. Finally, Section 13 presents the design and assessment report on the first lunar outpost heavy lift launch vehicle.

1995-01-01

305

Dual-Fuel Propulsion in Single-Stage Advanced Manned Launch System Vehicle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As part of the United States Advanced Manned Launch System study to determine a follow-on, or complement, to the Space Shuttle, a reusable single-stage-to-orbit concept utilizing dual-fuel rocket propulsion has been examined. Several dual-fuel propulsion concepts were investigated. These include: a separate-engine concept combining Russian RD-170 kerosene-fueled engines with space shuttle main engine-derivative engines: the kerosene- and hydrogen-fueled Russian RD-701 engine; and a dual-fuel, dual-expander engine. Analysis to determine vehicle weight and size characteristics was performed using conceptual-level design techniques. A response-surface methodology for multidisciplinary design was utilized to optimize the dual-fuel vehicles with respect to several important propulsion-system and vehicle design parameters, in order to achieve minimum empty weight. The tools and methods employed in the analysis process are also summarized. In comparison with a reference hydrogen- fueled single-stage vehicle, results showed that the dual-fuel vehicles were from 10 to 30% lower in empty weight for the same payload capability, with the dual-expander engine types showing the greatest potential.

Lepsch, Roger A., Jr.; Stanley, Douglas O.; Unal, Resit

1995-01-01

306

Advanced Technology and Breakthrough Physics for 2025 and 2050 Military Aerospace Vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We are investigating the development of military aerospace planes that would embody advanced technology and break-through physics to revolutionize the capability of the US Air Force to respond in a timely manner to hostile threats facing the United States and its Allies. One plane concept embodied science and technology advances deemed developable by 2025. These advances included: MHD airbreathing propulsion, aneutronic fusion propulsion and light weight and high-strength airframe and propulsion materials-to accomplish Air Force aerospace missions from the ground up to geostationary orbit. The other plane embodied the further advancements in science and technology that were deemed possible by 2050. These advancements included: augmentation of MHD and fusion power with power from the zero-point energies of the quantum vacuum, and augmentation of vehicle jet propulsion with field propulsion to increase vehicle delta V by a factor of more than 2, thereby extending Air Force protective operations beyond earth orbit-into cislunar space. This paper has been approved for public release by the USAF.

Froning, David; Czysz, Paul

2006-01-01

307

A Variable Dynamic Testbed Vehicle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes the concept of a potential test vehicle for the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) that is designed to evaluate the dynamics, human factors, and safety aspects of advanced technologies in passenger class automobiles expected to be introduced as a result of the Intelligent Vehicle/Highway System (IVHS) Program. The Variable Dynamic Testbed Vehicle (VDTV) requirements were determined from the inputs of anticipated users and possible research needs of NHTSA. Design and implementation approaches are described, the benefits of the vehicle are discussed and costs for several options presented.

Marriott, A.

1995-01-01

308

Advanced designs and operating strategies to enhance the safety, operability, and efficiency of VVER-1000 reactors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Advanced fuel, burnable absorber, and control rod designs along with advanced fuel management and power distribution control strategies will be implemented in the first operating cycle of the Czech Republic`s Temelin VVER-1000 nuclear power plants. These improvements increase safety margins, enhance operability, and improve fuel efficiency. The Westinghouse VVANTAGE 6 fuel assembly design incorporates many proven advanced fuel and core

J. R. Secker; R. W. Miller; L. T. Mayhue; R. N. Milanova

1995-01-01

309

Perceived safety and biomechanical stress to the lower limbs when stepping down from fire fighting vehicles.  

PubMed

Injuries related to emergency vehicles represent 19% of compensated work accidents for fire fighters, 37% of which occur while stepping down from their vehicles. This study compared the impact forces, the use of upper limbs and the perception of danger of fire fighters as they step down from five different locations on fire trucks. The results show that stepping down from the crew cab facing the street produces impact forces averaging 3.2 times the subject's body weight, but is also perceived as the safest way to descend in one of the two groups of fire fighters that participated in the study. Stepping down from the same location, but facing the truck, produced significantly less impact force and a better distribution of the energy over time. This may be achieved through better control of the descending leg, ankle flexion, and the use of grab bars. A re-design of the access to emergency vehicles should take into account both the safety needs and reduction in biomechanical stress of fire fighters. PMID:15627428

Giguère, Denis; Marchand, Denis

2005-01-01

310

40 CFR 1037.615 - Hybrid vehicles and other advanced technologies.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...vehicles equipped with Rankine-cycle engines, electric vehicles, and fuel cell vehicles. You may not generate...based on measured emissions from the fuel cell vehicle. (e) For electric vehicles, calculate CO2 credits using an FEL of...

2013-07-01

311

40 CFR 1037.615 - Hybrid vehicles and other advanced technologies.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...regenerative braking, vehicles equipped with Rankine-cycle engines, electric vehicles, and fuel cell vehicles. You may not generate credits for...vehicles, and vehicles equipped with Rankine-cycle engines as follows: (1)...

2012-07-01

312

Advanced Infant Car Seat Would Increase Highway Safety  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An advanced infant car seat has been proposed to increase highway safety by reducing the incidence of crying, fussy behavior, and other child-related distractions that divert an adult driver s attention from driving. In addition to a conventional infant car seat with safety restraints, the proposed advanced infant car seat would include a number of components and subsystems that would function together as a comprehensive infant-care system that would keep its occupant safe, comfortable, and entertained, and would enable the driver to monitor the baby without having to either stop the car or turn around to face the infant during driving. The system would include a vibrator with bulb switch to operate; the switch would double as a squeeze toy that would make its own specific sound. A music subsystem would include loudspeakers built into the seat plus digital and analog circuitry that would utilize plug-in memory modules to synthesize music or a variety of other sounds. The music subsystem would include a built-in sound generator that could synthesize white noise or a human heartbeat to calm the baby to sleep. A second bulb switch could be used to control the music subsystem and would double as a squeeze toy that would make a distinct sound. An anti-noise sound-suppression system would isolate the baby from potentially disturbing ambient external noises. This subsystem would include small microphones, placed near the baby s ears, to detect ambient noise. The outputs of the microphone would be amplified and fed to the loudspeakers at appropriate amplitude and in a phase opposite that of the detected ambient noise, such that the net ambient sound arriving at the baby s ears would be almost completely cancelled. A video-camera subsystem would enable the driver to monitor the baby visually while continuing to face forward. One or more portable miniature video cameras could be embedded in the side of the infant car seat (see figure) or in a flip-down handle. The outputs of the video cameras would be transmitted by radio or infrared to a portable, miniature receiver/video monitor unit that would be attached to the dashboard of the car. The video-camera subsystem can also be used within transmission/reception range when the seat was removed from the car. The system would include a biotelemetric and tracking subsystem, which would include a Global Positioning System receiver for measuring its location. This subsystem would transmit the location of the infant car seat (even if the seat were not in a car) along with such biometric data as the baby s heart rate, perspiration rate, urinary status, temperature, and rate of breathing. Upon detecting any anomalies in the biometric data, this subsystem would send a warning to a paging device installed in the car or carried by the driver, so that the driver could pull the car off the road to attend to the baby. A motion detector in this subsystem would send a warning if the infant car seat were to be moved or otherwise disturbed unexpectedly while the infant was seated in it: this warning function, in combination with the position- tracking function, could help in finding a baby who had been kidnapped with the seat. Removable rechargeable batteries would enable uninterrupted functioning of all parts of the system while transporting the baby to and from the car. The batteries could be recharged via the cigarette-lighter outlet in the car or by use of an external AC-powered charger.

Dabney, Richard; Elrod, Susan

2004-01-01

313

Advanced BLDC motor drive for low cost and high performance propulsion system in electric and hybrid vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the authors propose an advanced brushless DC motor (BLDCM) drive for low cost and high performance electric propulsion system in electric vehicles (EVs) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). It includes reduced parts power converter topologies and an optimal PWM control strategy to produce the desired dynamic and static speed and torque characteristics. The theoretical explanation and operational

B. K. Lee; M. Ehsani

2001-01-01

314

The development of a hybrid advanced composite-syntactic foam structural component for use in undersea vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the progress of an ongoing program to develop a lightweight, highly buoyant structural member for open-frame, remotely operated vehicles (ROVs). The structural component is fabricated from advanced composite materials and syntactic foam. This unique hybrid member is intended for, but not limited to, underwater vehicles. The paper demonstrates that composite materials and syntactic foams can offer great

John B. Hinves; Craig D. Douglas

1993-01-01

315

Development of an improved man transit vehicle. Volume 2. Safety guidelines. Open file report Aug 75-Jun 80  

SciTech Connect

This report presents a description of a prototype demonstration vehicle that was constructed to assess the feasibility of a set of equipment-related guidelines. State-of-the-art improvements are embodied in such areas as collision survivability, occupant comfort, and multiple mode operation. The electric battery-powered vehicle carries a 12-person section crew at speeds up to 12 mph. Safety guidelines are presented in volume 2.

Pinkston, B.; Hah, W.F.

1981-01-01

316

Advanced Reactor Safety Research Program quarterly report, April--June 1977. [LMFBR  

SciTech Connect

Information is presented concerning accident energetics; core debris behavior; sodium containment and structural integrity; research for elevated temperature design criteria; fuel motion detection; ACPR fuel motion system; and advanced reactor safety research assessment.

None

1977-11-01

317

Feasibility and Concept Selection of a Safety Hazard Advance Warning System (SHAWS). Volume 1. Executive Summary.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The document presents the analysis of the highway traffic situations pertinent to this study and identifies the set of design and operational requirements for the Safety Hazard Advance Warning System (SHAWS). It describes alternative approaches to the dev...

J. R. Meyer J. M. Reaser R. Keller R. A. Wilson J. R. Vadeboncoeur

1982-01-01

318

Safety Standard Advancement Toward Mobile Robot Use Near Humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

As mobile robots have increasingly improved onboard intelligence, they are being used in more flexible manufacturing, warehouse and\\/or military environments where humans may intervene and interact with these robots frequently causing increased hazards. The US ASME B56.5 - 2004 Safety Standard for industrial trucks was recently changed and now more closely meets the existing British EN 1525 - 1998 Safety

R. V. Bostelman; T. H. Hong; R. Madhavan; T. Y. Chang

319

Efficacy and safety of erlotinib in patients with locally advanced or metastatic breast cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose To evaluate the efficacy and safety of erlotinib in advanced breast cancer. Experimental design Multicenter, phase II study of erlotinib (150 mg orally daily). Cohort 1: progression after anthracyclines, taxanes, and\\u000a capecitabine (n = 47). Cohort 2: progression after >1 chemotherapy for advanced-stage disease (n = 22). Primary endpoint was response rate (World Health Organization criteria). Secondary endpoints were safety, time to\\u000a progression,

Maura N. Dickler; Melody A. Cobleigh; Kathy D. Miller; Pamela M. Klein; Eric P. Winer

2009-01-01

320

77 FR 62270 - Proposed Revision Treatment of Non-Safety Systems for Passive Advanced Light Water Reactors  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Non-Safety Systems for Passive Advanced Light Water Reactors AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory...Systems (RTNSS) for Passive Advanced Light Water Reactors.'' The current SRP does...the proposed RTNSS for Passive Advance Light Water Reactors. DATES: Submit...

2012-10-12

321

78 FR 41436 - Proposed Revision to Treatment of Non-Safety Systems for Passive Advanced Light Water Reactors  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Non-Safety Systems for Passive Advanced Light Water Reactors AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory...Systems (RTNSS) for Passive Advanced Light Water Reactors.'' The NRC seeks public...Systems (RTNSS) for Passive Advanced Light Water Reactors.'' This area...

2013-07-10

322

Testing of Passive Safety System Performance for Higher Power Advanced Reactors.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes the results of NERI research on the testing of advanced passive safety performance for the Westinghouse AP1000 design. The objectives of this research were: (a) to assess the AP1000 passive safety system core cooling performance unde...

2004-01-01

323

Designing for safety in the conceptual design of the Advanced Neutron Source  

SciTech Connect

The Advanced Neutron Source is a major new research facility proposed by the Department of Energy for construction over the next six years. The unique set of nuclear safety features selected to give the recently completed conceptual design a high degree of safety are identified and discussed.

Harrington, R.M.; West, C.D.

1993-06-01

324

Noise abatement and traffic safety: The trade-off of quieter engines and pavements on vehicle detection.  

PubMed

Road traffic sounds are a major source of noise pollution in urban areas. But recent developments such as low noise pavements and hybrid/electric engine vehicles cast an optimistic outlook over such an environmental problem. However, it can be argued that engine, tire, and road noise could be relevant sources of information to avoid road traffic conflicts and accidents. In this paper, we analyze the potential trade-offs of traffic-noise abatement approaches in an experimental study, focusing for the first time on the impact and interaction of relevant factors such as pavement type, vehicle type, listener's age, and background noise, on vehicle detection levels. Results reveal that vehicle and pavement type significantly affect vehicle detection. Age is a significant factor, as both younger and older people exhibit lower detection levels of incoming vehicles. Low noise pavements combined with all-electric and hybrid vehicles might pose a severe threat to the safety of vulnerable road users. All factors interact simultaneously, and vehicle detection is best predicted by the loudness signal-to-noise ratio. PMID:23182778

Mendonça, C; Freitas, E; Ferreira, J P; Raimundo, I D; Santos, J A

2013-03-01

325

Characterization of an Integral Thermal Protection and Cryogenic Insulation Material for Advanced Space Transportation Vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's planned advanced space transportation vehicles will benefit from the use of integral/conformal cryogenic propellant tanks which will reduce the launch weight and lower the earth-to-orbit costs considerably. To implement the novel concept of integral/conformal tanks requires developing an equally novel concept in thermal protection materials. Providing insulation against reentry heating and preserving propellant mass can no longer be considered separate problems to be handled by separate materials. A new family of materials, Superthermal Insulation (STI), has been conceiving and investigated by NASA's Ames Research Center to simultaneously provide both thermal protection and cryogenic insulation in a single, integral material.

Salerno, L. J.; White, S. M.; Helvensteijn, B. P. M.

2000-01-01

326

Electric vehicle traction motors - The development of an advanced motor concept  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An axial-field permanent magnet traction motor is described, similar to several advanced motors that are being developed in the United States. This type of machine has several advantages over conventional dc motors, particularly in the electric vehicle application. The rapidly changing cost of magnetic materials, particularly cobalt, makes it important to study the utilization of permanent magnet materials in such machines. The impact of different magnets on machine design is evaluated, and the advantages of using iron powder composites in the armature are assessed.

Campbell, P.

1980-01-01

327

Testing of Passive Safety System Performance for Higher Power Advanced Reactors  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the results of NERI research on the testing of advanced passive safety performance for the Westinghouse AP1000 design. The objectives of this research were: (a) to assess the AP1000 passive safety system core cooling performance under high decay power conditions for a spectrum of breaks located at a variety of locations, (b) to compare advanced thermal hydraulic computer code predictions to the APEX high decay power test data and (c) to develop new passive safety system concepts that could be used for Generation IV higher power reactors.

brian G. Woods; Jose Reyes, Jr.; John Woods; John Groome; Richard Wright

2004-12-31

328

Advances in stent technologies and their effect on clinical efficacy and safety  

PubMed Central

The introduction of intracoronary stents represented a major advance in interventional cardiology. While bare metal stents set the benchmark for improved safety over angioplasty, intimal hyperplasia and subsequent restenosis were important limitations. First-generation drug-eluting stents demonstrated significant improvements in efficacy, but not necessarily safety, and further technologic developments have focused on optimizing both. Current advances and understanding in stent design continue to improve on these concepts. This review summarizes past and present technology with particular emphasis on the principles underlying the efficacy and safety of drug-eluting stents, and offers a glimpse into the next generations of stents aimed at treating symptomatic coronary artery disease.

Nikam, Navin; Steinberg, Toby B; Steinberg, Daniel H

2014-01-01

329

Department of Energy: Advanced Technology Vehicle Loan Program Implementation Is Under Way, but Enhanced Technical Oversight and Performance Measures Are Needed.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007, Congress mandated higher vehicle fuel economy by model year 2020 and established the Advanced Technology Vehicles Manufacturing (ATVM) loan program in the Department of Energy (DOE). ATVM is to provide ...

2011-01-01

330

Demonstration Experiments to Advance Spacecraft Fire Safety Technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spacecraft fire safety technologies developed during the implementation of NASA's Constellation Program (CxP) highlighted the need for a range of normal-gravity and low-gravity technology demonstration experiments. Terrestrial fire safety technologies have relied heavily on both bench-scale and full-scale experiments and have included extensive study of the ignitability of materials and fire behavior, quantification of fire signatures, fire suppression equipment and procedures, and fire fighter protection equipment. Full-scale tests of these technologies in terrestrial fire-fighting applications are frequently performed to demonstrate their performance and give first-responders hands-on experience in their use. However, experiments conducted to aid the development of spacecraft fire safety technologies have generally been performed at length and time scales that make extrapolation of the results to full scale unreliable. Extrapolation of the results of the relatively few spacecraft fire safety experiments conducted in long- term low-gravity to spacecraft-relevant length and time scales is problematic. In general, the results cannot be verified in ground-based low-g facilities and remains a challenging problem for current numerical simulations. This paper will highlight low-g and ground-based experiments and demonstrations that are being conducted and planned to provide relevant spacecraft fire safety data.

Ruff, G. A.; Urban, D. L.; Dietrich, D.

2012-01-01

331

Graduate Automotive Technology Education (GATE) Program: Center of Automotive Technology Excellence in Advanced Hybrid Vehicle Technology at West Virginia University  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the technical and educational achievements of the Graduate Automotive Technology Education (GATE) Center at West Virginia University (WVU), which was created to emphasize Advanced Hybrid Vehicle Technology. The Center has supported the graduate studies of 17 students in the Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering and the Lane Department of Computer Science and Electrical Engineering. These students have addressed topics such as hybrid modeling, construction of a hybrid sport utility vehicle (in conjunction with the FutureTruck program), a MEMS-based sensor, on-board data acquisition for hybrid design optimization, linear engine design and engine emissions. Courses have been developed in Hybrid Vehicle Design, Mobile Source Powerplants, Advanced Vehicle Propulsion, Power Electronics for Automotive Applications and Sensors for Automotive Applications, and have been responsible for 396 hours of graduate student coursework. The GATE program also enhanced the WVU participation in the U.S. Department of Energy Student Design Competitions, in particular FutureTruck and Challenge X. The GATE support for hybrid vehicle technology enhanced understanding of hybrid vehicle design and testing at WVU and encouraged the development of a research agenda in heavy-duty hybrid vehicles. As a result, WVU has now completed three programs in hybrid transit bus emissions characterization, and WVU faculty are leading the Transportation Research Board effort to define life cycle costs for hybrid transit buses. Research and enrollment records show that approximately 100 graduate students have benefited substantially from the hybrid vehicle GATE program at WVU.

Nigle N. Clark

2006-12-31

332

Study on Safety Assist Information of Advanced Cruise-Assist Highway Systems (AHS) using VICS in Blind Curve Section of Urban Expressway  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper investigates effect of AHS (Advanced Cruise-Assist Highway Systems) service using VICS (Vehicle Information and Communication System) on driver behavior and safety awareness, through experiment with a driving simulator. In this AHS service, when drivers of vehicles behind do not notice an incident such as stopping vehicle or rearmost congestion at blind curve sections of urban expressway, 3-media VICS-enable in-vehicle navigation unit provides them information to avoid collision based on communication between road and vehicle. In this study, such road environment and traffic condition around drivers were generated by using a motion-based driving simulator which had a real car body, seven 150-inch screens covering 330-degree field of view, 3-media VICS-enable in-vehicle navigation unit in the cockpit. Twenty-nine subjects were participated and instructed to perform based on their usual safe driving skill in urban expressway. Three types of visual content of AHS information were examined from the viewpoint of driving maneuver, visual behavior and safety awareness. Subjective evaluation was also conducted in terms of understanding of information, surprise and maneuver. The results of the experiment indicate that AHS service is more effective to decrease possibility of collision than usual driving without AHS service, in terms of timing of releasing accelerator pedal, applying brake pedal and improvement of safety awareness, although it was observed that understanding of AHS information varied among the subjects. Especially, based on the result of this study, simple figure of AHS information is more effective than text message in order to avoid such a collision safely.

Daimon, Tatsuru; Makino, Hiroshi; Mizutani, Hiroyuki; Munehiro, Yuji

333

Advanced spacecraft fire safety: Proposed projects and program plan  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A detailed review identifies spacecraft fire safety issues and the efforts for their resolution, particularly for the threats posed by the increased on-orbit duration, size, and complexity of the Space Station Freedom. Suggestions provided by a survey of Wyle consultants and outside fire safety experts were combined into 30 research and engineering projects. The projects were then prioritized with respect to urgency to meet Freedom design goals, status of enabling technology, cost, and so on, to yield 14 highest priority projects, described in terms of background, work breakdown structure, and schedule. These highest priority projects can be grouped into the thematic areas of fire detection, fire extinguishment, risk assessment, toxicology and human effects, and ground based testing. Recommendations for overall program management stress the need for NASA Headquarters and field center coordination, with information exchange through spacecraft fire safety oversight committees.

Youngblood, Wallace W.; Vedha-Nayagam, M.

1989-01-01

334

Current status of environmental, health, and safety issues of lithium ion electric vehicle batteries  

SciTech Connect

The lithium ion system considered in this report uses lithium intercalation compounds as both positive and negative electrodes and has an organic liquid electrolyte. Oxides of nickel, cobalt, and manganese are used in the positive electrode, and carbon is used in the negative electrode. This report presents health and safety issues, environmental issues, and shipping requirements for lithium ion electric vehicle (EV) batteries. A lithium-based electrochemical system can, in theory, achieve higher energy density than systems using other elements. The lithium ion system is less reactive and more reliable than present lithium metal systems and has possible performance advantages over some lithium solid polymer electrolyte batteries. However, the possibility of electrolyte spills could be a disadvantage of a liquid electrolyte system compared to a solid electrolyte. The lithium ion system is a developing technology, so there is some uncertainty regarding which materials will be used in an EV-sized battery. This report reviews the materials presented in the open literature within the context of health and safety issues, considering intrinsic material hazards, mitigation of material hazards, and safety testing. Some possible lithium ion battery materials are toxic, carcinogenic, or could undergo chemical reactions that produce hazardous heat or gases. Toxic materials include lithium compounds, nickel compounds, arsenic compounds, and dimethoxyethane. Carcinogenic materials include nickel compounds, arsenic compounds, and (possibly) cobalt compounds, copper, and polypropylene. Lithiated negative electrode materials could be reactive. However, because information about the exact compounds that will be used in future batteries is proprietary, ongoing research will determine which specific hazards will apply.

Vimmerstedt, L.J.; Ring, S.; Hammel, C.J.

1995-09-01

335

Research and development of advanced lead-acid batteries for electric vehicle propulsion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The U.S. Department of Energy sponsors a number of research and development activities that have a common goal, the demonstration of advanced batteries that meet the energy, power, and life requirements needed to make electric vehicles a viable alternative to fuel-powered vehicles. An advanced lead-acid battery is one of the technologies being pursued for near-term applications. To this end, Johnson Controls, Inc. (JCI) began work in December 1985 on a new cell concept based on continuous electrolyte recirculation to boost the level of performance beyond the capabilities of conventional lead-acid technology. Superior levels of power and energy were demonstrated for both the flow-through and the more recent flow-by cell designs in the initial years of this program. The cycle-life of these cells, however, fell short of the target for acceptable life. This report summarizes JCI's technical efforts during the period May 1989 to May 1990. During this interval, JCI concentrated on two activities, further research to identify factors that cause and contribute to low cycle-life and continued engineering to evaluate new cell designs.

1990-09-01

336

Advanced onboard storage concepts for natural gas-fueled automotive vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The evaluation of several advanced concepts for storing natural gas at reduced pressure is presented. The advanced concepts include adsorption on high surface area carbon, adsorption in high porosity zeolite, storage in clathration compounds, and storage by dissolution in liquid solvents. High surface area carbons with high packing density are the best low pressure storage mediums. A simple mathematical model is used to compare adsorption storage on a state of the art carbon with compression storage. The model indicates that a vehicle using adsorption storage of natural gas at 3.6 MPa will have 36 percent of the range, on the EPA city cycle, of a vehicle operating on a compression storage system having the same physical size and a peak storage pressure of 21 MPa. Preliminary experiments and current literature suggest that the storage capacity of state of the art carbons could be improved by as much as 50 percent, and that adsorption systems having a capacity equal to compression storage at 14 MPa are possible without exceeding a maximum pressure of 3.6 MPa.

Remick, R. J.; Elkins, R. H.; Camara, E. H.; Bulicz, T.

1984-01-01

337

Safety evaluation methodology for advanced coal extraction systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Qualitative and quantitative evaluation methods for coal extraction systems were developed. The analysis examines the soundness of the design, whether or not the major hazards have been eliminated or reduced, and how the reduction would be accomplished. The quantitative methodology establishes the approximate impact of hazards on injury levels. The results are weighted by peculiar geological elements, specialized safety training, peculiar mine environmental aspects, and reductions in labor force. The outcome is compared with injury level requirements based on similar, safer industries to get a measure of the new system's success in reducing injuries. This approach provides a more detailed and comprehensive analysis of hazards and their effects than existing safety analyses.

Zimmerman, W. F.

1981-01-01

338

Study of advanced electric propulsion system concept using a flywheel for electric vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Advanced electric propulsion system concepts with flywheels for electric vehicles are evaluated and it is predicted that advanced systems can provide considerable performance improvement over existing electric propulsion systems with little or no cost penalty. Using components specifically designed for an integrated electric propulsion system avoids the compromises that frequently lead to a loss of efficiency and to inefficient utilization of space and weight. A propulsion system using a flywheel power energy storage device can provide excellent acceleration under adverse conditions of battery degradation due either to very low temperatures or high degrees of discharge. Both electrical and mechanical means of transfer of energy to and from the flywheel appear attractive; however, development work is required to establish the safe limits of speed and energy storage for advanced flywheel designs and to achieve the optimum efficiency of energy transfer. Brushless traction motor designs using either electronic commutation schemes or dc-to-ac inverters appear to provide a practical approach to a mass producible motor, with excellent efficiency and light weight. No comparisons were made with advanced system concepts which do not incorporate a flywheel.

Younger, F. C.; Lackner, H.

1979-01-01

339

Advanced missions safety. Volume 3: Appendices. Part 2: Experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Supporting documentation pertaining to the hazards of transporting experimental equipment on the Earth Orbit Shuttle is presented. The subjects discussed are: (1) experiment and hardware definition, (2) hazard analysis, (3) preventive measure assessment, (4) preventive measures statements, (5) remedial measure assessment, and (6) experiment interaction safety considerations.

Hinton, M. G., Jr.

1972-01-01

340

Aeroassisted manned transfer vehicle (TAXI) for advanced Mars Transportation: NASA/USRA 1987 Senior Design Project  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A conceptual design study of an aeroassisted orbital transfer vehicle is discussed. Nicknamed TAXI, it will ferry personnel and cargo: (1) between low Earth orbit and a spacecraft circling around the Sun in permanent orbit intersecting gravitational fields of Earth and Mars, and (2) between the cycling spacecraft and a Mars orbiting station, co-orbiting with Phobos. Crew safety and mission flexibility (in terms of ability to provide a wide range of delta-V) were given high priority. Three versions were considered, using the same overall configuration based on a low L/D aerobrake with the geometry of a raked off elliptical cone with ellipsoidal nose and a toroidal skirt. The propulsion system consists of three gimballed LOX/LH2 engines firing away from the aerobrake. The versions differ mainly in the size of the aeroshields and propellant tanks. TAXI A version resulted from an initial effort to design a single transfer vehicle able to meet all delta-V requirements during the 15-year period (2025 to 2040) of Mars mission operations. TAXI B is designed to function with the cycling spacecraft moving in a simplified, nominal trajectory. On Mars missions, TAXI B would be able to meet the requirements of all the missions with a relative approach velocity near Mars of less than 9.3 km/sec. Finally, TAXI C is a revision of TAXI A, a transfer vehicle designed for missions with a relative velocity near Mars larger than 9.3 km/sec. All versions carry a crew of 9 (11 with modifications) and a cargo of 10000 lbm. Trip duration varies from 1 day for transfer from LEO to the cycling ship to nearly 5 days for transfer from the ship to the Phobos orbit.

1987-01-01

341

Advancing medication infusion safety through the clinical integration of technology.  

PubMed

Adverse drug events resulting from errors in prescribing or administering medications are preventable. Within a hospital system, numerous technologies are employed to address the common sources of medication error, including the use of electronic medical records, physician order entry, smart infusion pumps, and barcode medication administration systems. Infusion safety is inherently risky because of the high-risk medications administered and the lack of integration among the stand-alone systems in most institutions. Intravenous clinical integration (IVCI) is a technology that connects electronic medical records, physician order entry, smart infusion pumps, and barcode medication administration systems. It combines the safety features of an automatically programmed infusion pump (drug, concentration, infusion rate, and patient weight, all auto-programmed into the device) with software that provides visibility to real-time clinical infusion data. Our article describes the characteristics of IVCI at WellSpan Health and its impact on patient safety. The integrated infusion system has the capability of reducing medication errors, improving patient care, reducing in-facility costs, and supporting asset management. It can enhance continuous quality improvement efforts and efficiency of clinical work flow. After implementing IVCI, the institution realized a safer patient environment and a more streamlined work flow for pharmacy and nursing. PMID:24145584

Gerhart, Donald; O'Shea, Kristen; Muller, Sharon

2013-01-01

342

Wheeled mobility device transportation safety in fixed route and demand-responsive public transit vehicles within the United States.  

PubMed

An overview of the current status of wheelchair transportation safety in fixed route and demand-responsive, non-rail, public transportation vehicles within the US is presented. A description of each mode of transportation is provided, followed by a discussion of the primary issues affecting safety, accessibility, and usability. Technologies such as lifts, ramps, securement systems, and occupant restraint systems, along with regulations and voluntary industry standards have been implemented with the intent of improving safety and accessibility for individuals who travel while seated in their wheeled mobility device (e.g., wheelchair or scooter). However, across both fixed route and demand-responsive transit systems a myriad of factors such as nonuse and misuse of safety systems, oversized wheeled mobility devices, vehicle space constraints, and inadequate vehicle operator training may place wheeled mobility device (WhMD) users at risk of injury even under non-impact driving conditions. Since WhMD-related incidents also often occur during the boarding and alighting process, the frequency of these events, along with factors associated with these events are described for each transit mode. Recommendations for improving WhMD transportation are discussed given the current state of PMID:22876731

Frost, Karen L; van Roosmalen, Linda; Bertocci, Gina; Cross, Douglas J

2012-01-01

343

Hybrid Vehicles.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This TOP provides standardized tests recommended for evaluating hybrid vehicles. Because of the development of hybrid propulsion techniques for military wheeled and tracked vehicles new testing procedures to assess the automotive and safety design of thes...

2008-01-01

344

Nuclear safety  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Topics dealing with nuclear safety are addressed which include the following: general safety requirements; safety design requirements; terrestrial safety; SP-100 Flight System key safety requirements; potential mission accidents and hazards; key safety features; ground operations; launch operations; flight operations; disposal; safety concerns; licensing; the nuclear engine for rocket vehicle application (NERVA) design philosophy; the NERVA flight safety program; and the NERVA safety plan.

Buden, D.

1991-01-01

345

TransAtlas: A U.S. Map of Fuels and Vehicles Data from the Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles (AFDC)  

DOE Data Explorer

Data stored in the Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (AFDC) can provide insight to policymakers, entrepreneurs, fuel users, and other parties interested in reducing petroleum consumption. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory analyzes transportation-related data and identifies trends related to alternative fuels and vehicles. These analyses are posted in the AFDC as technical reports and Excel spreadsheets that can be manipulated by outside users. To provide the most robust collection of information possible, this section also includes links to data analyses from outside the AFDC. These sources are noted in each file. There are also interactive map applications and some PDF documents. The table of contents for the data found in this section is: • Vehicles • Fuels • Infrastructure • Geographic • Laws and Incentives • Clean Cities • State and Alternative Fuel Provider Fleets • Federal Fleets

346

Current status of environmental, health, and safety issues of lithium polymer electric vehicle batteries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lithium solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) batteries are being investigated by researchers worldwide as a possible energy source for future electric vehicles (EV's). One of the main reasons for interest in lithium SPE battery systems is the potential safety features they offer as compared to lithium battery systems using inorganic and organic liquid electrolytes. However, the development of lithium SPE batteries is still in its infancy, and the technology is not envisioned to be ready for commercialization for several years. Because the research and development (R&D) of lithium SPE battery technology is of a highly competitive nature, with many companies both in the United States and abroad pursuing R&D efforts, much of the information concerning specific developments of lithium SPE battery technology is proprietary. This report is based on information available only through the open literature (i.e., information available through library searches). Furthermore, whereas R&D activities for lithium SPE cells have focused on a number of different chemistries, for both electrodes and electrolytes, this report examines the general environmental, health, and safety (EH&S) issues common to many lithium SPE chemistries. However, EH&S issues for specific lithium SPE cell chemistries are discussed when sufficient information exists. Although lithium batteries that do not have a SPE are also being considered for EV applications, this report focuses only on those lithium battery technologies that utilize the SPE technology. The lithium SPE battery technologies considered in this report may contain metallic lithium or nonmetallic lithium compounds (e.g., lithium intercalated carbons) in the negative electrode.

Corbus, D.; Hammel, C. J.

1995-02-01

347

Current status of environmental, health, and safety issues of lithium polymer electric vehicle batteries  

SciTech Connect

Lithium solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) batteries are being investigated by researchers worldwide as a possible energy source for future electric vehicles (EVs). One of the main reasons for interest in lithium SPE battery systems is the potential safety features they offer as compared to lithium battery systems using inorganic and organic liquid electrolytes. However, the development of lithium SPE batteries is still in its infancy, and the technology is not envisioned to be ready for commercialization for several years. Because the research and development (R&D) of lithium SPE battery technology is of a highly competitive nature, with many companies both in the United States and abroad pursuing R&D efforts, much of the information concerning specific developments of lithium SPE battery technology is proprietary. This report is based on information available only through the open literature (i.e., information available through library searches). Furthermore, whereas R&D activities for lithium SPE cells have focused on a number of different chemistries, for both electrodes and electrolytes, this report examines the general environmental, health, and safety (EH&S) issues common to many lithium SPE chemistries. However, EH&S issues for specific lithium SPE cell chemistries are discussed when sufficient information exists. Although lithium batteries that do not have a SPE are also being considered for EV applications, this report focuses only on those lithium battery technologies that utilize the SPE technology. The lithium SPE battery technologies considered in this report may contain metallic lithium or nonmetallic lithium compounds (e.g., lithium intercalated carbons) in the negative electrode.

Corbus, D.; Hammel, C.J.

1995-02-01

348

Space transfer vehicle concepts and requirements study. Volume 2, book 4: Integrated advanced technology development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Space Transfer Vehicle (STV) program provides both an opportunity and a requirement to increase our upper stage capabilities with the development and applications of new technologies. Issues such as man rating, space basing, reusability, and long lunar surface storage times drive the need for new technology developments and applications. In addition, satisfaction of mission requirements such as lunar cargo delivery capability and lunar landing either require new technology development or can be achieved in a more cost-effective manner with judicious applications of advanced technology. During the STV study, advanced technology development requirements and plans have been addressed by the Technology/Advanced Development Working Group composed of NASA and contractor representatives. This report discusses the results to date of this working group. The first section gives an overview of the technologies that have potential or required applications for the STV and identifies those technologies baselined for the STV. Figures are provided that list the technology categories and show the priority placed on those technology categories for either the space-based or ground-based options. The second section covers the plans and schedules for incorporating the technologies into the STV program.

Weber, Gary A.

1991-01-01

349

Space transfer vehicle concepts and requirements study. Volume 2, book 4: Integrated advanced technology development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Space Transfer Vehicle (STV) program provides both an opportunity and a requirement to increase our upper stage capabilities with the development and applications of new technologies. Issues such as man rating, space basing, reusability, and long lunar surface storage times drive the need for new technology developments and applications. In addition, satisfaction of mission requirements such as lunar cargo delivery capability and lunar landing either require new technology development or can be achieved in a more cost-effective manner with judicious applications of advanced technology. During the STV study, advanced technology development requirements and plans have been addressed by the Technology/Advanced Development Working Group composed of NASA and contractor representatives. This report discusses the results to date of this working group. The first section gives an overview of the technologies that have potential or required applications for the STV and identifies those technologies baselined for the STV. Figures are provided that list the technology categories and show the priority placed on those technology categories for either the space-based or ground-based options. The second section covers the plans and schedules for incorporating the technologies into the STV program.

Weber, Gary A.

1991-04-01

350

AN ADVANCED TOOL FOR APPLIED INTEGRATED SAFETY MANAGEMENT  

SciTech Connect

WESKEM, LLC's Environmental, Safety and Health (ES&H) Department had previously assessed that a lack of consistency, poor communication and using antiquated communication tools could result in varying operating practices, as well as a failure to capture and disseminate appropriate Integrated Safety Management (ISM) information. To address these issues, the ES&H Department established an Activity Hazard Review (AHR)/Activity Hazard Analysis (AHA) process for systematically identifying, assessing, and controlling hazards associated with project work activities during work planning and execution. Depending on the scope of a project, information from field walkdowns and table-top meetings are collected on an AHR form. The AHA then documents the potential failure and consequence scenarios for a particular hazard. Also, the AHA recommends whether the type of mitigation appears appropriate or whether additional controls should be implemented. Since the application is web based, the information is captured into a single system and organized according to the >200 work activities already recorded in the database. Using the streamlined AHA method improved cycle time from over four hours to an average of one hour, allowing more time to analyze unique hazards and develop appropriate controls. Also, the enhanced configuration control created a readily available AHA library to research and utilize along with standardizing hazard analysis and control selection across four separate work sites located in Kentucky and Tennessee. The AHR/AHA system provides an applied example of how the ISM concept evolved into a standardized field-deployed tool yielding considerable efficiency gains in project planning and resource utilization. Employee safety is preserved through detailed planning that now requires only a portion of the time previously necessary. The available resources can then be applied to implementing appropriate engineering, administrative and personal protective equipment controls in the field.

Potts, T. Todd; Hylko, James M.; Douglas, Terence A.

2003-02-27

351

Setting an Agenda for Advancing Young Worker Safety in the U.S. and Canada  

PubMed Central

Scholars and practitioners from multiple perspectives, including developmental science, sociology, business, medicine, and public health, have considered the implications of employment for young people. We summarize a series of meetings designed to synthesize information from these perspectives and derive recommendations to guide research, practice, and policy with a focus on young worker safety and health. During the first three meetings, participants from the United States and Canada considered invited white papers addressing developmental issues, public health data and findings, as well as programmatic advances and evaluation needs. At the final meeting, the participants recommended both research and policy directions to advance understanding and improve young worker safety.

Runyan, Carol W.; Lewko, John; Rauscher, Kimberly

2012-01-01

352

Safety and activity of masitinib in combination with gemcitabine in patients with advanced pancreatic cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  To evaluate the efficacy and safety of masitinib combined with gemcitabine in patients with advanced pancreatic cancer.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Patients and methods  Twenty-two non-randomised patients with unresectable, locally advanced (n = 9) or metastatic pancreatic cancer (n = 13) received oral masitinib (9 mg\\/kg\\/day) combined with standard gemcitabine. All patients were na?ve to systemic chemotherapy\\u000a or radiotherapy. The primary endpoint was time-to-progression (TTP) with efficacy and safety analyses

Emmanuel Mitry; Pascal Hammel; Gaël Deplanque; Françoise Mornex; Philippe Levy; Jean-François Seitz; Alain Moussy; Jean-Pierre Kinet; Olivier Hermine; Philippe Rougier; Eric Raymond

2010-01-01

353

A weak Hamiltonian finite element method for optimal guidance of an advanced launch vehicle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A temporal finite-element method based on a mixed form of the Hamiltonian weak principle is presented for optimal control problems. The mixed form of this principle contains both states and costates as primary variables, which are expanded in terms of nodal values and simple shape functions. Time derivatives of the states and costates do not appear in the governing variational equation; the only quantities whose time derivatives appear therein are virtual states and virtual costates. Numerical results are presented for an elementary trajectory optimization problem; they show very good agreement with the exact solution along with excellent computational efficiency and self-starting capability. The feasibility of this approach for real-time guidance applications is evaluated. A simplified model for an advanced launch vehicle application that is suitable for finite-element solution is presented.

Hodges, Dewey H.; Calise, Anthony J.; Bless, Robert R.; Leung, Martin

1989-01-01

354

Performance and life evaluation of advanced battery technologies for electric vehicle applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Advanced battery technology evaluations are performed under simulated electric vehicle (EV) operating conditions at the Argonne Analysis and Diagnostic Laboratory (ADL). The ADL provides a common basis for both performance characterization and life evaluation with unbiased application of tests and analyses. This paper summarizes the performance characterizations and life evaluations conducted in 1990 on nine single cells and fifteen 3- to 360-cell modules that encompass six technologies: (Na/S, Zn/Br, Ni/Fe, Ni/Cd, Ni-metal hydride, and lead-acid). These evaluations were performed for the Department of Energy and Electric Power Research Institute. The results provide battery users, developers, and program managers an interim measure of the progress being made in battery R and D programs, a comparison of battery technologies, and a source of basic data for modelling and continuing R and D.

Deluca, W. H.; Gillie, K. R.; Kulaga, J. E.; Smaga, J. A.; Tummillo, A. F.; Webster, C. E.

355

Advanced single permanent magnet axipolar ironless stator ac motor for electric passenger vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A program was conducted to design and develop an advanced-concept motor specifically created for propulsion of electric vehicles with increased range, reduced energy consumption, and reduced life-cycle costs in comparison with conventional systems. The motor developed is a brushless, dc, rare-earth cobalt, permanent magnet, axial air gap inductor machine that uses an ironless stator. Air cooling is inherent provided by the centrifugal-fan action of the rotor poles. An extensive design phase was conducted, which included analysis of the system performance versus the SAE J227a(D) driving cycle. A proof-of-principle model was developed and tested, and a functional model was developed and tested. Full generator-level testing was conducted on the functional model, recording electromagnetic, thermal, aerodynamic, and acoustic noise data. The machine demonstrated 20.3 kW output at 1466 rad/s and 160 dc. The novel ironless stator demonstated the capability to continuously operate at peak current. The projected system performance based on the use of a transistor inverter is 23.6 kW output power at 1466 rad/s and 83.3 percent efficiency. Design areas of concern regarding electric vehicle applications include the inherently high windage loss and rotor inertia.

Beauchamp, E. D.; Hadfield, J. R.; Wuertz, K. L.

1983-01-01

356

Safety Status Data Collection Methodology. Volume IV. Update of Vehicle Identification Code.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This volume contains an update of the NHTSA motor vehicle identification code. Vehicle production for model years 1974 through 1977 is identified and coded, and presented together with the original identification code. Since the update work was performed ...

G. K. Bentley M. A. Philippi

1977-01-01

357

Introduction: Aims and Requirements of Future Aerospace Vehicles. Chapter 1  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The goals and system-level requirements for the next generation aerospace vehicles emphasize safety, reliability, low-cost, and robustness rather than performance. Technologies, including new materials, design and analysis approaches, manufacturing and testing methods, operations and maintenance, and multidisciplinary systems-level vehicle development are key to increasing the safety and reducing the cost of aerospace launch systems. This chapter identifies the goals and needs of the next generation or advanced aerospace vehicle systems.

Rodriguez, Pedro I.; Smeltzer, Stanley S., III; McConnaughey, Paul (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

358

Advanced Transportation System Studies Technical Area 2 (TA-2) Heavy Lift Launch Vehicle Development Contract. Volume 2; Technical Results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of the Advanced Transportation System Studies (ATSS) Technical Area 2 (TA-2) Heavy Lift Launch Vehicle Development contract was to provide advanced launch vehicle concept definition and analysis to assist NASA in the identification of future launch vehicle requirements. Contracted analysis activities included vehicle sizing and performance analysis, subsystem concept definition, propulsion subsystem definition (foreign and domestic), ground operations and facilities analysis, and life cycle cost estimation. This document is Volume 2 of the final report for the contract. It provides documentation of selected technical results from various TA-2 analysis activities, including a detailed narrative description of the SSTO concept assessment results, a user's guide for the associated SSTO sizing tools, an SSTO turnaround assessment report, an executive summary of the ground operations assessments performed during the first year of the contract, a configuration-independent vehicle health management system requirements report, a copy of all major TA-2 contract presentations, a copy of the FLO launch vehicle final report, and references to Pratt & Whitney's TA-2 sponsored final reports regarding the identification of Russian main propulsion technologies.

1995-01-01

359

Fostering innovation, advancing patient safety: the kidney health initiative.  

PubMed

To respond to the serious and underrecognized epidemic of kidney disease in the United States, the US Food and Drug Administration and the American Society of Nephrology have founded the Kidney Health Initiative-a public-private partnership designed to create a collaborative environment in which the US Food and Drug Administration and the greater kidney community can interact to optimize the evaluation of drugs, devices, biologics, and food products. The Kidney Health Initiative will bring together all the necessary stakeholders, including patients, regulators, industry, health care providers, academics, and other governmental agencies, to improve patient safety and foster innovation. This initiative is intended to enable the kidney community as a whole to provide the right drug, device, or biologic for administration to the right patient at the right time by fostering partnerships that will facilitate development and delivery of those products and addressing challenges that currently impede these goals. PMID:23744001

Archdeacon, Patrick; Shaffer, Rachel N; Winkelmayer, Wolfgang C; Falk, Ronald J; Roy-Chaudhury, Prabir

2013-09-01

360

Launch vehicle flight control augmentation using smart materials and advanced composites (CDDF Project 93-05)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Marshall Space Flight Center has a rich heritage of launch vehicles that have used aerodynamic surfaces for flight stability such as the Saturn vehicles and flight control such as on the Redstone. Recently, due to aft center-of-gravity locations on launch vehicles currently being studied, the need has arisen for the vehicle control augmentation that is provided by these flight

C. Barret

1995-01-01

361

77 FR 29247 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Occupant Crash Protection  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, 1200 New Jersey...National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, 1200 New Jersey...submitted by the North American Automotive Hazardous Material Action Committee...From Environmental Health and Safety Risks), the National...

2012-05-17

362

76 FR 49532 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Electronic Stability Control; Technical Report on the...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, Room W53-438...National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, Room W53-438...System (GES) of the National Automotive Sampling System (NASS) estimate...light trucks and vans). Safety Standard 126...

2011-08-10

363

76 FR 23506 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards No. 108; Lamp, Reflective Devices and Associated Equipment  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, U.S. Department...National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, 1200 New Jersey...The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) issued...proposed using either Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) or ECE...

2011-04-27

364

Graduate Automotive Technology Education (GATE) Program: Center of Automotive Technology Excellence in Advanced Hybrid Vehicle Technology at West Virginia University  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report summarizes the technical and educational achievements of the Graduate Automotive Technology Education (GATE) Center at West Virginia University (WVU), which was created to emphasize Advanced Hybrid Vehicle Technology. The Center has supported the graduate studies of 17 students in the Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering and the Lane Department of Computer Science and Electrical Engineering. These students

Nigle N. Clark

2006-01-01

365

Intelligent Vehicle Health Management  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As a part of the overall goal of developing Integrated Vehicle Health Management systems for aerospace vehicles, the NASA Faculty Fellowship Program (NFFP) at Marshall Space Flight Center has performed a pilot study on IVHM principals which integrates researched IVHM technologies in support of Integrated Intelligent Vehicle Management (IIVM). IVHM is the process of assessing, preserving, and restoring system functionality across flight and ground systems (NASA NGLT 2004). The framework presented in this paper integrates advanced computational techniques with sensor and communication technologies for spacecraft that can generate responses through detection, diagnosis, reasoning, and adapt to system faults in support of INM. These real-time responses allow the IIVM to modify the affected vehicle subsystem(s) prior to a catastrophic event. Furthermore, the objective of this pilot program is to develop and integrate technologies which can provide a continuous, intelligent, and adaptive health state of a vehicle and use this information to improve safety and reduce costs of operations. Recent investments in avionics, health management, and controls have been directed towards IIVM. As this concept has matured, it has become clear the INM requires the same sensors and processing capabilities as the real-time avionics functions to support diagnosis of subsystem problems. New sensors have been proposed, in addition, to augment the avionics sensors to support better system monitoring and diagnostics. As the designs have been considered, a synergy has been realized where the real-time avionics can utilize sensors proposed for diagnostics and prognostics to make better real-time decisions in response to detected failures. IIVM provides for a single system allowing modularity of functions and hardware across the vehicle. The framework that supports IIVM consists of 11 major on-board functions necessary to fully manage a space vehicle maintaining crew safety and mission objectives: Guidance and Navigation; Communications and Tracking; Vehicle Monitoring; Information Transport and Integration; Vehicle Diagnostics; Vehicle Prognostics; Vehicle mission Planning; Automated Repair and Replacement; Vehicle Control; Human Computer Interface; and Onboard Verification and Validation. Furthermore, the presented framework provides complete vehicle management which not only allows for increased crew safety and mission success through new intelligence capabilities, but also yields a mechanism for more efficient vehicle operations. The representative IVHM technologies for computer platform using heterogeneous communication, 3) coupled electromagnetic oscillators for enhanced communications, 4) Linux-based real-time systems, 5) genetic algorithms, 6) Bayesian Networks, 7) evolutionary algorithms, 8) dynamic systems control modeling, and 9) advanced sensing capabilities. This paper presents IVHM technologies developed under NASA's NFFP pilot project and the integration of these technologies forms the framework for IIVM.

Paris, Deidre E.; Trevino, Luis; Watson, Michael D.

2005-01-01

366

Advanced transportation system studies technical area 2(TA-2): Heavy lift launch vehicle development. volume 1; Executive summary  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of the TA-2 contract was to provide advanced launch vehicle concept definition and analysis to assist NASA in the identification of future launch vehicle requirements. Contracted analysis activities included vehicle sizing and performance analysis, subsystem concept definition, propulsion subsystem definition (foreign and domestic), ground operations and facilities analysis, and life cycle cost estimation. This document is part of the final report for the TA-2 contract. The final report consists of three volumes: Volume 1 is the Executive Summary, Volume 2 is Technical Results, and Volume 3 is Program Cost Estimates. The document-at-hand, Volume 1, provides a summary description of the technical activities that were performed over the entire contract duration, covering three distinct launch vehicle definition activities: heavy-lift (300,000 pounds injected mass to low Earth orbit) launch vehicles for the First Lunar Outpost (FLO), medium-lift (50,000-80,000 pounds injected mass to low Earth orbit) launch vehicles, and single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO) launch vehicles (25,000 pounds injected mass to a Space Station orbit).

McCurry, J.

1995-01-01

367

Advanced Information Processing System (AIPS)-based fault tolerant avionics architecture for launch vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An avionics architecture for the advanced launch system (ALS) that uses validated hardware and software building blocks developed under the advanced information processing system program is presented. The AIPS for ALS architecture defined is preliminary, and reliability requirements can be met by the AIPS hardware and software building blocks that are built using the state-of-the-art technology available in the 1992-93 time frame. The level of detail in the architecture definition reflects the level of detail available in the ALS requirements. As the avionics requirements are refined, the architecture can also be refined and defined in greater detail with the help of analysis and simulation tools. A useful methodology is demonstrated for investigating the impact of the avionics suite to the recurring cost of the ALS. It is shown that allowing the vehicle to launch with selected detected failures can potentially reduce the recurring launch costs. A comparative analysis shows that validated fault-tolerant avionics built out of Class B parts can result in lower life-cycle-cost in comparison to simplex avionics built out of Class S parts or other redundant architectures.

Lala, Jaynarayan H.; Harper, Richard E.; Jaskowiak, Kenneth R.; Rosch, Gene; Alger, Linda S.; Schor, Andrei L.

368

Safety Design Strategy for the Advanced Test Reactor Emergency Firewater Injection System Replacement Project  

SciTech Connect

In accordance with the requirements of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 413.3B, “Program and Project Management for the Acquisition of Capital Assets,” safety must be integrated into the design process for new or major modifications to DOE Hazard Category 1, 2, and 3 nuclear facilities. The intended purpose of this requirement involves the handling of hazardous materials, both radiological and chemical, in a way that provides adequate protection to the public, workers, and the environment. Requirements provided in DOE Order 413.3B and DOE Order 420.1B, “Facility Safety,” and the expectations of DOE-STD-1189-2008, “Integration of Safety into the Design Process,” provide for identification of hazards early in the project and use of an integrated team approach to design safety into the facility. This safety design strategy provides the basic safety-in-design principles and concepts that will be used for the Advanced Test Reactor Reliability Sustainment Project. While this project does not introduce new hazards to the ATR, it has the potential for significant impacts to safety-related systems, structures, and components that are credited in the ATR safety basis and are being replaced. Thus the project has been determined to meet the definition of a major modification and is being managed accordingly.

Noel Duckwitz

2011-06-01

369

Safety Design Strategy for the Advanced Test Reactor Diesel Bus (E-3) and Switchgear Replacement Project  

SciTech Connect

In accordance with the requirements of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 413.3B, “Program and Project Management for the Acquisition of Capital Assets,” safety must be integrated into the design process for new or major modifications to DOE Hazard Category 1, 2, and 3 nuclear facilities. The intended purpose of this requirement involves the handling of hazardous materials, both radiological and chemical, in a way that provides adequate protection to the public, workers, and the environment. Requirements provided in DOE Order 413.3B and DOE Order 420.1B, “Facility Safety,” and the expectations of DOE-STD-1189-2008, “Integration of Safety into the Design Process,” provide for identification of hazards early in the project and use of an integrated team approach to design safety into the facility. This safety design strategy provides the basic safety-in-design principles and concepts that will be used for the Advanced Test Reactor Reliability Sustainment Project. While this project does not introduce new hazards to the ATR, it has the potential for significant impacts to safety-related systems, structures, and components that are credited in the ATR safety basis and are being replaced. Thus the project has been determined to meet the definition of a major modification and is being managed accordingly.

Noel Duckwitz

2011-06-01

370

Advanced reactors and associated fuel cycle facilities: safety and environmental impacts.  

PubMed

The safety and environmental impacts of new technology and fuel cycle approaches being considered in current U.S. nuclear research programs are contrasted to conventional technology options in this paper. Two advanced reactor technologies, the sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR) and the very high temperature gas-cooled reactor (VHTR), are being developed. In general, the new reactor technologies exploit inherent features for enhanced safety performance. A key distinction of advanced fuel cycles is spent fuel recycle facilities and new waste forms. In this paper, the performance of existing fuel cycle facilities and applicable regulatory limits are reviewed. Technology options to improve recycle efficiency, restrict emissions, and/or improve safety are identified. For a closed fuel cycle, potential benefits in waste management are significant, and key waste form technology alternatives are described. PMID:21399407

Hill, R N; Nutt, W M; Laidler, J J

2011-01-01

371

Environmental, health, and safety issues of sodium-sulfur batteries for electric and hybrid vehicles  

SciTech Connect

This report examines the shipping regulations that govern the shipment of dangerous goods. Since the elemental sodium contained in both sodium-sulfur and sodium-metal-chloride batteries is classified as a dangerous good, and is listed on both the national and international hazardous materials listings, both national and international regulatory processes are considered in this report The interrelationships as well as the differences between the two processes are highlighted. It is important to note that the transport regulatory processes examined in this report are reviewed within the context of assessing the necessary steps needed to provide for the domestic and international transport of sodium-beta batteries. The need for such an assessment was determined by the Shipping Sub-Working Group (SSWG) of the EV Battery Readiness Working Group (Working Group), created in 1990. The Working Group was created to examine the regulatory issues pertaining to in-vehicle safety, shipping, and recycling of sodium-sulfur batteries, each of which is addressed by a sub-working group. The mission of the SSWG is to establish basic provisions that will ensure the safe and efficient transport of sodium-beta batteries. To support that end, a proposal to the UN Committee of Experts was prepared by the SSWG, with the goal of obtaining a proper shipping name and UN number for sodium-beta batteries and to establish the basic transport requirements for such batteries (see the appendix for the proposal as submitted). It is emphasized that because batteries are large articles containing elemental sodium and, in some cases, sulfur, there is no existing UN entry under which they can be classified and for which modal transport requirements, such as the use of packaging appropriate for such large articles, are provided for. It is for this reason that a specific UN entry for sodium-beta batteries is considered essential.

Hammel, C.J.

1992-09-01

372

Motor Vehicle Safety Defect Recall Campaigns from April 1, 1968 to June 30, 1968.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report cantains representative copies of notices and other communications to dealers and their customers reqarding possible defects in vehicles produced by various domestic and foreign manufacturers.

1968-01-01

373

Reactor Accident Analysis Methodology for the Advanced Test Reactor Critical Facility Documented Safety Analysis Upgrade  

SciTech Connect

The regulatory requirement to develop an upgraded safety basis for a DOE Nuclear Facility was realized in January 2001 by issuance of a revision to Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations Section 830 (10 CFR 830). Subpart B of 10 CFR 830, ''Safety Basis Requirements,'' requires a contractor responsible for a DOE Hazard Category 1, 2, or 3 nuclear facility to either submit by April 9, 2001 the existing safety basis which already meets the requirements of Subpart B, or to submit by April 10, 2003 an upgraded facility safety basis that meets the revised requirements. 10 CFR 830 identifies Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Regulatory Guide 1.70, ''Standard Format and Content of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants'' as a safe harbor methodology for preparation of a DOE reactor documented safety analysis (DSA). The regulation also allows for use of a graded approach. This report presents the methodology that was developed for preparing the reactor accident analysis portion of the Advanced Test Reactor Critical Facility (ATRC) upgraded DSA. The methodology was approved by DOE for developing the ATRC safety basis as an appropriate application of a graded approach to the requirements of 10 CFR 830.

Sharp, G.L.; McCracken, R.T.

2003-05-13

374

Reactor Accident Analysis Methodology for the Advanced Test Reactor Critical Facility Documented Safety Analysis Upgrade  

SciTech Connect

The regulatory requirement to develop an upgraded safety basis for a DOE nuclear facility was realized in January 2001 by issuance of a revision to Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations Section 830 (10 CFR 830).1 Subpart B of 10 CFR 830, “Safety Basis Requirements,” requires a contractor responsible for a DOE Hazard Category 1, 2, or 3 nuclear facility to either submit by April 9, 2001 the existing safety basis which already meets the requirements of Subpart B, or to submit by April 10, 2003 an upgraded facility safety basis that meets the revised requirements.1 10 CFR 830 identifies Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Regulatory Guide 1.70, “Standard Format and Content of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants”2 as a safe harbor methodology for preparation of a DOE reactor documented safety analysis (DSA). The regulation also allows for use of a graded approach. This report presents the methodology that was developed for preparing the reactor accident analysis portion of the Advanced Test Reactor Critical Facility (ATRC) upgraded DSA. The methodology was approved by DOE for developing the ATRC safety basis as an appropriate application of a graded approach to the requirements of 10 CFR 830.

Gregg L. Sharp; R. T. McCracken

2003-06-01

375

Distracted Driving Countermeasures for Commercial Vehicles. Commercial Truck and Bus Safety Synthesis Program (CTBSSP) Synthesis 24. A Synthesis Safety Practice.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Driver distraction for all vehicle types is an area of concern across the surface transportation industry, as indicated in 2010 by Transportation Secretary Ray LaHood, who called it an epidemic and characterized it as unsafe, irresponsible, and, in a spli...

D. Bowman D. Murray G. Bergoffen M. Lueck R. Bishop

2012-01-01

376

Magnetometer and differential carrier phase GPS-aided INS for advanced vehicle control  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the design, analysis, implementation, and experimental results of a triple redundancy navigation system incorporating magnetometer, inertial, and carrier phase differential Global Positioning System (GPS) measurements. The navigation system is able to accurately estimate vehicle attitude (including yaw) as long as the vehicle velocity is not zero. The motivating application was lateral vehicle control for intelligent highway systems.

Yunchun Yang; Jay A. Farrell

2003-01-01

377

Using safety stocks and simulation to solve the vehicle routing problem with stochastic demands  

Microsoft Academic Search

After introducing the Vehicle Routing Problem with Stochastic Demands (VRPSD) and some related work, this paper proposes a flexible solution methodology. The logic behind this methodology is to transform the issue of solving a given VRPSD instance into an issue of solving a small set of Capacitated Vehicle Routing Problem (CVRP) instances. Thus, our approach takes advantage of the fact

A. Juan; J. Faulin; S. Grasman; D. Riera; J. Marull; C. Mendez

2011-01-01

378

Perceived safety and biomechanical stress to the lower limbs when stepping down from fire fighting vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Injuries related to emergency vehicles represent 19% of compensated work accidents for fire fighters, 37% of which occur while stepping down from their vehicles. This study compared the impact forces, the use of upper limbs and the perception of danger of fire fighters as they step down from five different locations on fire trucks. The results show that stepping down

Denis Giguère; Denis Marchand

2005-01-01

379

U34: Driver Distraction: An Inattention-Mitigation Component for Behavior Based Safety Programs in Commercial Vehicle Operations (IM-BBS).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The aim of this research was to develop a comprehensive inattention mitigation component of a behavior-based safety program (IM-BBS) in commercial motor vehicle operations that increases road safety. A key focus was on the use of real-time inattention mon...

C. Larsson J. Hickman J. Jarlengrip J. Morgan L. Toole M. Camden S. Tidwell T. Victor

2011-01-01

380

Human-System Safety Methods for Development of Advanced Air Traffic Management Systems  

SciTech Connect

The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) is supporting the National Aeronautics and Space Administration in the development of advanced air traffic management (ATM) systems as part of the Advanced Air Transportation Technologies program. As part of this program INEEL conducted a survey of human-system safety methods that have been applied to complex technical systems, to identify lessons learned from these applications and provide recommendations for the development of advanced ATM systems. The domains that were surveyed included offshore oil and gas, commercial nuclear power, commercial aviation, and military. The survey showed that widely different approaches are used in these industries, and that the methods used range from very high-level, qualitative approaches to very detailed quantitative methods such as human reliability analysis (HRA) and probabilistic safety assessment (PSA). In addition, the industries varied widely in how effectively they incorporate human-system safety assessment in the design, development, and testing of complex technical systems. In spite of the lack of uniformity in the approaches and methods used, it was found that methods are available that can be combined and adapted to support the development of advanced air traffic management systems.

Nelson, W.R.

1999-05-24

381

75 FR 15621 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Theft Protection and Rollaway Prevention  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...SUMMARY: Pursuant to a statutory mandate in the Cameron Gulbransen Kids Transportation Safety Act of 2007, NHTSA is placing a requirement...Background On February 28, 2008, the ``Cameron Gulbransen Kids Transportation Safety Act of 2007'' (the K.T. Safety...

2010-03-30

382

Argos: An Advanced In-Vehicle Data Recorder on a Massively Sensorized Vehicle for Car Driver Behavior Experimentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A crucial factor in traffic safety is driver behavior. A better understanding of driver actions will help in determining the most common reasons for car accidents. Therefore, research in this field helps to reduce accidents due to driver distraction. This paper presents Argos, which is a complex and powerfully computerized car to help researchers in the study of car driver

Antonio Pérez; M. Isabel García; Manuel Nieto; José Luis Pedraza; Santiago Rodríguez; Juan Zamorano

2010-01-01

383

Multidisciplinary Design of Air-launched Satellite Launch Vehicle Using Particle Swarm Optimization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Launch vehicle design is a complex, multidisciplinary engineering activity that requires making difficult compromises to achieve a balance among competing objectives for the vehicle, including safety, reliability, performance, operability, and cost. Significant work has been done in recent years to advance the design, analysis and optimization of launch vehicles. In the present research effort we propose the application of Particle

Amer Farhan Rafique; He LinShu; Qasim Zeeshan; Ali Kamran

384

62 FR 8906 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Roof Crush Resistance  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...220 test procedure for roof crush resistance of raised roof vehicles. Standard No...resulting in diminished roof crush resistance, the agency does not agree that the...windshield probably contributes to roof crush resistance in more representative, less...

1997-02-27

385

76 FR 53648 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards: Occupant Crash Protection  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...effect of the rule in the preamble of the NPRM. A June 14, 2010 final rule on FMVSS No. 305, Electric-powered vehicles: electrolyte spillage and electrical shock protection, has previously responded to AAJ's concerns about the agency's discussion...

2011-08-29

386

76 FR 3211 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards, Ejection Mitigation; Phase-In Reporting Requirements...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...to the Senate Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation and the House of...and with several suggestions. National Forensic Engineers, Inc. supported the use of...vehicle. As indicated by the National Forensic Engineers in its comments,...

2011-01-19

387

Recent advances in MRI technology: Implications for image quality and patient safety  

PubMed Central

Recent advances in MRI technology are presented, with emphasis on how this new technology impacts clinical operations (better image quality, faster exam times, and improved throughput). In addition, implications for patient safety are discussed with emphasis on the risk of patient injury due to either high local specific absorption rate (SAR) or large cumulative energy doses delivered during long exam times. Patient comfort issues are examined as well.

Sobol, Wlad T.

2012-01-01

388

Obtaining laser safety at a synchrotron radiation user facility: The Advanced Light Source  

SciTech Connect

The Advanced Light Source (ALS) is a US national facility for scientific research and development located at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory in California. The ALS delivers the world`s brightest synchrotron radiation in the far ultraviolet and soft X-ray regions of the spectrum. As a user facility it is available to researchers from industry, academia, and laboratories from around the world. Subsequently, a wide range of safety concerns become involved. This article relates not only to synchrotron facilities but to any user facility. A growing number of US centers are attracting organizations and individuals to use the equipment on site, for a fee. This includes synchrotron radiation and/or free electron facilities, specialty research centers, and laser job shops. Personnel coming to such a facility bring with them a broad spectrum of safety cultures. Upon entering, the guests must accommodate to the host facility safety procedures. This article describes a successful method to deal with that responsibility.

Barat, K. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)

1996-04-01

389

A two stage launch vehicle for use as an advanced space transportation system for logistics support of the space station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report describes the preliminary design specifications for an Advanced Space Transportation System consisting of a fully reusable flyback booster, an intermediate-orbit cargo vehicle, and a shuttle-type orbiter with an enlarged cargo bay. It provides a comprehensive overview of mission profile, aerodynamics, structural design, and cost analyses. These areas are related to the overall feasibility and usefullness of the proposed system.

1987-01-01

390

1997 hybrid electric vehicle specifications  

SciTech Connect

The US DOE sponsors Advanced Vehicle Technology competitions to help educate the public and advance new vehicle technologies. For several years, DOE has provided financial and technical support for the American Tour de Sol. This event showcases electric and hybrid electric vehicles in a road rally across portions of the northeastern United States. The specifications contained in this technical memorandum apply to vehicles that will be entered in the 1997 American Tour de Sol. However, the specifications were prepared to be general enough for use by other teams and individuals interested in developing hybrid electric vehicles. The purpose of the specifications is to ensure that the vehicles developed do not present a safety hazard to the teams that build and drive them or to the judges, sponsors, or public who attend the competitions. The specifications are by no means the definitive sources of information on constructing hybrid electric vehicles - as electric and hybrid vehicles technologies advance, so will the standards and practices for their construction. In some cases, the new standards and practices will make portions of these specifications obsolete.

Sluder, S.; Larsen, R.; Duoba, M.

1996-10-01

391

Advanced Turbine Technology Applications Project (ATTAP) and Hybrid Vehicle Turbine Engine Technology Support project (HVTE-TS): Final summary report  

SciTech Connect

This final technical report was prepared by Rolls-Royce Allison summarizing the multiyear activities of the Advanced Turbine Technology Applications Project (ATTAP) and the Hybrid Vehicle Turbine Engine Technology Support (HVTE-TS) project. The ATTAP program was initiated in October 1987 and continued through 1993 under sponsorship of the US Department of Energy (DOE), Energy Conservation and Renewable Energy, Office of Transportation Technologies, Propulsion Systems, Advanced Propulsion Division. ATTAP was intended to advance the technological readiness of the automotive ceramic gas turbine engine. The target application was the prime power unit coupled to conventional transmissions and powertrains. During the early 1990s, hybrid electric powered automotive propulsion systems became the focus of development and demonstration efforts by the US auto industry and the Department of energy. Thus in 1994, the original ATTAP technology focus was redirected to meet the needs of advanced gas turbine electric generator sets. As a result, the program was restructured to provide the required hybrid vehicle turbine engine technology support and the project renamed HVTE-TS. The overall objective of the combined ATTAP and HVTE-TS projects was to develop and demonstrate structural ceramic components that have the potential for competitive automotive engine life cycle cost and for operating 3,500 hr in an advanced high temperature turbine engine environment. This report describes materials characterization and ceramic component development, ceramic components, hot gasifier rig testing, test-bed engine testing, combustion development, insulation development, and regenerator system development. 130 figs., 12 tabs.

NONE

1998-12-01

392

The Advanced Re-Entry Vehicle (ARV) a Development Step from ATV Toward Manned Transportation Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Advanced Re-entry Vehicle (ARV) programme has been undertaken by Europe with the objective to contribute to the preparation of a future European crew transportation system, while providing a valuable logistic support to the ISS through an operational cargo return system. This development would allow: - the early acquisition of critical technologies; - the design, development and testing of elements suitable for the follow up human rated transportation system. These vehicles should also serve future LEO infrastructures and exploration missions. With the aim to satisfy the above objectives a team composed by major European industries and led by EADS Astrium Space Transportation is currently conducting the phase A of the programme under contract with the European Space Agency (ESA). Two vehicle versions are being investigated: a Cargo version, transporting cargo only to/from the ISS, and a Crew version, which will allow the transfer of both crew and cargo to/from the ISS. The ARV Cargo version, in its present configuration, is composed of three modules. The Versatile Service Module (VSM) provides to the system the propulsion/GNC for orbital manoeuvres and attitude control and the orbital power generation. Its propulsion system and GNC shall be robust enough to allow its use for different launch stacks and different LEO missions in the future. The Un-pressurised Cargo Module (UCM) provides the accommodation for about 3000 kg of un-pressurised cargo and is to be sufficiently flexible to ensure the transportation of: - orbital infrastructure components (ORU's); - scientific / technological experiments; - propellant for re-fuelling, re-boost (and deorbiting) of the ISS. The Re-entry Module (RM) provides a pressurized volume to accommodate active/passive cargo (2000 kg upload/1500 kg download). It is conceived as an expendable conical capsule with spherical heat- hield, interfacing with the new docking standard of the ISS, i.e. it carries the IBDM docking system, on a dedicated adapter. Its thermo-mechanical design, GNC, descent & landing systems take into account its future evolution for crew transportation. The ARV Crew version is also composed of three main modules: - an Integrated Resource Module (IRM) providing the main propulsion and power functions during the on-orbit phases of the mission; - a Re-entry Module (RM) providing the re-entry function and a pressurized environment for four crew members and about 250 kg of passive / active cargo; - a Crew Escape System (CES) providing the function of emergency separation of the RM from the launcher (in case of failure of this latter). The paper presents an overview of the ARV Cargo and Crew versions requirements derived from the above objectives, their mission scenarios, system architectures and performances. The commonality aspects between the ARV Cargo version and future transportation systems (including also the ARV Crew version and logistic carriers) are also highlighted.

Bottacini, M.; Berthe, P.; Vo, X.; Pietsch, K.

2011-08-01

393

Development of a collaborative vehicle collision avoidance system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Advanced systems for driver assistance in combination with new preventive safety systems offer great potential for collision avoidance, reducing accident severity and increasing occupant protection. This paper presents the development and evaluation of a system targeting to vehicle collision avoidance in emergency situations. The proposed system provides the nearby vehicles with information about possible accident involvement. The main feature of

Evdokimos I. Konstantinidis; George I. Patoulidis; Ioannis N. Vandikas; Constantinos Parisses; Nikos Asimopoulos

2010-01-01

394

Worldwide advanced nuclear power reactors with passive and inherent safety: What, why, how, and who  

SciTech Connect

The political controversy over nuclear power, the accidents at Three Mile Island (TMI) and Chernobyl, international competition, concerns about the carbon dioxide greenhouse effect and technical breakthroughs have resulted in a segment of the nuclear industry examining power reactor concepts with PRIME safety characteristics. PRIME is an acronym for Passive safety, Resilience, Inherent safety, Malevolence resistance, and Extended time after initiation of an accident for external help. The basic ideal of PRIME is to develop power reactors in which operator error, internal sabotage, or external assault do not cause a significant release of radioactivity to the environment. Several PRIME reactor concepts are being considered. In each case, an existing, proven power reactor technology is combined with radical innovations in selected plant components and in the safety philosophy. The Process Inherent Ultimate Safety (PIUS) reactor is a modified pressurized-water reactor, the Modular High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (MHTGR) is a modified gas-cooled reactor, and the Advanced CANDU Project is a modified heavy-water reactor. In addition to the reactor concepts, there is parallel work on super containments. The objective is the development of a passive box'' that can contain radioactivity in the event of any type of accident. This report briefly examines: why a segment of the nuclear power community is taking this new direction, how it differs from earlier directions, and what technical options are being considered. A more detailed description of which countries and reactor vendors have undertaken activities follows. 41 refs.

Forsberg, C.W.; Reich, W.J.

1991-09-01

395

Report of the Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) safety workshop, Knoxville, Tennessee, October 25--26, 1988  

SciTech Connect

On October 25--26, 1988, about 60 people took part in an Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) Safety Workshop, organized in cooperation with the Oak Ridge Operations (ORO) Office of the Department of Energy (DOE) and held in Knoxville, Tennessee. After a plenary session at which ANS Project staff presented status reports on the ANS design, research and development (R and D), and safety analysis efforts, the workshop broke into three working groups, each covering a different topic: Environmental and Waste Management, Applicable Regulatory Safety Criteria and Goals, and Reactor Concepts. Each group was asked to review the Project's approach to safety-related issues and to provide guidance on future reactor safety needs or directions for the Project. With the help of able chairmen, assisted by reporters and secretarial support, the working groups were extremely successful. Draft reports from each group were prepared before the workshop closed, and the major findings of each group were presented for review and discussion by the entire workshop attendance. This report contains the final version of the group reports, incorporating the results of the overall review by all the workshop participants.

Buchanan, J.R.; Dumont, J.N.; Kendrick, C.M.; Row, T.H.; Thompson, P.B.; West, C.D.; Marchaterre, J.F.; Muhlheim, M.D.; McBee, M.R. (comp.)

1988-12-01

396

Advanced Ovonic high-power nickel-metal hydride batteries for hybrid electric vehicle applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

In response to intense development of hybrid electric vehicles throughout the world spurred by energy and environmental concerns, Ovonic Battery Company has developed a series of high power batteries suitable for a range of vehicle design concepts. We have developed a 60 Ah HEV battery with a power capability of 620 W\\/kg and 1700 W\\/L. This high power capability was

I. Menjak; P. H. Gow; D. A. Corrigan; S. Venkatesan; S. K. Dhar; R. C. Stempel; S. R. Ovshinsky

1998-01-01

397

Collision safety of a hard-shell low-mass vehicle  

SciTech Connect

Low-mass vehicles and in particular low-mass electric vehicles as produced today in very small quantities are in general not designed for crashworthiness in collisions. Particular problems of compact low-mass cars are: reduced length of the car front, low mass compared to other vehicles, and heavy batteries in the case of an electric car. With the intention of studying design improvements, three frontal crash tests were run last year: the first one with a commercial, lightweight electric car; the second with a reinforced version of the same car; and the last one with a car based on a different structural design with a `hard-shell` car body. Crash tests showed that the latter solution made better use of the small zone available for continuous energy absorption. The paper discusses further the problem of frontal collisions between vehicles of different weight and, in particular, the side collision. A side-collision test was run with the hard-shell vehicle following the ECE lateral-impact test procedure at 50 km/h and led to results for the EuroSIDI-dummy well below current injury tolerance criteria.

Kaeser, R.; Walz, F.H.; Brunner, A.

1994-06-01

398

78 FR 70415 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Occupant Crash Protection  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...approaches in developing the course of action. Many considerations...harm, and the specific mechanics of the injury-causing...transportation and the course of action that the...Highway Safety, Center for Auto Safety, National...examination, we decided on a course of action that...

2013-11-25

399

An integrated network of roadside sensors and vehicles for driving safety: Concept, design and experiments  

Microsoft Academic Search

One major goal of the vehicular ad hoc network (VANET) is to improve driving safety. However, the VANET may not guarantee timely detection of dangerous road conditions or maintain communication connectivity when the network density is low (e.g., in rural highways), which may pose as a big threat to driving safety. Towards addressing the problem, we propose to integrate the

Hua Qin; Zi Li; Yanfei Wang; Xuejia Lu; Wensheng Zhang; Guiling Wang

2010-01-01

400

Research and development of advanced lead-acid batteries for electric vehicle propulsion. Annual report, May 2, 1989-May 1, 1990.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The US Department of Energy sponsors a number of research and development activities that have a common goal, the demonstration of advanced batteries that meet the energy, power, and life requirements needed to make electric vehicles a viable alternative ...

1990-01-01

401

Overview of the Safety Issues Associated with the Compressed Natural Gas Fuel System and Electric Drive System in a Heavy Hybrid Electric Vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report evaluates the hazards that are unique to a compressed-natural-gas (CNG)-fueled heavy hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) design compared with a conventional heavy vehicle. The unique design features of the heavy HEV are the CNG fuel system for the internal-combustion engine (ICE) and the electric drive system. This report addresses safety issues with the CNG fuel system and the electric

Samuel C. Nelson

2002-01-01

402

64 FR 22567 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Roof Crush Resistance  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...solely on roof crush resistance. It stated that it...the vehicle by sheet metal screws. As a result...positioning during Roof Crush Resistance testing. The non-Ford...improving roof crush resistance. A cumulative report...attachment with sheet metal screws by final...

1999-04-27

403

RESOLVING THE DRIVER'S DILEMMA: IMPROVING VEHICLE ACTUATED SIGNAL CONTROL FOR SAFETY AND PERFORMANCE  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper represents an innovative approach to the testing of an improved incident reduction function in the Swedish vehicle actuated signal control technique. This function aims to resolve the stop-or-go dilemma for drivers caught in the so-called \\

Azhar Al-Mudhaffar; Jeffery Archer; Andrew Cunningham

404

Developing safety critical software for an unmanned aerial vehicle situational awareness tool  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we describe our application of the SPARK programming language to the development of flight control software for an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV). The SPARK language was used during a senior-level software engineering course at the US Air Force Academy. This paper uses the year-long project from this course as an example application of SPARK. The process we

Ricky E. Sward; Mark Gerken

2006-01-01

405

Motor Carrier Safety: Reincarnating Commercial Vehicle Companies Pose Safety Threat to Motoring Public; Federal Safety Agency Has Initiated Efforts to Prevent Future Occurrences.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In 2008, the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA) reports that there were about 300 fatalities from bus crashes in the United States. Although bus crashes are relatively rare, they are particularly deadly since many individuals may be invol...

2009-01-01

406

77 FR 22637 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Accelerator Control Systems  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...evaluating the safety of ETC systems through research and defect analysis, and we engaged...chassis) dynamometer at the Transportation Research Center (TRC) in East Liberty, Ohio...21\\ Section 2. Using a broad keyword search and manual review of the...

2012-04-16

407

78 FR 9623 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Air Brake Systems  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...and DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures The...DOT's regulatory policies and procedures. This...the Department of Transportation's regulatory policies and procedures (44...will not have any safety impacts. B....

2013-02-11

408

78 FR 53386 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Occupant Crash Protection  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...safety in light of the agency's newly acquired statutory authority to permit interlocks as a compliance option. The human factors research program will gather data to help determine the effectiveness and acceptance of seat belt interlock...

2013-08-29

409

Efficient, High-Torque Electric Vehicle Motor: Advanced Electric Vehicle Motors with Low or No Rare Earth Content  

SciTech Connect

REACT Project: QM Power will develop a new type of electric motor with the potential to efficiently power future generations of EVs without the use of rare-earth-based magnets. Many of today’s EV motors use rare earth magnets to efficiently provide torque to the wheels. QM Power’s motors would contain magnets that use no rare earth minerals, are light and compact, and can deliver more power with greater efficiency and at reduced cost. Key innovations in this project include a new motor design with iron-based magnetic materials, a new motor control technique, and advanced manufacturing techniques that substantially reduce the cost of the motor. The ultimate goal of this project is to create a cost-effective EV motor that offers the rough peak equivalent of 270 horsepower.

None

2012-01-01

410

Testing of Volatile and Nonvolatile Emissions from Advanced Technology Natural Gas Vehicles.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Natural gas vehicles have proved to be an economic alternative to meet USEPA emissions regulation. In particular the 3-way oxidation catalyst equipped, 2010 emissions compliant stoichiometric heavy-duty natural gas engines have proven to be a viable alter...

A. Thiruvengadam B. Shade D. Carder M. Gautam M. C. Besch

2011-01-01

411

Serious Gaming Technologies Support Human Factors Investigations of Advanced Interfaces for Semi-Autonomous Vehicles.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Since the advent of highly capable uninhabited vehicles, notably in the application domains of offshore oil/gas exploration and defence, attention has increasingly focused on the development of technologies necessary to endow remote systems with complete ...

C. Collis C. McCririe E. Ch'ng R. Guest R. Stone

2006-01-01

412

Advanced design of valve-regulated lead–acid battery for hybrid electric vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel design of lead-acid battery has been developed for use in hybrid electric vehicles HEVs . The battery has current take-offs at both ends of each of the positive and negative plates. This feature markedly reduces battery operating temperatures, improves battery . capacity, and extends cycle-life under HEV duty. The battery also performs well under partial-state-of-charge PSoC rfast-charge, electric-vehicle

L. T. Lam; R. H. Newnham; H. Ozgun; F. A. Fleming

2000-01-01

413

Importance of the Natural Terrestrial Environment with Regard to Advanced Launch Vehicle Design and Development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The terrestrial environment is an important forcing function in the design and development of the launch vehicle. The scope of the terrestrial environment includes the following phenomena: Winds; Atmospheric Thermodynamic Models and Properties; Thermal Radiation; U.S. and World Surface Environment Extremes; Humidity; Precipitation, Fog, and Icing; Cloud Characteristics and Cloud Cover Models; Atmospheric Electricity; Atmospheric Constituents; Vehicle Engine Exhaust and Toxic Chemical Release; Occurrences of Tornadoes and Hurricanes; Geological Hazards, and Sea States. One must remember that the flight profile of any launch vehicle is in the terrestrial environment. Terrestrial environment definitions are usually limited to information below 90 km. Thus, a launch vehicle's operations will always be influenced to some degree by the terrestrial environment with which it interacts. As a result, the definition of the terrestrial environment and its interpretation is one of the key launch vehicle design and development inputs. This definition is a significant role, for example, in the areas of structures, control systems, trajectory shaping (performance), aerodynamic heating and take off/landing capabilities. The launch vehicle's capabilities which result from the design, in turn, determines the constraints and flight opportunities for tests and operations.

Pearson, S. D.; Vaughan, W. W.; Batts, G. W.; Jasper, G. L.

1996-01-01

414

Safety aspects of the US advanced LMR (liquid metal reactor) design  

SciTech Connect

The cornerstones of the United States Advanced Liquid Metal Cooled Reactor (ALMR) program sponsored by the Department of Energy are: the plant design program at General Electric based on the PRISM (Power Reactor Innovative Small Module) concept, and the Integral Fast Reactor program (IFR) at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). The goal of the US program is to produce a standard, commercial ALMR, including the associated fuel cycle. This paper discusses the US regulatory framework for design of an ALMR, safety aspects of the IFR program at ANL, the IFR fuel cycle and actinide recycle, and the ALMR plant design program at GE. 6 refs., 5 figs.

Pedersen, D.R.; Gyorey, G.L.; Marchaterre, J.F.; Rosen, S. (Argonne National Lab., IL (USA); General Electric Co., San Jose, CA (USA); Argonne National Lab., IL (USA); USDOE Assistant Secretary for Nuclear Energy, Washington, DC (USA))

1989-01-01

415

Advanced Onboard Storage Concepts for Natural Gas-Fueled Automotive Vehicles.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of this study was the evaluation, both through experimentation and a literature review, of several advanced concepts for storing natural gas at reduced pressure. The advanced concepts included adsorption on high surface area carbon, adsorpti...

R. J. Remick R. H. Elkins E. H. Camara T. Bulicz

1984-01-01

416

Safety in numbers: target prevalence affects the detection of vehicles during simulated driving.  

PubMed

The "low-prevalence effect" refers to the fact that observers often fail to detect rare targets (<5 % prevalence) during visual search tasks. Previous research has demonstrated robust prevalence effects in real-world tasks that employ static images, such as airport luggage screening. No published research has examined prevalence effects in dynamic tasks, such as driving. We conducted a driving simulator experiment to investigate whether target prevalence effects influence the detection of other vehicles while driving. The target vehicles were motorcycles and buses, with prevalence being manipulated both within and between subjects: Half of the subjects experienced a high prevalence of motorcycles with a low prevalence of buses, and half experienced a high prevalence of buses with a low prevalence of motorcycles. Consistent with our hypotheses, drivers detected high-prevalence targets faster than low-prevalence targets for both vehicle types. Overall, our results support the notion that increasing the prevalence of visual search targets makes them more salient, and consequently easier to detect. PMID:24464593

Beanland, Vanessa; Lenné, Michael G; Underwood, Geoffrey

2014-04-01

417

NHTSA (National Highway Traffic Safety Administration) Heavy Duty Vehicle Brake Research Program Report No. 4 - Stopping Capability of Hydraulically Braked Vehicles. Volume 1. Technical Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Twelve hydraulically braked trucks representing a broad range of vehicle and braking system configurations were extensively tested to determine their braking performance. Limited tests were also run on a school bus. Gross vehicle weight ratings of the tes...

R. L. Kirkbride R. W. Radlinski

1985-01-01

418

Accounting for the Variation of Driver Aggression in the Simulation of Conventional and Advanced Vehicles (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect

This presentation discusses a method of accounting for realistic levels of driver aggression to higher-level vehicle studies, including the impact of variation in real-world driving characteristics (acceleration and speed) on vehicle energy consumption and different powertrains (e.g., conventionally powered vehicles versus electrified drive vehicles [xEVs]). Aggression variation between drivers can increase fuel consumption by more than 50% or decrease it by more than 20% from average. The normalized fuel consumption deviation from average as a function of population percentile was found to be largely insensitive to powertrain. However, the traits of ideal driving behavior are a function of powertrain. In conventional vehicles, kinetic losses dominate rolling resistance and aerodynamic losses. In xEVs with regenerative braking, rolling resistance and aerodynamic losses dominate. The relation of fuel consumption predicted from real-world drive data to that predicted by the industry-standard HWFET, UDDS, LA92, and US06 drive cycles was not consistent across powertrains, and varied broadly from the mean, median, and mode of real-world driving. A drive cycle synthesized by NREL's DRIVE tool accurately and consistently reproduces average real-world for multiple powertrains within 1%, and can be used to calculate the fuel consumption effects of varying levels of driver aggression.

Neubauer, J.; Wood, E.

2013-05-01

419

Technology assessments of advanced energy storage systems for electric and hybrid vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Flywheels, hydropneumatic accumulators (in vehicles with a hydrostatic powertrain), and superconducting magnets were assessed as candidate technologies for recovering braking energy and averaging power demands in electric and hybrid vehicles. The technologies were also assessed for their suitability for fulfilling the entire energy storage requirement in vehicles. The scope of the technology assessments included the current state-of-the-art and developments anticipated within the next few years in the US and abroad. Key individuals and companies currently working on each technology contributed technical information to the study. Some of these individuals and companies are nearing the pre-production prototype stage with systems suitable for automobiles. Several have constructed systems using similar technology for other applications, including satellites and industrial equipment.

1993-04-01

420

Compliance Test Reports on Safety Glazing Materials for Glazing Motor Vehicles Operating on Land Highways.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Results are given of tests of the following safety glass brands made in accordance with USA Standard Z26.1-1966: Temp-R-Lite AS-2 M-9; PPG Sunshade Solex Duplate AS-1 M23; PPG Duplate AS-1 M-21; PPG AS-2 M20.8; Carlite AS-1 M-55; Carlite AS-2 FM-M60; PPG ...

1968-01-01

421

76 FR 77183 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Theft Protection and Rollaway Prevention  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...rapid succession.'' NASA Engineering and Safety Center Technical...above the garage. With 3 kids, both my wife and I have...knowledge of human factors engineering and, in some cases, knowledge...manufacturers already have the engineering staff on hand needed...

2011-12-12

422

Design and Transient Analysis of Passive Safety Cooling Systems for Advanced Nuclear Reactors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Pebble Bed Advanced High Temperature Reactor (PB-AHTR) is a pebble fueled, liquid salt cooled, high temperature nuclear reactor design that can be used for electricity generation or other applications requiring the availability of heat at elevated temperatures. A stage in the design evolution of this plant requires the analysis of the plant during a variety of potential transients to understand the primary and safety cooling system response. This study focuses on the performance of the passive safety cooling system with a dual purpose, to assess the capacity to maintain the core at safe temperatures and to assist the design process of this system to achieve this objective. The analysis requires the use of complex computational tools for simulation and verification using analytical solutions and comparisons with experimental data. This investigation builds upon previous detailed design work for the PB-AHTR components, including the core, reactivity control mechanisms and the intermediate heat exchanger, developed in 2008. In addition the study of this reference plant design employs a wealth of auxiliary information including thermal-hydraulic physical phenomena correlations for multiple geometries and thermophysical properties for the constituents of the plant. Finally, the set of performance requirements and limitations imposed from physical constrains and safety considerations provide with a criteria and metrics for acceptability of the design. The passive safety cooling system concept is turned into a detailed design as a result from this study. A methodology for the design of air-cooled passive safety systems was developed and a transient analysis of the plant, evaluating a scrammed loss of forced cooling event was performed. Furthermore, a design optimization study of the passive safety system and an approach for the validation and verification of the analysis is presented. This study demonstrates that the resulting point design responds properly to the transient event and maintains the core and reactor components at acceptable temperatures within allowable safety margins. It is also demonstrated that the transition from steady full-power, forced-cooling mode to steady decay-heat, natural-circulation mode is stable, predictable and well characterized.

Galvez, Cristhian

423

Minimum Heating Re-Entry Trajectories for Advanced Hypersonic Launch Vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Optimal re-entry trajectories are generated for reusable launch vehicles which minimize: (1) the heat absorbed at the vehicle surface, (2) the lower surface temperature, and (3) the heat absorbed by the internal structure. The approach uses the energy state approximation technique and a finite control volume heat transfer code coupled to a flight path integration code. These trajectories are compared to the optimal re-entry trajectory minimizing the integrated convective heat rate to determine which trajectory produces the minimum internal structural temperatures for a given thermal protection system. Three different thermal protection systems are considered: tile, blanket, and metallic.

Windhorst, Robert

1997-01-01

424

Commercial reusable launch vehicle (RLV) safety and environmental regulation and certification process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The emerging Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) programs will challenge industry to not only develop new, innovative and economically feasible designs but also establish the regulatory and certification process by which these designs will achieve commercial flight status. The government regulators, legislators, and RLV industry will team together to develop a certification process and establish ``voluntary compliance or consensus'' standards, as well as identify the necessary oversight responsibilities which will insure that the process precludes harmful effects to the public or damage to property or the environment during prelaunch, launch, orbital operations, re-entry, landing and turn around operations.

Inokuchi, Laurence F.

1996-03-01

425

30 Hour OSHA General Industry Safety Certification Program Geared Towards Advanced Energy Manufacturing  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The following course was created by Grand Rapids Community College (GRCC), through seed funding from the CAAT, to train workers for entry level positions in the advanced energy manufacturing industry. The course is designed around OSHAâs âStandards for General Industryâ and if taught by an authorized General Industry Outreach Training Program Instructor, students should receive an OSHA General Industry 30-hour Safety certification. Instructional materials include PowerPoint presentations, instructor notes, OSHA instructor and student manuals (handouts/assignments), and lesson objectives. All lessons are intended to be taught through PowerPoint presentations with guidance from the included lesson objectives and notes for instructors. The included PowerPoints are original OSHA presentations modified by GRCC and originals created by GRCC. The lesson topics are: Introduction to OSHA Safety and Health Programs, Hazard Mapping, Personal Protective Equipment, Exit Routes and Emergency Action Plans, Fire Protection and Prevention, Electrical Hazards, Ergonomics and Manual Material Handling, Walking and Working Surfaces, Industrial Hygiene, Flammable and Combustible Liquids  Hazard Communication Exit Routes and Emergency Action Plans, Fire Protection and Prevention, First Aid and CPR, Hand and Power Tool Safety, Machine Guarding, and Control of Hazardous Energy (Lockout/Tag-out). For more information on the course visit https://learning.grcc.edu/ec2k/CourseListing.asp?master_id=777&course_area=CEMF&course_number=102&course_subtitle=00.

Grand Rapids Community College (GRCC)

426

Advanced electric propulsion system concept for electric vehicles. Addendum 1. Voltage considerations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seventeen electric vehicle propulsion systems were originally studied to select two designs that best met cost and performance goals. Both systems have now been examined to assess the effect of battery pack voltage on system performance and cost. A voltage range of 54 to 540 V was considered for a typical battery pack capacity of 24 kW-hr. The highest battery

A. E. Raynard; F. E. Forbes

1980-01-01

427

Serious Gaming Technologies Support Human Factors Investigations of Advanced Interfaces for SemiAutonomous Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the advent of highly capable uninhabited vehicles, notably in the application domains of offshore oil\\/gas exploration and defence, attention has increasingly focused on the development of technologies necessary to endow remote systems with complete autonomy. However, this approach has not met with widespread success. Operational experiences frequently point to the fact that the human operator still has a significant

Robert Stone; Christopher McCririe; Christopher Collis; Rama Mannur; Imran Rehmi

428

Advanced capabilities of low-cost unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low-cost unmanned aerial vehicle technology has continuously evolved since its development in the early 1980s. As these systems have matured, they have proven to be dependable, safe, cost effective alternatives for applications ideally suited for UAVs. This paper discusses the evolution of low-cost UAV systems and describes the performance capabilities of a typical low-cost UAV system.

Richard K. Bernstein

1994-01-01

429

Advanced capabilities of low-cost unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Low-cost unmanned aerial vehicle technology has continuously evolved since its development in the early 1980s. As these systems have matured, they have proven to be dependable, safe, cost effective alternatives for applications ideally suited for UAVs. This paper discusses the evolution of low-cost UAV systems and describes the performance capabilities of a typical low-cost UAV system.

Bernstein, Richard K.

1994-10-01

430

Evaluation of Advanced Thermal Protection Techniques for Future Reusable Launch Vehicles.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A method for integrating Aeroheating analysis into conceptual reusable launch vehicle RLV design is presented in this thesis. This process allows for faster turn-around time to converge a RLV design through the advent of designing an optimized thermal pro...

J. R. Olds K. Cowart

2001-01-01

431

NASA advanced-aeronautics design solar-powered remotely piloted vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Environmental problems such as the depletion of the ozone layer and air pollution demand a change in traditional means of propulsion that is sensitive to the ecology. Solar powered propulsion is a favorable alternative that is both ecologically harmless as well as cost effective. Integration of solar energy into designs ranging from futuristic vehicles to heating is beneficial to society.

D. S. Elario; N. H. Guillmette; G. S. Lind; J. D. Webster; M. J. Ferreira; G. C. Konstantakis; D. L. Marshall; C. L. Windt

1991-01-01

432

40 CFR 86.1866-12 - CO2 credits for advanced technology vehicles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED...capacity of electricity when operated on the highway fuel economy test cycle. Alternatively...charge-depleting range as measured on the highway fuel economy test cycle and...

2013-07-01

433

Hybrid-Electric Vehicles for advanced urban mobility: a New Proposal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hybrid-electric vehicles (HEVs) are currently a hot research topic in the field of clean and sustainable mobility. HEVs can make a difference especially in urban areas where, due to the typical driving patterns with frequent stops and standing starts, traditional internal combustion engines (ICEs) operate at very low levels of efficiency. The authors believe that personal urban mobility is the

C. Concari; G. Franceschini; A. Toscani

2008-01-01

434

Advanced Technologies for Light-Duty Vehicles (released in AEO2006)  

EIA Publications

A fundamental concern in projecting the future attributes of light-duty vehicles-passenger cars, sport utility vehicles, pickup trucks, and minivans-is how to represent technological change and the market forces that drive it. There is always considerable uncertainty about the evolution of existing technologies, what new technologies might emerge, and how consumer preferences might influence the direction of change. Most of the new and emerging technologies expected to affect the performance and fuel use of light-duty vehicles over the next 25 years are represented in the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS); however, the potential emergence of new, unforeseen technologies makes it impossible to address all the technology options that could come into play. The previous section of Issues in Focus discussed several potential technologies that currently are not represented in NEMS. This section discusses some of the key technologies represented in NEMS that are expected to be implemented in light-duty vehicles over the next 25 years.

Information Center

2006-02-01

435

Simulative Analysis of Vehicle-to-X Communication considering Traffic Safety and Efficiency  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Over the past several years, there has been significant interest and progress in using wireless communication technologies\\u000a for vehicular environments in order to increase traffic safety and efficiency. Due to the fact that these systems are still\\u000a under development and large-scale tests based on real hardware are difficult to manage, simulations are a widely-used and\\u000a cost-efficient method to explore such

O. Jetter; M. Killat; J. Mittag; F. Schmidt-Eisenlohr; J. Dinger; H. Hartenstein

436

Evaluation of Advanced Thermal Protection Techniques for Future Reusable Launch Vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method for integrating Aeroheating analysis into conceptual reusable launch vehicle RLV design is presented in this thesis. This process allows for faster turn-around time to converge a RLV design through the advent of designing an optimized thermal protection system (TPS). It consists of the coupling and automation of four computer software packages: MINIVER, TPSX, TCAT and ADS. MINIVER is an Aeroheating code that produces centerline radiation equilibrium temperatures, convective heating rates, and heat loads over simplified vehicle geometries. These include flat plates and swept cylinders that model wings and leading edges, respectively. TPSX is a NASA Ames material properties database that is available on the World Wide Web. The newly developed Thermal Calculation Analysis Tool (TCAT) uses finite difference methods to carry out a transient in-depth I-D conduction analysis over the center mold line of the vehicle. This is used along with the Automated Design Synthesis (ADS) code to correctly size the vehicle's thermal protection system JPS). The numerical optimizer ADS uses algorithms that solve constrained and unconstrained design problems. The resulting outputs for this process are TPS material types, unit thicknesses, and acreage percentages. TCAT was developed for several purposes. First, it provides a means to calculate the transient in-depth conduction seen by the surface of the TPS material that protects a vehicle during ascent and reentry. Along with the in-depth conduction, radiation from the surface of the material is calculated along with the temperatures at the backface and interior parts of the TPS material. Secondly, TCAT contributes added speed and automation to the overall design process. Another motivation in the development of TCAT is optimization.

Olds, John R.; Cowart, Kris

2001-01-01

437

Advanced designs and operating strategies to enhance the safety, operability, and efficiency of VVER-1000 reactors  

SciTech Connect

Advanced fuel, burnable absorber, and control rod designs along with advanced fuel management and power distribution control strategies will be implemented in the first operating cycle of the Czech Republic`s Temelin VVER-1000 nuclear power plants. These improvements increase safety margins, enhance operability, and improve fuel efficiency. The Westinghouse VVANTAGE 6 fuel assembly design incorporates many proven advanced fuel and core design features used extensively in western pressurized water reactors. The fuel assembly incorporates mixing vane structural grids, radial enrichment zoning, ZrB{sub 2} integral fuel burnable absorbers, axial blankets, and Zircaloy guide thimbles and structural grids. Low-leakage loading patterns are also used to reduce radial neutron leakage. The rod cluster control assembly (RCCA) design incorporates two absorber materials. The absorber tip uses silver-indium-cadmium material while the remainder of the absorber material is B{sub 4}C enriched in {sup 10}B. This design increases control rod worth as well as the usable lifetime of RCCA. The Westinghouse constant axial offset control operating strategy, improved RCCA design, modified RCCA overlap, and replacement of part-length RCCA by full-length RCCA are used to improve the axial power distribution control capability for VVER-1000 reactors. These design improvements provide thermal margin benefits, increase shutdown margin by almost 1.0% {Delta}{rho}, reduce fuel cycle costs by nearly 30%, and improve axial power distribution control.

Secker, J.R.; Miller, R.W.; Mayhue, L.T.; Milanova, R.N. [Westinghouse Electric Corp., Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Energy Systems Business Unit

1995-09-01

438

Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program Risk Informed Safety Margin Characterization (RISMC) Advanced Test Reactor Demonstration Case Study  

SciTech Connect

Safety is central to the design, licensing, operation, and economics of Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs). Consequently, the ability to better characterize and quantify safety margin holds the key to improved decision making about LWR design, operation, and plant life extension. A systematic approach to characterization of safety margins and the subsequent margins management options represents a vital input to the licensee and regulatory analysis and decision making that will be involved. The purpose of the RISMC Pathway R&D is to support plant decisions for risk-informed margins management with the aim to improve economics, reliability, and sustain safety of current NPPs. Goals of the RISMC Pathway are twofold: (1) Develop and demonstrate a risk-assessment method coupled to safety margin quantification that can be used by NPP decision makers as part of their margin recovery strategies. (2) Create an advanced “RISMC toolkit” that enables more accurate representation of NPP safety margin. This report describes the RISMC methodology demonstration where the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) was used as a test-bed for purposes of determining safety margins. As part of the demonstration, we describe how both the thermal-hydraulics and probabilistic safety calculations are integrated and used to quantify margin management strategies.

Curtis Smith; David Schwieder; Cherie Phelan; Anh Bui; Paul Bayless

2012-08-01

439

Health and Safety Benefits of Small Pressurized Suitport Rovers as EVA Surface Support Vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Pressurized safe-haven providing SPE protection and decompression sickness (DCS) treatment capabilities within 20 mins at all times. Up to 50% reduction in time spent in EVA suits (vs. Unpressurized Rovers) for equal or greater Boots-on-Surface EVA exploration time. Reduces suit-induced trauma and provides improved options for nutrition, hydration, and waste-management. Time spent inside SPR during long translations may be spent performing resistive and cardiovascular exercise. Multiple shorter EVAs versus single 8 hr EVAs increases DCS safety and decreases prebreathe requirements. SPRs also offer many potential operational, engineering and exploration benefits not addressed here.

Gernhardt, Michael L.; Abercromby, Andrew F. J.

2008-01-01

440

Mechanical design engineering. NASA/university advanced design program: Lunar Bulk Material Transport Vehicle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The design of a Lunar Bulk Material Transport Vehicle (LBMTV) is discussed. Goals set in the project include a payload of 50 cubic feet of lunar soil with a lunar of approximately 800 moon-pounds, a speed of 15 mph, and the ability to handle a grade of 20 percent. Thermal control, an articulated steering mechanism, a dump mechanism, a self-righting mechanism, viable power sources, and a probable control panel are analyzed. The thermal control system involves the use of small strip heaters to heat the housing of electronic equipment in the absence of sufficient solar radiation and multi-layer insulation during periods of intense solar radiation. The entire system uses only 10 W and weighs about 60 pounds, or 10 moon-pounds. The steering mechanism is an articulated steering joint at the center of the vehicle. It utilizes two actuators and yields a turning radius of 10.3 feet. The dump mechanism rotates the bulk material container through an angle of 100 degree using one actuator. The self-righting mechanism consists of two four bar linkages, each of which is powered by the same size actuator as the other linkages. The LBMTV is powered by rechargeable batteries. A running time of at least two hours is attained under a worst case analysis. The weight of the batteries is 100 pounds. A control panel consisting of feedback and control instruments is described. The panel includes all critical information necessary to control the vehicle remotely. The LBMTV is capable of handling many types of cargo. It is able to interface with many types of removable bulk material containers. These containers are made to interface with the three-legged walker, SKITTER. The overall vehicle is about 15 feet in length and has a weight of about 1000 pounds, or 170 lunar pounds.

Daugherty, Paul; Griner, Stewart; Hendrix, Alan; Makarov, Chris; Martiny, Stephen; Meyhoefer, Douglas Ralph; Platt, Cody Claxton; Sivak, John; Wheeler, Elizabeth Fitch

1988-06-01

441

Advanced ElectroThermal Modeling of Lithium-Ion Battery System for Hybrid Electric Vehicle Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The successful implementation and commercialization of hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) rely largely on energy storage systems. Lithium-ion batteries offer potential advantages in energy density, power density, and cost for this purpose. One of the challenges imposed by lithium-ion battery is the thermal management. The best operating temperature of lithium-ion battery is from -10degC to 50degC. An effective thermal management system

Chris Mi; Ben Li; D. Buck; N. Ota

2007-01-01

442

Advanced AC permanent magnet axial flux disc motor for electric passenger vehicle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An ac permanent magnet axial flux disc motor was developed to operate with a thyristor load commutated inverter as part of an electric vehicle drive system. The motor was required to deliver 29.8 kW (40 hp) peak and 10.4 kW (14 hp) average with a maximum speed of 11,000 rpm. It was also required to run at leading power factor to commutate the inverter. Three motors were built.

Kliman, G. B.

1982-01-01

443

An advanced permanent magnet motor drive system for battery-powered electric vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Availability of high-energy neodymium-iron-boron (Nd-Fe-B) permanent magnet (PM) material has focused attention on the use of the PM synchronous motor (PMSM) drive for electric vehicles (EVs). A new Nd-Fe-B PMSM is proposed for the drive system, which possesses high power density and high efficiency, resulting in greater energy and space savings. The design and optimization of the motor employs finite

C. C. Chan; K. T. Chau

1996-01-01

444

Advanced launch vehicle upper stages using liquid propulsion and metallized propellants  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Metallized propellants are liquid propellants with a metal additive suspended in a gelled fuel or oxidizer. Typically, aluminum particles are the metal additives. These propellants provide increase in the density and/or the specific impulse of the propulsion system. Using metallized propellants for volume- and mass-constrained upper stages can deliver modest increases in performance for Low Earth Orbit to Geosynchronous Earth Orbit and other Earth orbital transfer missions. Metallized propellants, however, can enable very fast planetary missions with a single-stage upper stage system. Trade studies comparing metallized propellant stage performance with non-metallized upper stages and the Inertial Upper Stage are presented. These upper stages are both one- and two-stage vehicles that provide the added energy to send payloads to altitudes and onto trajectories that are unattainable with only the launch vehicle. The stage designs are controlled by the volume and the mass constraints of the Space Transportation System and Space Transportation System-Cargo launch vehicles. The influences of the density and specific impulse increases enabled by metallized propellants are examined for a variety of different stage and propellant combinations.

Palaszewski, B. A.

1990-01-01

445

Advanced Launch Vehicle Upper Stages Using Liquid Propulsion and Metallized Propellants  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Metallized propellants are liquid propellants with a metal additive suspended in a gelled fuel or oxidizer. Typically, aluminum (Al) particles are the metal additive. These propellants provide increase in the density and/or the specific impulse of the propulsion system. Using metallized propellant for volume-and mass-constrained upper stages can deliver modest increases in performance for low earth orbit to geosynchronous earth orbit (LEO-GEO) and other earth orbital transfer missions. Metallized propellants, however, can enable very fast planetary missions with a single-stage upper stage system. Trade studies comparing metallized propellant stage performance with non-metallized upper stages and the Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) are presented. These upper stages are both one- and two-stage vehicles that provide the added energy to send payloads to altitudes and onto trajectories that are unattainable with only the launch vehicle. The stage designs are controlled by the volume and the mass constraints of the Space Transportation System (STS) and Space Transportation System-Cargo (STS-C) launch vehicles. The influences of the density and specific impulse increases enabled by metallized propellants are examined for a variety of different stage and propellant combinations.

Palaszewski, Bryan A.

1990-01-01

446

Recent Advances in LOX / LH2 Propulsion System for Reusable Vehicle Testing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The third-generation vehicle RVT#3 equipped with a pressure-fed engine, which had upgraded in terms of durability enhancement and a LH2 tank of composite material, successfully performed in repeated flight operation tests; and the vehicle reached its maximum flying altitude of 42m in October 2003. The next step for demonstrating entire sequence of full-scale operation is to put a turbopump-fed system into propulsion system. From a result of primary system analysis, we decided to build an expander-cycle engine by diverting a pair of turbopumps, which had built for another research program, to the present study. A combustion chamber with long cylindrical portion adapted to the engine cycle was also newly made. Two captive firing tests have been conducted with two different thrust control methods, following the component tests of combustor and turbopumps separately conducted. A considerable technical issues recognized in the tests were the robustness enhancement of shaft seal design, the adjustment of shaft stiffness, and start-up operation adapted to the specific engine system. Experimental study of GOX/GH2 RCS thrusters have also been started as a part of a conceptual study of the integration of the propulsion system associated with simplification and reliability improvement of the vehicle system.

Tokudome, Shinichiro; Naruo, Yoshihiro; Yagishita, Tsuyoshi; Nonaka, Satoshi; Shida, Maki; Mori, Hatsuo; Nakamura, Takeshi

447

Efficacy, Safety, and Potential Biomarkers of Sunitinib Monotherapy in Advanced Hepatocellular Carcinoma: A Phase II Study  

PubMed Central

Purpose To assess the safety and efficacy of sunitinib in patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and explore biomarkers for sunitinib response. Patients and Methods We conducted a multidisciplinary phase II study of sunitinib, an antivascular endothelial growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor, in advanced HCC. Patients received sunitinib 37.5 mg/d for 4 weeks followed by 2 weeks of rest per cycle. The primary end point was progression-free survival (PFS). We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to evaluate vascular changes in HCC after sunitinib treatment. Circulating molecular and cellular biomarkers were evaluated before and at six time points after sunitinib treatment. Results Thirty-four patients were enrolled. The objective response rate was 2.9%, and 50% of patients had stable disease. Median PFS was 3.9 months (95% CI, 2.6 to 6.9 months), and overall survival was 9.8 months (95% CI, 7.4 months to not available). Grade 3 or 4 toxicities included leukopenia/neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, elevation of aminotransferases, and fatigue. Sunitinib rapidly decreased vessel leakiness, and this effect was more pronounced in patients with delayed progression. When evaluated early (at baseline and day 14) as well as over three cycles of treatment, higher levels of inflammatory molecules (eg, interleukin-6, stromal-derived factor 1?, soluble c-KIT) and circulating progenitor cells were associated with a poor outcome. Conclusion Sunitinib shows evidence of modest antitumor activity in advanced HCC with manageable adverse effects. Rapid changes in tumor vascular permeability and circulating inflammatory biomarkers are potential determinants of response and resistance to sunitinib in HCC. Our study suggests that control of inflammation might be critical for improving treatment outcome in advanced HCC.

Zhu, Andrew X.; Sahani, Dushyant V.; Duda, Dan G.; di Tomaso, Emmanuelle; Ancukiewicz, Marek; Catalano, Onofrio A.; Sindhwani, Vivek; Blaszkowsky, Lawrence S.; Yoon, Sam S.; Lahdenranta, Johanna; Bhargava, Pankaj; Meyerhardt, Jeffrey; Clark, Jeffrey W.; Kwak, Eunice L.; Hezel, Aram F.; Miksad, Rebecca; Abrams, Thomas A.; Enzinger, Peter C.; Fuchs, Charles S.; Ryan, David P.; Jain, Rakesh K.

2009-01-01

448

Opioid-Induced Constipation in Advanced Illness: Safety and Efficacy of Methylnaltrexone Bromide  

PubMed Central

Constipation, one of the major side effects of opiates used in palliative care, can impair patients’ quality of life to a point where it prevents sufficient pain control. Methylnaltrexone is a novel ?-receptor antagonist, which does not pass the blood brain barrier. It is licensed to treat opiate induced constipation for patients with advanced diseases. This review article presents an overview of pharmacology and safety of its application, evidence of its efficacy and economic aspects of its use in clinical practice. Available data are limited but strongly suggest that methylnaltrexone causes laxation in less than 24 hours for at least half of those patients over the first two weeks of usage without impairing pain control or causing serious adverse effects. To avoid danger of gastrointestinal perforation it is contraindicated for patients at risk for that complication. More research is needed to evaluate its long-term efficacy and economic impact.

Bader, S.; Jaroslawski, K.; Blum, H.E.; Becker, G.

2011-01-01

449

Radiation safety criteria for maintenance and waste management in the Mirror Advanced Reactor Study  

SciTech Connect

The Mirror Advanced Reactor Study (MARS) was a 2-yr study of designs for a commercial tandem mirror fusion reactor. Two of the goals of the MARS program were to exploit the full potential of fusion for occupational and environmental safety during operation and maintenance and to realize safe long-term disposal of radioactive wastes. Two numerical ratings devised to characterize materials with respect to impacts of induced radioactivity on these two goals are described. The ratings devised for these purposes are the remote maintenance rating and the waste disposal rating. The MARS reactor designers had these ratings available and used them as guidelines in making configuration and materials choices. Significant differences in meeting these goals were identified, depending on the materials chosen. The final MARS design fully utilized the technology available today and, in large measure, achieved the stated goals of the program.

Maninger, R.C.; Dorm, D.W.

1984-11-01

450

Role of Process Control in Improving Space Vehicle Safety A Space Shuttle External Tank Example  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Developing a safe and reliable space vehicle requires good design and good manufacturing, or in other words "design it right and build it right". A great design can be hard to build or manufacture mainly due to difficulties related to quality. Specifically, process control can be a challenge. As a result, the system suffers from low quality which leads to low reliability and high system risk. The Space Shuttle has experienced some of those cases, but has overcome these difficulties through extensive redesign efforts and process enhancements. One example is the design of the hot gas temperature sensor on the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME), which resulted in failure of the sensor in flight and led to a redesign of the sensor. The most recent example is the Space Shuttle External Tank (ET) Thermal Protection System (TPS) reliability issues that contributed to the Columbia accident. As a result, extensive redesign and process enhancement activities have been performed over the last two years to minimize the sensitivities and difficulties of the manual TPS application process.

Safie, Fayssal M.; Nguyen, Son C.; Burleson, Keith W.

2006-01-01

451

Improved methodology for integral analysis of advanced reactors employing passive safety  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

After four decades of experience with pressurized water reactors, a new generation of nuclear plants are emerging. These advanced designs employ passive safety which relies on natural forces, such as gravity and natural circulation. The new concept of passive safety also necessitates improvement in computational tools available for best-estimate analyses. The system codes originally designed for high pressure conditions in the presence of strong momentum sources such as pumps are challenged in many ways. Increased interaction of the primary system with the containment necessitates a tool for integral analysis. This study addresses some of these concerns. An improved tool for integral analysis coupling primary system with containment calculation is also presented. The code package is based on RELAP5 and CONTAIN programs, best-estimate thermal-hydraulics code for primary system analysis and containment code for containment analysis, respectively. The suitability is demonstrated with a postulated small break loss of coolant accident analysis of Westinghouse AP600 plant. The thesis explains the details of the analysis including the coupling model.

Muftuoglu, A. Kursad

452

Motor vehicle  

SciTech Connect

An improvement in a motor vehicle is described including: a vehicle body; a front road wheel disposed in the front part of the vehicle body; a rear road wheel disposed in the rear part of the vehicle body; an engine for driving at least either of the front and rear road wheels; and a steering wheel for steering at least either of the front and rear road wheels; comprising: detection means connected to the vehicle for detecting the transverse sliding angle of the vehicle body; and display means connected to the detection means for visually displaying the moving direction of the vehicle body on the basis of an output of the detection means; and the detection means comprises a first sensor for detecting the advancing speed of the vehicle, a second sensor for detecting the transverse acceleration of the vehicle, a third sensor for detecting the yawing velocity of the vehicle, and a processor for calculating the transverse sliding angle on the basis of the advancing speed, the transverse acceleration and the yawing velocity.

Furukawa, Y.; Sano, S.

1986-04-15

453

Advanced Manufacturing at the Marshall Space Flight Center and Application to Ares I and Ares V Launch Vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

There are various aspects of advanced manufacturing technology development at the field centers of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). The Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has been given the assignment to lead the National Center for Advanced Manufacturing (NCAM) at MSFC and pursue advanced development and coordination with other federal agencies for NASA. There are significant activities at the Marshall Center as well as at the Michoud Assembly Facility (MAF) in New Orleans which we operate in conjunction with the University of New Orleans. New manufacturing processes in metals processing, component development, welding operations, composite manufacturing and thermal protection system material and process development will be utilized in the manufacturing of the United States two new launch vehicles, the Ares I and the Ares V. An overview of NCAM will be presented as well as some of the development activities and manufacturing that are ongoing in Ares Upper Stage development. Some of the tools and equipment produced by Italian owned companies and their application in this work will be mentioned.

Carruth, Ralph

2008-01-01

454

Safety and therapeutic effect of metronomic chemotherapy with cyclophosphamide and celecoxib in advanced breast cancer patients.  

PubMed

Metronomic chemotherapy (MCT), the chronic administration, at regular intervals, of low doses of chemotherapeutic drugs without extended rest periods, allows chronic treatment with therapeutic efficacy and low toxicity. Our preclinical results suggested that combined MCT with cyclophosphamide and celecoxib could inhibit breast cancer growth. The aim of this study was to determine the toxicity, safety and efficacy of oral MCT with cyclophosphamide 50 mg per orem daily and celecoxib 400 mg (200 mg per orem two-times a day) in advanced breast cancer patients. During the first stage of the study, the therapeutic response consisted of prolonged stable disease for ?24 weeks in six out of 15 (40%) patients with a median duration of 37.5 weeks and a partial response in one out of 15 (response rate: 6.7%) patients lasting 6 weeks. The overall clinical benefit rate was 46.7%. The median time to progression was 14 weeks. Progression-free survival at 24 weeks was 40% and the 1-year overall survival rate was 46.7%. The adverse events were mild (gastric, grade 1; and hematologic, grade 1 or 2). No grade 3 or 4 toxicities were associated with the treatment. Evaluation of patients' quality of life showed no changes during the response period. MCT with cyclophosphamide plus celecoxib is safe and shows a therapeutic effect in advanced breast cancer patients. PMID:23469980

Perroud, Herman A; Rico, Maria José; Alasino, Carlos M; Queralt, Francisco; Mainetti, Leandro E; Pezzotto, Stella M; Rozados, Viviana R; Scharovsky, O Graciela

2013-03-01

455

Assessment of modular construction for safety-related structures at advanced nuclear power plants  

SciTech Connect

Modular construction techniques have been successfully used in a number of industries, both domestically and internationally. Recently, the use of structural modules has been proposed for advanced nuclear power plants. The objective in utilizing modular construction is to reduce the construction schedule, reduce construction costs, and improve the quality of construction. This report documents the results of a program which evaluated the proposed use of modular construction for safety-related structures in advanced nuclear power plant designs. The program included review of current modular construction technology, development of licensing review criteria for modular construction, and initial validation of currently available analytical techniques applied to concrete-filled steel structural modules. The program was conducted in three phases. The objective of the first phase was to identify the technical issues and the need for further study in order to support NRC licensing review activities. The two key findings were the need for supplementary review criteria to augment the Standard Review Plan and the need for verified design/analysis methodology for unique types of modules, such as the concrete-filled steel module. In the second phase of this program, Modular Construction Review Criteria were developed to provide guidance for licensing reviews. In the third phase, an analysis effort was conducted to determine if currently available finite element analysis techniques can be used to predict the response of concrete-filled steel modules.

Braverman, J.; Morante, R.; Hofmayer, C.

1997-03-01

456

Design, fabrication and test of graphite/polyimide composite joints and attachments for advanced aerospace vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development of several types of graphite/polyimide (GR/PI) bonded and bolted joints is reported. The program consists of two concurrent tasks: (1) design and test of specific built up attachments; and (2) evaluation of standard advanced bonded joint concepts. A data base for the design and analysis of advanced composite joints for use at elevated temperatures (561K (550 deg F)) to design concepts for specific joining applications, and the fundamental parameters controlling the static strength characteristics of such joints are evaluated. Data for design and build GR/PI of lightly loaded flight components for advanced space transportation systems and high speed aircraft are presented. Results for compression and interlaminar shear strengths of Celion 6000/PMR-15 laminates are given. Static discriminator test results for type 3 and type 4 bonded and bolted joints and final joint designs for TASK 1.4 scale up fabrication and testing are presented.

1981-01-01

457

Modeling the Behaviour of an Advanced Material Based Smart Landing Gear System for Aerospace Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The last two decades have seen a substantial rise in the use of advanced materials such as polymer composites for aerospace structural applications. In more recent years there has been a concerted effort to integrate materials, which mimic biological functions (referred to as smart materials) with polymeric composites. Prominent among smart materials are shape memory alloys, which possess both actuating

Byji Varughese; G. N. Dayananda; M. Subba Rao

2008-01-01

458

Orbit transfer vehicle advanced expander cycle engine point design study. Volume 2: Study results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design characteristics of the baseline engine configuration of the advanced expander cycle engine are described. Several aspects of engine optimization are considered which directly impact the design of the baseline thrust chamber. Four major areas of the power cycle optimization are emphasized: main turbine arrangement; cycle engine source; high pressure pump design; and boost pump drive.

Diem, H. G.

1980-01-01

459

ORNL's NRC-sponsored HTGR safety and licensing analysis activities for Fort St. Vrain and advanced reactors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ORNL safety analysis program for the HTGR was established in 1974 to provide technical assistance to the USNRC on licensing questions for both Fort St. Vrain and advanced plant concepts. The emphasis has been on development of major component and system dynamic simulation codes, and use of these codes to analyze specific licensing-related scenarios. The program has also emphasized

S. J. Ball; J. C. Cleveland; R. M. Harrington

1985-01-01

460

Analysis of two-phase flow phenomena with FLUENT4 code in the experiments for advanced light water reactor safety  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the development of advanced light water reactors, thermohydraulic phenomena are versatile in comparison with the present concepts. The new features are the passive safety systems, where energy transport takes place by natural circulation instead of forced flow. For cooling of the molten core, new concepts have been created including external vessel cooling and core catchers. In all new concepts,

J. Miettinen; M. Tuomainen; I. Karppinen; J. Tuunanen

2002-01-01

461

Nuclear Energy Advanced Modelling and Simulation (NEAMS) Waste Integrated Performance and Safety Codes (IPSC): FY10 Development and Integration.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes the progress in fiscal year 2010 in developing theWaste Integrated Performance and Safety Codes (IPSC) in support of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation (NEAMS) Campaign. The ...

D. Sassani G. Freeze H. C. Edwards J. Bouchard J. G. Argiiello L. Criscenti P. A. Schultz T. Dewers

2011-01-01