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Last update: November 12, 2013.
1

Preliminary hazard analyses: a case study of advanced vehicle control and safety systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

To realize the benefits of advanced vehicle vontrol and safety systems (AVCSS), there is a need to establish the procedures and methodologies for safety assessment. AVCSS involves several safety critical functions such as vehicle longitudinal and lateral control. INRETS (French institute of research in the transports and their safety) and California PATH (Partners for Advanced Transit and Highways) of University

M. El Koursi; Ching-Yao Chan; Wei-Bin Zhang

1999-01-01

2

Advanced Chassis Control Systems for Vehicle Handling and Active Safety  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper chassis controls for vehicle handling and active safety have been reviewed. In particular, we have observed the effectiveness and limit of 4WS and DYC. It is pointed out that DYC is more effective in vehicle motion with larger side-slip and\\/or higher lateral acceleration and taking the nonlinearity of tire and vehicle dynamics into consideration is essential for

YOSHIMI FURUKAWA; MASATO ABE

1997-01-01

3

Advanced Aerodynamic Devices to Improve the Performance, Economics, Handling, and Safety of Heavy Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research is being conducted at the Georgia Tech Research Institute (GTRI) to develop advanced aerodynamic devices to improve the performance, economics, stability, handling and safety of operation of Heavy Vehicles by using previously-developed and flight-tested pneumatic (blown) aircraft technology. Recent wind-tunnel investigations of a generic Heavy Vehicle model with blowing slots on both the leading and trailing edges of the

Robert J. Englar

2001-01-01

4

Current status of environmental, health, and safety issues of electrochemical capacitors for advanced vehicle applications  

SciTech Connect

Electrochemical capacitors are a candidate for traction power assists in hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). Other advanced automotive applications, while not the primary focus of current development efforts, are also possible. These include load leveling high-energy batteries, power conditioning electronics, electrically hated catalysts, electric power steering, and engine starter power. Higher power and longer cycle life are expected for electrochemical capacitors than for batteries. Evaluation of environmental, health, and safety (EH and S) issues of electrochemical capacitors is an essential part of the development and commercialization of electrochemical capacitors for advanced vehicles. This report provides an initial EH and S assessment. This report presents electrochemical capacitor electrochemistry, materials selection, intrinsic material hazards, mitigation of those hazards, environmental requirements, pollution control options, and shipping requirements. Most of the information available for this assessment pertains to commercial devices intended for application outside the advanced vehicle market and to experiment or prototype devices. Electrochemical capacitors for power assists in HEVs are not produced commercially now. Therefore, materials for advanced vehicle electrochemical capacitors may change, and so would the corresponding EH and S issues. Although changes are possible, this report describes issues for likely electrochemical capacitor designs.

Vimmerstedt, L.J.; Hammel, C.J.

1997-04-01

5

Advanced Aerodynamic Devices to Improve the Performance, Economics, Handling, and Safety of Heavy Vehicles  

SciTech Connect

Research is being conducted at the Georgia Tech Research Institute (GTRI) to develop advanced aerodynamic devices to improve the performance, economics, stability, handling and safety of operation of Heavy Vehicles by using previously-developed and flight-tested pneumatic (blown) aircraft technology. Recent wind-tunnel investigations of a generic Heavy Vehicle model with blowing slots on both the leading and trailing edges of the trailer have been conducted under contract to the DOE Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies. These experimental results show overall aerodynamic drag reductions on the Pneumatic Heavy Vehicle of 50% using only 1 psig blowing pressure in the plenums, and over 80% drag reductions if additional blowing air were available. Additionally, an increase in drag force for braking was confirmed by blowing different slots. Lift coefficient was increased for rolling resistance reduction by blowing only the top slot, while downforce was produced for traction increase by blowing only the bottom. Also, side force and yawing moment were generated on either side of the vehicle, and directional stability was restored by blowing the appropriate side slot. These experimental results and the predicted full-scale payoffs are presented in this paper, as is a discussion of additional applications to conventional commercial autos, buses, motor homes, and Sport Utility Vehicles.

Robert J. Englar

2001-05-14

6

Advanced Technology Vehicle Testing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The light-duty vehicle transportation sector in the United States depends heavily on imported petroleum as a transportation fuel. The Department of Energyâs Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA) is testing advanced technology vehicles to help reduce this dependency, which would contribute to the economic stability and homeland security of the United States. These advanced technology test vehicles include internal combustion engine

James Francfort

2003-01-01

7

Current status of environmental, health, and safety issues of electrochemical capacitors for advanced vehicle applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electrochemical capacitors are a candidate for traction power assists in hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). Other advanced automotive applications, while not the primary focus of current development efforts, are also possible. These include load leveling high-energy batteries, power conditioning electronics, electrically hated catalysts, electric power steering, and engine starter power. Higher power and longer cycle life are expected for electrochemical capacitors

L. J. Vimmerstedt; C. J. Hammel

1997-01-01

8

Advanced Technology Vehicle Testing  

SciTech Connect

The light-duty vehicle transportation sector in the United States depends heavily on imported petroleum as a transportation fuel. The Department of Energy’s Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA) is testing advanced technology vehicles to help reduce this dependency, which would contribute to the economic stability and homeland security of the United States. These advanced technology test vehicles include internal combustion engine vehicles operating on 100% hydrogen (H2) and H2CNG (compressed natural gas) blended fuels, hybrid electric vehicles, neighborhood electric vehicles, urban electric vehicles, and electric ground support vehicles. The AVTA tests and evaluates these vehicles with closed track and dynamometer testing methods (baseline performance testing) and accelerated reliability testing methods (accumulating lifecycle vehicle miles and operational knowledge within 1 to 1.5 years), and in normal fleet environments. The Arizona Public Service Alternative Fuel Pilot Plant and H2-fueled vehicles are demonstrating the feasibility of using H2 as a transportation fuel. Hybrid, neighborhood, and urban electric test vehicles are demonstrating successful applications of electric drive vehicles in various fleet missions. The AVTA is also developing electric ground support equipment (GSE) test procedures, and GSE testing will start during the fall of 2003. All of these activities are intended to support U.S. energy independence. The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory manages these activities for the AVTA.

James Francfort

2003-11-01

9

Advanced Technology Vehicle Testing  

SciTech Connect

The goal of the U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA) is to increase the body of knowledge as well as the awareness and acceptance of electric drive and other advanced technology vehicles (ATV). The AVTA accomplishes this goal by testing ATVs on test tracks and dynamometers (Baseline Performance testing), as well as in real-world applications (Fleet and Accelerated Reliability testing and public demonstrations). This enables the AVTA to provide Federal and private fleet managers, as well as other potential ATV users, with accurate and unbiased information on vehicle performance and infrastructure needs so they can make informed decisions about acquiring and operating ATVs. The ATVs currently in testing include vehicles that burn gaseous hydrogen (H2) fuel and hydrogen/CNG (H/CNG) blended fuels in internal combustion engines (ICE), and hybrid electric (HEV), urban electric, and neighborhood electric vehicles. The AVTA is part of DOE's FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies Program.

James Francfort

2004-06-01

10

Motor Vehicle Occupant Safety Survey.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report presents findings from the first Motor Vehicle Occupant Safety Survey. The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) conducted this survey to collect critical information needed by the agency to develop and implement effective cou...

J. M. Boyle

1995-01-01

11

Advanced Traveler Information Systems, Warning Systems, and Intelligent Vehicles. Safety and Human Performance.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Using Human Information Processing Principles to Design Advanced Traveler Information Systems; Why Will Some Individuals Pay for Travel Information When It Can Be Free. Analysis of a Bay Area Traveler Survey; Wet and Wild: Developing and Evaluat...

2001-01-01

12

Nonoperating Motor Vehicle Safety Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The background of nonoperating motor vehicle safety is reviewed and the magnitude of the problem is discussed. The study: notes the difficulty in identifying nonoperating hazards by hard statistics; shows the minuscule quantity of data available in usable...

1972-01-01

13

Vehicle Safety. Managing Liability Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This monograph discusses the safety of vehicles owned, leased, maintained, and operated by colleges and universities. First, the risks by colleges and universities is discussed. First, the risks associated with college vehicles are outlined, including the liability that comes with staff/faculty and student drivers and such special concerns as…

Newby, Deborah, Ed.

14

Surveillance, Privacy and the Ethics of Vehicle Safety Communication Technologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent advances in wireless technologies have led to the development of intelligent, in-vehicle safety applications designed\\u000a to share information about the actions of nearby vehicles, potential road hazards, and ultimately predict dangerous scenarios\\u000a or imminent collisions. These vehicle safety communication (VSC) technologies rely on the creation of autonomous, self-organizing,\\u000a wireless communication networks connecting vehicles with roadside infrastructure and with each

M. Zimmer

2005-01-01

15

5-Star Safety Ratings: 2011-Newer Vehicles  

MedlinePLUS

5-Star Safety Ratings 2011-Newer Vehicles 1990-2010 Vehicles Air Bags Child Safety at Parents Central Resources Rollover ... to the most frequently asked questions about 5-Star Safety Ratings. During the government shutdown, NHTSA's 5- ...

16

Motor Vehicle Safety  

MedlinePLUS

... order Use car seats for children Wear your seat belt Don't speed or drive aggressively Don't drive impaired Safety also involves being aware of others. Share the road with bicycles and motorcycles, and watch for pedestrians.

17

Safer Vehicles. White Papers for: 'Toward Zero Deaths: A National Strategy on Highway Safety'. White Paper No. 4.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Decades of improvements in motor vehicle design, and continuous advances in automotive safety technology have contributed to a steady decline in motor vehicle fatality rates. A number of important, fundamental vehicle safety improvements are long establis...

R. Retting R. R. Knipling

2010-01-01

18

Advanced launch vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vehicles capable of lifting very large and heavy payloads into low earth orbit (LEO) will be needed to support certain large-scale space missions being considered for the late 1990-2000 time period. These missions include the support of strategic national commitments, large space power systems, and interplanetary and lunar exploration. Nearer term missions will utilize the Space Shuttle and its direct

W. R. Marshall; B. W. Shelton

1984-01-01

19

Advanced batteries for electric vehicles  

SciTech Connect

The idea of battery-powered vehicles is an old one that took on new importance during the oil crisis of 1973 and after California passed laws requiring vehicles that would produce no emissions (so-called zero-emission vehicles). In this overview of battery technologies, the authors review the major existing or near-term systems as well as advanced systems being developed for electric vehicle (EV) applications. However, this overview does not cover all the advanced batteries being developed currently throughout the world. Comparative characteristics for the following batteries are given: lead-acid; nickel/cadmium; nickel/iron; nickel/metal hydride; zinc/bromine; sodium/sulfur; sodium/nickel chloride; zinc/air; lithium/iron sulfide; and lithium-polymer.

Henriksen, G.L.; DeLuca, W.H.; Vissers, D.R. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States))

1994-11-01

20

How important is vehicle safety in the new vehicle purchase process?  

PubMed

Whilst there has been a significant increase in the amount of consumer interest in the safety performance of privately owned vehicles, the role that it plays in consumers' purchase decisions is poorly understood. The aims of the current study were to determine: how important vehicle safety is in the new vehicle purchase process; what importance consumers place on safety options/features relative to other convenience and comfort features, and how consumers conceptualise vehicle safety. In addition, the study aimed to investigate the key parameters associated with ranking 'vehicle safety' as the most important consideration in the new vehicle purchase. Participants recruited in Sweden and Spain completed a questionnaire about their new vehicle purchase. The findings from the questionnaire indicated that participants ranked safety-related factors (e.g., EuroNCAP (or other) safety ratings) as more important in the new vehicle purchase process than other vehicle factors (e.g., price, reliability etc.). Similarly, participants ranked safety-related features (e.g., advanced braking systems, front passenger airbags etc.) as more important than non-safety-related features (e.g., route navigation systems, air-conditioning etc.). Consistent with previous research, most participants equated vehicle safety with the presence of specific vehicle safety features or technologies rather than vehicle crash safety/test results or crashworthiness. The key parameters associated with ranking 'vehicle safety' as the most important consideration in the new vehicle purchase were: use of EuroNCAP, gender and education level, age, drivers' concern about crash involvement, first vehicle purchase, annual driving distance, person for whom the vehicle was purchased, and traffic infringement history. The findings from this study are important for policy makers, manufacturers and other stakeholders to assist in setting priorities with regard to the promotion and publicity of vehicle safety features for particular consumer groups (such as younger consumers) in order to increase their knowledge regarding vehicle safety and to encourage them to place highest priority on safety in the new vehicle purchase process. PMID:18460367

Koppel, Sjaanie; Charlton, Judith; Fildes, Brian; Fitzharris, Michael

2007-12-18

21

Motor vehicle safety during pregnancy.  

PubMed

Motor vehicle crashes during pregnancy are the leading cause of traumatic fetal mortality and serious maternal injury morbidity and mortality in the United States, injuring approximately 92,500 pregnant women each year. Little is known about the circumstances surrounding these crash events and the maternal characteristics that may increase women's vulnerability to crash-related injuries during pregnancy. Even less is known about the effects of crashes on fetal outcomes. Crash simulation studies using female anthropomorphic test devices and computational models have been conducted to better understand the mechanisms of maternal and fetal injuries and death resulting from motor vehicle crashes. In addition, several case reports describing maternal and fetal outcomes following crashes have been published in the literature. Only a few population-based studies have explored the association between motor vehicle crashes and adverse maternal and/or fetal outcomes and even fewer have examined the effectiveness of seat belts and/or airbags in reducing the risk of these outcomes. This paper reviews what is presently known about motor vehicle crashes during pregnancy, their effects on maternal and fetal outcomes, and the role of vehicle safety devices and other safety approaches in mitigating the occurrence and severity of maternal crashes and subsequent injuries. In addition, this paper suggests interventions targeted towards the prevention of crashes during pregnancy. PMID:23710161

Vladutiu, Catherine J; Weiss, Harold B

2012-01-01

22

Motor vehicle safety during pregnancy  

PubMed Central

Motor vehicle crashes during pregnancy are the leading cause of traumatic fetal mortality and serious maternal injury morbidity and mortality in the United States, injuring approximately 92,500 pregnant women each year. Little is known about the circumstances surrounding these crash events and the maternal characteristics that may increase women’s vulnerability to crash-related injuries during pregnancy. Even less is known about the effects of crashes on fetal outcomes. Crash simulation studies using female anthropomorphic test devices and computational models have been conducted to better understand the mechanisms of maternal and fetal injuries and death resulting from motor vehicle crashes. In addition, several case reports describing maternal and fetal outcomes following crashes have been published in the literature. Only a few population-based studies have explored the association between motor vehicle crashes and adverse maternal and/or fetal outcomes and even fewer have examined the effectiveness of seat belts and/or airbags in reducing the risk of these outcomes. This paper reviews what is presently known about motor vehicle crashes during pregnancy, their effects on maternal and fetal outcomes, and the role of vehicle safety devices and other safety approaches in mitigating the occurrence and severity of maternal crashes and subsequent injuries. In addition, this paper suggests interventions targeted towards the prevention of crashes during pregnancy.

Vladutiu, Catherine J.; Weiss, Harold B.

2013-01-01

23

How Important is Vehicle Safety in the New Vehicle Purchase\\/Lease Process for Fleet Vehicles?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. Despite the potential benefits that fleet vehicle purchase decisions could have on road safety, the role that vehicle safety plays in fleet managers' purchase decisions is poorly understood.Methods. In this study, fleet managers from Sweden and Spain completed a questionnaire regarding the importance of vehicle safety in the new vehicle purchase\\/lease process and the importance that is placed on

Sjaanie Koppel; Judith Charlton; Brian Fildes

2007-01-01

24

Vehicle-to-vehicle safety messaging in DSRC  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper studies the design of layer-2 protocols for a vehicle to send safety messages to other vehicles. The target is to send vehicle safety messages with high reliability and low delay. The communication is one-to-many, local, and geo-significant. The vehicular communication network is ad-hoc, highly mobile, and with large numbers of contending nodes. The messages are very short, have

Qing Xu; Tony K. Mak; Jeff Ko; Raja Sengupta

2004-01-01

25

Advance Computer Communication Systems in Hybrid Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an overview of advance signal processors and computer systems in present day hybrid vehicles. The increase in processing speeds of the present day digital signal processors has helped in development of hybrid cars at commercial level. Hybrid vehicles make use of computer control systems that are extremely complicated. The recent advances in processing speed and power, the

P. V. Suryavanshi; V. K. Sharma; R. Sharma

2006-01-01

26

Teaching Technology by Assessing Vehicle Safety  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|According to the National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, motor vehicle crashes are the leading cause of death among Americans aged 2-34. Many states have adopted periodic motor vehicle inspection (PMVI) to ensure the safety of the highways, and states that have adopted PMVI report a reduction in highway fatalities. Deaths and injuries…

Lazaros, Edward J.

2012-01-01

27

32 CFR 636.33 - Vehicle safety inspection criteria.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Vehicle safety inspection criteria. 636.33...ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION (SPECIFIC INSTALLATIONS... Fort Stewart, Georgia § 636.33 Vehicle safety inspection criteria. (a)...

2013-07-01

28

10 CFR 611.3 - Advanced technology vehicle.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Advanced technology vehicle. 611.3 Section 611.3 Energy...REGULATIONS ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY VEHICLES MANUFACTURER ASSISTANCE PROGRAM... § 611.3 Advanced technology vehicle. In order to demonstrate...

2013-01-01

29

Advanced propulsion system concept for hybrid vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results of a nine-month study to identify and evaluate advanced propulsion systems for on-the-road hybrid vehicles are presented. Two concepts, both utilizing Stirling engines, were evaluated for five of reference mission\\/vehicles ranging from a two-passenger commuter car to a large bus, each had its own performance specification. Selection of the best hybrid configuration and reference mission\\/vehicle was made against

S. Bhate; H. Chen; G. Dochat

1980-01-01

30

Acquisition of Advanced Amphibious Assault Vehicles.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Advanced Amphibious Assault (AAA) Program was the only major acquisition program in the Marine Corps at the time of the audit. The Marine Corps established the AAA Program to develop and procure vehicles to replace the Amphibious Assault Vehicle (AAV)...

1993-01-01

31

Advanced APS Impacts on Vehicle Payloads.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Advanced auxiliary propulsion system (APS) technology has the potential to both, increase the payload capability of earth-to-orbit (ETO) vehicles by reducing APS propellant mass, and simplify ground operations and logistics by reducing the number of fluid...

S. J. Schneider B. D. Reed

1989-01-01

32

70 FR 60031 - All Terrain Vehicles; Advance Notice of Proposed Rulemaking; Request for Comments and Information  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION 16 CFR Chapter II All Terrain Vehicles; Advance Notice of Proposed...of injury and death associated with some all terrain vehicles (``ATVs''). The...video, a safety alert for dissemination to all purchasers stating the number of ATV...

2005-10-14

33

19 CFR 12.80 - Federal motor vehicle safety standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Federal motor vehicle safety standards. 12.80 Section 12.80 ...TREASURY SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Motor Vehicles and Motor Vehicle Equipment Manufactured on Or After January 1,...

2013-04-01

34

Advanced Marine Vehicles: A Review.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper provides an overview of hull form design practices as applied by NAVSEA 501 in the design of hydrofoils, small waterplane area twin hulls (SWATH), surface effect ships, and air cushion vehicles for the U.S. Navy. General design considerations a...

M. R. Bebar C. G. Kennell W. N. White D. R. Lavis

1986-01-01

35

Advances in fuel cell vehicle design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Factors such as global warming, dwindling fossil fuel reserves, and energy security concerns combine to indicate that a replacement for the internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicle is needed. Fuel cell vehicles have the potential to address the problems surrounding the ICE vehicle without imposing any significant restrictions on vehicle performance, driving range, or refuelling time. Though there are currently some obstacles to overcome before attaining the widespread commercialization of fuel cell vehicles, such as improvements in fuel cell and battery durability, development of a hydrogen infrastructure, and reduction of high costs, the fundamental concept of the fuel cell vehicle is strong: it is efficient, emits zero harmful emissions, and the hydrogen fuel can be produced from various renewable sources. Therefore, research on fuel cell vehicle design is imperative in order to improve vehicle performance and durability, increase efficiency, and reduce costs. This thesis makes a number of key contributions to the advancement of fuel cell vehicle design within two main research areas: powertrain design and DC/DC converters. With regards to powertrain design, this research first analyzes various powertrain topologies and energy storage system types. Then, a novel fuel cell-battery-ultracapacitor topology is presented which shows reduced mass and cost, and increased efficiency, over other promising topologies found in the literature. A detailed vehicle simulator is created in MATLAB/Simulink in order to simulate and compare the novel topology with other fuel cell vehicle powertrain options. A parametric study is performed to optimize each powertrain and general conclusions for optimal topologies, as well as component types and sizes, for fuel cell vehicles are presented. Next, an analytical method to optimize the novel battery-ultracapacitor energy storage system based on maximizing efficiency, and minimizing cost and mass, is developed. This method can be applied to any system utilizing the novel battery-ultracapacitor energy storage system and is not limited in application to only fuel cell vehicles. With regards to DC/DC converters, it is important to design efficient and light-weight converters for use in fuel cell and other electric vehicles to improve overall vehicle fuel economy. Thus, this research presents a novel soft-switching method, the capacitor-switched regenerative snubber, for the high-power DC/DC boost converters commonly used in fuel cell vehicles. This circuit is shown to increase the efficiency and reduce the overall mass of the DC/DC boost converter.

Bauman, Jennifer

36

How important is vehicle safety in the new vehicle purchase process?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Whilst there has been a significant increase in the amount of consumer interest in the safety performance of privately owned vehicles, the role that it plays in consumers’ purchase decisions is poorly understood. The aims of the current study were to determine: how important vehicle safety is in the new vehicle purchase process; what importance consumers place on safety options\\/features

Sjaanie Koppel; Judith Charlton; Brian Fildes; Michael Fitzharris

2008-01-01

37

Cost and Economics for Advanced Launch Vehicles.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper reports the results of a study that evaluated the economic risk inherent in market variability and the uncertainty of developing weight estimates for an advanced space launch vehicle program. The purpose of this study was to determine the sensi...

J. Whitfield

1998-01-01

38

19 CFR 12.80 - Federal motor vehicle safety standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Equipment Manufactured on Or After January...motor vehicle safety standards. (a) Standards...was manufactured on a date when no applicable safety standards were in effect...28, 1986] Safety Standards for Boats and...

2009-04-01

39

19 CFR 12.80 - Federal motor vehicle safety standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Equipment Manufactured on Or After January...motor vehicle safety standards. (a) Standards...was manufactured on a date when no applicable safety standards were in effect...28, 1986] Safety Standards for Boats and...

2010-04-01

40

Advanced composite structures for launch vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An account is given of the tradeoff optimization results obtained to date in a developmental study concerned with the application of advanced composite structures to advanced launch vehicles in such components as the payload fairing and intertank cylinders. Initial results for comparative studies encompassing GFRP and CFRP structures of both monocoque and sandwich type, as well as composite skin/stringer and corrugated constructions, show that these latter two composite structure concepts can yield savings of 30 percent in both weight and cost relative to an Al-Li alloy isogrid structure. The study gave attention to intertank and fairing structures representative of NASA's projected Advanced Launch System.

Robinson, Michael J.; Charette, Raymond O.; Leonard, Bruce G.

1991-01-01

41

Development of predicting evaluation platform of advanced driver safety assist systems using integrated virtual traffic environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Advanced driver safety assist systems are expected as the useful tools to decrease the traffic accidents, and are under developments in many automobile manufacturers. From the political points of view, predicting the effects of each advanced driver safety assist system on driver-vehicle safety improvement quantitatively, in the early stage of the system development activities, is important to define the priority

Yoshimi Furukawa; Hiroshi Takeda; Naohiro Yuhara; Sunao Chikamori; Masato Abe; Toichi Sawada

2004-01-01

42

Recycling readiness of advanced batteries for electric vehicles  

SciTech Connect

Maximizing the reclamation/recycle of electric-vehicle (EV) batteries is considered to be essential for the successful commercialization of this technology. Since the early 1990s, the US Department of Energy has sponsored the ad hoc advanced battery readiness working group to review this and other possible barriers to the widespread use of EVs, such as battery shipping and in-vehicle safety. Regulation is currently the main force for growth in EV numbers and projections for the states that have zero-emission vehicle (ZEV) programs indicate about 200,000 of these vehicles would be offered to the public in 2003 to meet those requirements. The ad hoc Advanced Battery Readiness Working Group has identified a matrix of battery technologies that could see use in EVs and has been tracking the state of readiness of recycling processes for each of them. Lead-acid, nickel/metal hydride, and lithium-ion are the three EV battery technologies proposed by the major automotive manufacturers affected by ZEV requirements. Recycling approaches for the two advanced battery systems on this list are partly defined, but could be modified to recover more value from end-of-life batteries. The processes being used or planned to treat these batteries are reviewed, as well as those being considered for other longer-term technologies in the battery recycling readiness matrix. Development efforts needed to prepare for recycling the batteries from a much larger EV population than exists today are identified.

Jungst, R.G.

1997-09-01

43

The design of infrared laser radar for vehicle initiative safety  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Laser radar for vehicle is mainly used in advanced vehicle on-board active safety systems, such as forward anti-collision systems, active collision warning systems and adaptive cruise control systems, etc. Laser radar for vehicle plays an important role in the improvement of vehicle active safety and the reduction of traffic accidents. The stability of vehicle active anti-collision system in dynamic environment is still one of the most difficult problems to break through nowadays. According to people's driving habit and the existed detecting technique of sensor, combining the infrared laser range and galvanometer scanning technique , design a 3-D infrared laser radar which can be used to assist navigation, obstacle avoidance and the vehicle's speed control for the vehicle initiative safety. The device is fixed to the head of vehicle. Then if an accident happened, the device could give an alarm to remind the driver timely to decelerate or brake down, by which way can people get the purpose of preventing the collision accidents effectively. To accomplish the design, first of all, select the core components. Then apply Zemax to design the transmitting and receiving optical system. Adopt 1550 nm infrared laser transmitter as emission unit in the device, a galvanometer scanning as laser scanning unit and an InGaAs-APD detector as laser echo signal receiving unit. Perform the construction of experimental system using FPGA and ARM as the core controller. The system designed in this paper can not only detect obstacle in front of the vehicle and make the control subsystem to execute command, but also transfer laser data to PC in real time. Lots of experiments using the infrared laser radar prototype are made, and main performance of it is under tested. The results of these experiments show that the imaging speed of the laser radar can reach up to 25 frames per second, the frame resolution of each image can reach 30×30 pixels, the horizontal angle resolution is about 6. 98mrad, the vertical angle resolution is about 3. 49mrad, the maximum value of range error is 0. 5m, minimum value is 0. 07m at the detectable distance range 10-200m and the detection probability is more than 99. 9%.

Gong, Ping; Xu, Xi-ping; Li, Xiao-yu; Li, Tian-zhi; Liu, Yu-long; Wu, Jia-hui

2013-09-01

44

Advanced control architecture for autonomous vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An advanced control architecture for autonomous vehicles is presented. The hierarchical architecture consists of four levels: a vehicle level, a control level, a rule-based level and a knowledge-based level. A special focus is on forms of internal representation, which have to be chosen adequately for each level. The control scheme is applied to VaMP, a Mercedes passenger car which autonomously performs missions on German freeways. VaMP perceives the environment with its sense of vision and conventional sensors. It controls its actuators for locomotion and attention focusing. Modules for perception, cognition and action are discussed.

Maurer, Markus; Dickmanns, Ernst D.

1997-06-01

45

Advanced propulsion system concept for hybrid vehicles  

SciTech Connect

The results of a nine-month study to identify and evaluate advanced propulsion systems for on-the-road hybrid vehicles are presented. Two concepts, both utilizing Stirling engines, were evaluated for five of reference mission/vehicles ranging from a two-passenger commuter car to a large bus, each had its own performance specification. Selection of the best hybrid configuration and reference mission/vehicle was made against these requirements, as well as the major goals of reducing petroleum consumption and minimizing total energy consumption. Both parallel and series hybrid systems, utilizing kinematic and free-piston Stirling engines, respectively, were evaluated. Detailed discussion, results and conclusions of the initial parametric studies, the trade-off evaluations, the life-cycle cost studies and the conceptual design definition are presented.

Bhate, S.; Chen, H.; Dochat, G.

1980-12-01

46

Recycling of Advanced Batteries for Electric Vehicles  

SciTech Connect

The pace of development and fielding of electric vehicles is briefly described and the principal advanced battery chemistries expected to be used in the EV application are identified as Ni/MH in the near term and Li-ion/Li-polymer in the intermediate to long term. The status of recycling process development is reviewed for each of the two chemistries and future research needs are discussed.

JUNGST,RUDOLPH G.

1999-10-06

47

Advanced control design for hybrid turboelectric vehicle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The new environment standards are a challenge and opportunity for industry and government who manufacture and operate urban mass transient vehicles. A research investigation to provide control scheme for efficient power management of the vehicle is in progress. Different design requirements using functional analysis and trade studies of alternate power sources and controls have been performed. The design issues include portability, weight and emission/fuel efficiency of induction motor, permanent magnet and battery. A strategic design scheme to manage power requirements using advanced control systems is presented. It exploits fuzzy logic, technology and rule based decision support scheme. The benefits of our study will enhance the economic and technical feasibility of technological needs to provide low emission/fuel efficient urban mass transit bus. The design team includes undergraduate researchers in our department. Sample results using NASA HTEV simulation tool are presented.

Abban, Joseph; Norvell, Johnesta; Momoh, James A.

1995-08-01

48

Mitsubishi iMiEV: An Electric Mini-Car in NREL's Advanced Technology Vehicle Fleet (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect

This fact sheet highlights the Mitsubishi iMiEV, an electric mini-car in the advanced technology vehicle fleet at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). In support of the U.S. Department of Energy's fast-charging research efforts, NREL engineers are conducting charge and discharge performance testing on the vehicle. NREL's advanced technology vehicle fleet features promising technologies to increase efficiency and reduce emissions without sacrificing safety or comfort. The fleet serves as a technology showcase, helping visitors learn about innovative vehicles that are available today or are in development. Vehicles in the fleet are representative of current, advanced, prototype, and emerging technologies.

Not Available

2011-10-01

49

Opportunities for Advanced Vehicle Control Systems in Commercial Vehicle Operations and Public Transportation Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In the course of developing automated vehicle-roadway systems, opportunities to deploy vehicle control systems at intermediate stages of development may emerge. Some of these systems may provide a significant efficiency or safety enhancement to existing o...

J. Hopkins R. Larsen

1997-01-01

50

77 FR 51731 - All-Terrain Vehicle Safety Summit  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...CPSC-2012-0048] 16 CFR Chapter II All-Terrain Vehicle Safety Summit AGENCY...announcing its intent to hold a Summit on all-terrain vehicle (ATV) safety. The Summit...should register by September 14, 2012; all other individuals who wish to attend...

2012-08-27

51

An Effective Message Flooding Method for Vehicle Safety Communication  

Microsoft Academic Search

An intelligent vehicle safety system can be constructed by exchanging emergency-related information between any unrelated\\u000a vehicles, such as urgency stop, traffic accident, and obstacles. In the most of vehicle safety communication applications,\\u000a an emergency message is propagated in the form of broadcasting. However, it causes a lot of problems in terms of efficiency\\u000a due to the multi-hop propagation and radio

Sukdea Yu; Gihwan Cho

2006-01-01

52

Advances in fuel cell vehicle design  

Microsoft Academic Search

Factors such as global warming, dwindling fossil fuel reserves, and energy security concerns combine to indicate that a replacement for the internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicle is needed. Fuel cell vehicles have the potential to address the problems surrounding the ICE vehicle without imposing any significant restrictions on vehicle performance, driving range, or refuelling time. Though there are currently some

Jennifer Bauman

2008-01-01

53

Motor Vehicle Occupant Safety Survey, 2007. Volume 5. Child Safety Seat Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The 2007 Motor Vehicle Occupant Safety Survey was the sixth in a series of periodic national telephone surveys on occupant protection issues conducted for the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA). Data collection was conducted by Schulma...

C. Lampkin J. M. Boyle

2009-01-01

54

2003 Motor Vehicle Occupant Safety Survey. Volume 5: Child Safety Seat Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The 2003 Motor Vehicle Occupant Safety Survey was the fifth in a series of biennial national telephone surveys on occupant protection issues conducted for the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA). Data collection was conducted by Schulma...

J. M. Boyle P. Schulman

2005-01-01

55

Advanced concepts in electric vehicle design  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1994, the Eco-Vehicle Project was begun to develop an electric vehicle (EV) using a ground-up design approach that incorporates unique designs specific to an EV. The Eco-Vehicle will be a high-performance, but ultrasmall, battery-powered vehicle. New designs for the Eco-Vehicle include an in-wheel motor drive system, a hollow load floor which will house the batteries, and a new battery

Hiroshi Shimizu; Junji Harada; Colby Bland; Kiyomoto Kawakami; Lam Chan

1997-01-01

56

Integrated Vehicle Thermal Management for Advanced Vehicle Propulsion Technologies  

SciTech Connect

A critical element to the success of new propulsion technologies that enable reductions in fuel use is the integration of component thermal management technologies within a viable vehicle package. Vehicle operation requires vehicle thermal management systems capable of balancing the needs of multiple vehicle systems that may require heat for operation, require cooling to reject heat, or require operation within specified temperature ranges. As vehicle propulsion transitions away from a single form of vehicle propulsion based solely on conventional internal combustion engines (ICEs) toward a wider array of choices including more electrically dominant systems such as plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), new challenges arise associated with vehicle thermal management. As the number of components that require active thermal management increase, so do the costs in terms of dollars, weight, and size. Integrated vehicle thermal management is one pathway to address the cost, weight, and size challenges. The integration of the power electronics and electric machine (PEEM) thermal management with other existing vehicle systems is one path for reducing the cost of electric drive systems. This work demonstrates techniques for evaluating and quantifying the integrated transient and continuous heat loads of combined systems incorporating electric drive systems that operate primarily under transient duty cycles, but the approach can be extended to include additional steady-state duty cycles typical for designing vehicle thermal management systems of conventional vehicles. The work compares opportunities to create an integrated low temperature coolant loop combining the power electronics and electric machine with the air conditioning system in contrast to a high temperature system integrated with the ICE cooling system.

Bennion, K.; Thornton, M.

2010-04-01

57

Passenger vehicle safety in Australasia for different driver groups.  

PubMed

Vehicle fleets in developed countries have benefitted from improved technology and regulation leading to safer vehicles. Nevertheless, for various reasons the public do not necessarily choose particular makes and models of cars according to their safety performance. This study aimed to identify areas for potential crashworthiness improvement in the Australasian fleets by studying the distribution of these fleets according to vehicle age and estimated crashworthiness. We used an existing database that encompassed the vast majority of the crash fleets studied, with existing estimates of crashworthiness generated by the Australasian Used Car Safety Ratings project. There were clear tendencies for older and younger people to be driving less safe vehicles that were also generally older. Given that older drivers are more fragile, and hence more liable to be injured in crashes, and younger drivers have a greater propensity to crash, it is clearly undesirable that these driver groups have the least crashworthy vehicles. Some suggestions are made to encourage safer vehicle choices. PMID:21376855

Keall, Michael D; Newstead, Stuart

2010-11-18

58

Integrating Launch Vehicle Safety and Reliability Analyses.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A number of safety and reliability analysis tools are available to identify potential safety and reliability problems and to meet specified requirements. Traditionally, safety and reliability analyses are performed independently, often by different organi...

T. L. Hardy

2009-01-01

59

Advanced Guidance and Control Methods for Reusable Launch Vehicles: Test Results.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

There are a number of approaches to advanced guidance and control (AG&C) that have the potential for achieving the goals of significantly increasing reusable launch vehicle (RLV) safety/reliability and reducing the cost. In this paper, we examine some of ...

J. M. Hanson R. E. Jones D. R. Krupp

2002-01-01

60

29 CFR 1915.93 - Motor vehicle safety equipment, operation and maintenance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Motor vehicle safety equipment, operation and...Working Conditions § 1915.93 Motor vehicle safety equipment, operation and...1) This section applies to any motor vehicle used to transport...

2013-07-01

61

10 CFR 611.202 - Advanced Technology Vehicle Manufacturing Facility Award Program.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-01-01 false Advanced Technology Vehicle Manufacturing Facility Award... ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY VEHICLES MANUFACTURER ASSISTANCE PROGRAM...Funding Awards § 611.202 Advanced Technology Vehicle Manufacturing Facility...

2013-01-01

62

Assessment of candidate vehicles for advanced-battery demonstration  

SciTech Connect

A first-level assessment is provided of candidate vehicles which might be utilized for the purpose of demonstrating the performance capabilities of advanced battery propulsion systems. The demonstration vehicle design target was defined as a five-passenger automobile with an all-electric drive system incorporating (1) advanced batteries, and (2) advanced technology powertrain elements. The battery systems selected for examination were lithium/iron sulfide, zinc/chlorine, aluminum/air, and sodium/sulfur. The designated time frame of interest was 1990 as related to the availability of advanced batteries in final development form and post-1985 with respect to vehicles that might be adopted for use with these batteries. The principal issue addressed by this investigation was whether it was possible to utilize existing/available electric vehicles or advanced heat engine vehicles converted to electric drive for demonstrating the potential of advanced battery systems, or if it was necessary to implement a fully-integrated battery/vehicle R and D program in order to produce a successful test and demonstration vehicle that would be acclaimed as proof of battery program success. A Chevrolet Citation retrofitted for electric drive or a complete new-design electric vehicle were judged to be satisfactory for the demonstration.

Forrest, L.; Lee, W.B.; Smalley, W.M.

1981-08-01

63

Application of the GSFUDS to advanced batteries and vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The GSFUDS approach to determining appropriate battery test power profiles is applied to various combinations of advanced batteries and electric vehicles. Computer simulations are used to show that the SFUDS velocity driving profile developed for the IDSEP electric vehicle also yielded energy consumption (Wh/km) and peak power values for other vehicles of greatly different characteristics that are in good agreement with the corresponding values for the same vehicles on the FUDS driving cycle. The computer results also showed that the GSFUDS power steps expressed as multiples of the average power, Pav are applicable to electric vehicles in general for the SFUDS driving profile if the peak power step is altered to reflect the changes in the vehicle design. A general procedure is given for presenting battery test data in terms of the constant power and GSFUDS Ragone curves from which the vehicle range can be determined for the FUDS and other driving cycles for different vehicle designs.

Burke, A. F.; Cole, G. H.

64

Using an advanced vehicle simulator (ADVISOR) to guide hybrid vehicle propulsion system development  

SciTech Connect

An advanced vehicle simulator model called ADVISOR has been developed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory to allow system-level analysis and trade-off studies of advanced vehicles. Because of ADVISOR`s fast execution speed and the open programming environment of MATLAB/Simulink, the simulator is ideally suited for doing parametric studies to map out the design space of potential high fuel economy vehicles (3X) consistent with the goals of the Partnership for New Generation of Vehicles (PNGV). Five separate vehicle configurations have been modeled including 3 lightweight vehicles (parallel, series, and conventional drivetrains) along with 2 vehicles with 1996 vehicle weights (parallel and conventional drivetrains). The sensitivity of each vehicle`s fuel economy to critical vehicle parameters is then examined and regions of interest for the vehicles mapped out through parametric studies. Using the simulation results for these vehicles, the effect of hybridization is isolated and analyzed and the trade-offs between series and parallel designs are illustrated.

Wipke, K.B.; Cuddy, M.R.

1996-08-01

65

Vehicle-to-Vehicle Communication: Fair Transmit Power Control for Safety-Critical Information  

Microsoft Academic Search

Direct radio-based vehicle-to-vehicle communication can help prevent accidents by providing accurate and up-to-date local status and hazard information to the driver. In this paper, we assume that two types of messages are used for traffic safety-related communication: 1) Periodic messages (ldquobeaconsrdquo) that are sent by all vehicles to inform their neighbors about their current status (i.e., position) and 2) event-driven

Marc Torrent-Moreno; Jens Mittag; Paolo Santi; Hannes Hartenstein

2009-01-01

66

75 FR 33515 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Electric-Powered Vehicles; Electrolyte Spillage and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...interests of safety and the viability of fuel cell vehicles for the agency to specify an isolation...particularly DC isolation associated with a fuel cell stack,'' and while ``It is not difficult for a new fuel cell vehicle to exhibit * * * 100...

2010-06-14

67

ADVANCE WARNING FLASHERS: DO THEY IMPROVE SAFETY?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main findings of a study to evaluate the safety of advance warning flashers (AWFs) are presented. A portion of the traffic accidents that occur at signalized intersections relate to poor driver decisions during the change interval time. Providing drivers with advance information about the status of a downstream traffic signal can help the driver make safer decisions. An AWF

Tarek Sayed; Homayoun Vahidi; Felipe Rodriguez

1999-01-01

68

Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity: High-Percentage Hydrogen/CNG Blend, Ford F-150 -- Operating Summary  

SciTech Connect

Over the past two years, Arizona Public Service, a subsidiary of Pinnacle West Capital Corporation, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity, tested four gaseous fuel vehicles as part of its alternative fueled vehicle fleet. One vehicle operated initially using compressed natural gas (CNG) and later a blend of CNG and hydrogen. Of the other three vehicles, one was fueled with pure hydrogen and two were fueled with a blend of CNG and hydrogen. The three blended-fuel vehicles were originally equipped with either factory CNG engines or factory gasoline engines that were converted to run CNG fuel. The vehicles were variously modified to operate on blended fuel and were tested using 15 to 50% blends of hydrogen (by volume). The pure-hydrogen-fueled vehicle was converted from gasoline fuel to operate on 100% hydrogen. All vehicles were fueled from the Arizona Public Service’s Alternative Fuel Pilot Plant, which was developed to dispense gaseous fuels, including CNG, blends of CNG and hydrogen, and pure hydrogen with up to 99.9999% purity. The primary objective of the test was to evaluate the safety and reliability of operating vehicles on hydrogen and blended hydrogen fuel, and the interface between the vehicles and the hydrogen fueling infrastructure. A secondary objective was to quantify vehicle emissions, cost, and performance. Over a total of 40,000 fleet test miles, no safety issues were found. Also, significant reductions in emissions were achieved by adding hydrogen to the fuel. This report presents the results of 4,695 miles of testing for one of the blended fuel vehicles, a Ford F-150 pickup truck, operating on up to 50% hydrogen–50% CNG fuel.

Don Karner; Francfort, James Edward

2003-01-01

69

Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity: Low-Percentage Hydrogen/CNG Blend, Ford F-150 -- Operating Summary  

SciTech Connect

Over the past two years, Arizona Public Service, a subsidiary of Pinnacle West Capital Corporation, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity, tested four gaseous fuel vehicles as part of its alternative fueled vehicle fleet. One vehicle operated initially using compressed natural gas (CNG) and later a blend of CNG and hydrogen. Of the other three vehicles, one was fueled with pure hydrogen and two were fueled with a blend of CNG and hydrogen. The three blended-fuel vehicles were originally equipped with either factory CNG engines or factory gasoline engines that were converted to run CNG fuel. The vehicles were variously modified to operate on blended fuel and were tested using 15 to 50% blends of hydrogen (by volume). The pure-hydrogen-fueled vehicle was converted from gasoline fuel to operate on 100% hydrogen. All vehicles were fueled from the Arizona Public Service’s Alternative Fuel Pilot Plant, which was developed to dispense gaseous fuels, including CNG, blends of CNG and hydrogen, and pure hydrogen with up to 99.9999% purity The primary objective of the test was to evaluate the safety and reliability of operating vehicles on hydrogen and blended hydrogen fuel, and the interface between the vehicles and the hydrogen fueling infrastructure. A secondary objective was to quantify vehicle emissions, cost, and performance. Over a total of 40,000 fleet test miles, no safety issues were found. Also, significant reductions in emissions were achieved by adding hydrogen to the fuel. This report presents results of 16,942 miles of testing for one of the blended fuel vehicles, a Ford F-150 pickup truck, operating on up to 30% hydrogen/70% CNG fuel.

Karner, D.; Francfort, James Edward

2003-01-01

70

Safety Issues with Hydrogen as a Vehicle Fuel  

SciTech Connect

This report is an initial effort to identify and evaluate safety issues associated with the use of hydrogen as a vehicle fuel in automobiles. Several forms of hydrogen have been considered: gas, liquid, slush, and hydrides. The safety issues have been discussed, beginning with properties of hydrogen and the phenomenology of hydrogen combustion. Safety-related operating experiences with hydrogen vehicles have been summarized to identify concerns that must be addressed in future design activities and to support probabilistic risk assessment. Also, applicable codes, standards, and regulations pertaining to hydrogen usage and refueling have been identified and are briefly discussed. This report serves as a safety foundation for any future hydrogen safety work, such as a safety analysis or a probabilistic risk assessment.

L. C. Cadwallader; J. S. Herring

1999-09-01

71

Safety Issues with Hydrogen as a Vehicle Fuel  

SciTech Connect

This report is an initial effort to identify and evaluate safety issues associated with the use of hydrogen as a vehicle fuel in automobiles. Several forms of hydrogen have been considered: gas, liquid, slush, and hydrides. The safety issues have been discussed, beginning with properties of hydrogen and the phenomenology of hydrogen combustion. Safety-related operating experiences with hydrogen vehicles have been summarized to identify concerns that must be addressed in future design activities and to support probabilistic risk assessment. Also, applicable codes, standards, and regulations pertaining to hydrogen usage and refueling have been identified and are briefly discussed. This report serves as a safety foundation for any future hydrogen safety work, such as a safety analysis or a probabilistic risk assessment.

Cadwallader, Lee Charles; Herring, James Stephen

1999-10-01

72

Safety Climate of Commercial Vehicle Operation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Enhancing the safety culture within trucking and motor coach industries has become a key area of concern given the potential impact it has on crashes and overall safety. Many organizations recognize that safety is compromised if the culture within their o...

D. M. Neyens J. Short L. N. Boyle Y. Peng

2010-01-01

73

Motor vehicle safety: current concepts and challenges for emergency physicians.  

PubMed

Motor vehicle travel is the primary means of transportation in the United States, providing freedom in travel and enterprise for many people. Motor vehicle crashes are the leading cause of death for the young and contribute to a high degree of morbidity and mortality for all ages. Motor vehicle crashes produce an enormous burden for society in terms of suffering, disability, death, and costs. Motor vehicle crash injury prevention is developing as a focused discipline to implement proven interventions involving technology and behavior known to prevent or reduce the severity of motor vehicle crash injury. Emergency physicians have an important role in advocating motor vehicle safety and injury prevention, both in the emergency department and within the community. PMID:10459097

Peterson, T D; Tilman Jolly, B; Runge, J W; Hunt, R C

1999-09-01

74

Vehicle-based Route Planning In Advanced Traveler Information Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A primary function of most advanced traveler information systems involves the ability to plan optimal routes. Although the route planning ability of ATIS systems could be facilitated using centralized computing resources, most ATIS systems currently in development use in-vehicle computational resources. The primary advantage of this type of approach is fault tolerance; vehicles can continue to plan routes even in

Peter C. Nelson; Christopher Lain; John Dillenburg

1993-01-01

75

Alternative Fuel and Advanced Vehicle Tools (AFAVT), AFDC (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect

The Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Web site offers a collection of calculators, interactive maps, and informational tools to assist fleets, fuel providers, and others looking to reduce petroleum consumption in the transportation sector.

Not Available

2010-01-01

76

Advanced APS (Auxiliary Propulsion System) Impacts on Vehicle Payloads.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Advanced auxiliary propulsion system (APS) technology has the potential to both, increase the payload capability of earth-to-orbit (ETO) vehicles by reducing APS propellant mass, and simplify ground operations and logistics by reducing the number of fluid...

S. J. Schneider B. D. Reed

1989-01-01

77

Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity: Hydrogen-Fueled Mercedes Sprinter Van -- Operating Summary  

SciTech Connect

Over the past two years, Arizona Public Service, a subsidiary of Pinnacle West Capital Corporation, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity, tested four gaseous fuel vehicles as part of its alternative fueled vehicle fleet. One vehicle operated initially using compressed natural gas (CNG) and later a blend of CNG and hydrogen. Of the other three vehicles, one was fueled with pure hydrogen and two were fueled with a blend of CNG and hydrogen. The three blended-fuel vehicles were originally equipped with either factory CNG engines or factory gasoline engines that were converted to run CNG fuel. The vehicles were variously modified to operate on blended fuel and were tested using 15 to 50% blends of hydrogen (by volume). The pure- hydrogen-fueled vehicle was converted from gasoline fuel to operate on 100% hydrogen. All vehicles were fueled from the Arizona Public Service's Alternative Fuel Pilot Plant, which was developed to dispense gaseous fuels, including CNG, blends of CNG and hydrogen, and pure hydrogen with up to 99.9999% purity. The primary objective of the test was to evaluate the safety and reliability of operating vehicles on hydrogen and blended hydrogen fuel, and the interface between the vehicles and the hydrogen fueling infrastructure. A secondary objective was to quantify vehicle emissions, cost, and performance. Over a total of 40,000 fleet test miles, no safety issues were found. Also, significant reductions in emissions were achieved by adding hydrogen to the fuel. This report presents results of testing conducted over 6,864 kilometers (4,265 miles) of operation using the pure-hydrogen-fueled Mercedes Sprinter van.

Karner, D.; Francfort, James Edward

2003-01-01

78

Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity: Hydrogen-Fueled Mercedes Sprinter Van Operating Summary - January 2003  

SciTech Connect

Over the past two years, Arizona Public Service, a subsidiary of Pinnacle West Capital Corporation, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity, tested four gaseous fuel vehicles as part of its alternative fueled vehicle fleet. One vehicle operated initially using compressed natural gas (CNG) and later a blend of CNG and hydrogen. Of the other three vehicles, one was fueled with pure hydrogen and two were fueled with a blend of CNG and hydrogen. The three blended-fuel vehicles were originally equipped with either factory CNG engines or factory gasoline engines that were converted to run CNG fuel. The vehicles were variously modified to operate on blended fuel and were tested using 15 to 50% blends of hydrogen (by volume). The pure-hydrogen-fueled vehicle was converted from gasoline fuel to operate on 100% hydrogen. All vehicles were fueled from the Arizona Public Service's Alternative Fuel Pilot Plant, which was developed to dispense gaseous fuels, including CNG, blends of CNG and hydrogen, and pure hydrogen with up to 99.9999% purity. The primary objective of the test was to evaluate the safety and reliability of operating vehicles on hydrogen and blended hydrogen fuel, and the interface between the vehicles and the hydrogen fueling infrastructure. A secondary objective was to quantify vehicle emissions, cost, and performance. Over a total of 40,000 fleet test miles, no safety issues were found. Also, significant reductions in emissions were achieved by adding hydrogen to the fuel. This report presents results of testing conducted over 6,864 kilometers (4,265 miles) of operation using the pure-hydrogen-fueled Mercedes Sprinter van.

Karner, D.; Francfort, J.E.

2003-01-22

79

Using advanced technologies to reduce motor vehicle greenhouse gas emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper quantifies the potential reduction in US greenhouse gas emissions that could be achieved by using advanced-technology motor vehicles and low-emission bio-fuels. These two approaches are compared to a variety of other approaches to reduce transportation sector emissions. It is concluded that only strong fiscal measures can produce emission reductions as large as are available from advanced-technology vehicles and

Carmen Difiglio

1997-01-01

80

40 CFR 1037.615 - Hybrid vehicles and other advanced technologies.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Hybrid vehicles and other advanced technologies. 1037...EMISSIONS FROM NEW HEAVY-DUTY MOTOR VEHICLES Special Compliance Provisions § 1037.615 Hybrid vehicles and other advanced technologies....

2013-07-01

81

Advanced Propulsion System for Hybrid Vehicles.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A number of hybrid propulsion systems were evaluated for application in several different vehicle sizes. A conceptual design was prepared for the most promising configuration. Various system configurations were parametrically evaluated and compared, desig...

L. V. Norrup A. T. Lintz

1980-01-01

82

Advanced Propulsion System for Hybrid Vehicles.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of this study was to evaluate a number of hybrid propulsion systems for application in several different vehicle sizes. A conceptual design was prepared for the most promising configuration. The program was divided into several tasks during ...

A. T. Lintz L. V. Norrup

1980-01-01

83

Reliability Analysis of DSRC Wireless Communication for Vehicle Safety Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 802.11-p based dedicated short range communication (DSRC) is being seriously considered as a promising wireless technology for enhancing transportation safety and highway efficiency. However, to-date, there is very little research done in characterizing the reliability of DSRC communication based on real-world experimental data, and its effect on the reliability of vehicle safety applications. Our experimental set-up includes a fleet

Fan Bai; Hariharan Krishnan

2006-01-01

84

Advanced Reactor Safety Research. Volume 7.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Sandia Laboratories is conducting the Advanced Reactor Safety Research Program on behalf of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). The overall objective of the program is to provide NRC with a comprehensive data base essential to (1) defining key i...

R. L. Coates

1979-01-01

85

Natural Gas Vehicle Cylinder Safety, Training and Inspection Project  

SciTech Connect

Under the auspices of the National Energy Technology Laboratory and the US Department of Energy, the Clean Vehicle Education Foundation conducted a three-year program to increase the understanding of the safe and proper use and maintenance of vehicular compressed natural gas (CNG) fuel systems. High-pressure fuel systems require periodic inspection and maintenance to insure safe and proper operation. The project addressed the needs of CNG fuel containers (cylinders) and associated high-pressure fuel system components related to existing law, codes and standards (C&S), available training and inspection programs, and assured coordination among vehicle users, public safety officials, fueling station operators and training providers. The program included a public and industry awareness campaign, establishment and administration of a cylinder inspector certification training scholarship program, evaluation of current safety training and testing practices, monitoring and investigation of CNG vehicle incidents, evaluation of a cylinder recertification program and the migration of CNG vehicle safety knowledge to the nascent hydrogen vehicle community.

Hank Seiff

2008-12-31

86

Advanced ac powertrain for electric vehicles  

SciTech Connect

The design of an ac propulsion system for an electric vehicle includes a three-phase induction motor, transistorized PWM inverter/battery charger, microprocessor-based controller, and two-speed automatic transaxle. This system was built and installed in a Mercury Lynx test bed vehicle as part of a Department of Energy propulsion system development program. An integral part of the inverter is a 4-kw battery charger which utilizes one of the bridge transistors. The overall inverter strategy for this configuration is discussed. The function of the microprocessor-based controller is described. Typical test results of the total vehicle and each of its major components are given, including system efficiencies and test track performance results.

Slicker, J.M.; Kalns, L.

1985-01-01

87

A single-subject approach to evaluating vehicle safety belt reminders: Back to basics  

PubMed Central

A single-subject ABA reversal design was applied to evaluate the effectiveness of a limited 8-s safety belt reminder system and two modified reminder systems (a delayed and second reminder) to increase the safety belt use of 13 drivers. The research was conducted with a specially equipped research vehicle that permitted the manipulation of different safety belt reminder stimuli and the unobtrusive recording of a driver's belt use. For 2 subjects, the limited 8-s reminder increased safety belt use. For another 2 subjects, the second reminder markedly increased belt use. Some subjects were uninfluenced by the reminder systems presented; others always buckled up during both baseline and intervention conditions. The approach and results are discussed with regard to the application of behavior analysis methodologies (e.g., cumulative records) and principles (e.g., schedules of reinforcement) to advance the utility and investigation of safety belt reminder systems.

Berry, Thomas D.; Geller, E. Scott

1991-01-01

88

75 FR 70670 - Final Vehicle Safety Rulemaking and Research Priority Plan 2010-2013  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Final Vehicle Safety Rulemaking and Research Priority Plan 2010- 2013 AGENCY: National Highway Traffic...the Final Vehicle Safety Rulemaking and Research Priority Plan 2010-2013 (Priority Plan) in Docket No. NHTSA-2009-0108....

2010-11-18

89

Non-propulsive power for advanced vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Part I gives analysis of factors that determine selection of nonpropulsive power systems for manned and unmanned extraatmospheric vehicles. It shows typical profiles for a variety of space missions, and reviews pros and cons of different power systems. Part II gives analysis of advantages, disadvantages, application areas, and growth prospects for battery; solid-fueled; liquid-fueled mono- and bipropellant open cycle, expansion-engine;

Curran

1960-01-01

90

Application of the GSFUDS to advanced batteries and vehicles  

SciTech Connect

The GSFUDS approach to determining appropriate battery test power profiles is applied to various combinations of advanced batteries and electric vehicles. Computer simulations are used to show that the SFUDS velocity driving profile developed for the IDSEP electric vehicle also yielded energy consumption (Wh/km) and peak power values for other vehicles of greatly different characteristics that are in good agreement with the corresponding values for the same vehicles on the FUDS driving cycle. The computer results also showed that the GSFUDS power steps expressed as multiples of the average power, Pav are applicable to electric vehicles in general for the SFUDS driving profile if the peak power step is altered to reflect the changes in the vehicle design. A general procedure is given for presenting battery test data in terms of the constant power and GSFUDS Ragone curves from which the vehicle range can be determined for the FUDS and other driving cycles for different vehicle designs. 5 refs., 6 figs., 6 tabs.

Burke, A.F.; Cole, G.H.

1990-01-01

91

Space Transfer Vehicle Avionics Advanced Development Needs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The assessment of preliminary transportation program options for the exploration initiative is underway. The exploration initiative for the Moon and Mars is outlined by mission phases. A typical lunar/Mars outpost technology/advanced development schedule ...

C. F. Huffaker

1990-01-01

92

Advanced Electromagnetic Methods for Aerospace Vehicles.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Advanced Helicopter Electromagnetics (AHE) Industrial Associates Program has fruitfully completed its fourth year. Under the support of the AHE members and the joint effort of the research team, new and significant progress has been achieved in the ye...

C. A. Balanis W. Sun E. El-sharawy J. T. Aberle C. R. Birtcher

1993-01-01

93

Safety analysis of natural gas vehicles transiting highway tunnel  

SciTech Connect

A safety analysis was performed to assess the relative hazard of compressed natural gas (CNG) fueled vehicles traveling on various tunnels and bridges in New York City. The study considered those hazards arising from the release of fuel from CNG vehicles ranging in size from a passenger sedan to a full size 53 passenger bus. The approach used was to compare the fuel hazard of CNG vehicles to the fuel hazard of gasoline vehicles. The risk was assessed by estimating the frequency of occurrence and the severity of the hazard. The methodology was a combination of analyzing accident data, performing a diffusion analysis of the gas released in the tunnel and determining the consequences of ignition. Diffusion analysis was performed using the TEMPEST code for various accident scenarios resulting in CNG release inside the Holland Tunnel. The study concluded that the overall hazard of CNG vehicles transiting a ventilated tunnel is less than the hazard from a comparable gasoline fueled vehicle. 134 refs., 23 figs., 24 tabs.

Shaaban, S.H.; Zuzovsky, M.; Anigstein, R.

1989-01-01

94

Advanced batteries for electric vehicle applications  

SciTech Connect

A technology assessment is given for electric batteries with potential for use in electric powered vehicles. Parameters considered include: specific energy, specific power, energy density, power density, cycle life, service life, recharge time, and selling price. Near term batteries include: nickel/cadmium and lead-acid batteries. Mid term batteries include: sodium/sulfur, sodium/nickel chloride, nickel/metal hydride, zinc/air, zinc/bromine, and nickel/iron systems. Long term batteries include: lithium/iron disulfide and lithium- polymer systems. Performance and life testing data for these systems are discussed. (GHH)

Henriksen, G.L.

1993-08-01

95

Advanced electromagnetic methods for aerospace vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High- and low-frequency methods to analyze various radiation elements located on aerospace vehicles with combinations of conducting, nonconducting, and energy absorbing surfaces and interfaces. The focus was on developing fundamental concepts, techniques, and algorithms which would remove some of the present limitations in predicting radiation characteristics of antennas on complex aerospace vehicles. In order to accomplish this, the following subjects were examined: (1) the development of techniques for rigorous analysis of surface discontinuities of metallic and nonmetallic surfaces using the equivalent surface impedance concept and Green's function; (2) the effects of anisotropic material on antenna radiation patterns through the use of an equivalent surface impedance concept which is incorporated into the existing numerical electromagnetics computer codes; and (3) the fundamental concepts of precipitation static (P-Static), such as formulations and analytical models. A computer code was used to model the P-Static process on a simple structure. Measurement techniques were also developed to characterized the electrical properties at microwave frequencies. Samples of typical materials used in airframes were tested and the results are included.

Balanis, Constantine A.; Choi, Jachoon; El-Sharawy, El-Budawy; Hashemi-Yeganeh, Shahrokh; Birtcher, Craig R.

1990-12-01

96

Sentient autonomous vehicle using advanced neural net technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the past decade, the field of automated intelligent transport systems has been the focus of rigorous research. This paper proposes sentient autonomous vehicle using advanced neural net technology (SAVANT), an automated transport system with significant advantages over previous attempts in this field. The system uses a multi-layer feed-forward neural network with back propagation learning. In addition, the design of

T. Srinivasari; J. B. S. Jonathan; A. Chandrasekhar

2004-01-01

97

Advanced maneuvering reentry vehicle instrumentation and communication techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes instrumentation and communication techniques used in the data gathering process for presently ongoing high performance advanced maneuvering reentry vehicle test flights. Transducers and signal conditioning design considerations including flight test results of vibration and acoustic data (gathered simultaneously by eight FM and one 24,824 sps PCM channel), nose and control surface load cells, control actuation, flow rates,

G. W. Galleher; A. J. Locklair

1981-01-01

98

An Exploratory Study of the Relationship Between Socioeconomic Status and Motor Vehicle Safety Features  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The purpose of this study was to assess the association between motor vehicle owners' socioeconomic status (SES) and the safety of their motor vehicles.Methods: Truncated vehicle identification numbers (VINs) were obtained from the Maryland Motor Vehicle Administration office. ZIP code–level income and educational data were assigned to each VIN. Software was used to identify safety-related vehicle characteristics including crash

Deborah C. Girasek; Brett Taylor

2010-01-01

99

49 CFR 240.111 - Individual's duty to furnish data on prior safety conduct as motor vehicle operator.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...data on prior safety conduct as motor vehicle operator. 240.111 Section...data on prior safety conduct as motor vehicle operator. (a) Except...appendix C unless the person's motor vehicle driving license was issued...

2011-10-01

100

A Selective Flooding Method for Propagating Emergency Messages in Vehicle Safety Communications  

Microsoft Academic Search

An intelligent vehicle safety system can be constructed by exchanging emergency-related information between any unrelated vehicles, such as urgency stop, traffic accident, and obstacles. In the most of vehicle safety communication applications, an emergency message is propagated in the form of broadcasting. However, it causes a lot of problems in terms of efficiency due to the multi-hop propagation and radio

Sukdea Yu; Gihwan Cho

2006-01-01

101

The new facility for hydrogen and fuel cell vehicle safety evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

For the evaluation of hydrogen and fuel cell vehicle safety, a new comprehensive facility was constructed in our institute. The new facility includes an explosion resistant indoor vehicle fire test building and high pressure hydrogen tank safety evaluation equipment. The indoor vehicle fire test building has sufficient strength to withstand even an explosion of a high pressure hydrogen tank of

S. Watanabe; Y. Tamura; J. Suzuki

2007-01-01

102

Traffic Safety Facts Research Note: 2007 Motor Vehicle Occupant Safety Survey: Use of and Support for Emergency Medical Services Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) conducts the Motor Vehicle Occupant Safety Survey (MVOSS) on a periodic basis to monitor the publics attitudes, knowledge, and self-reported behavior regarding occupant protection devices (seat be...

A. W. Block

2009-01-01

103

Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard No. 209 (Seat Belt Assemblies). General Safety Corporation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report contains the test data, results and conclusions of tests performed on one set of twelve (12) Type 1 seat belt assemblies for compliance to Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard No. 209. The set of seat belts without retractors was subjected to ...

1970-01-01

104

Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard No. 209 (Seat Belt Assemblies). American Safety Equipment Corporation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report contains the results of tests performed on one set of twelve (12) seat belt assemblies in accordance with Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard No. 209. This set of seat belts without retractors was subjected to the following tests: Web width a...

1970-01-01

105

Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard No. 209 (Seat Belt Assemblies). General Safety Corporation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report contains the test data, results and conclusions of tests performed on one set of twelve (12) Type 1 seat belt assemblies for compliance to Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard No. 209. This set of seat belts without retractors was subjected to...

1970-01-01

106

Lateral load transfer and normal forces estimation for vehicle safety: experimental test  

Microsoft Academic Search

Knowledge of vehicle dynamics data is important for vehicle control systems that aim to enhance vehicle handling and passenger safety. This study introduces observers that estimate lateral load transfer and wheel–ground contact normal forces, commonly known as vertical forces. The proposed method is based on the dynamic response of a vehicle instrumented with cheap and currently available standard sensors. The

M. Doumiati; A. Victorino; A. Charara; D. Lechner

2009-01-01

107

Advanced electromagnetic methods for aerospace vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Advanced Helicopter Electromagnetics (AHE) Industrial Associates Program has continuously progressed with its research effort focused on subjects identified and recommended by the Advisory Task Force of the program. The research activities in this reporting period have been steered toward practical helicopter electromagnetic problems, such as HF antenna problems and antenna efficiencies, recommended by the AHE members at the annual conference held at Arizona State University on 28-29 Oct. 1992 and the last biannual meeting held at the Boeing Helicopter on 19-20 May 1993. The main topics addressed include the following: Composite Materials and Antenna Technology. The research work on each topic is closely tied with the AHE Consortium members' interests. Significant progress in each subject is reported. Special attention in the area of Composite Materials has been given to the following: modeling of material discontinuity and their effects on towel-bar antenna patterns; guidelines for composite material modeling by using the Green's function approach in the NEC code; measurements of towel-bar antennas grounded with a partially material-coated plate; development of 3-D volume mesh generator for modeling thick and volumetric dielectrics by using FD-TD method; FDTD modeling of horn antennas with composite E-plane walls; and antenna efficiency analysis for a horn antenna loaded with composite dielectric materials.

Balanis, Constantine A.; Sun, Weimin; El-Sharawy, El-Budawy; Aberle, James T.; Birtcher, Craig R.; Peng, Jian; Tirkas, Panayiotis A.; Kokotoff, David; Zavosh, Frank

1993-06-01

108

Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity: Low-Percentage Hydrogen/CNG Blend Ford F-150 Operating Summary - January 2003  

SciTech Connect

Over the past two years, Arizona Public Service, a subsidiary of Pinnacle West Capital Corporation, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity, tested four gaseous fuel vehicles as part of its alternative fueled vehicle fleet. One vehicle operated initially using compressed natural gas (CNG) and later a blend of CNG and hydrogen. Of the other three vehicles, one was fueled with pure hydrogen and two were fueled with a blend of CNG and hydrogen. The three blended-fuel vehicles were originally equipped with either factory CNG engines or factory gasoline engines that were converted to run CNG fuel. The vehicles were variously modified to operate on blended fuel and were tested using 15 to 50% blends of hydrogen (by volume). The pure-hydrogen-fueled vehicle was converted from gasoline fuel to operate on 100% hydrogen. All vehicles were fueled from the Arizona Public Service's Alternative Fuel Pilot Plant, which was developed to dispense gaseous fuels, including CNG, blends of CNG and hydrogen, and pure hydrogen with up to 99.9999% purity. The primary objective of the test was to evaluate the safety and reliability of operating vehicles on hydrogen and blended hydrogen fuel, and the interface between the vehicles and the hydrogen fueling infrastructure. A secondary objective was to quantify vehicle emissions, cost, and performance. Over a total of 40,000 fleet test miles, no safety issues were found. Also, significant reductions in emissions were achieved by adding hydrogen to the fuel. This report presents results of 16,942 miles of testing for one of the blended fuel vehicles, a Ford F-150 pickup truck, operating on up to 30% hydrogen/70% CNG fuel.

Karner, D.; Francfort, J.E.

2003-01-22

109

Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity: High-Percentage Hydrogen/CNG Blend Ford F-150 Operating Summary - January 2003  

SciTech Connect

Over the past two years, Arizona Public Service, a subsidiary of Pinnacle West Capital Corporation, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity, tested four gaseous fuel vehicles as part of its alternative fueled vehicle fleet. One vehicle operated initially using compressed natural gas (CNG) and later a blend of CNG and hydrogen. Of the other three vehicles, one was fueled with pure hydrogen and two were fueled with a blend of CNG and hydrogen. The three blended-fuel vehicles were originally equipped with either factory CNG engines or factory gasoline engines that were converted to run CNG fuel. The vehicles were variously modified to operate on blended fuel and were tested using 15 to 50% blends of hydrogen (by volume). The pure-hydrogen-fueled vehicle was converted from gasoline fuel to operate on 100% hydrogen. All vehicles were fueled from the Arizona Public Service's Alternative Fuel Pilot Plant, which was developed to dispense gaseous fuels, including CNG, blends of CNG and hydrogen, and pure hydrogen with up to 99.9999% purity. The primary objective of the test was to evaluate the safety and reliability of operating vehicles on hydrogen and blended fuel, and the interface between the vehicles and the hydrogen fueling infrastructure. A secondary objective was to quantify vehicle emissions, cost, and performance. Over a total of 40,000 fleet test miles, no safety issues were found. Also, significant reductions in emissions were achieved by adding hydrogen to the fuel. This report presents the results of 4,695 miles of testing for one of the blended fuel vehicles, a Ford F-150 pickup truck, operating on up to 50% hydrogen-50% CNG fuel.

Karner, D.; Francfort, J.E.

2003-01-22

110

Ejection safety for advanced fighter helmets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The old saying, `Safety is paramount.' was never more true than it is in the area of ejection safety for high-speed fighter aircraft. The fighter aircraft of today has been designed to endure tremendous structural loading during dogfight or evasive maneuvers. It can fly faster, turn quicker, stay in the air longer (with in-flight refuel) and carry more bombs than its predecessor. Because of human physiological limits, the human has become the weak link in today's fighter aircraft. The fighter pilot must endure and function with peak performance in conditions that are much worse than anything the majority of us will ever encounter. When these conditions reach a point that human endurance is exceeded, devices such as anti-g suits and positive pressure breathing apparatus help the fighter pilot squeeze out that extra percentage of strength necessary to outperform the opponent. As fighter aircraft become more sophisticated, helmet trackers, helmet displays and noise cancellation devices are being added to the helmet. Yet the fighter pilot's helmet must remain lightweight and be aesthetically appealing, while still offering ballistic protection. It must function with existing life support equipment such as the Combined Advanced Technology Enhanced Design g-Ensemble (COMBAT-EDGE). It must not impede the pilot's ability to perform any action necessary to accomplish the planned mission. The helmet must protect the pilot during the harsh environment of ejection. When the pilot's only resort is to pull the handle and initiate the ejection sequence, the helmet becomes his salvation or instant death. This paper discusses the safety concerns relative to the catapult phase of ejecting from a high-speed fighter while wearing an advanced fighter helmet.

Wiley, Larry L.; Brown, Randall W.; MacMillan, Robert T.

1995-05-01

111

Rules of the Road for Transporting Children--Guidelines for Developing a Motor Vehicle Safety Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses safety issues for child care centers that provide transportation for children. Notes the importance of vehicle usage and control, driver qualifications, vehicle maintenance, child securement, accident procedures, and driver education and training. (JPB)|

Hooker, Bruce; Gearhart, Kentin

1999-01-01

112

Motor Vehicle Safety at Temporary Construction or Repair Sites on Highways.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Informational materials on motor vehicle safety in areas undergoing temporary road construction and repair operations were collected. The intention of the publication is simply to indicate the dimensions of the problem of accidents involving vehicles pass...

D. M. Munro N. W. Huang

1968-01-01

113

Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard No. 109 (Tires). The Firestone Tire and Rubber Company.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report pertains to tests conducted by an independent contractor as part of the National Highway Safety Bureau's compliance testing program to determine whether or not motor vehicles and items of motor vehicle equipment comply with applicable Federal M...

1970-01-01

114

Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard No. 202 (Head Restraint). General Motors Corporation. 1970 Chevrolet Impala.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report pertains to tests conducted by an independent contractor as part of the National Highway Safety Bureau compliance testing program to determine whether or not motor vehicles and items of motor vehicle equipment comply with applicable Federal Mot...

K. B. Cruise

1970-01-01

115

Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard No. 105 (Brakes). General Motors Corporation 1970 Chevrolet Impala.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report pertains to tests conducted by an independent contractor as part of the National Highway Safety Bureau's compliance testing program to determine whether or not motor vehicles and items of motor vehicle equipment comply with applicable Federal M...

1970-01-01

116

Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard No. 210 (Seat Belt Assembly Anchorages). Chrysler Corporation 1970 Dodge Challenger.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report pertains to tests conducted by an independent contractor as part of the National Highway Safety Bureau compliance testing program to determine whether or not motor vehicles and items of motor vehicle equipment comply with applicable Federal Mot...

1970-01-01

117

Chrysler Corporation 1970 Dodge Challenger. Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard No. 105 (Brakes).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report pertains to tests conducted by an independent contractor as part of the National Highway Safety Bureau's compliance testing program to determine whether or not motor vehicles and items of motor vehicle equipment comply with applicable Federal M...

E. S. Dale

1969-01-01

118

Performance of advanced lead acid batteries for electric vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New applications for lead-acid batteries, such as electric vehicle propulsion, demand high specific energy and power and good cycle life. A research and development program at Johnson Controls, Inc., sponsored in part by the United States Department of Energy through Argonne National Laboratory, has been underway since 1978 to develop advanced electric vehicle batteries. Cell test results on and Advanced Battery design developed under this program are described. Capacity, energy and power delivered at various discharge rates are shown. Material distribution and utilization are described, and the effects of discharge rate and temperature on the material utilization of both electrodes is determined. Cycle life data at 100% depth of discharge are also presented.

Mahato, B. K.; Brilmyer, G. H.; Bullock, K. R.

119

Advanced Test Reactor safety/risk improvements from the PRA.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Level 1 probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) for the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR), continuing external events analyses, and the Level 2 PRA analyses have provided safety and risk insights and have identified beneficial safety and risk improvements for t...

S. A. Atkinson

1990-01-01

120

77 FR 69586 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Small Business Impacts of Motor Vehicle Safety  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...dockets and docket materials that are available in the system: (a) ``Quick Search'' to search using a full-text search engine, or (b) ``Advanced Search,'' which displays various indexed fields such as the docket name, docket...

2012-11-20

121

76 FR 72888 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Small Business Impacts of Motor Vehicle Safety  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...dockets and docket materials that are available in the system: (a) ``Quick Search'' to search using a full-text search engine, or (b) ``Advanced Search,'' which displays various indexed fields such as the docket name, docket...

2011-11-28

122

Operational evaluation of advanced safety enhancement devices: Rearview video system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the creation of the automobile, there has been an effort to create and implement mechanical and electronic devices that would improve vehicle safety. In recent years, electronic technologies have become more efficient and cost effective, therefore creating a great spike in widespread implementation. These safety related devices have to be tested for their reliability and amount of help they

Achilleas Kourtellis

2009-01-01

123

Experimental Study on the Vehicle Safety by Earthquake Track Excitation with 1/10 Scale Vehicle and Roller Rig  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A railway is organized by a variety of individual technologies, and functions safely and properly as a system, therefore it is necessary for the system safety to study each potential unsafe case caused due to large earthquakes. Recent reports indicate that railway vehicles could be derailed by earthquake ground motions with no fatal damages of vehicles or tracks. Thus, we should further study the derailment mechanism to pursue to minimize the risk of railway system safety against large earthquakes. Particularly, for more comprehensive understanding on the derailment mechanism of high speed railway vehicle, the derailment process of the case should be directly verified. Therefore, in this study, we arrange an experimental setup with 1/10 scale vehicle and roller rig providing both conditions of high speed wheel/rail rolling contact and large amplitude excitations. Through the experiment, we obtained the outcomes. (1) Two types of vehicle derailment motions are observed; one is rocking derailment and the other is sliding derailment. Derailment motions are similar regardless of vehicle speed. (2) By contrast, the excitation amplitudes for derailment decrease according to the increase of vehicle speed particularly by low frequency excitations. (3) The excitation amplitudes for wheel lift of flange height are relatively independent of vehicle speed. (4) Based on the similarity of fundamental vehicle dynamics between the 1/10 and full scale vehicles, those observed mechanisms in the scaled test should be applicable to that of full scale vehicle.

Nishimura, Kazuhiko; Terumichi, Yoshiaki; Morimura, Tsutomu; Fukada, Junji

124

Motor Vehicle Occupant Safety Survey, 2007. Volume Four. Crash Injury and Emergency Medical Services Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The 2007 Motor Vehicle Occupant Safety Survey was the sixth in a series of periodic national telephone surveys on occupant protection issues conducted for the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA). Data collection was conducted by Schulma...

C. Lampkin J. M. Boyle

2008-01-01

125

Recovery of an Advanced Unmanned Search System by the Advanced Tethered Vehicle. (Reannouncement with New Availability Information).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

On 18 January 1991, a team from Naval Ocean Systems Center (NAVOCEANSYSCEN), San Diego, CA, and Navy personnel from the Deep Submergence Unit Unmanned Vehicles Detachment (UMVDET) recovered Advanced Unmanned Search System (AUSS) using the Advanced Tethere...

M. E. Neller R. A. Bixler

1991-01-01

126

Advanced Test Reactor safety\\/risk improvements from the PRA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Level 1 probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) for the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR), continuing external events analyses, and the Level 2 PRA analyses have provided safety and risk insights and have identified beneficial safety and risk improvements for the ATR facility and its continuing safe operation. The safety and risk improvements consist of ATR system modifications or additions, control system

1990-01-01

127

Exploring the relationship between vehicle safety and fuel efficiency in automotive design  

Microsoft Academic Search

Panel data analysis is used within a fixed effect model to examine the relationship between vehicle safety ratings and fuel efficiency of 45 new vehicle models sold in the US between 2002 and 2007. While conventional wisdom and most early literature suggest that lighter, more fuel efficient vehicles are less safe to their occupants, the tests show a positive relationship

Chialin Chen; Yu Ren

2010-01-01

128

A High-voltage Safety Protection Method for Electric Vehicle Based on FPGA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Currently, the voltages of power supply on electric vehicle are far higher than the level that people can endure. Aiming at the high voltage safety of electric vehicle, a solution based on FPGA is introduced, which gives a real time detection for creepage of power supply and person's getting an electric shock on electric vehicle, and which cuts off the

Lu Bi; Xuezhe Wei; Zechang Sun

2006-01-01

129

Accident Avoidance Test Report-Nissan and Toyota Experimental Safety Vehicles.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Two Experimental Safety Vehicles (ESVs) manufactured by Nissan and Toyota of Japan were tested to evaluate the accident avoidance performance of each vehicle. The report contains a brief description of each vehicle and of each test performed as well as th...

P. Boulay T. Macaulay

1975-01-01

130

Functional Requirements for the Integrated Vehicle-Based Safety Systems (IVBSS) - Heavy Truck Platform.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of the Integrated Vehicle-Based Safety System (IVBSS) project is to evaluate the potential safety benefits and driver acceptance of an integrated set of crash-warning technologies installed on both heavy truck and light vehicle platforms. IVBS...

D. LeBlanc D. Pomerleau H. Sardar M. Nowak Z. Tang

2008-01-01

131

Effects of Technologies on Commercial Vehicle Company Safety and Service: A Supply Chain Perspective.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Because of the importance of safety, and the potential benefits for both the general public and the commercial vehicle industry of improving safety, the main goal of this project is to identify those commercial vehicle-related technologies that, through s...

B. M. Lantz

2006-01-01

132

Development of advanced battery systems for vehicle applications  

SciTech Connect

The Advanced Battery Business Unit (ABBU) of Johnson Controls, Inc. is developing several promising advanced battery technologies including flow-through lead-acid, zinc/bromine, and nickel hydrogen. The flow-through lead-acid technology, which is being developed under Department of Energy (DOE) sponsorship, is progressing towards the fabrication of a 39 kWh battery system. Recent efforts have focused on achieving the aggressive specific energy goal of 56 Wh/kg in 12 volt module form. Recent DOE sponsored work in the zinc/bromine program has focused on the development of a proof-of concept 50 kWh electric vehicle system for a light van application. Efforts in the nickel hydrogen program have focused on reducing system cost in order to make the life-time premium market and EV market possible targets. The status and future direction of each of these programs are summarized.

Zagrodnik, J.P.; Eskra, M.D.; Andrew, M.G.; Gentry, W.O.

1989-01-01

133

Spatial multibody modeling and vehicle dynamics analysis of advanced vehicle technologies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The US Army vision, announced in October of 1999, encompasses people, readiness, and transformation. The goal of the Army vision is to transition the entire Army into a force that is strategically responsive and dominant at every point of the spectrum of operations. The transformation component will be accomplished in three ways: the Objective Force, the Legacy (current) Force, and the Interim Force. The objective force is not platform driven, but rather the focus is on achieving capabilities that will operate as a "system of systems." As part of the Objective Force, the US Army plans to begin production of the Future Combat System (FCS) in FY08 and field the first unit by FY10 as currently defined in the FCS solicitation(1). As part of the FCS program, the Future Tactical Truck System (FTTS) encompasses all US Army tactical wheeled vehicles and its initial efforts will focus only on the heavy class. The National Automotive Center (NAC) is using modeling and simulation to demonstrate the feasibility and operational potential of advanced commercial and military technologies with application to new and existing tactical vehicles and to describe potential future vehicle capabilities. This document will present the results of computer-based, vehicle dynamics performance assessments of FTTS concepts with such features as hybrid power sources, active suspensions, skid steering, and in-hub electric drive motors. Fully three-dimensional FTTS models are being created using commercially available modeling and simulation methodologies such as ADAMS and DADS and limited vehicle dynamics validation studies are will be performed.

Letherwood, Michael D.; Gunter, David D.; Gorsich, David J.; Udvare, Thomas B.

2004-08-01

134

U.S. Department of Energy -- Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity: Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Testing and Demonstration Activities  

Microsoft Academic Search

The U.S. Department of Energys (DOE) Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA) tests plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) in closed track, dynamometer and onroad testing environments. The onroad testing includes the use of dedicated drivers on repeated urban and highway driving cycles that range from 10 to 200 miles, with recharging between each loop. Fleet demonstrations with onboard data collectors are

James E. Francfort; Donald Karner; John G. Smart

2009-01-01

135

Systems Safety in Recreational and Powered Garden Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is concerned with the development of a standardized dynamic evaluation process which will be applicable to specialized power consumer vehicles on which the operator rides. The standardized process will be suitable for evaluation of vehicles with specialized functions such as boats, lawnmowers, snowmobiles, all-terrain vehicles, golf carts, industrial vehicles, and farm equipment.The proposed method differs from existing practices,

Vincent M. Sowa; T. M. Fraser

1974-01-01

136

14 CFR Appendix C to Part 417 - Flight Safety Analysis Methodologies and Products for an Unguided Suborbital Launch Vehicle Flown...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Unguided Suborbital Launch Vehicle Flown With a Wind Weighting Safety System C Appendix...Unguided Suborbital Launch Vehicle Flown With a Wind Weighting Safety System C417.1General...suborbital launch vehicle flown with a wind weighting safety system, except...

2009-01-01

137

14 CFR Appendix C to Part 417 - Flight Safety Analysis Methodologies and Products for an Unguided Suborbital Launch Vehicle Flown...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Unguided Suborbital Launch Vehicle Flown With a Wind Weighting Safety System C Appendix...Unguided Suborbital Launch Vehicle Flown With a Wind Weighting Safety System C417.1General...suborbital launch vehicle flown with a wind weighting safety system, except...

2010-01-01

138

Advanced underground Vehicle Power and Control: The locomotive Research Platform  

SciTech Connect

Develop a fuelcell mine locomotive with metal-hydride hydrogen storage. Test the locomotive for fundamental limitations preventing successful commercialization of hydride fuelcells in underground mining. During Phase 1 of the DOE-EERE sponsored project, FPI and its partner SNL, completed work on the development of a 14.4 kW fuelcell power plant and metal-hydride energy storage. An existing battery-electric locomotive with similar power requirements, minus the battery module, was used as the base vehicle. In March 2001, Atlas Copco Wagner of Portland, OR, installed the fuelcell power plant into the base vehicle and initiated integration of the system into the vehicle. The entire vehicle returned to Sandia in May 2001 for further development and integration. Initial system power-up took place in December 2001. A revision to the original contract, Phase 2, at the request of DOE Golden Field Office, established Vehicle Projects LLC as the new prime contractor,. Phase 2 allowed industry partners to conduct surface tests, incorporate enhancements to the original design by SNL, perform an extensive risk and safety analysis, and test the fuelcell locomotive underground under representative production mine conditions. During the surface tests one of the fuelcell stacks exhibited reduced power output resulting in having to replace both fuelcell stacks. The new stacks were manufactured with new and improved technology resulting in an increase of the gross power output from 14.4 kW to 17 kW. Further work by CANMET and Hatch Associates, an engineering consulting firm specializing in safety analysis for the mining industry, both under subcontract to Vehicle Projects LLC, established minimum requirements for underground testing. CANMET upgraded the Programmable Logic Control (PLC) software used to monitor and control the fuelcell power plant, taking into account locomotive operator's needs. Battery Electric, a South Africa manufacturer, designed and manufactured (at no cost to the project) a new motor controller capable of operating the higher rpm motor and different power characteristics of the fuelcells. In early August 2002, CANMET, with the technical assistance of Nuvera Fuel Cells and Battery Electric, installed the new PLC software, installed the new motor controller, and installed the new fuelcell stacks. After minor adjustments, the fuelcell locomotive pulled its first fully loaded ore cars on a surface track. The fuelcell-powered locomotive easily matched the battery powered equivalent in its ability to pull tonnage and equaled the battery-powered locomotive in acceleration. The final task of Phase 2, testing the locomotive underground in a production environment, occurred in early October 2002 in a gold mine. All regulatory requirements to allow the locomotive underground were completed and signed off by Hatch Associates prior to going underground. During the production tests, the locomotive performed flawlessly with no failures or downtime. The actual tests occurred during a 2-week period and involved moving both gold ore and waste rock over a 1,000 meter track. Refueling, or recharging, of the metal-hydride storage took place on the surface. After each shift, the metal-hydride storage module was removed from the locomotive, transported to surface, and filled with hydrogen from high-pressure tanks. The beginning of each shift started with taking the fully recharged metal-hydride storage module down into the mine and re-installing it onto the locomotive. Each 8 hour shift consumed approximately one half to two thirds of the onboard hydrogen. This indicates that the fuelcell-powered locomotive can work longer than a similar battery-powered locomotive, which operates about 6 hours, before needing a recharge.

Vehicle Projects LLC

2003-01-28

139

Safety significance of ATR (Advanced Test Reactor) passive safety response attributes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory was designed with some passive safety response attributes which contribute to the safety posture of the facility. The three passive safety attributes being evaluated in the paper are: (1) In-core and in-vessel natural convection cooling, (2) a passive heat sink capability of the ATR primary coolant system (PCS) for

1989-01-01

140

A Review: Advancement in Probabilistic Safety Assessment and Living Probabilistic Safety Assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to increasing demand of Electricity, every country in the world wants to construct more and more nuclear power plants and apply different advance techniques for accident prevention, safety and reliability. Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) and Living Probabilistic Safety Assessment (LPSA) are two of them, which are presented in this review paper. The paper consists of four parts, in first

M. Zubair; Zhijian Zhang; M. Aamir

2010-01-01

141

40 CFR 86.1866-12 - CO2 credits for advanced technology vehicles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES...Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles... credits for advanced technology vehicles. (a) Electric...the 2012 through 2025 model years may use a value of zero...

2013-07-01

142

Advances in FDA's Safety Program for Marketed Drugs  

Center for Drug Evaluation (CDER)

Text Version... Advances in FDA's Safety Program for Marketed Drugs ... Nursing mothers who are taking codeine and are ultra-rapid metabolizers could have high ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/drugs/drugsafety

143

Performance evaluation of advanced battery technologies for electric vehicle applications  

SciTech Connect

At the Argonne Analysis Diagnostic Laboratory, advanced battery technology evaluations are performed under simulated electric vehicle operating conditions. During 1989 and the first quarter of 1990, single cell and multicell modules from seven developers were examined for the Department of Energy and Electric Power Research Institute. The results provide battery users, developers, and program managers with an interim measure of the progress being made in battery R D programs, a comparison of battery technologies, and a source of basic data for modeling and continuing R D. This paper summarizes the performance and life characterizations of two single cells and seven 3- to 960-cell modules that encompass six technologies (Na/S, Ni/Fe, Ni/Cd, Ni-metal hydride, lead-acid, and Zn/Br). 4 figs., 2 tabs.

DeLuca, W.H.; Tummillo, A.F.; Kulaga, J.E.; Webster, C.E.; Gillie, K.R.; Hogrefe, R.L.

1990-01-01

144

Performance evaluation of advanced battery technologies for electric vehicle applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At the Argonne Analysis and Diagnostic Laboratory, advanced battery technology evaluations are performed under simulated electric vehicle operating conditions. During 1989 and the first quarter of 1990, single cell and multicell modules from seven developers were examined for the Department of Energy and Electric Power Research Institute. The results provide battery users, developers, and program managers with an interim measure of the progress being made in battery R&D programs, a comparison of battery technologies, and a source of basic data for modeling and continuing R&D. This paper summarizes the performance and life characterizations of two single cells and seven 3- to 960-cell modules that encompass six technologies (Na/S, Ni/Fe, Ni/Cd, Ni-metal hydride, lead-acid, and Zn/Br).

Deluca, W. H.; Tummillo, A. F.; Kulaga, J. E.; Webster, C. E.; Gillie, K. R.; Hogrefe, R. L.

1990-01-01

145

Safety Cases for Advanced Control Software: Safety Case Patterns.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report results from a contract tasking University of York. The project will undertake one activity: Produce a unified (generic) approach to developing safety cases for adaptive avionics and software and identifying a 'way ahead' to develop and valida...

J. A. McDermid R. Alexander T. P. Kelly Z. Kurd

2007-01-01

146

Study on Safety Assist Information of Advanced Cruise-Assist Highway Systems (AHS) using VICS in Blind Curve Section of Urban Expressway  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates effect of AHS (Advanced Cruise-Assist Highway Systems) service using VICS (Vehicle Information and Communication System) on driver behavior and safety awareness, through experiment with a driving simulator. In this AHS service, when drivers of vehicles behind do not notice an incident such as stopping vehicle or rearmost congestion at blind curve sections of urban expressway, 3-media VICS-enable

Tatsuru Daimon; Hiroshi Makino; Hiroyuki Mizutani; Yuji Munehiro

2008-01-01

147

History of the safety basis of the advanced test reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) was designed in the early 1960s, when reactor safety criteria were in a formative stage. Fuel damage, especially in test reactors, was recognized as possible during limiting accident conditions. The original ATR final safety analysis report (FSAR) was written with the bounding event a complete melt of the reactor core and release of 100% of

R. G. Ambrosek; S. R. Wagoner; S. T. Polkinghorne

1996-01-01

148

The advanced neutron source safety approach and plans  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) is a user facility for all areas of neutron research proposed for construction at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The neutron source is planned to be a 350-MW research reactor. The reactor, currently in conceptual design, will belong to the United States Department of Energy (USDOE). The safety approach and planned elements of the safety

1989-01-01

149

Motor Vehicle Safety: Current Concepts and Challenges for Emergency Physicians  

Microsoft Academic Search

Motor vehicle travel is the primary means of transportation in the United States, providing freedom in travel and enterprise for many people. Motor vehicle crashes are the leading cause of death for the young and contribute to a high degree of morbidity and mortality for all ages. Motor vehicle crashes produce an enormous burden for society in terms of suffering,

Timothy D Peterson; B. Tilman Jolly; Jeffery W Runge; Richard C Hunt

1999-01-01

150

The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Trial Substitute Motor Vehicle Inspection Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report is a compendium of the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration's Trial Substitute Motor Vehicle Inspection Program conducted in cooperation with twelve states. These states are: California, Connecticut, Iowa, Kansas, Maryland, Michigan, ...

L. E. Eder N. Bleich M. Damiata

1978-01-01

151

Testing of Foreign Prototype Experimental Safety Vehicles-Program. Summary Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The document provides an summary of the Foreign Experimental Safety Vehicle Test and Evaluation Program. The report summarizes the testing conducted, presents summaries of the test results and includes references to NTIS documents in which the detailed te...

P. Boulay S. Davis N. Johnson

1975-01-01

152

Evaluation Methodology for Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards. Volume II. Technical Findings.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report, Volume II of two volumes, describes overall study details and presents a thorough discussion of the evaluation plan developed for four Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards (FMVSS): FMVSS 301--Fuel System Integrity; FMVSS 208--Occupant Prote...

A. V. Fend J. R. Norman N. A. David R. H. Cronin R. L. Braun

1977-01-01

153

Evaluation Methodology for Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards. Volume I. Executive Summary.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Executive Summary, Volume I of a two volume documentation, summarizes the results of a 6-month study to determine feasibility and appropriate evaluation schemes in a real-world environment for four Federal motor vehicle safety standards (FMVSS): FMVSS...

R. L. Braun R. H. Cronin N. A. David A. V. Fend J. R. Norman

1977-01-01

154

29 CFR 500.103 - Activities not subject to vehicle safety standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...defined in § 500.20(o). (c) Carpooling. Vehicle safety standards or insurance...and these regulations do not apply to carpooling arrangements made by the workers themselves...employer or agricultural association. Carpooling, however, does not include any...

2010-07-01

155

29 CFR 500.103 - Activities not subject to vehicle safety standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...defined in § 500.20(o). (c) Carpooling. Vehicle safety standards or insurance...and these regulations do not apply to carpooling arrangements made by the workers themselves...employer or agricultural association. Carpooling, however, does not include any...

2009-07-01

156

Safety Assurance for Irradiating Experiments in the Advanced Test Reactor  

SciTech Connect

The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR), located at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), was specifically designed to provide a high neutron flux test environment for conducting a variety of experiments. This paper addresses the safety assurance process for two general types of experiments conducted in the ATR facility and how the safety analyses for experiments are related to the ATR safety basis. One type of experiment is more routine and generally represents greater risks; therefore, this type of experiment is addressed in more detail in the ATR safety basis. This allows the individual safety analysis for this type of experiment to be more standardized. The second type of experiment is defined in more general terms in the ATR safety basis and is permitted under more general controls. Therefore, the individual safety analysis for the second type of experiment tends to be more unique and is tailored to each experiment.

T. A. Tomberlin; S. B. Grover

2004-11-01

157

Advanced Key Technologies for Hot Control Surfaces in Space Re- Entry Vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

(1)MAN Technologie AG, D- 86153 Augsburg, Germany (2,3) ESA, 2200 Noordwijk ZH, The Netherlands Current space re-entry vehicles (e.g. X-38 vehicle 201, the prototype of the International Space Station's Crew Return Vehicle (CRV)) require advanced control surfaces (so called body flaps). Such control surfaces allow the design of smaller and lighter vehicles as well as faster re-entries (compared to the US Shuttle). They are designed as light-weight structures that need no metallic parts, need no mass or volume consuming heat sinks to protect critical components (e.g. bearings) and that can be operated at temperatures of more than 1600 "C in air transferring high mechanical loads (dynamic 40 kN, static 70 kN) at the same time. Because there is a need for CRV and also for Reusable Launch Vehicles (RLV) in future, the European Space Agency (ESA) felt compelled to establish a "Future European Space Transportation and Investigation Program,, (FESTIP) and a "General Support for Technology Program,, (GSTP). One of the main goals of these programs was to develop and qualify key-technologies that are able to master the above mentioned challenging requirements for advanced hot control surfaces and that can be applied for different vehicles. In 1996 MAN Technologie has started the development of hot control surfaces for small lifting bodies in the national program "Heiü Strukturen,,. One of the main results of this program was that especially the following CMC (Ceramic Matrix Composite) key technologies need to be brought up to space flight standard: Complex CMC Structures, CMC Bearings, Metal-to-CMC Joining Technologies, CMC Fasteners, Oxidation Protection Systems and Static and Dynamic Seals. MAN Technologie was contracted by ESA to continue the development and qualification of these key technologies in the frame of the FESTIP and the GSTP program. Development and qualification have successfully been carried out. The key technologies have been applied for the X-38 vehicle 201 body flaps that have been designed, manufactured and qualified also by MAN Technologie in the frame of the national TETRA program ("Technologien fu zuku ftige Raum-Transportsysteme,,). A set of two body flaps will be delivered to NASA at the beginning of 2002 to be integrated into the vehicle 201. Based on development- and qualification tests, the paper describes main technical properties and features of these key technologies that at the same time represent the status of the art. In a qualification test (simultaneous application of thermal and mechanical loads with bearing movements in oxidising atmosphere) of a full scaled CMC bearing, five complete re-entries have been simulated successfully. The paper informs about applied mechanical load and temperature histories as well as about the number of intermittent bearing movements. The paper further informs about the complex CMC attachment structures (attachment of bearing into the body flap and load introduction) that have been qualified together with the CMC bearing. The attachment of the body flap to the vehicle's aft structure has also been qualified by tests in which also four re- entries have been simulated successfully. The attachment in principle is an interfacing structure between the "hot" (1600 "C) CMC body flap and the "cold,, (175 "C) metallic vehicle's aft structure that is able to transfer high me- chanical loads at high temperatures and minimise the heat flux through interfacing components in such way that the temperature difference of 1600 "C 175 "C = 1425 "C is brought down over a structure-length of only 200 mm. The paper informs about applied mechanical load and temperature histories and about the safety margins that have been demonstrated by rupture tests. Mechanical load carrying capacity and thermal resistance of ceramic fasteners have been demonstrated in several development tests which cover tension-, shear-, fatigue- and self locking-tests as well as tests with fastener assemblies representative for the body flaps. The r

Dogigli, Michael; Pradier, Alain; Tumino, Giorgio

2002-01-01

158

Development of Pneumatic Aerodynamic Devices to Improve the Performance, Economics, and Safety of Heavy Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Under contract to the DOE Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies, the Georgia Tech Research Institute (GTRI) is developing and evaluating pneumatic (blown) aerodynamic devices to improve the performance, economics, stability and safety of operation of Heavy Vehicles. The objective of this program is to apply the pneumatic aerodynamic aircraft technology previously developed and flight-tested by GTRI personnel to the design

Robert J. Englar

2000-01-01

159

Acoustic Characteristics of Hybrid Electric Vehicles and the Safety of Pedestrians Who are Blind.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Quieter cars such as electric vehicles (EVs) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) may reduce auditory cues used by pedestrians to assess the state of nearby traffic and, as a result, their use may have an adverse impact on pedestrian safety. In order to do...

A. Hastings B. Samiljan C. Scarpone J. K. Pollard L. Garay-Vega

2010-01-01

160

The Effect of Automobile Safety on Vehicle Type Choice: An Empirical Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An analysis was made of the extent to which the safety characteristics of new vehicles affect consumer purchase decisions. Using an extensive data set that combines vehicle data collected by the Automobile Club of Southern California Target Car Program with the responses from a national household survey of new car buyers, a statistical model of…

McCarthy, Patrick S.

161

The Effect of Automobile Safety on Vehicle Type Choice: An Empirical Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|An analysis was made of the extent to which the safety characteristics of new vehicles affect consumer purchase decisions. Using an extensive data set that combines vehicle data collected by the Automobile Club of Southern California Target Car Program with the responses from a national household survey of new car buyers, a statistical model of…

McCarthy, Patrick S.

162

Environmental, health, and safety issues of sodium-sulfur batteries for electric and hybrid vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report is the first of four volumes that identify and assess the environmental, health, and safety issues involved in using sodium-sulfur (Na\\/S) battery technology as the energy source in electric and hybrid vehicles that may affect the commercialization of Na\\/S batteries. This and the other reports on recycling, shipping, and vehicle safety are intended to help the Electric and

Ohi

1992-01-01

163

Advanced hydrogen/methanol utilization technology demonstration. Phase II: Hydrogen cold start of a methanol vehicle  

SciTech Connect

This is the Phase 11 Final Report on NREL Subcontract No. XR-2-11175-1 {open_quotes}Advanced Hydrogen/Methane Utilization Demonstration{close_quotes} between the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Alternative Fuels Utilization Program, Golden, Colorado and Hydrogen Consultants, Inc. (HCI), Littleton, Colorado. Mr. Chris Colucci was NREL`s Technical Monitor. Colorado State University`s (CSU) Engines and Energy Conversion Laboratory was HCI`s subcontractor. Some of the vehicle test work was carried out at the National Center for Vehicle Emissions Control and Safety (NCVECS) at CSU. The collaboration of the Colorado School of Mines is also gratefully acknowledged. Hydrogen is unique among alternative fuels in its ability to burn over a wide range of mixtures in air with no carbon-related combustion products. Hydrogen also has the ability to burn on a catalyst, starting from room temperature. Hydrogen can be made from a variety of renewable energy resources and is expected to become a widely used energy carrier in the sustainable energy system of the future. One way to make a start toward widespread use of hydrogen in the energy system is to use it sparingly with other alternative fuels. The Phase I work showed that strong affects could be achieved with dilute concentrations of hydrogen in methane (11). Reductions in emissions greater than the proportion of hydrogen in the fuel provide a form of leverage to stimulate the early introduction of hydrogen. Per energy unit or per dollar of hydrogen, a greater benefit is derived than simply displacing fossil-fueled vehicles with pure hydrogen vehicles.

NONE

1995-05-01

164

Results of electric vehicle safety issues survey: Conducted on behalf of ad hoc EV battery readiness working group in-vehicle safety sub-working group  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report documents the results of a survey conducted in the winter of 1994-1995 by the In-Vehicle Safety Sub-Working Group, a working subunit of the DOE-sponsored ad hoc EV Battery Readiness Working Group. The survey was intended to determine the opinions of a group of industry experts regarding the relative importance of a list of some 39 potential safety concerns,

Hunt

1996-01-01

165

Probabilistic assessment of road vehicle safety in windy environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several wind- and weather-related accidents of road vehicles occur every year, especially at exposed locations where topographical features magnify the wind effects. The most notable ones involve high-sided vehicles. The objective of this paper is to investigate parameters influencing wind-related accidents of road vehicles. A general probabilistic model, based on reliability approach, is outlined and applied for assessment of road

J. Th. Snæbjörnsson; C. J. Baker; R. Sigbjörnsson

2007-01-01

166

Research safety vehicle program (Phase II) specification review. Volume II. Final technical report, Jul 1975--Nov 1976  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Phase I of the Research Safety Vehicle Program (RSV), preliminary design and performance specifications were developed for a mid-1980's vehicle that integrates crashworthiness and occupant safety features with material resource conservation, economy, and producibility. Phase II of the program focused on development of the total vehicle design via systems engineering and integration analyses. As part of this effort, it

1977-01-01

167

Light Vehicle Crash Avoidance Needs and Countermeasure Profiles for Safety Applications Based on Vehicle-to-Vehicle Communications.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report discusses light-vehicle crash countermeasure profiles and functions for five target pre-crash scenario groups based on vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) communications. Target pre-crash scenario groups include rear-end, lane change, opposite direction,...

E. Swanson S. Toma W. G. Najm

2013-01-01

168

Animal Vehicle Crash Mitigation Using Advanced Technology. Phase 1: Review, Design and Implementation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Animal-vehicle collisions affect human safety, property and wildlife. The number of these types of collisions has increased substantially over the last decades. This report describes the results of a project that explored the prospects for a relatively ne...

A. Hardy A. P. Clevenger L. Salsman M. P. Huijser P. Wright P. T. McGowen T. Wilson W. Camel

2006-01-01

169

Advanced launch vehicle system concepts: An historical overview  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many studies leading to advanced launch vehicle system concepts have been undertaken during the years leading to the Space Shuttle development and since it was started. All of these have focused on nebulous and wide-ranging mission requirements. As a result, many launch system concepts have been defined, each addressing a different mission, yielding a wide range of points of departure once the ``real'' mission, or missions, have been identified. Future studies have this database available from which to depart once the ``real'' next generation mission is defined. This paper discusses some of the main issues surrounding the development of future systems. This subject really addresses the three principal requirements needed to be resolved for these systems to come into being: system architecture-what does the system look like and what is its makeup?, technologies-what are the technologies required to make the new system a successful venture and meet the requirements set forth in the mission statement?, and finally, the mission-what do we need to do and when?. The principal focus here will be on the past studies reviewing past concepts which address particular aspects of potential mission requirements with technology development and concepts discussed as we go along.

Ehrlich, Carl F.

1997-01-01

170

Results of advanced batter technology evaluations for electric vehicle applications  

SciTech Connect

Advanced battery technology evaluations are performed under simulated electric-vehicle operating conditions at the Analysis Diagnostic Laboratory (ADL) of Argonne National Laboratory. The ADL results provide insight Into those factors that limit battery performance and life. The ADL facilities include a test laboratory to conduct battery experimental evaluations under simulated application conditions and a post-test analysis laboratory to determine, In a protected atmosphere if needed, component compositional changes and failure mechanisms. This paper summarizes the performance characterizations and life evaluations conducted during 1991--1992 on both single cells and multi-cell modules that encompass eight battery technologies (Na/S, Li/MS (M=metal), Ni/MH, Ni/Cd, Ni/Zn, Ni/Fe, Zn/Br, and Pb-acid). These evaluations were performed for the Department of Energy, Office of Transportation Technologies, Electric and Hybrid Propulsion Division, and the Electric Power Research Institute. The ADL provides a common basis for battery performance characterization and life evaluations with unbiased application of tests and analyses. The results help identify the most-promising R D approaches for overcoming battery limitations, and provide battery users, developers, and program managers with a measure of the progress being made in battery R D programs, a comparison of battery technologies, and basic data for modeling.

DeLuca, W.H.; Gillie, K.R.; Kulaga, J.E.; Smaga, J.A.; Tummillo, A.F.; Webster, C.E.

1992-01-01

171

Results of advanced battery technology evaluations for electric vehicle applications  

SciTech Connect

Advanced battery technology evaluations are performed under simulated electric-vehicle operating conditions at the Analysis & Diagnostic Laboratory (ADL) of Argonne National Laboratory. The ADL results provide insight Into those factors that limit battery performance and life. The ADL facilities include a test laboratory to conduct battery experimental evaluations under simulated application conditions and a post-test analysis laboratory to determine, In a protected atmosphere if needed, component compositional changes and failure mechanisms. This paper summarizes the performance characterizations and life evaluations conducted during 1991--1992 on both single cells and multi-cell modules that encompass eight battery technologies [Na/S, Li/MS (M=metal), Ni/MH, Ni/Cd, Ni/Zn, Ni/Fe, Zn/Br, and Pb-acid]. These evaluations were performed for the Department of Energy, Office of Transportation Technologies, Electric and Hybrid Propulsion Division, and the Electric Power Research Institute. The ADL provides a common basis for battery performance characterization and life evaluations with unbiased application of tests and analyses. The results help identify the most-promising R&D approaches for overcoming battery limitations, and provide battery users, developers, and program managers with a measure of the progress being made in battery R&D programs, a comparison of battery technologies, and basic data for modeling.

DeLuca, W.H.; Gillie, K.R.; Kulaga, J.E.; Smaga, J.A.; Tummillo, A.F.; Webster, C.E.

1992-09-01

172

Advanced launch vehicle system concepts: An historical overview  

SciTech Connect

Many studies leading to advanced launch vehicle system concepts have been undertaken during the years leading to the Space Shuttle development and since it was started. All of these have focused on nebulous and wide-ranging mission requirements. As a result, many launch system concepts have been defined, each addressing a different mission, yielding a wide range of points of departure once the {open_quotes}real{close_quotes} mission, or missions, have been identified. Future studies have this database available from which to depart once the {open_quotes}real{close_quotes} next generation mission is defined. This paper discusses some of the main issues surrounding the development of future systems. This subject really addresses the three principal requirements needed to be resolved for these systems to come into being: system architecture{emdash}what does the system look like and what is its makeup?, technologies{emdash}what are the technologies required to make the new system a successful venture and meet the requirements set forth in the mission statement?, and finally, the mission{emdash}what do we need to do and when?. The principal focus here will be on the past studies reviewing past concepts which address particular aspects of potential mission requirements with technology development and concepts discussed as we go along. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

Ehrlich, C.F. Jr. [Rockwell International 12214 Lakewood Boulevard, Mississippi AD21 Downey, California90241 (United States)

1997-01-01

173

Vehicle Weight, Highway Safety, and Climate Change Policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recent push for national and regional regulations to address climate change has put a strong focus on the transport sector. Policies in the form of emissions standards and fuel taxes are designed to address the climate externality of fuel combustion; a primary effect of these policies is to discourage consumers from purchasing larger, heavier vehicles. Heavier vehicles are less

Michael Anderson; Max Auffhammer

2010-01-01

174

Cost Per Life Saved by the Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) began to evaluate its Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards (FMVSS) in 1975. By December 2004, NHTSA had evaluated the life-saving benefits as well as the consumer cost for a substantial core gro...

C. J. Kahane

2004-01-01

175

Dimensioning Wave-Based Inter-Vehicle Communication Systems for Vehicular Safety Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inter-vehicle wireless communication systems are currently being developed as a promising technology to improve traffic safety. Considering their decentralized nature, its deployment faces important challenges to guarantee an efficient and reliable transmission of broadcast safety messages. This paper investigates the dimensioning of such systems by analysing the impact of key operating conditions on its performance. The final aim of this

Miguel Sepulcre; Javier Gozalvez

2006-01-01

176

Specification of advanced safety modeling requirements (Rev. 0).  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy's Global Nuclear Energy Partnership has lead to renewed interest in liquid-metal-cooled fast reactors for the purpose of closing the nuclear fuel cycle and making more efficient use of future repository capacity. However, the U.S. has not designed or constructed a fast reactor in nearly 30 years. Accurate, high-fidelity, whole-plant dynamics safety simulations will play a crucial role by providing confidence that component and system designs will satisfy established design limits and safety margins under a wide variety of operational, design basis, and beyond design basis transient conditions. Current modeling capabilities for fast reactor safety analyses have resulted from several hundred person-years of code development effort supported by experimental validation. The broad spectrum of mechanistic and phenomenological models that have been developed represent an enormous amount of institutional knowledge that needs to be maintained. Complicating this, the existing code architectures for safety modeling evolved from programming practices of the 1970s. This has lead to monolithic applications with interdependent data models which require significant knowledge of the complexities of the entire code in order for each component to be maintained. In order to develop an advanced fast reactor safety modeling capability, the limitations of the existing code architecture must be overcome while preserving the capabilities that already exist. To accomplish this, a set of advanced safety modeling requirements is defined, based on modern programming practices, that focuses on modular development within a flexible coupling framework. An approach for integrating the existing capabilities of the SAS4A/SASSYS-1 fast reactor safety analysis code into the SHARP framework is provided in order to preserve existing capabilities while providing a smooth transition to advanced modeling capabilities. In doing this, the advanced fast reactor safety models will target leadership-class computing architectures for massively-parallel high-fidelity computations while providing continued support for rapid prototyping using modest fidelity computations on multiple-core desktop platforms.

Fanning, T. H.; Tautges, T. J.

2008-06-30

177

Simulation analysis and study on car-following safety distance model based on braking process of leading vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to improve traditional safety distance models based on braking process of the leading vehicle, a new safety distance model of one-lane following condition is established based on traditional safety distance models. The new model considers the relative speed between vehicles and the change process of deceleration value. A simulation using Matlab software verifies that the new model overcomes

Qiang Luo; Lunhui Xun; Zhihui Cao; Yanguo Huang

2011-01-01

178

Patient safety issues in advanced practice nursing students' care settings.  

PubMed

The purpose of this project was to identify and characterize patient safety issues across advanced practice nursing (APN) care settings including ambulatory care visits. A total of 162 registered nurses enrolled in an APN education program completed an online survey. Respondents reported patient safety issues related to diagnosis or management and treatment in almost half of 489 encounters. The most common issues were clinician communication problems with patients, which occurred during 42.4% of encounters. Adoption of information technology may be a pathway for improving patient safety issues in APN practice settings. PMID:21915064

Schnall, Rebecca; Cook, Sarah; John, Rita Marie; Larson, Elaine; Stone, Patricia W; Sullivan, Caroline; Bakken, Suzanne

179

Real-Time Detection of Vehicles for Advanced Traffic Signal Control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vehicle detection by video cameras is one of the most promising new technologies for wireless large-scale data collection and implementation of advanced traffic control and management schemes such as vehicle guidance\\/navigation. In this paper we propose an approach to detect and count vehicles at an intersection in real-time, using a fixed camera. After identifying moving objects images via background frame

Chong Han; Qinyu Zhang

2008-01-01

180

Advanced Test Reactor safety/risk improvements from the PRA  

SciTech Connect

The Level 1 probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) for the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR), continuing external events analyses, and the Level 2 PRA analyses have provided safety and risk insights and have identified beneficial safety and risk improvements for the ATR facility and its continuing safe operation. The safety and risk improvements consist of ATR system modifications or additions, control system upgrades in conjunction with the planned replacement of the reactor process and experiment control systems, improvements in training and emergency procedures, and the development of new symptom-based emergency and accident management procedures and related simulator upgrades. These safety insights and improvements do not imply an inadequate level of safety, only that improvements are desirable. 2 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

Atkinson, S.A.

1990-01-01

181

Need for Speed: Motorized Vehicle Safety for Children  

MedlinePLUS

... tractors, lawn mowers, personal watercraft, mopeds, minibikes, trail bikes, all-terrain vehicles (ATVs), and snowmobiles. Some of ... than thirty thousand crashes per year on trail bikes, with about one third of them occurring in ...

182

29 CFR 500.100 - Vehicle safety obligations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...set forth in paragraph (a) of this section does not include carpooling arrangements made by the workers themselves, using one of the workers' own vehicles. However, carpooling does not include any transportation arrangement in which a...

2009-07-01

183

29 CFR 500.100 - Vehicle safety obligations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...set forth in paragraph (a) of this section does not include carpooling arrangements made by the workers themselves, using one of the workers' own vehicles. However, carpooling does not include any transportation arrangement in which a...

2010-07-01

184

Fuel-cycle greenhouse gas emissions impacts of alternative transportation fuels and advanced vehicle technologies.  

SciTech Connect

At an international conference on global warming, held in Kyoto, Japan, in December 1997, the United States committed to reduce its greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by 7% over its 1990 level by the year 2012. To help achieve that goal, transportation GHG emissions need to be reduced. Using Argonne's fuel-cycle model, I estimated GHG emissions reduction potentials of various near- and long-term transportation technologies. The estimated per-mile GHG emissions results show that alternative transportation fuels and advanced vehicle technologies can help significantly reduce transportation GHG emissions. Of the near-term technologies evaluated in this study, electric vehicles; hybrid electric vehicles; compression-ignition, direct-injection vehicles; and E85 flexible fuel vehicles can reduce fuel-cycle GHG emissions by more than 25%, on the fuel-cycle basis. Electric vehicles powered by electricity generated primarily from nuclear and renewable sources can reduce GHG emissions by 80%. Other alternative fuels, such as compressed natural gas and liquefied petroleum gas, offer limited, but positive, GHG emission reduction benefits. Among the long-term technologies evaluated in this study, conventional spark ignition and compression ignition engines powered by alternative fuels and gasoline- and diesel-powered advanced vehicles can reduce GHG emissions by 10% to 30%. Ethanol dedicated vehicles, electric vehicles, hybrid electric vehicles, and fuel-cell vehicles can reduce GHG emissions by over 40%. Spark ignition engines and fuel-cell vehicles powered by cellulosic ethanol and solar hydrogen (for fuel-cell vehicles only) can reduce GHG emissions by over 80%. In conclusion, both near- and long-term alternative fuels and advanced transportation technologies can play a role in reducing the United States GHG emissions.

Wang, M. Q.

1998-12-16

185

The role of vehicle safety glass in eye injuries.  

PubMed

Despite the introduction of compulsory seat belt legislation, the incidence of eye injuries, and their severity, is greater in Auckland, New Zealand, than in London, Canada. A comparison has been made between Auckland (83 cases) and London (50 cases) in a survey from 1 July 1970, to 31 December 1974. Consideration is given to the fact that New Zealand vehicles are equipped with heat-toughened (tempered) glass, whereas in Canada, vehicles are fitted with laminated windscreens. PMID:1068383

Hass, I; Chapman-Smith, J S

1976-07-28

186

Environmental, health, and safety issues of sodium-sulfur batteries for electric and hybrid vehicles. Volume 4, In-vehicle safety  

SciTech Connect

This report is the last of four volumes that identify and assess the environmental, health, and safety issues that may affect the commercial-scale use of sodium-sulfur (Na/S) battery technology as the energy source in electric and hybrid vehicles. The reports are intended to help the Electric and Hybrid Propulsion Division of the Office of Transportation Technologies in the US Department of Energy (DOE/EHP) determine the direction of its research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) program for Na/S battery technology. The reports review the status of Na/S battery RD&D and identify potential hazards and risks that may require additional research or that may affect the design and use of Na/S batteries. This volume covers the in-vehicle safety issues of electric vehicles powered by Na/S batteries. The report is based on a review of the literature and on discussions with experts at DOE, national laboratories and agencies, and private industry. It has three major goals: (1) to identify the unique hazards associated with electric vehicle (EV) use; (2) to describe the existing standards, regulations, and guidelines that are or could be applicable to these hazards; and (3) to discuss the adequacy of the existing requirements in addressing the safety concerns of EVs.

Mark, J.

1992-11-01

187

Installation of the Irradiation Test Vehicle in the Advanced Test Reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Irradiation Test Vehicle (ITV) was installed in the Department of Energy's Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) during May 1999. The ITV is capable of providing neutron spectral tailoring and individual temperature control for up to 15 experiment capsules simultaneously. The test vehicle consists of three permanently installed in-pile tubes running the length of the reactor vessel. The bores of these

A. J. Palmer; B. C. Hong; D. J. Stites; F. W. Ingram

1999-01-01

188

Advanced Transportation System Study: Manned Launch Vehicle Concepts for Two Way Transportation System Payloads to Leo.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of the Advanced Transportation System Study (ATSS) task area 1 study effort is to examine manned launch vehicle booster concepts and two-way cargo transfer and return vehicle concepts to determine which of the many proposed concepts best meets...

J. B. Duffy

1993-01-01

189

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles: Resources for Fleet Managers (Clean Cities) (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect

A discussion of the tools and resources on the Clean Cities, Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center, and the FuelEconomy.gov Web sites that can help vehicle fleet managers make informed decisions about implementing strategies to reduce gasoline and diesel fuel use.

Brennan, A.

2011-04-01

190

An assessment of research and development leadership in advanced batteries for electric vehicles  

SciTech Connect

Due to the recently enacted California regulations requiring zero emission vehicles be sold in the market place by 1998, electric vehicle research and development (R&D) is accelerating. Much of the R&D work is focusing on the Achilles` heel of electric vehicles -- advanced batteries. This report provides an assessment of the R&D work currently underway in advanced batteries and electric vehicles in the following countries: Denmark, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Russia, and the United Kingdom. Although the US can be considered one of the leading countries in terms of advanced battery and electric vehicle R&D work, it lags other countries, particularly France, in producing and promoting electric vehicles. The US is focusing strictly on regulations to promote electric vehicle usage while other countries are using a wide variety of policy instruments (regulations, educational outreach programs, tax breaks and subsidies) to encourage the use of electric vehicles. The US should consider implementing additional policy instruments to ensure a domestic market exists for electric vehicles. The domestic is the largest and most important market for the US auto industry.

Bruch, V.L.

1994-02-01

191

MSFC Advanced Concepts Office and the Iterative Launch Vehicle Concept Method.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This slide presentation reviews the work of the Advanced Concepts Office (ACO) at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) with particular emphasis on the method used to model launch vehicles using INTegrated ROcket Sizing (INTROS), a modeling system that assi...

D. Creech

2011-01-01

192

Virtual life assessment of electronic hardware used in the Advanced Amphibious Assault Vehicle (AAAV)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the use of techniques for simulating product qualification as well as for product testing of electronic hardware to be used in the United States Marine Corp's Advanced Amphibious Assault Vehicle. The goal of integrating \\

Ricky Valentin; Jeremy Cunningham; Michael Osterman; Abhijit Dasgupta; Michael G. Pecht; D. Tsagos

2002-01-01

193

Advanced Crew Rescue Vehicle/Personnel Launch System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Advanced Crew Rescue Vehicle (ACRV) will be an essential element of the Space Station to respond to three specific missions, all of which have occurred during the history space exploration by the U.S. and the Soviets: (1) Mission DRM-1: Return of disabled crew members during medical emergencies; (2) Mission DRM-2: Return of crew members from accidents or as a result of failures of Space Station systems; and (3) Mission DRM-3: Return of crew members during interruption of Space Shuttle launches. The ACRV will have the ability to transport up to eight astronauts during a 24-hour mission. Not only would the ACRV serve as a lifeboat to provide transportation back to Earth, but it would also be available as a immediately available safe refuge in case the Space Station were severely damaged by space debris or other catastrophe. Upon return to Earth, existing world-wide search and rescue assets operated by the Coast Guard and Department of Defense would be able to retrieve personnel returned to Earth via the ACRV. The operational approach proposed for the ACRV is tailored to satisfying mission requirements for simplicity of operation (no piloting skills or specially trained personnel are required), continuous availability, high reliability and affordability. By using proven systems as the basis for many critical ACRV systems, the ACRV program is more likely to achieve each of these mission requirements. Nonetheless, the need for the ACRV to operate reliably with little preflight preparation after, perhaps, 5 to 10 years in orbit imposes challenges not faced by any previous space system of this complexity. Specific concerns exist regarding micrometeoroid impacts, battery life, and degradation of recovery parachutes while in storage.

Craig, Jerry W.

1993-02-01

194

Development of advanced Lithium-ion battery for underwater vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electric power storage is an important technology for all equipments of underwater vehicles however environmental pressure is high, the temperature is 5 degrees Celsius or less, and conditions are unsuitable for many chemical reactions in the deep sea. Battery capacity is mainly dependent on its mass; this means that the cruising range of underwater vehicles is proportional to the mass

T. Hyakudome; H. Yoshida; S. Ishibashi; T. Sawa; M. Nakamura

2011-01-01

195

Lives Saved by the Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards and Other Vehicle Safety Technologies, 1960-2002. Passenger Cars and Light Trucks (With a Review of 19 FMVSS and Their Effectiveness in Reducing Fatalities, Injuries and Crashes).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) began to evaluate its Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards (FMVSS) in 1975. By October 2004, NHTSA had evaluated the effectiveness of virtually all the life-saving technologies introduced in pas...

C. J. Kahane

2004-01-01

196

Advances in genomics for microbial food fermentations and safety  

Microsoft Academic Search

The exponentially growing collection of genomic sequence information, the high-throughput analysis of expression products, and the ability to order this information using advanced bioinformatics are expected to affect biotechnology and life sciences in a profound and unprecedented way. These developments offer many possibilities to improve the functionality of fermentations by food-grade microorganisms and to increase the microbial safety of foods.

Willem M de Vos

2001-01-01

197

Systems Engineering of Datacasting for Public Safety Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Public safety officers need current, accurate and complete information to maintain the security of their communities. Existing communications systems for public safety officers consist of analog and digital radios, supplemented with cell phone communications. Dispatchers with a need to broadcast information can only do so via voice. Small data packets can be exchanged via point-to-point methods with modern digital radios,

S. A. Valcourt; K. Chamberlin; B. McMahon; A. Kun

2007-01-01

198

Analytical Study on the Safety of High Speed Railway Vehicle on Excited Tracks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A railway is organized by a variety of individual technologies, and functions safely and properly as a system, therefore it is necessary for the system safety to study each potential case of disasters caused by earthquakes. Recent reports indicate that railway vehicles could be derailed solely by the ground motions of earthquakes with no fatal damages of vehicles or tracks. Based on the reports and facts, we believe that we should further study the derailment mechanism of a high speed railway vehicle excited by large seismic motions, to pursue to minimize the risk of railway system against large earthquakes. At the start of the study, we developed our original vehicle dynamics simulation and then employed it for numerical analyses. At the present stage, through the analyses, we obtained the following major outcomes. (1) Most of derailments are brought as the result of the rocking motion of a vehicle by track excitations underneath. Interestingly, the derailing motions are observed similarly regardless of vehicle speed. (2) By contrast, the excitation amplitudes for derailment are influenced by vehicle speed particularly in lower input frequencies. This can be explained by the sensitivity of the relative wheel/rail slide due to creepage. (3) The excitation amplitudes for 30mm of wheel lift are relatively independent of vehicle speed. (4) The wheel/rail slide strongly depends on the friction coefficient if a vehicle stationed, being relatively independent of the friction coefficient at higher speeds.

Nishimura, Kazuhiko; Terumichi, Yoshiaki; Morimura, Tsutomu; Sogabe, Kiyoshi

199

Continuously Variable Transmission: Assessment of Applicability to Advanced Electric Vehicles.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A brief historical account of the evolution of continuously variable transmissions (CVT) for automotive use is given. CVT concepts which are potentially suitable for application with electric and hybrid vehicles are discussed. The arrangement and function...

S. H. Loewenthal R. J. Parker

1981-01-01

200

Radio Channel Measurements at Street Intersections for Vehicle-to-Vehicle Safety Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the results of an empirical study of wireless propagation channels for vehicle-to-vehicle communications in street intersections, a scenario especially important for collision avoidance applications. The results are derived from a channel measurement campaign performed at 5.6 GHz in four different types of urban intersections. We present results on typical power delay profiles, pathloss and delay spreads and

Johan Karedal; Fredrik Tufvesson; Taimoor Abbas; Oliver Klemp; Alexander Paier; Laura Bernadó; Andreas F. Molisch

2010-01-01

201

Safety verification of autonomous vehicles for coordinated evasive maneuvers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The verification of evasive maneuvers for autonomous vehicles driving with constant velocity is considered. Modeling uncertainties, uncertain measurements, and disturbances can cause substantial deviations from an initially planned evasive maneuver. From this follows that the maneuver, which is safe under perfect conditions, might become unsafe. In this work, the possible set of deviations is computed with methods from reachability analysis,

M. Althoff; D. Althoff; D. Wollherr; M. Buss

2010-01-01

202

A lipid microsphere vehicle for vinorelbine: Stability, safety and pharmacokinetics  

Microsoft Academic Search

A lipid microsphere vehicle for vinorelbine (VRL) was designed to reduce the severe venous irritation caused by the aqueous intravenous formulation of VRL. Lipid microspheres (LMs) were prepared by high pressure homogenization. The physical stability was monitored by the appearance, particle size and zeta potential changes while the chemical stability was achieved by using effective antioxidants and monitored by long-term

Hong Yao Zhang; Xing Tang; Hong Ying Li; Xiao Liang Liu

2008-01-01

203

78 FR 55137 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Ejection Mitigation  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...of the vehicle exterior. The minimum distance of 170 mm and 135 mm between...side of the figure shows these minimum distances for vertically-oriented targets...centers of the targets. If the minimum distance between the z axes of the...

2013-09-09

204

Environmental, health, and safety issues of sodium-sulfur batteries for electric and hybrid vehicles. Volume 4, In-vehicle safety  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report is the last of four volumes that identify and assess the environmental, health, and safety issues that may affect the commercial-scale use of sodium-sulfur (Na\\/S) battery technology as the energy source in electric and hybrid vehicles. The reports are intended to help the Electric and Hybrid Propulsion Division of the Office of Transportation Technologies in the US Department

1992-01-01

205

Mixed logit analysis of safety-belt use in single- and multi-occupant vehicles.  

PubMed

In this paper we demonstrate a modeling approach that can be used to better understand the use of safety belts in single- and multi-occupant vehicles, and the effect that vehicle, roadway and occupant characteristics have on usage rates. Using data from a roadside observational survey of safety-belt use in Indiana, a mixed (random parameters) logit model is estimated. Potentially interrelated choices of safety-belt use by drivers and front-seat passengers are examined. The approach we use also allows for the possibility that estimated model parameters can vary randomly across vehicle occupants to account for unobserved effects potentially relating to roadway characteristics, vehicle attributes, and driver behavior. Estimation findings indicate that the choices of safety-belt use involve a complex interaction of factors and that the effect of these factors can vary significantly across the population. Our results show that the mixed logit model can provide a much fuller understanding of the interaction of the numerous variables which correlate with safety-belt use than traditional discrete-outcome modeling approaches. PMID:18329393

Gkritza, Konstantina; Mannering, Fred L

2007-08-10

206

Motor Vehicle Safety - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus  

MedlinePLUS

... Japanese (???) Korean (???) Marshallese (kajin Majöl) Portuguese (português) Russian (???????) Somali (af Soomaali) Spanish (español) Ukrainian ( ... PDF Health Information Translations Return to top Portuguese (português) Safety with Car Seats and Booster Seats Segurança ...

207

U.S. Department of Energy -- Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity: Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Testing and Demonstration Activities  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA) tests plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) in closed track, dynamometer and onroad testing environments. The onroad testing includes the use of dedicated drivers on repeated urban and highway driving cycles that range from 10 to 200 miles, with recharging between each loop. Fleet demonstrations with onboard data collectors are also ongoing with PHEVs operating in several dozen states and Canadian Provinces, during which trips- and miles-per-charge, charging demand and energy profiles, and miles-per-gallon and miles-per-kilowatt-hour fuel use results are all documented, allowing an understanding of fuel use when vehicles are operated in charge depleting, charge sustaining, and mixed charge modes. The intent of the PHEV testing includes documenting the petroleum reduction potential of the PHEV concept, the infrastructure requirements, and operator recharging influences and profiles. As of May 2008, the AVTA has conducted track and dynamometer testing on six PHEV conversion models and fleet testing on 70 PHEVs representing nine PHEV conversion models. A total of 150 PHEVs will be in fleet testing by the end of 2008, all with onboard data loggers. The onroad testing to date has demonstrated 100+ miles per gallon results in mostly urban applications for approximately the first 40 miles of PHEV operations. The primary goal of the AVTA is to provide advanced technology vehicle performance benchmark data for technology modelers, research and development programs, and technology goal setters. The AVTA testing results also assist fleet managers in making informed vehicle purchase, deployment and operating decisions. The AVTA is part of DOE’s Vehicle Technologies Program. These AVTA testing activities are conducted by the Idaho National Laboratory and Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation, with Argonne National Laboratory providing dynamometer testing support. The proposed paper and presentation will discuss PHEV testing activities and results. INL/CON-08-14333

James E. Francfort; Donald Karner; John G. Smart

2009-05-01

208

A pilot trial of all-terrain vehicle safety messaging in a movie theatre  

Microsoft Academic Search

IntroductionAll terrain vehicle (ATV) injuries are increasing among rural children and adolescents. Methods to effectively promote ATV safety messages are not well described. The purpose of this study was to determine the feasibility of using a movie theatre as a venue for ATV injury prevention.MethodsA public service announcement on ATV safety was shown in a rural movie theatre in Arkansas,

J Graham; S Hope Mullins; B Miller; J Nixon; S Eoff; M Brann; M E Aitken

2010-01-01

209

Safety of compressed hydrogen fuel tanks: Leakage from stationary vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Compressed gas is one of the options for on-board storage of hydrogen in hydrogen-fueled vehicles. An assessment of the hazard posed by this method of storage is presented in this paper. Compressed hydrogen fuel tanks will operate under high (5000–10,000psi) pressure and will be subject to potential failures associated with pressure vessels. In the event of a failure, hydrogen will

Vivek P. Utgikar; Todd Thiesen

2005-01-01

210

Injury Severity, Vehicle Safety Features, and Intersection Crashes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: This article examines injury severity in crashes that occur within signalized intersections and identifies some factors that explain them.Method: It uses a random effect ordered logit model and an unbalanced longitudinal panel data for 303 intersections for one medium-size city.Results: Among its findings are 3% and 0.29% lower probabilities of sustaining evident and disabling injuries respectively when vehicle occupants

K. Obeng

2008-01-01

211

Comparison of advanced battery technologies for electric vehicles  

SciTech Connect

Battery technologies of different chemistries, manufacture and geometry were evaluated as candidates for use in Electric Vehicles (EV). The candidate batteries that were evaluated include four single cell and seven multi-cell modules representing four technologies: Lead-Acid, Nickel-Cadmium, Nickel-Metal Hydride and Zinc-Bromide. A standard set of testing procedures for electric vehicle batteries, based on industry accepted testing procedures, and any tests which were specific to individual battery types were used in the evaluations. The batteries were evaluated by conducting performance tests, and by subjecting them to cyclical loading, using a computer controlled charge--discharge cycler, to simulate typical EV driving cycles. Criteria for comparison of batteries were: performance, projected vehicle range, cost, and applicability to various types of EVs. The four battery technologies have individual strengths and weaknesses and each is suited to fill a particular application. None of the batteries tested can fill every EV application.

Dickinson, B.E.; Lalk, T.R. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Mechanical Engineering Dept.; Swan, D.H. [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States). Inst. of Transportation Studies

1993-12-31

212

Advanced transportation system study: Manned launch vehicle concepts for two way transportation system payloads to LEO. Program cost estimates document  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This report describes Rockwell International's cost analysis results of manned launch vehicle concepts for two way transportation system payloads to low earth orbit during the basic and option 1 period of performance for contract NAS8-39207, advanced transportation system studies. Vehicles analyzed include the space shuttle, personnel launch system (PLS) with advanced launch system (ALS) and national launch system (NLS) boosters, foreign launch vehicles, NLS-2 derived launch vehicles, liquid rocket booster (LRB) derived launch vehicle, and cargo transfer and return vehicle (CTRV).

Duffy, James B.

213

African partnerships for patient safety: a vehicle for enhancing patient safety across two continents. [corrected].  

PubMed

African Partnerships for Patient Safety (APPS) aims to develop sustainable partnerships between hospitals in Africa and Europe to create a network of beacon hospitals for patient safety. The three core APPS objectives are focused on building strong patient safety partnerships between hospitals in Africa and Europe, implementing patient safety improvements in each partnership hospital on 12 patient safety action areas, and facilitating spread of patient safety improvements. APPS is working with six first wave hospital partnerships and will capture and report learning from implementation. A range of APPS resources will shortly be available to hospitals working on patient safety systems. PMID:20411829

Syed, S B; Syed, Shamsuzzoha B; Gooden, R; Storr, J; Hightower, J D; Rutter, P; Bagheri Nejad, S; Lardner, A; Kelley, E; Pittet, D

2009-01-01

214

Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard No. 209 (Seat Belt Assemblies). Rose Manufacturing Company.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report contains the results of tests performed on one set of twelve (12) seat belt assemblies in accordance with Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard No. 209. This set of seat belts without retractors was subjected to the following tests: Web width a...

1970-01-01

215

Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard No. 209 (Seat Belt Assemblies). Jim Robins Company.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report contains the test data, results and conclusions of tests performed on one set of twelve (12) Type 1 seat belt assemblies for compliance to Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard No. 209. The set of Jim Robbins seat belts, model 3910 without retr...

1970-01-01

216

Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard No. 209 (Seat Belt Assemblies). Irvin Industries, Inc.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report contains the test data, results and conclusions of tests performed on one set of twelve (12) Type 1 seat belt assemblies for compliance to Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard No. 209. The set of seat belts without retractors was subjected to ...

1970-01-01

217

Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard No. 209 (Seat Belt Assemblies). Daal Seat Belts.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report contains the test data, results and conclusions of tests performed on one set of twelve (12) Type 1 seat belt assemblies for compliance to Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard No. 209. This set of seat belts without retractors was subjected to...

1970-01-01

218

Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard No. 209 (Seat Belt Assemblies). Beams Manufacturing Company.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report contains the results of tests performed on one set of twelve (12) seat belt assemblies in accordance with Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard No. 209. This set of seat belts without retractors was subjected to the following tests: Web width a...

1970-01-01

219

Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard No. 209 (Seat Belt Assemblies). Jim Robins Company.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report contains the test data, results and conclusions of tests performed on one set of twelve (12) Type 1 seat belt assemblies for compliance to Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard No. 209. The set of seat belts without retractors was subjected to ...

1970-01-01

220

Current status of environmental, health, and safety issues of lithium polymer electric vehicle batteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lithium solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) batteries are being investigated by researchers worldwide as a possible energy source for future electric vehicles (EV's). One of the main reasons for interest in lithium SPE battery systems is the potential safety features they offer as compared to lithium battery systems using inorganic and organic liquid electrolytes. However, the development of lithium SPE batteries

D. Corbus; C. J. Hammel

1995-01-01

221

All-Terrain Vehicle Safety and Use Patterns in Central Illinois Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Context: All-terrain vehicles' (ATVs) popularity and associated injuries among children are increasing in the United States. Currently, most known ATV use pattern data are obtained from injured youth and little documented data exist characterizing the typical ATV use patterns and safety practices among American children in general. Purpose: To…

Hafner, John W.; Hough, Scott M.; Getz, Marjorie A.; Whitehurst, Yvette; Pearl, Richard H.

2010-01-01

222

Evaluation methodology for federal motor vehicle safety standards. Volume 1: Executive summary  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results of a six month study to determine feasibility and appropriate evaluation schemes in a real world environment for four Federal motor vehicle safety standards are summarized: (1) fuel integrity; (2) occupant protection; (3) side door strength; and (4) exterior protection. Based on a review of the literature, background material, specifications, compliance tests, and available evaluation methodologies, feasibility was

R. L. Braun; R. H. Cronin; N. A. David; A. V. Fend; J. R. Norman

1977-01-01

223

All-Terrain Vehicle Safety and Use Patterns in Central Illinois Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Context: All-terrain vehicles' (ATVs) popularity and associated injuries among children are increasing in the United States. Currently, most known ATV use pattern data are obtained from injured youth and little documented data exist characterizing the typical ATV use patterns and safety practices among American children in general. Purpose: To…

Hafner, John W.; Hough, Scott M.; Getz, Marjorie A.; Whitehurst, Yvette; Pearl, Richard H.

2010-01-01

224

Integrated Vehicle-Based Safety Systems: Heavy-Truck Field Operational Test Methodology and Results Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document presents the methodology and results from the heavy-truck field operational test conducted as part of the Integrated Vehicle-Based Safety Systems program. These findings are the result of analyses performed by the University of Michigan Tran...

A. D. Blankespoor C. B. Winkler D. J. LaBlanc D. S. Funkhouser J. R. Sayer M. L. Buonarosa S. Bao S. E. Bogard

2010-01-01

225

A Fleet Monitoring System for Advanced Tracking of Commercial Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many commercial off-the-shelf fleet telematics systems can provide basic tracking & tracing functionalities for vehicle fleets. These systems, however, require that dispatchers manually identify any discrepancies between the actual data available in the fleet telematics system and the planned data in the logistics system. Furthermore, actual data such as arrival and departure times at customer locations must be transferred manually

Asvin GoelandVolker Gruhn; Volker Gruhn

2006-01-01

226

Advanced metallic thermal protection systems for reusable launch vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Metallic thermal protection systems are a key technology that may help achieve the goal of reducing the cost of space access. A study was performed to develop an understanding of the key factors that govern the performance of metallic thermal protection systems for reusable launch vehicles. Multi-disciplinary background information was assembled and reviewed critically to provide a basis for development

Max Leon Blosser

2000-01-01

227

Advanced control strategy of parallel hybrid low emission electric vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, the hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) system that consists of a mechanical engine, electrical motor and batteries has gained increasing interest because of the inherent drawbacks of the diesel engine (such as black smoke, nitrogen oxide gas, noise, etc.). In an HEV system, without any external and additional recharging of batteries, an efficient driving characteristic can be easily obtained through

Jung-Ik Ha; Euh-Suh Koo; Hyeoun-Dong Lee; Joohn-Sheok Kim; Seung-Ki Sul

1996-01-01

228

Advanced electrofuel-batteries plus for electric vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The electric drive for transportation did not just happen, electricity has been the most efficient fuel in common use for over one hundred years. Batteries have always been the most practical way to supply electricity to a moving vehicle without the limitations of a trolley or hot rail. Driving range on battery power has been the main deterrent impeding the

C. Ellers

1996-01-01

229

41 CFR 102-34.250 - Do Federal employees in Government motor vehicles have to use all safety devices and follow all...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Federal employees in Government motor vehicles have to use all safety devices...REGULATION PERSONAL PROPERTY 34-MOTOR VEHICLE MANAGEMENT Official Use of Government Motor Vehicles § 102-34.250 Do...

2013-01-01

230

76 FR 45436 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Electric-Powered Vehicles; Electrolyte Spillage and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...such as the hydrogen tanks and hydrogen tubes...the electric energy storage/conversion system...such as the hydrogen tanks and hydrogen tubes...the electric energy storage/conversion system...system integrity of compressed natural gas vehicles...filling the fuel tank with...

2011-07-29

231

Progress on advanced dc and ac induction drives for electric vehicles  

SciTech Connect

Progress in the development of complete electric vehicle propulsion systems is described, and the results of tests on the Road Load Simulator of two such system representative of advanced dc and ac drive technology are given. One is the system used in the DOE's ETV-1 integrated test vehicle which consists of a shunt-wound dc traction motor under microprocessor control using a transistorized controller. The motor drives the vehicle through a fixed ratio transmission. The second system, under development by the Eaton Corporation, uses an ac induction motor controlled by a transistorized pulse-width modulated inverter which drives through a two-speed automatically shifted transmission. The inverter and transmission both operate under the control of a microprocessor. The characteristics of these systems are also compared with the propulsion system technology available in vehicles being manufactured at the inception of the DOE program and with an advanced, highly integrated propulsion system upon which technology development was recently initiated.

Schwartz, H.J.

1982-01-01

232

The impact of improved vehicle design on highway safety  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a framework for evaluating the safety of automobile designs in terms of likelihood of accident occurrence and severity of likely injuries sustained. Fault-tree analysis is utilized to model interacting relationships between causative factors that affect accident occurrence. A multiattribute injury model based on harm measures obtained from the National Accident Sampling System Database is presented to describe

J. S. Eisele; Y. Y. Haimes; N. J. Garber; D. Li; J. H. Lambert; P. Kuzminski; M. Chowdhury

1996-01-01

233

Advisor 2.0: A Second-Generation Advanced Vehicle Simulator for Systems Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The National Renewable Energy Laboratory has recently publicly released its second-generation advanced vehicle simulator called ADVISOR 2.0. This software program was initially developed four years ago, and after several years of in-house usage and evolution, the tool is now available to the public through a new vehicle systems analysis World Wide Web page. ADVISOR has been applied to many different

K. Wipke; M. Cuddy; D. Bharathan; S. Burch; V. Johnson; A. Markel; S. Sprik

1999-01-01

234

U.S. Department of Energy FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies Program Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity Federal Fleet Use of Electric Vehicles  

SciTech Connect

Per Executive Order 13031, “Federal Alternative Fueled Vehicle Leadership,” the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity provided $998,300 in incremental funding to support the deployment of 220 electric vehicles in 36 Federal fleets. The 145 electric Ford Ranger pickups and 75 electric Chrysler EPIC (Electric Powered Interurban Commuter) minivans were operated in 14 states and the District of Columbia. The 220 vehicles were driven an estimated average of 700,000 miles annually. The annual estimated use of the 220 electric vehicles contributed to 39,000 fewer gallons of petroleum being used by Federal fleets and the reduction in emissions of 1,450 pounds of smog-forming pollution. Numerous attempts were made to obtain information from all 36 fleets. Information responses were received from 25 fleets (69% response rate), as some Federal fleet personnel that were originally involved with the Incremental Funding Project were transferred, retired, or simply could not be found. In addition, many of the Department of Defense fleets indicated that they were supporting operations in Iraq and unable to provide information for the foreseeable future. It should be noted that the opinions of the 25 fleets is based on operating 179 of the 220 electric vehicles (81% response rate). The data from the 25 fleets is summarized in this report. Twenty-two of the 25 fleets reported numerous problems with the vehicles, including mechanical, traction battery, and charging problems. Some of these problems, however, may have resulted from attempting to operate the vehicles beyond their capabilities. The majority of fleets reported that most of the vehicles were driven by numerous drivers each week, with most vehicles used for numerous trips per day. The vehicles were driven on average from 4 to 50 miles per day on a single charge. However, the majority of the fleets reported needing gasoline vehicles for missions beyond the capabilities of the electric vehicles, usually because of range limitations. Twelve fleets reported experiencing at least one charge depletion while driving, whereas nine fleets reported not having this problem. Twenty-four of the 25 fleets responded that the electric vehicles were easy to use and 22 fleets indicated that the payload was adequate. Thirteen fleets reported charging problems; eleven fleets reported no charging problems. Nine fleets reported the vehicles broke down while driving; 14 fleets reported no onroad breakdowns. Some of the breakdowns while driving, however, appear to include normal flat tires and idiot lights coming on. In spite of operation and charging problems, 59% of the fleets responded that they were satisfied, very satisfied, or extremely satisfied with the performance of the electric vehicles. As of September 2003, 74 of the electric vehicles were still being used and 107 had been returned to the manufacturers because the leases had concluded.

Mindy Kirpatrick; J. E. Francfort

2003-11-01

235

76 FR 11418 - Rear Visibility; Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard, Rearview Mirrors; Federal Motor Vehicle...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...the only technology available with the ability to comply with this proposal would be a rear...involving children, persons with disabilities, the elderly, and other pedestrians...response to the Cameron Gulbransen Kids Transportation Safety Act...

2011-03-02

236

Experiments toward non-contact safety standards for automated industrial vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The performance evaluation of an obstacle detection and segmentation algorithm for Automated Guided Vehicle (AGV) navigation in factory-like environments using a new 3D real-time range camera is the subject of this paper. Our approach expands on the US ASME B56.5 Safety Standard, which now allows for non-contact safety sensors, by performing tests on objects specifically sized in both the US and the British Safety Standards. These successful tests placed the recommended, as well as smaller, material-covered and sized objects on the vehicle path for static measurement. The segmented (mapped) obstacles were then verified in range to the objects and object size using simultaneous, absolute measurements obtained using a relatively accurate 2D scanning laser rangefinder. These 3D range cameras are expected to be relatively inexpensive and used indoors and possibly used outdoors for a vast amount of mobile robot applications building on experimental results explained in this paper.

Bostelman, Roger; Hong, Tsai; Madhavan, Raj

2005-05-01

237

Advanced batteries for electric vehicle applications: Nontechnical summary  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper provides an overview of the performance characteristics of the most prominent batteries under development for electric vehicles (EV's) and compares these characteristics to the USABC Mid-Term and Long-Term criteria, as well as to typical vehicle-related battery requirements. Most of the battery performance information was obtained from independent tests, conducted using simulated driving power profiles, for DOE and EPRI at Argonne National Laboratory. The EV batteries are categorized as near-term, mid-term, and long-term technologies based on their relative development status, as well as our estimate of their potential availability as commercial EV batteries. Also, the performance capabilities generally increase in going from the near-term to the mid-term and on to the long-term technologies. To date, the USABC has chosen to fund a few selected mid-term and long-term battery technologies.

Henriksen, G. L.

238

Advances in the Use of Tocols as Drug Delivery Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

There has been increasing interest in recent years in the drug delivery applications of tocols and their derivatives. Their\\u000a biocompatibility and potential to deliver both poorly soluble and water-soluble drugs make tocols attractive as drug delivery\\u000a vehicles. This review article will focus primarily on topical, oral, and parenteral drug administration using tocols, although\\u000a other routes of delivery such as pulmonary

Panayiotis P. Constantinides; Jihong Han; Stanley S. Davis

2006-01-01

239

Commercial vehicles and road safety in Pakistan: exploring high-risk attributes among drivers and vehicles.  

PubMed

Road traffic injuries are on the rise in developing countries with a disproportionately high number of crashes involving commercial vehicles. Baseline information on risk factors is necessary to develop targeted prevention programmes. A survey of commercial drivers was conducted at the largest bus and truck station in Rawalpindi, Pakistan. Structured interviews elicited information from 857 drivers on their socio-demographics, high-risk driving behaviours, fatigue, use of drugs while driving, vehicle maintenance and health conditions, as well as crash involvement. A binary logistic regression analysis was used to investigate the factors associated with crash involvement in the last five years. Overall, 92 (11.2%) drivers reported having had a road crash in the last 5 years. Factors independently associated with the occurrence of crashes were alcohol use (OR 2.2, 95% CI 1.1-4.4), poor vehicle maintenance (OR 3.4, 95% CI 1.7-7.01) and lack of seat belt use (OR 2.7, 95% CI 1.3-5.6). The high prevalence of high-risk attributes in the study population indicates a great need for targeted risk prevention. PMID:23092513

Mir, Mohammed Umer; Razzak, Junaid Abdul; Ahmad, Khabir

2012-10-24

240

Correlates of motor-vehicle safety behaviors in working populations.  

PubMed

To determine the prevalence and correlates in a working population of failure to wear seat belts, drinking and driving, and speeding, we examined the responses of 18,046 health-profile participants. Twenty-four percent of subjects reported failure to wear seat belts at least 80% of the time. Twenty-two percent reported speeding at least 10 miles per hour over the speed limit when traffic permits. Twenty-three percent reported traveling at least once a month with a driver who had two or more drinks. Correlates of high-risk behaviors included male gender and youth. Educational attainment was inversely associated with seat-belt nonuse but directly related to speeding and drinking/driving. Our findings suggest a substantial opportunity to help employees lower important risks for serious motor-vehicle injury. PMID:1865251

Knight, K K; Fielding, J E; Goetzel, R Z

1991-06-01

241

Safety evaluation of RTG launches aboard Titan IV launch vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The analytical tool used to evaluate accidents aboard a Titan IV launch vehicle involving a Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG) is discussed. The Launch Accident Scenario Evaluation Program-Titan IV version (LASEP-T) uses a Monte Carlo approach to determine the response of an RTG to various threatening environments. The threatening environments arise from a complex interplay of probabilistic and deterministic processes, and are therefore parameterized by a set of random variables with probability distributions. The assessment of the RTG response to a given environment is based on both empirical data and theoretical modeling. Imbedding detailed, complex response models into the LASEP-T calculation was not practical. Simpler response models have been constructed to capture both the inherent variability due to the phenomenology of the accident scenario along with the uncertainty of predicting response behavior. The treatment of variability and uncertainty as it pertains to the launch accident evaluation of RTG response will be discussed.

Rosko, Robert J.; Loughin, Stephen

1997-01-01

242

Safety evaluation of RTG launches aboard Titan IV launch vehicles  

SciTech Connect

The analytical tool used to evaluate accidents aboard a Titan IV launch vehicle involving a Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG) is discussed. The Launch Accident Scenario Evaluation Program-Titan IV version (LASEP-T) uses a Monte Carlo approach to determine the response of an RTG to various threatening environments. The threatening environments arise from a complex interplay of probabilistic and deterministic processes, and are therefore parameterized by a set of random variables with probability distributions. The assessment of the RTG response to a given environment is based on both empirical data and theoretical modeling. Imbedding detailed, complex response models into the LASEP-T calculation was not practical. Simpler response models have been constructed to capture both the inherent variability due to the phenomenology of the accident scenario along with the uncertainty of predicting response behavior. The treatment of variability and uncertainty as it pertains to the launch accident evaluation of RTG response will be discussed.

Rosko, Robert J.; Loughin, Stephen [Lockheed Martin Missiles and Space P.O. Box 8555 Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19101 (United States)

1997-01-10

243

Advanced Reactor Safety Research Division. Quarterly progress report, April 1-June 30, 1980  

SciTech Connect

The Advanced Reactor Safety Research Programs Quarterly Progress Report describes current activities and technical progress in the programs at Brookhaven National Laboratory sponsored by the USNRC Division of Reactor Safety Research. The projects reported each quarter are the following: HTGR safety evaluation, SSC Code Development, LMFBR Safety Experiments, and Fast Reactor Safety Code Validation.

Romano, A.J.

1980-01-01

244

Environmental, health, and safety issues of sodium-sulfur batteries for electric and hybrid vehicles  

SciTech Connect

This report is the last of four volumes that identify and assess the environmental, health, and safety issues that may affect the commercial-scale use of sodium-sulfur (Na/S) battery technology as the energy source in electric and hybrid vehicles. The reports are intended to help the Electric and Hybrid Propulsion Division of the Office of Transportation Technologies in the US Department of Energy (DOE/EHP) determine the direction of its research, development, and demonstration (RD D) program for Na/S battery technology. The reports review the status of Na/S battery RD D and identify potential hazards and risks that may require additional research or that may affect the design and use of Na/S batteries. This volume covers the in-vehicle safety issues of electric vehicles powered by Na/S batteries. The report is based on a review of the literature and on discussions with experts at DOE, national laboratories and agencies, and private industry. It has three major goals: (1) to identify the unique hazards associated with electric vehicle (EV) use; (2) to describe the existing standards, regulations, and guidelines that are or could be applicable to these hazards; and (3) to discuss the adequacy of the existing requirements in addressing the safety concerns of EVs.

Mark, J

1992-11-01

245

Development of test methodologies for determining the safety of wheelchair headrest systems during vehicle transport.  

PubMed

For wheelchair users unable to transfer to a vehicle seat, the wheelchair serves as a means of mobility and postural support during activities of daily living and as a seating support in a vehicle. The performance of commercially available adaptive seating components in a dynamic or impact situation, as well as their effect on the safety of the user, is unknown and should be determined. The main objective of the project was to develop a test methodology to statically determine the crashworthiness of wheelchair headrest systems and show the efficacy of that methodology by applying it to several commercially available headrest systems. The methodology was based on Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard (FMVSS) test conditions, which use static test procedures to ensure that vehicle head restraints will perform adequately during actual crash conditions. The procedure developed to evaluate the headrests gave informative and repeatable results. The tests performed calculated the energy associated with a critical deformation of the headrest under quasi-static conditions. The results were used to determine the level of safety provided by the devices and to recommend design improvements. The headrests tested exhibited similar modes of deformation due to bending of a vertical adjustment bar, and several devices were determined to be capable of providing adequate restraint in an impact situation. PMID:8823676

Karg, P; Sprigle, S

1996-07-01

246

Analyzing the influence of median cross-section design on highway safety using vehicle dynamics simulations.  

PubMed

Although vehicle dynamics simulations have long been used in vehicle design and crash reconstruction, their use for highway design is rare. This paper investigates the safety of highway medians through iterative simulations of off-road median encroachments. The commercially available software CarSim was used to simulate over one hundred thousand encroachments, representing the entire passenger vehicle fleet and a wide range of encroachment angles, departure speeds, steering inputs, and braking inputs. Each individual simulation output was then weighted using data from previous studies to reflect the probability of each specific accident scenario occurring in a real-life median encroachment. Results of this analysis illustrate the relative influence of median cross-section geometry on the resulting accident outcomes. The simulations indicate that the overall safety of a highway median depends on the occurrence of both vehicle rollover and median crossover events, and the cross-section shape, slope, and width are all shown to greatly affect each of these incidents. An evaluation of the simulation results was conducted with vehicle trajectories from previous experimental crash tests. Further assessment of the aggregate simulation results to actual crash data was achieved through comparison with several databases of crash statistics. Both efforts showed a strong agreement between the simulations and the real-life crash data. PMID:20728628

Stine, Jason S; Hamblin, Bridget C; Brennan, Sean N; Donnell, Eric T

2010-06-17

247

Development of advanced battery systems for vehicle applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Advanced Battery Business Unit (ABBU) of Johnson Controls, Inc. is developing several promising advanced battery technologies including flow-through lead-acid, zinc\\/bromine, and nickel hydrogen. The flow-through lead-acid technology, which is being developed under Department of Energy (DOE) sponsorship, is progressing towards the fabrication of a 39 kWh battery system. Recent efforts have focused on achieving the aggressive specific energy goal

J. P. Zagrodnik; M. D. Eskra; M. G. Andrew; W. O. Gentry

1989-01-01

248

Well-to-wheel energy use and greenhouse gas emissions of advanced fuel/vehicle systems North American analysis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

There are differing, yet strongly held views among the various 'stakeholders' in the advanced fuel/propulsion system debate. In order for the introduction of advanced technology vehicles and their associated fuels to be successful, it seems clear that fou...

M. Wang

2001-01-01

249

Foundational development of an advanced nuclear reactor integrated safety code.  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the activities and results of a Sandia LDRD project whose objective was to develop and demonstrate foundational aspects of a next-generation nuclear reactor safety code that leverages advanced computational technology. The project scope was directed towards the systems-level modeling and simulation of an advanced, sodium cooled fast reactor, but the approach developed has a more general applicability. The major accomplishments of the LDRD are centered around the following two activities. (1) The development and testing of LIME, a Lightweight Integrating Multi-physics Environment for coupling codes that is designed to enable both 'legacy' and 'new' physics codes to be combined and strongly coupled using advanced nonlinear solution methods. (2) The development and initial demonstration of BRISC, a prototype next-generation nuclear reactor integrated safety code. BRISC leverages LIME to tightly couple the physics models in several different codes (written in a variety of languages) into one integrated package for simulating accident scenarios in a liquid sodium cooled 'burner' nuclear reactor. Other activities and accomplishments of the LDRD include (a) further development, application and demonstration of the 'non-linear elimination' strategy to enable physics codes that do not provide residuals to be incorporated into LIME, (b) significant extensions of the RIO CFD code capabilities, (c) complex 3D solid modeling and meshing of major fast reactor components and regions, and (d) an approach for multi-physics coupling across non-conformal mesh interfaces.

Clarno, Kevin (Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN); Lorber, Alfred Abraham; Pryor, Richard J.; Spotz, William F.; Schmidt, Rodney Cannon; Belcourt, Kenneth (Ktech Corporation, Albuquerque, NM); Hooper, Russell Warren; Humphries, Larry LaRon

2010-02-01

250

Failure prediction for advanced crashworthiness of transportation vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the past two decades explicit finite element crashworthiness codes have become an indispensable tool for the design of crash and passenger safety systems. These codes have proven remarkably reliable for the prediction of ductile metal structures that deform plastically; however, they are not reliable for joining systems and materials such as high strength steels, plastics and low ductility lightweight

Anthony K. Pickett; Thomas Pyttel; Fabrice Payen; Franck Lauro; Nikica Petrinic; Heinz Werner; Jens Christlein

2004-01-01

251

A Trial of an All-Terrain Vehicle Safety Education Video in a Community-Based Hunter Education Program  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: All-terrain vehicle (ATV) injury is an increasingly serious problem, particularly among rural youth. There have been repeated calls for ATV safety education, but little study regarding optimal methods or content for such education. The purpose of this study was to determine if an ATV safety video was effective in increasing ATV safety

Williams, Robert S.; Graham, James; Helmkamp, James C.; Dick, Rhonda; Thompson, Tonya; Aitken, Mary E.

2011-01-01

252

Safety evaluation of RTG launches aboard Titan IV launch vehicles  

SciTech Connect

The analytical tool used to evaluate accidents aboard a Titan IV launch vehicle involving a Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG) is discussed. The Launch Accident Scenario Evaluation Program-Titan IV version (LASEP-T) uses a Monte Carlo approach to determine the response of an RTG to various threatening environments. The threatening environments arise from a complex interplay of probabilistic and deterministic processes, and are therefore parameterized by a set of random variables with probability distributions. The assessment of the RTG response to a given environment is based on both empirical data and theoretical modeling. Imbedding detailed, complex response models into the LASEP-T calculation was not practical. Simpler response models have been constructed to capture both the inherent variability due to the phenomenology of the accident scenario along with the uncertainty of predicting response behavior. The treatment of variability and uncertainty as it pertains to the launch accident evaluation of RTG response will be discussed. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

Rosko, R.J.; Loughin, S. [Lockheed Martin Missiles and Space P.O. Box 8555 Philadelphia, Pennsylvania19101 (United States)

1997-01-01

253

Rating the overall secondary safety of vehicles from real world crash data: the Australian and New Zealand Total Secondary Safety Index.  

PubMed

Various systems for rating secondary safety of particular makes and models of vehicles have been developed internationally. These measures generally evaluate crashworthiness (the ability of the vehicle to protect its own occupants in the event of a crash) separately from aggressivity (the harm a vehicle is liable to impose on other road users into which it crashes). This paper describes an approach using Australian and New Zealand data that combines these two facets of secondary safety into one 'Total Secondary Safety Index' estimated from real world crash outcomes. The Index estimates the risk of death or serious injury to all key road users in crashes involving light passenger vehicles across the full range of crash types. This paper describes the rationale and method for producing this Index, together with some estimates for common Australian and New Zealand makes and models of light passenger vehicles. PMID:21376849

Newstead, Stuart V; Keall, Michael D; Watson, Linda M

2010-11-19

254

Final report for the Advanced Natural Gas Vehicle Project  

SciTech Connect

The project objective was to develop the technologies necessary to prototype a dedicated compressed natural gas (CNG) powered, mid-size automobile with operational capabilities comparable to gasoline automobiles. A system approach was used to design and develop the engine, gas storage system and vehicle packaging. The 2.4-liter DOHC engine was optimized for natural gas operation with high-compression pistons, hardened exhaust valves, a methane-specific catalytic converter and multi-point gaseous injection. The chassis was repackaging to increase space for fuel storage with a custom-designed, cast-aluminum, semi-trailing arm rear suspension system, a revised flat trunk sheet-metal floorpan and by equipping the car with run-flat tires. An Integrated Storage system (ISS) was developed using all-composite, small-diameter cylinders encapsulated within a high-strength fiberglass shell with impact-absorbing foam. The prototypes achieved the target goals of a city/highway driving range of 300 miles, ample trunk capacity, gasoline vehicle performance and ultra low exhaust emissions.

John Wozniak

1999-02-16

255

Making the Message Meaningful: A Qualitative Assessment of Media Promoting All-Terrain Vehicle Safety  

PubMed Central

Background Millions of all-terrain vehicles (ATV) are used around the world for recreation by both adults and youth. This increase in use has led to a substantial increase in the number of injuries and fatalities each year. Effective strategies for reducing this incidence are clearly needed; however, minimal research exists regarding effective educational interventions. Objective This study was designed to assess rural ATV riders’ preferences for and assessment of safety messages. Methods Thirteen focus group discussions with youth and adult ATV riders were conducted. Eighty-eight formative research participants provided feedback on existing ATV safety materials, which was used to develop more useful ATV safety messages. Sixty evaluative focus group participants critiqued the materials developed for this project. Results Existing ATV safety materials are not effective. One reason is because they do not address the content or design needs of the target population. ATV riders want educational and action-oriented safety messages that inform youth and adult riders about their responsibilities to learn, educate, and implement safety behaviors (e.g., appropriate-sized ATV, safety gear, solo riding, speed limits, riding locations). Additionally, messages should be clear, realistic, visually appealing, and easily accessible. Newly designed ATV safety materials using the acronym TRIPSS (Training, Ride Off-Road, Impairment, Plan Ahead, Safety Gear, Single Rider) meets ATV riders’ safety messaging needs. Conclusions To best reach a target population, it is crucial to include them in the development and assessment of safety messages. Germane to this particular study, ATV riders provided essential information for creating useful ATV safety materials.

Brann, Maria; Mullins, Samantha Hope; Miller, Beverly K.; Graham, James; Aitken, Mary E.

2013-01-01

256

Environmental, health, and safety issues of sodium-sulfur batteries for electric and hybrid vehicles. Volume 1, Cell and battery safety  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report is the first of four volumes that identify and assess the environmental, health, and safety issues involved in using sodium-sulfur (Na\\/S) battery technology as the energy source in electric and hybrid vehicles that may affect the commercialization of Na\\/S batteries. This and the other reports on recycling, shipping, and vehicle safety are intended to help the Electric and

Ohi

1992-01-01

257

Advances in chitosan-based drug delivery vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Within the past few years, chitosan-based drug delivery vehicles have become some of the most attractive to be studied. In contrast to all other polysaccharides, chitosan has demonstrated its unique characteristics for drug delivery platforms, including its active primary amino groups for chemical modification, simple and mild preparation methods for the encapsulation of biomolecules or drugs, mucoadhesion to facilitate transport across mucosal barriers and so on. In this review, an overview of the various types of chitosan-based drug delivery systems is provided, with special focus on polymeric drug conjugates and drug nanocarriers. The first part of the review is concerned with the development and applications of polymeric chitosan-drug conjugates. Then the chitosan-based nanocarrier systems as well as their preparation methods and applications are further discussed.

Hu, Liming; Sun, Yun; Wu, Yan

2013-03-01

258

Laboratory evaluation of advanced battery technologies for electric vehicle applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During 1988, battery technology evaluations were performed for the Department of Energy and Electric Power Research Institute at the Argonne Analysis and Diagnostic Laboratory. Cells and multicell modules from four developers were examined to determine their performance and life characteristics for electric vehicle propulsion applications. The results provide an interim measure of the progress being made in battery R and D programs, a comparison of battery technologies, and a source of basic data for modeling and continuing R and D. This paper summarizes the performance and life characterizations of twelve single cells and six 3- to 24-cell modules that encompass four technologies (Na/S, Ni/Fe, lead-acid, and Fe/Air).

Deluca, W. H.; Kulaga, J. E.; Hogrefe, R. L.; Tummilo, A. F.; Webster, C. E.

1989-03-01

259

Laboratory evaluation of advanced battery technologies for electric vehicle applications  

SciTech Connect

During 1988, battery technology evaluations were performed for the Department of Energy and Electric Power Research Institute at the Argonne Analysis and Diagnostic Laboratory. Cells and multicell modules from four developers were examined to determine their performance and life characteristics for electric vehicle propulsion applications. the results provide an interim measure of the progress being made in battery R and D programs, a comparison of battery technologies, and a source of basic data for modeling and continuing R and D. This paper summarizes the performance and life characterizations of twelve single cells and six 3- to 24-cell modules that encompass four technologies (Na/S, Ni/Fe, lead-acid, and Fe/Air).

DeLuca, W.H.; Kulaga, J.E.; Hogrefe, R.L.; Tummillo, A.F.; Webster, C.E.

1989-01-01

260

Laboratory evaluation of advanced battery technologies for electric vehicle applications  

SciTech Connect

During 1988, battery technology evaluations were performed for the Department of Energy and Electric Power Research Institute at the Argonne Analysis and Diagnostic Laboratory. Cells and multicell modules from four developers were examined to determine their performance and life characteristics for electric vehicle propulsion applications. The results provide an interim measure of the progress being made in battery RandD programs, a comparison of battery technologies, and a source of basic data for modeling and continuing RandD. This paper summarizes the performance and life characterizations of twelve single cells and six 3- to 24-cell modules that encompass four technologies (Na/S, Ni/Fe, lead-acid, and Fe/Air). 4 figs., 1 tab.

DeLuca, W.H.; Kulaga, J.E.; Hogrefe, R.L.; Tummilo, A.F.; Webster, C.E.

1989-01-01

261

Battery technology for electric and hybrid vehicles: Expert views about prospects for advancement  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we present the results of an expert elicitation on the prospects for advances in battery technology for electric and hybrid vehicles. We find disagreement among the experts on a wide range of topics, including the need for government funding, the probability of getting batteries with Lithium Metal anodes to work, and the probability of building safe Lithium-ion

Erin D. Baker; Haewon Chon; Jeffrey M. Keisler

2010-01-01

262

Biconic Cargo Return Vehicle with an Advanced Recovery System. Volume 1: Conceptual Design.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The conceptual design of the biconic Cargo Return Vehicle (CRV) is presented. The CRV will be able to meet all of the Space Station Freedom (SSF's) resupply needs. Worth note is the absence of a backup recovery chute in case of Advanced Recovery System (A...

1990-01-01

263

NREL's Hydrogen-Powered Bus Serves as Showcase for Advanced Vehicle Technologies (AVT) (Brochure)  

SciTech Connect

Brochure describes the hydrogen-powered internal combustion engine (H2ICE) shuttle bus at NREL. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is funding the lease of the bus from Ford to demonstrate market-ready advanced technology vehicles to visitors at NREL.

Not Available

2010-08-01

264

Analytical modeling of rail vehicle safety and comfort in short radius curved tracks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study deals with the modeling of rail vehicles' behavior when traveling in curves of short radius. Based on the symmetry of the vehicle and on the nature of the motion, we show that the study of the system behavior can be reduced to the quasi static study of a quarter. We propose in this work, an analytical model able to describe the safety and the comfort by determining derailment and creep forces. The developed model is validated using the software ADAMS and results from the bibliography. The developed model can be easily used to optimize the rail vehicles design and the sensitivity analyses of its performance. To cite this article: M. Nejlaoui et al., C. R. Mecanique 337 (2009).

Nejlaoui, Mohamed; Affi, Zouhaier; Houidi, Ajmi; Romdhane, Lotfi

2009-05-01

265

A new method to evaluate future impact of vehicle safety technology in Sweden.  

PubMed

In the design of a safe road transport system there is a need to better understand the safety challenges lying ahead. One way of doing that is to evaluate safety technology with retrospective analysis of crashes. However, by using retros- pective data there is the risk of adapting safety innovations to scenarios irrelevant in the future. Also, challenges arise as safety interventions do not act alone but are rather interacting components in a complex road transport system. The objective of this study was therefore to facilitate the prioritizing of road safety measures by developing and applying a new method to consider possible impact of future vehicle safety technology. The key point was to project the chain of events leading to a crash today into the crashes for a given time in the future. Assumptions on implementation on safety technologies were made and these assump- tions were applied on the crashes of today. It was estimated which crashes would be prevented and the residual was analyzed to identify the characteristics of future crashes. The Swedish Transport Administration's in-depth studies of fatal crashes from 2010 involving car passengers (n=156) were used. This study estimated that the number of killed car occupant would be reduced with 53 percent from the year 2010 to 2020. Through this new method, valuable information regarding the characteristic of the future crashes was found. The results of this study showed that it was possible to evaluate future impact of vehicle safety technology if detailed and representative crash data is available. PMID:23625572

Strandroth, Johan; Sternlund, Simon; Tingvall, Claes; Johansson, Roger; Rizzi, Matteo; Kullgren, Anders

2012-10-01

266

Impact of Pay-at-the-Pump on Safety Through Enhanced Vehicle Fuel Efficiency  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pay-at-the-Pump (PATP) is a proposal for replacing the lump-sum payment of auto insurance by a system of surcharge on gasoline price. This study examines the main argument made against PATP— namely, that by stimulating the demand for fuel-efficient vehicles, PATP results in a drastic deterioration in highway safety. The study finds the evidence does not support this argument. Moreover, if

J. Daniel Khazzoom

1997-01-01

267

Environmental, health, and safety issues of sodium-sulfur batteries for electric and hybrid vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report is the last of four volumes that identify and assess the environmental, health, and safety issues that may affect the commercial-scale use of sodium-sulfur (Na\\/S) battery technology as the energy source in electric and hybrid vehicles. The reports are intended to help the Electric and Hybrid Propulsion Division of the Office of Transportation Technologies in the US Department

1992-01-01

268

Performance of a Time-of-Flight Range Camera for Intelligent Vehicle Safety Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

A variety of safety-enhancing automobile features can be enabled by microsystems that can sense and analyze the dynamic 3D\\u000a environment inside and outside the vehicle. It is desirable to directly sense the 3D shape of the scene, since the appearance\\u000a of objects in a 2D image is confounded by illumination conditions, surface materials, and object orientation. To overcome\\u000a the disadvantages

Stephen Hsu; Sunil Acharya; Abbas Rafii; Richard New

269

Preliminary safety analysis of frontal collision avoidance systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Advanced vehicle control and safety systems (AVCSS) involve several safety critical functions such as vehicle longitudinal and lateral control. INRETS (French Institute of Research in the Transports and Their Safety) and California PATH (Partners for Advanced Transit and Highways) of University of California at Berkeley collaborated to set up a common approach for developing and validating a safe operational system.

E. Miloudi; E. Koursi; Ching-Yao Chan; Wei-Bin Zhang

2000-01-01

270

Evaluation of the benefits of vehicle safety technology: the MUNDS study.  

PubMed

Real-world retrospective evaluation of the safety benefits of new integrated safety technologies is hampered by the lack of sufficient data to assess early reliable benefits. This MUNDS study set out to examine if a "prospective" case-control meta-analysis had the potential to provide more rapid and rigorous analyses of vehicle and infrastructure safety improvements. To examine the validity of the approach, an analysis of the effectiveness of ESC using a consistent analytic strategy across 6 European and Australasian databases was undertaken. It was hypothesised that the approach would be valid if the results of the MUNDS analysis were consistent with those published earlier (this would confirm the suitability of the MUNDS approach). The findings confirm the hypothesis and also found stronger and more robust findings across the range of crash-types, road conditions, vehicle sizes and speed zones than previous. The study recommends that while a number of limitations were identified with the findings that need be addressed in future research, the MUNDS approach nevertheless should be adopted widely for the benefit of all vehicle occupants. PMID:23598087

Fildes, Brian; Keall, Michael; Thomas, Pete; Parkkari, Kalle; Pennisi, Lucia; Tingvall, Claes

2013-03-13

271

Safety Changes in the US Vehicle Fleet since Model Year 1990, Based on NASS Data.  

PubMed

Based on the National Automotive Sampling System Crashworthiness Data System since the 1988-1992 model years, there has been a reduction in the MAIS 3+ injury rate and the Mean HARM for all crash modes. The largest improvement in vehicle safety has been in rollovers. There was an increase in the rollover injury rate in the 1993-1998 model year period, but a reduction since then. When comparing vehicles of the model year 1993 to 1998 with later model vehicles, the most profound difference was the reduction of rollover frequency for SUV's - down more than 20% when compared to other crash modes. When considering only model years since 2002 the rollover frequency reduction was nearly 40%. A 26% reduction in the rate of moderate and serious injuries for all drivers in rollovers was observed for the model years later than 1998. The overall belt use rate for drivers of late model vehicles with HARM weighted injuries was 62% - up from 54% in earlier model vehicles. However, in rollover crashes, the same belt use rate lagged at 54%. PMID:23169134

Eigen, Ana Maria; Digges, Kennerly; Samaha, Randa Radwan

2012-01-01

272

Using in-depth investigations to identify transportation safety issues for wheelchair-seated occupants of motor vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

In-depth investigations of motor-vehicle crashes involve detailed inspection, measurement, and photodocumentation of vehicle exterior and interior damage, evidence of belt-restraint use, and evidence of occupant contacts with the vehicle interior. Results of in-depth investigations thereby provide the most objective way to identify current and emerging injury problems and issues in occupant safety and crash protection, and provide important feedback on

Lawrence W. Schneider; Kathleen D. Klinich; Jamie L. Moore; Joel B. MacWilliams

2010-01-01

273

How Safe is Vehicle Safety? The Contribution of Vehicle Technologies to the Reduction in Road Casualties in France from 2000 to 2010  

PubMed Central

In France, over the last 10 years, road fatalities have decreased dramatically by 48%. This reduction is somewhat close to the target fixed by the European Commision in 2001 for the whole of Europe (?50 %). According to the French govnerment, 75% of this reduction was due to the implementation of automatic speed cameras on the roadsides from 2003 onwards. Yet, during this period, there was also a significantly increase in safety technology, new regulations in front and side impacts, and developments in Euro NCAP to improve passive safety in the vehicles. This paper set out to estimate the extent that vehicle safety technologies contributed to the road safety benefits over this decade. Using a combination of databases and fitment rates, the number of fatalities and hospitalized injuries saved in passenger car crashes was estimated for a number of safety technologies, individually and as a package including a 5 star EuroNCAP rating. The additional benefits from other public safety measures were also similarly estimated. The results showed that overall safety measures during this decade saved 240,676 fatalities + serious injuries, of which 173,663 were car occupants. Of these, 27,365 car occupants and 1,083 pedestrian savings could be attributed directly to vehicle safety improvements (11% overall). It was concluded that while public safety measures were responsible for the majority of the savings, enhanced vehicle safety technologies also made a significant improvement in the road toll in France during the last decade. As the take-up rate for these technologies improves, is expected to continue to provide even more benefits in the next 10-year period.

Page, Yves; Hermitte, Thierry; Cuny, Sophie

2011-01-01

274

Development of Pneumatic Aerodynamic Devices to Improve the Performance, Economics, and Safety of Heavy Vehicles  

SciTech Connect

Under contract to the DOE Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies, the Georgia Tech Research Institute (GTRI) is developing and evaluating pneumatic (blown) aerodynamic devices to improve the performance, economics, stability and safety of operation of Heavy Vehicles. The objective of this program is to apply the pneumatic aerodynamic aircraft technology previously developed and flight-tested by GTRI personnel to the design of an efficient blown tractor-trailer configuration. Recent experimental results obtained by GTRI using blowing have shown drag reductions of 35% on a streamlined automobile wind-tunnel model. Also measured were lift or down-load increases of 100-150% and the ability to control aerodynamic moments about all 3 axes without any moving control surfaces. Similar drag reductions yielded by blowing on bluff afterbody trailers in current US trucking fleet operations are anticipated to reduce yearly fuel consumption by more than 1.2 billion gallons, while even further reduction is possible using pneumatic lift to reduce tire rolling resistance. Conversely, increased drag and down force generated instantaneously by blowing can greatly increase braking characteristics and control in wet/icy weather due to effective ''weight'' increases on the tires. Safety is also enhanced by controlling side loads and moments caused on these Heavy Vehicles by winds, gusts and other vehicles passing. This may also help to eliminate the jack-knifing problem if caused by extreme wind side loads on the trailer. Lastly, reduction of the turbulent wake behind the trailer can reduce splash and spray patterns and rough air being experienced by following vehicles. To be presented by GTRI in this paper will be results developed during the early portion of this effort, including a preliminary systems study, CFD prediction of the blown flowfields, and design of the baseline conventional tractor-trailer model and the pneumatic wind-tunnel model.

Robert J. Englar

2000-06-19

275

Modeling of dynamic vehicle-road interactions for safety-related road evaluation.  

PubMed

Usually, road safety is assessed by following adequate highway geometric design standards and can be controlled later by measurement and expertise. Nevertheless, interactions between vehicle dynamics and road characteristics cannot be simultaneously analyzed for these two means of safety evaluation. In this study, an analytical method based on road/vehicle physical interactions applied to road diagnosis is proposed. Vehicle "point" and "bicycle" models are used in this first approach. French highway geometric design standards and a statistical method are presented and evaluated on a real curve case. The proposed numerical criterion, for the "bicycle" model, is then compared to these two classical methods for the considered road section. Its advantages are that it takes into account several combined parameters, that road defects are precisely localized and that it provides hierarchically classified solutions to the road managers. After this comparison step, further improvements should be focused on the modeling of successive curves and on the improvement of the informations given to the road manager. PMID:20728624

Orfila, O; Coiret, A; Do, M T; Mammar, S

2010-05-31

276

SightSafety: A hybrid information and communication technology system for reducing vehicle\\/pedestrian collisions  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, a number of advanced Information and Communication Technology (ICT) solutions have been developed to assist in the management of business processes and working environments. Mobile computing and wireless communication are two such technologies which have been adapted for use in hybrid systems that can monitor and manage industrial health, safety and welfare activities. Within the construction sector,

Z. Riaz; D. J. Edwards; A. Thorpe

2006-01-01

277

Direct-hydrogen-fueled proton-exchange-membrane fuel cell system for transportation applications. Hydrogen vehicle safety report  

SciTech Connect

This report reviews the safety characteristics of hydrogen as an energy carrier for a fuel cell vehicle (FCV), with emphasis on high pressure gaseous hydrogen onboard storage. The authors consider normal operation of the vehicle in addition to refueling, collisions, operation in tunnels, and storage in garages. They identify the most likely risks and failure modes leading to hazardous conditions, and provide potential countermeasures in the vehicle design to prevent or substantially reduce the consequences of each plausible failure mode. They then compare the risks of hydrogen with those of more common motor vehicle fuels including gasoline, propane, and natural gas.

Thomas, C.E. [Directed Technologies, Inc., Arlington, VA (United States)

1997-05-01

278

Reusable launch vehicles, enabling technology for the development of advanced upper stages and payloads  

SciTech Connect

In the near future there will be classes of upper stages and payloads that will require initial operation at a high-earth orbit to reduce the probability of an inadvertent reentry that could result in a detrimental impact on humans and the biosphere. A nuclear propulsion system, such as was being developed under the Space Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (SNTP) Program, is an example of such a potential payload. This paper uses the results of a reusable launch vehicle (RLV) study to demonstrate the potential importance of a Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) to test and implement an advanced upper stage (AUS) or payload in a safe orbit and in a cost effective and reliable manner. The RLV is a horizontal takeoff and horizontal landing (HTHL), two-stage-to-orbit (TSTO) vehicle. The results of the study shows that an HTHL is cost effective because it implements airplane-like operation, infrastructure, and flight operations. The first stage of the TSTO is powered by Rocket-Based-Combined-Cycle (RBCC) engines, the second stage is powered by a LOX/LH rocket engine. The TSTO is used since it most effectively utilizes the capability of the RBCC engine. The analysis uses the NASA code POST (Program to Optimize Simulated Trajectories) to determine trajectories and weight in high-earth orbit for AUS/advanced payloads. Cost and reliability of an RLV versus current generation expandable launch vehicles are presented.

Metzger, John D. [Northrop Grumman Corporation, Advanced Systems and Technology Organization, South Oyster Bay Road, Bethpage, New York 11714 (United States)

1998-01-15

279

Well-to-wheel energy use and greenhouse gas emissions of advanced fuel/vehicle systems North American analysis.  

SciTech Connect

There are differing, yet strongly held views among the various ''stakeholders'' in the advanced fuel/propulsion system debate. In order for the introduction of advanced technology vehicles and their associated fuels to be successful, it seems clear that four important stakeholders must view their introduction as a ''win'': Society, Automobile manufacturers and their key suppliers, Fuel providers and their key suppliers, and Auto and energy company customers. If all four of these stakeholders, from their own perspectives, are not positive regarding the need for and value of these advanced fuels/vehicles, the vehicle introductions will fail. This study was conducted to help inform public and private decision makers regarding the impact of the introduction of such advanced fuel/propulsion system pathways from a societal point of view. The study estimates two key performance criteria of advanced fuel/propulsion systems on a total system basis, that is, ''well'' (production source of energy) to ''wheel'' (vehicle). These criteria are energy use and greenhouse gas emissions per unit of distance traveled. The study focuses on the U.S. light-duty vehicle market in 2005 and beyond, when it is expected that advanced fuels and propulsion systems could begin to be incorporated in a significant percentage of new vehicles. Given the current consumer demand for light trucks, the benchmark vehicle considered in this study is the Chevrolet Silverado full-size pickup.

Wang, M.

2001-04-18

280

Novel oxygen storage components for advanced catalysts for emission control in natural gas fueled vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Advanced catalysts based on a novel oxygen storage component (OSC) were developed for emission control in natural gas fueled vehicles. The catalysts contain a manganese oxide (MnOx) as the OSC supported on an inert LaA1O3 perovskite and a noble metal component (Pd) supported on a separate high surface area refractory material, for example lanthana stabilized A12O3. The MnOx has higher

Yun-feng Chang; Jon G. McCarty

1996-01-01

281

Evaluation of sunscreen safety by in vitro skin permeation studies: effects of vehicle composition.  

PubMed

For sunscreens to be safe and effective, the lowest possible UV-filter percutaneous absorption should be achieved. In this paper, we evaluated in vitro release and permeation through human skin of two UV-filters, octyl methoxycinnammate (OMC) and butyl methoxydibenzoyl methane (BMBM) from six commercial O/W emulsions and we estimated their margin of safety (MoS). OMC and BMBM in vitro release and skin permeation were investigated in Franz-type diffusion cells and permeation data were used to calculate MoS. OMC in vitro skin permeation depended on both its concentration and vehicle composition while BMBM skin permeation depended on its release from the vehicle. MoS values were well beyond the lowest limit accepted for safe products. Although sunscreen skin permeation may depend on many factors, the commercial products investigated are safe under normal "in use" conditions. PMID:23444778

Montenegro, L; Puglisi, G

2013-01-01

282

Ford Motor Company. Sae-Tsiarl-67TK Combination Rear Lamp. Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard No. 108 (Lamps, Reflective Devices and Associated Equipment).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report pertains to tests conducted by an independent contractor as part of the National Highway Safety Bureau's compliance testing program to determine whether or not motor vehicles and items of motor vehicle equipment comply with applicable Federal M...

1969-01-01

283

White Truck Corporation. Kd 211 Sae Aist 66 Stop Lamp and Reflex Reflector. Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard No. 108 (Lamps, Reflective Devices and Associated Equipment).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report pertains to tests conducted by an independent contractor as part of the National Highway Safety Bureau's compliance testing program to determine whether or not motor vehicles and items of motor vehicle equipment comply with applicable Federal M...

1969-01-01

284

Ford Motor Company. Dietz 275 Dual Face Turn Signal and Tail Lamp. Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard No. 108 (Lamps, Reflective Devices and Associated Equipment).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report pertains to tests conducted by an independent contractor as part of the National Highway Safety Bureau's compliance testing program to determine whether or not motor vehicles and items of motor vehicle equipment comply with applicable Federal M...

1969-01-01

285

General Motors Corporation. Guide It Sae Stiap Combination Rear Lamp. Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard No. 108 (Lamps, Reflective Devices and Associated Equipment).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report pertains to tests conducted by an independent contractor as part of the National Highway Safety Bureau's compliance testing program to determine whether or not motor vehicles and items of motor vehicle equipment comply with applicable Federal M...

1969-01-01

286

White Truck Corporation. Kd 210 Sae Aistl 66 Tail, Stop and License Plate Lamp. Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard No. 108 (Lamps, Reflective Devices and Associated Equipment).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report pertains to tests conducted by an independent contractor as part of the National Highway Safety Bureau's compliance testing program to determine whether or not motor vehicles and items of motor vehicle equipment comply with applicable Federal M...

1969-01-01

287

International Harvester Company. Grote 277 Combination Rear Lamp. Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard No. 108 (Lamps, Reflective Devices and Associated Equipment).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report pertains to tests conducted by an independent contractor as part of the National Highway Safety Bureau's compliance testing program to determine whether or not motor vehicles and items of motor vehicle equipment comply with applicable Federal M...

1969-01-01

288

Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard No. 108 (Lamps, Reflective Devices and Associated Equipment). Chrysler Part No. 2958021 Prestolite Part No. 10590-5 Chrysler Corporation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report pertains to tests conducted by an independent contractor as part of the National Highway Safety Bureau compliance testing program to determine whether or not motor vehicles and items of motor vehicle equipment comply with applicable Federal Mot...

1970-01-01

289

Ford Motor Company. Fomoco Sae a 68 Btk Front Reflex Reflector. Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard No. 108 (Lamps, Reflective Devices and Associated Equipment).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report pertains to tests conducted by an independent contractor as part of the National Highway Safety Bureau's compliance testing program to determine whether or not motor vehicles and items of motor vehicle equipment comply with applicable Federal M...

1969-01-01

290

Literature Review on Health and Fatigue Issues Associated with Commercial Motor Vehicle Driver Hours of Work. Commercial Truck and Bus Safety Synthesis 9.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This synthesis will be useful to commercial vehicle operators, federal and state agencies, and others interested in improving commercial vehicle safety. The report provides a review of literature relevant to health and fatigue issues associated with comme...

P. Orris S. Buchanan A. Smiley D. Davis D. Dinges

2005-01-01

291

Vehicle Safety Compliance Testing for Occupant Crash Protection, Windshield Mounting, Windshield Zone Intrusion, and Fuel System Integrity: Ford Motor Company, 1992 Ford Explorer, Sport Utility Vehicle. TRC Test No. 920205.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This 30 mph flat frontal barrier impact test is part of the Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard (FMVSS) 208, 212, 219 (partial), and 301 compliance test program conducted for the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) by the Transportati...

1992-01-01

292

Advanced BLDC motor drive for low cost and high performance propulsion system in electric and hybrid vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the authors propose an advanced brushless DC motor (BLDCM) drive for low cost and high performance electric propulsion system in electric vehicles (EVs) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). It includes reduced parts power converter topologies and an optimal PWM control strategy to produce the desired dynamic and static speed and torque characteristics. The theoretical explanation and operational

B. K. Lee; M. Ehsani

2001-01-01

293

The development of a hybrid advanced composite-syntactic foam structural component for use in undersea vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the progress of an ongoing program to develop a lightweight, highly buoyant structural member for open-frame, remotely operated vehicles (ROVs). The structural component is fabricated from advanced composite materials and syntactic foam. This unique hybrid member is intended for, but not limited to, underwater vehicles. The paper demonstrates that composite materials and syntactic foams can offer great

John B. Hinves; Craig D. Douglas

1993-01-01

294

Advanced Transportation System Study: Manned Launch Vehicle Concepts for Two Way Transportation System Payloads to Leo. Program Cost Estimates Document.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes Rockwell International's cost analysis results of manned launch vehicle concepts for two way transportation system payloads to low earth orbit during the basic and option 1 period of performance for contract NAS8-39207, advanced tran...

J. B. Duffy

1993-01-01

295

Weapon and communication systems: virtual life assessment of electronic hardware used in the Advanced Amphibious Assault Vehicle (AAAV)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the use of techniques for simulating product qualification as well as for product testing of electronic hardware to be used in the United States Marine Corp's Advanced Amphibious Assault Vehicle. The goal of integrating \\

Ricky Valentin; Jeremy Cunningham; Michael D. Osterman; Abhijit Dasgupta II; Michael G. Pecht; Dinos Tsagos

2002-01-01

296

Car occupant safety in frontal crashes: a parameter study of vehicle mass, impact speed, and inherent vehicle protection  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new mathematical model was developed to estimate average injury and fatality rates in frontal car-to-car crashes for changes in vehicle fleet mass, impact speed distribution, and inherent vehicle protection. The estimates were calculated from injury\\/fatality risk data, delta-V distribution and collision probability of two vehicles, where delta-V depends on impact speed and mass of the colliding vehicles. The impact

Dagmar G. Buzeman; David C. Viano; Per Lövsund

1998-01-01

297

Motor Vehicle Safety Authorization Act of 1986. House of Representatives, Ninety-Ninth Congress, Second Session, September 17, 1986  

SciTech Connect

The House Committee on Energy and Commerce suggests several amendments to H.R. 2248, which authorizes National Highway Traffic Safety Administration appropriations for 1987-1988. The legislation addresses such safety issues as the requirement that dealers inform potential buyers of true odometer readings, tire registration, bumper strength, and defects. The report covers automobile recalls of the past decade, the need for safety standard equality certification for imports, and state safety inspection programs. Oversight hearings and findings of the committee also addressed mandatory seat belt use. The bill affects the National Traffic and Motor Vehicle Safety Act of 1966 and the Motor Vehicle Information and Cost Savings Act. The report notes several areas of compromise.

Not Available

1986-01-01

298

U.S. Department of Energy FreedomCAR & Vehicle Technologies Program Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity, Hydrogen/CNG Blended Fuels Performance Testing in a Ford F-150  

SciTech Connect

Federal regulation requires energy companies and government entities to utilize alternative fuels in their vehicle fleets. To meet this need, several automobile manufacturers are producing compressed natural gas (CNG)-fueled vehicles. In addition, several converters are modifying gasoline-fueled vehicles to operate on both gasoline and CNG (Bifuel). Because of the availability of CNG vehicles, many energy company and government fleets have adopted CNG as their principle alternative fuel for transportation. Meanwhile, recent research has shown that blending hydrogen with CNG (HCNG) can reduce emissions from CNG vehicles. However, blending hydrogen with CNG (and performing no other vehicle modifications) reduces engine power output, due to the lower volumetric energy density of hydrogen in relation to CNG. Arizona Public Service (APS) and the U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (DOE AVTA) identified the need to determine the magnitude of these effects and their impact on the viability of using HCNG in existing CNG vehicles. To quantify the effects of using various blended fuels, a work plan was designed to test the acceleration, range, and exhaust emissions of a Ford F-150 pickup truck operating on 100% CNG and blends of 15 and 30% HCNG. This report presents the results of this testing conducted during May and June 2003 by Electric Transportation Applications (Task 4.10, DOE AVTA Cooperative Agreement DEFC36- 00ID-13859).

James E. Francfort

2003-11-01

299

Preliminary evaluation of regulatory and safety issues for sodium-sulfur batteries in electric vehicle applications  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy (DOE) Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Program is involved in the development and evaluation of sodium-sulfur energy storage batteries for electric vehicle (EV) applications. Laboratory testing of complete battery systems, to be followed by controlled in-vehicle testing and on-road usage, are expected to occur as components of the DOE program during the 1988--1990 time frame. Testing and operation of sodium-sulfur batteries at other DOE contractor facilities may also take place during this time frame. A number of regulatory and safety issues can affect the technical scope, schedule, and cost of the expected programmatic activities. This document describes these issues and requirements, provides a preliminary evaluation of their significance, and lists those critical items that may result from them. The actions needed to permit the conduct of a successful program at DOE contractor facilities are identified, and concerns that could affect the eventual commercialization potential of sodium-sulfur batteries are noted to the extent they are known.

Evans, D.R.; Henriksen, G.L.; Hunt, G.L.

1987-05-01

300

Perceived safety and biomechanical stress to the lower limbs when stepping down from fire fighting vehicles.  

PubMed

Injuries related to emergency vehicles represent 19% of compensated work accidents for fire fighters, 37% of which occur while stepping down from their vehicles. This study compared the impact forces, the use of upper limbs and the perception of danger of fire fighters as they step down from five different locations on fire trucks. The results show that stepping down from the crew cab facing the street produces impact forces averaging 3.2 times the subject's body weight, but is also perceived as the safest way to descend in one of the two groups of fire fighters that participated in the study. Stepping down from the same location, but facing the truck, produced significantly less impact force and a better distribution of the energy over time. This may be achieved through better control of the descending leg, ankle flexion, and the use of grab bars. A re-design of the access to emergency vehicles should take into account both the safety needs and reduction in biomechanical stress of fire fighters. PMID:15627428

Giguère, Denis; Marchand, Denis

2005-01-01

301

Well-to-wheel energy use and greenhouse gas emissions of advanced fuel\\/vehicle systems North American analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are differing, yet strongly held views among the various ''stakeholders'' in the advanced fuel\\/propulsion system debate. In order for the introduction of advanced technology vehicles and their associated fuels to be successful, it seems clear that four important stakeholders must view their introduction as a ''win'': Society, Automobile manufacturers and their key suppliers, Fuel providers and their key suppliers,

2001-01-01

302

All-terrain vehicle safety in Florida: is legislation really the answer?  

PubMed

Florida is among the nation's leaders in all-terrain vehicle (ATV)-related injuries and fatalities. We hypothesized that patients sustaining injuries while in compliance with ATV laws would demonstrate less severe injury patterns and improved outcomes when compared with noncompliant patients. We reviewed patients treated for ATV-related injuries over a 36-month period. We grouped patients according to conformity with Florida statutes and compared demographics, admission status, injuries sustained, and outcome measures. Three hundred seventy-seven patients were treated for ATV-related injuries. In 294 cases, sufficient data existed to assess compliance with Florida's statutes regarding ATV rider safety: safety helmet use for persons younger than age 16 years and prohibition of ATV operation on roadways. Forty-three per cent (n = 126) had violated one or both statutes; 57 per cent (n = 168) had violated neither. The group in violation was younger (15 vs 24 years, P < 0.001) and wore helmets less often (6 vs 34%, P < 0.001). Groups required admission at similar rates (62% violators vs 60% nonviolators, P = 0.770), showed similar injury patterns, and had comparable mortality rates (2% violators vs 5% nonviolators, P = 0.451). Current Florida laws are inadequate to prevent ATV-related injuries and their sequelae. This issue should be addressed through an increased focus on safety education for ATV operators. PMID:20336890

Winfield, Robert D; Mozingo, David W; Armstrong, John H; Hollenbeck, John I; Richards, Winston T; Martin, Larry C; Beierle, Elizabeth A; Lottenberg, Lawrence

2010-02-01

303

Shuttle orbiter experiments: Use of an operational vehicle for advancement and validation of space systems design technologies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The NASA Orbiter Experiments (OEX) Program provided a mechanism for utilization of an operational space shuttle orbiter as a flight research vehicle, as an adjunct to its normal space transportation mission. OEX Program experiments were unique among orbiter payloads, as the research instrumentation for these experiments were carried as integral parts of the vehicle's structure, rather than being placed in the orbiter's payload bay as mission-unique cargo. On each of its first 17 flights, the Orbiter Columbia carried some type of research instrumentation. Various instrumentation systems were used to measure, in flight, the requisite parameters for determination of the orbiter aerodynamic characteristics over the entire entry flight regime and/or the aerodynamic-heating rates imposed upon the vehicle during the hypersonic portion of atmospheric entry. The data derived from this instrumentation represent benchmark hypersonic flight data heretofore unavailable for a lifting entry vehicle. The data are being used in a continual process of validation of state-of-the-art methods, both experimental and computational, for simulating/predicting the aerodynamic and aerothermal characteristics of advanced space transportation vehicles. This paper describes the OEX Program complement of research experiments, presents typical flight data obtained by these experiments, and demonstrates the utilization of these data for advancement and validation of vehicle aerothermodynamic-design tools. By example, the concept of instrumenting operational vehicles and/or spacecraft in order to perform advanced technology development and validation is demonstrated to be an effective and economical method for maturing space-systems design technologies.

Holloway, Paul F.; Throckmorton, David A.

1995-03-01

304

Graduate Automotive Technology Education (GATE) Program: Center of Automotive Technology Excellence in Advanced Hybrid Vehicle Technology at West Virginia University  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the technical and educational achievements of the Graduate Automotive Technology Education (GATE) Center at West Virginia University (WVU), which was created to emphasize Advanced Hybrid Vehicle Technology. The Center has supported the graduate studies of 17 students in the Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering and the Lane Department of Computer Science and Electrical Engineering. These students have addressed topics such as hybrid modeling, construction of a hybrid sport utility vehicle (in conjunction with the FutureTruck program), a MEMS-based sensor, on-board data acquisition for hybrid design optimization, linear engine design and engine emissions. Courses have been developed in Hybrid Vehicle Design, Mobile Source Powerplants, Advanced Vehicle Propulsion, Power Electronics for Automotive Applications and Sensors for Automotive Applications, and have been responsible for 396 hours of graduate student coursework. The GATE program also enhanced the WVU participation in the U.S. Department of Energy Student Design Competitions, in particular FutureTruck and Challenge X. The GATE support for hybrid vehicle technology enhanced understanding of hybrid vehicle design and testing at WVU and encouraged the development of a research agenda in heavy-duty hybrid vehicles. As a result, WVU has now completed three programs in hybrid transit bus emissions characterization, and WVU faculty are leading the Transportation Research Board effort to define life cycle costs for hybrid transit buses. Research and enrollment records show that approximately 100 graduate students have benefited substantially from the hybrid vehicle GATE program at WVU.

Nigle N. Clark

2006-12-31

305

Looking-In and Looking-Out of a Vehicle: Computer-Vision-Based Enhanced Vehicle Safety  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents investigations into the role of computer-vision technology in developing safer automobiles. We consider vision systems, which cannot only look out of the vehicle to detect and track roads and avoid hitting obstacles or pedes- trians but simultaneously look inside the vehicle to monitor the attentiveness of the driver and even predict her intentions. In this paper, a

Mohan Manubhai Trivedi; Tarak Gandhi; Joel C. Mccall

2007-01-01

306

Failure mode and effect analysis based on electric and electronic architectures of vehicles to support the safety lifecycle ISO\\/DIS 26262  

Microsoft Academic Search

The draft international standard under development ISO 26262 (Road Vehicles - Functional safety -) describes a safety lifecycle for road vehicles and thereby influences all parts of development, production, operation and decommissioning. Starting from 2011, all developments of new cars should be aligned to this standard. The rapid application and adaption of the ISO 26262 is mandatory to develop safe,

M. Hillenbrand; M. Heinz; N. Adler; Johannes Matheis; K. D. Muller-Glaser

2010-01-01

307

A Soft-Switching Inverter for High-Temperature Advanced Hybrid Electric Vehicle Traction Motor Drives  

SciTech Connect

The state-of-the-art hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) require the inverter cooling system to have a separate loop to avoid power semiconductor junction over temperatures because the engine coolant temperature of 105?C does not allow for much temperature rise in silicon devices. The proposed work is to develop an advanced soft-switching inverter that will eliminate the device switching loss and cut down the power loss so that the inverter can operate at high-temperature conditions while operating at high switching frequencies with small current ripple in low inductance based permanent magnet motors. The proposed tasks also include high-temperature packaging and thermal modeling and simulation to ensure the packaged module can operate at the desired temperature. The developed module will be integrated with the motor and vehicle controller for dynamometer and in-vehicle testing to prove its superiority. This report will describe the detailed technical design of the soft-switching inverters and their test results. The experiments were conducted both in module level for the module conduction and switching characteristics and in inverter level for its efficiency under inductive and dynamometer load conditions. The performance will be compared with the DOE original specification.

None, None

2012-01-31

308

Installation of the Irradiation Test Vehicle in the Advanced Test Reactor  

SciTech Connect

The Irradiation Test Vehicle (ITV) was installed in the Department of Energy’s Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) during May 1999. The ITV is capable of providing neutron spectral tailoring and individual temperature control for up to 15 experiment capsules simultaneously. The test vehicle consists of three permanently installed in-pile tubes running the length of the reactor vessel. The bores of these in-pile tubes are kept dry and test trains with integral instrumentation are inserted and removed through a transfer shield plate above the reactor vessel head. The test vehicle is designed to irradiate specimens as large as 2.2 cm in diameter, at temperatures of 250 - 800C, achieving neutron damage rates as high as 10 displacements per atom per year in Vanadium. The experiment specimen temperature control is fully automated using a Distributed Control System (DCS) to control up to 15 separate blended gas channels for the ITV. The system remains in place as a permanent ATR Experiment support system and has excess capacity to accommodate experiment program growth. The ITV was initially installed with instrumented dummy tests to allow for testing and characterization of the control system.

Palmer, Alma Joseph; Hong, Bonnie Colleen; Ingram, Frederick William; Stites, David John

1999-09-01

309

Advanced onboard storage concepts for natural gas-fueled automotive vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The evaluation of several advanced concepts for storing natural gas at reduced pressure is presented. The advanced concepts include adsorption on high surface area carbon, adsorption in high porosity zeolite, storage in clathration compounds, and storage by dissolution in liquid solvents. High surface area carbons with high packing density are the best low pressure storage mediums. A simple mathematical model is used to compare adsorption storage on a state of the art carbon with compression storage. The model indicates that a vehicle using adsorption storage of natural gas at 3.6 MPa will have 36 percent of the range, on the EPA city cycle, of a vehicle operating on a compression storage system having the same physical size and a peak storage pressure of 21 MPa. Preliminary experiments and current literature suggest that the storage capacity of state of the art carbons could be improved by as much as 50 percent, and that adsorption systems having a capacity equal to compression storage at 14 MPa are possible without exceeding a maximum pressure of 3.6 MPa.

Remick, R. J.; Elkins, R. H.; Camara, E. H.; Bulicz, T.

1984-06-01

310

ADVANCED SAFETY ENGINEERING USING COMPOSITIONAL ANALYSIS AND OPTIMISATION TECHNIQUES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increasing complexity in computer technology questions the applicability of classical safety analysis techniques on new designs. As new technologies introduce complex failure modes, the classical manual analysis of critical systems becomes increasingly more difficult and error prone. To address these difficulties, we have developed two computerised tools that simplify aspects of the safety engineering process. The first tool largely automates

Yiannis Papadopoulos; Christian Grante; Wenhua Zeng

311

Efficacy and safety of erlotinib in patients with locally advanced or metastatic breast cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose To evaluate the efficacy and safety of erlotinib in advanced breast cancer. Experimental design Multicenter, phase II study of erlotinib (150 mg orally daily). Cohort 1: progression after anthracyclines, taxanes, and\\u000a capecitabine (n = 47). Cohort 2: progression after >1 chemotherapy for advanced-stage disease (n = 22). Primary endpoint was response rate (World Health Organization criteria). Secondary endpoints were safety, time to\\u000a progression,

Maura N. Dickler; Melody A. Cobleigh; Kathy D. Miller; Pamela M. Klein; Eric P. Winer

2009-01-01

312

Protecting You/Protecting Me: Effects of an Alcohol Prevention and Vehicle Safety Program on Elementary Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper describes an evaluation of Protecting You/Protecting Me (PY/PM), a classroom-based, alcohol-use prevention and vehicle safety program for elementary students in first through fifth grades developed by Mothers Against Drunk Driving. PY/PM lessons and activities focus on teaching children about (1) their brains (why their brain is…

Bell, Mary Lou; Kelley-Baker, Tara; Rider, Raamses; Ringwalt, Christopher

2005-01-01

313

Designing for safety in the conceptual design of the Advanced Neutron Source  

SciTech Connect

The Advanced Neutron Source is a major new research facility proposed by the Department of Energy for construction over the next six years. The unique set of nuclear safety features selected to give the recently completed conceptual design a high degree of safety are identified and discussed.

Harrington, R.M.; West, C.D.

1993-06-01

314

Study on Safety Assist Information of Advanced Cruise-Assist Highway Systems (AHS) using VICS in Blind Curve Section of Urban Expressway  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper investigates effect of AHS (Advanced Cruise-Assist Highway Systems) service using VICS (Vehicle Information and Communication System) on driver behavior and safety awareness, through experiment with a driving simulator. In this AHS service, when drivers of vehicles behind do not notice an incident such as stopping vehicle or rearmost congestion at blind curve sections of urban expressway, 3-media VICS-enable in-vehicle navigation unit provides them information to avoid collision based on communication between road and vehicle. In this study, such road environment and traffic condition around drivers were generated by using a motion-based driving simulator which had a real car body, seven 150-inch screens covering 330-degree field of view, 3-media VICS-enable in-vehicle navigation unit in the cockpit. Twenty-nine subjects were participated and instructed to perform based on their usual safe driving skill in urban expressway. Three types of visual content of AHS information were examined from the viewpoint of driving maneuver, visual behavior and safety awareness. Subjective evaluation was also conducted in terms of understanding of information, surprise and maneuver. The results of the experiment indicate that AHS service is more effective to decrease possibility of collision than usual driving without AHS service, in terms of timing of releasing accelerator pedal, applying brake pedal and improvement of safety awareness, although it was observed that understanding of AHS information varied among the subjects. Especially, based on the result of this study, simple figure of AHS information is more effective than text message in order to avoid such a collision safely.

Daimon, Tatsuru; Makino, Hiroshi; Mizutani, Hiroyuki; Munehiro, Yuji

315

Distributed motion control of an electric vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary form only given. INRIA has developed an electric vehicle for pedestrian areas which includes advanced motion control in order to enhance the safety of drivers and to introduce various forms of automated driving. The vehicle, called CyCab, has 4-wheel drive and 4-wheel steer implemented through 4 electric motors (one in each wheel) for propulsion, 4 electric motors (one for

M. Parent

1998-01-01

316

Safety assessment of two advanced ferritic steel molten salt blanket design concepts  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, we explore some of the safety issues associated with two advanced ferritic steel (AFS) molten salt blanket designs from the Advanced Power Extraction (APEX) design study [M.A. Abdou, The APEX Team, On the exploration of innovative concepts for fusion chamber technology, Fus. Eng. Des. 54 (2000) 181]. In particular, we examine radiological inventories, decay heat, waste disposal

B. J. Merrill; M. Sawan; C. P. C. Wong; R. E. Nygren; L. C. Cadwallader; S. Malang; D.-K. Sze

2004-01-01

317

Current status of environmental, health, and safety issues of lithium ion electric vehicle batteries  

SciTech Connect

The lithium ion system considered in this report uses lithium intercalation compounds as both positive and negative electrodes and has an organic liquid electrolyte. Oxides of nickel, cobalt, and manganese are used in the positive electrode, and carbon is used in the negative electrode. This report presents health and safety issues, environmental issues, and shipping requirements for lithium ion electric vehicle (EV) batteries. A lithium-based electrochemical system can, in theory, achieve higher energy density than systems using other elements. The lithium ion system is less reactive and more reliable than present lithium metal systems and has possible performance advantages over some lithium solid polymer electrolyte batteries. However, the possibility of electrolyte spills could be a disadvantage of a liquid electrolyte system compared to a solid electrolyte. The lithium ion system is a developing technology, so there is some uncertainty regarding which materials will be used in an EV-sized battery. This report reviews the materials presented in the open literature within the context of health and safety issues, considering intrinsic material hazards, mitigation of material hazards, and safety testing. Some possible lithium ion battery materials are toxic, carcinogenic, or could undergo chemical reactions that produce hazardous heat or gases. Toxic materials include lithium compounds, nickel compounds, arsenic compounds, and dimethoxyethane. Carcinogenic materials include nickel compounds, arsenic compounds, and (possibly) cobalt compounds, copper, and polypropylene. Lithiated negative electrode materials could be reactive. However, because information about the exact compounds that will be used in future batteries is proprietary, ongoing research will determine which specific hazards will apply.

Vimmerstedt, L.J.; Ring, S.; Hammel, C.J.

1995-09-01

318

U29: Commercial Vehicle Secure Networks for Safety and Mobility Applications.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The main objective of this project is to develop a secure, reliable, high throughput and integrated wireless network for Vehicle-To-Vehicle (V2V), Vehicle-To-Infrastructure (V2I) and intra-vehicle communications. Novel techniques and communication protoco...

A. Lim D. Bevly

2011-01-01

319

Using in-depth investigations to identify transportation safety issues for wheelchair-seated occupants of motor vehicles.  

PubMed

In-depth investigations of motor-vehicle crashes involve detailed inspection, measurement, and photodocumentation of vehicle exterior and interior damage, evidence of belt-restraint use, and evidence of occupant contacts with the vehicle interior. Results of in-depth investigations thereby provide the most objective way to identify current and emerging injury problems and issues in occupant safety and crash protection, and provide important feedback on the real-world performance of the latest restraint-system and vehicle crashworthiness technologies. To provide an objective understanding of real-world transportation safety issues for wheelchair-seated travelers, the University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute (UMTRI) has been conducting and assembling data from in-depth investigations of motor-vehicle crashes and non-crash adverse moving-vehicle incidents, such as emergency vehicle braking, turning, and swerving, in which there was at least one vehicle occupant sitting in a wheelchair. The results of 39 investigations involving 42 wheelchair-seated occupants have been assembled and entered into a wheelchair-occupant crash/injury database. In addition, a biomechanical analysis of each case has been performed to identify key safety issues for wheelchair-seated travelers. The wheelchairs of 34 of the 42 occupants who were seated in wheelchairs while traveling in motor vehicles were effectively secured by either a four-point, strap-type tiedown system or a docking securement device, and all but one of these properly secured wheelchairs remained in place during the crash or non-collision event. However, 30 of the 42 occupants were improperly restrained, either because of non-use or incomplete use of available belt restraints, or because the belt restraints were improperly positioned on the occupant's body. Twenty-six of the 42 occupants sustained significant injuries and 10 of these occupants died as a direct result of injuries sustained, or from complications resulting from those injuries. These findings, when combined with the analyses of the individual cases, point to a need for better driver and caregiver education and training on how to properly secure wheelchairs and position belt restraints on wheelchair-seated passengers. They also point to a need for improved restraint systems used by wheelchair-seated drivers, and a need for wheelchair designs that facilitate the proper use and positioning of vehicle-anchored belt restraints. PMID:19800833

Schneider, Lawrence W; Klinich, Kathleen D; Moore, Jamie L; MacWilliams, Joel B

2009-10-02

320

Well-to-Wheel Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Advanced Fuel/Vehicle Systems. North American Analysis. Volume 1. Executive Summary Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

There are differing yet strongly held views among the various 'stakeholders' in the advanced fuel/propulsion system debate. In order for the introduction of advanced technology vehicles and their associated fuels to be successful, it seems clear that four...

2001-01-01

321

Demonstration Experiments to Advance Spacecraft Fire Safety Technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spacecraft fire safety technologies developed during the implementation of NASA's Constellation Program (CxP) highlighted the need for a range of normal-gravity and low-gravity technology demonstration experiments. Terrestrial fire safety technologies have relied heavily on both bench-scale and full-scale experiments and have included extensive study of the ignitability of materials and fire behavior, quantification of fire signatures, fire suppression equipment and procedures, and fire fighter protection equipment. Full-scale tests of these technologies in terrestrial fire-fighting applications are frequently performed to demonstrate their performance and give first-responders hands-on experience in their use. However, experiments conducted to aid the development of spacecraft fire safety technologies have generally been performed at length and time scales that make extrapolation of the results to full scale unreliable. Extrapolation of the results of the relatively few spacecraft fire safety experiments conducted in long- term low-gravity to spacecraft-relevant length and time scales is problematic. In general, the results cannot be verified in ground-based low-g facilities and remains a challenging problem for current numerical simulations. This paper will highlight low-g and ground-based experiments and demonstrations that are being conducted and planned to provide relevant spacecraft fire safety data.

Ruff, G. A.; Urban, D. L.; Dietrich, D.

2012-01-01

322

Research and development of advanced nickel-iron batteries for electric vehicle propulsion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this program was to develop and demonstrate an advanced nickel-iron battery suitable for use in electric vehicles. During the course of this contract various steps were taken to improve nickel-iron battery performance while reducing cost. Improvement of the nickel electrode through slurry formulations and substrate changes, as seen with the fiber electrode, were investigated. Processing parameters for impregnation and formation were also manipulated to improve efficiency. Impregnation saw the change of anode type from platinized titanium to the consumable nickel anode. Formation changes were also made allowing for doubled processing capabilities of positive electrodes, a savings in both time and money. A final design change involved the evolution of the NIF-200 from the NIF-220. This change permitted the use of 1.2 mm iron electrodes and maintained the necessary performance characteristics for electric vehicle propulsion. Emphasis on a pilot plant became the main focus during the late 1989 - 90 period. The pilot plant facility would be a culmination of the program providing the best product at the lowest price.

323

Performance and life evaluation of advanced battery technologies for electric vehicle applications  

SciTech Connect

Advanced battery technology evaluations are performed under simulated electric vehicle (EV) operating conditions at the Argonne Analysis Diagnostic Laboratory (ADL). The ADL provides a common basis for both performance characterization and life evaluation with unbiased application of tests and analyses. This paper summarizes the performance characterizations and life evaluations conducted in 1990 on nine single cells and fifteen 3- to 360-cell modules that encompass six technologies (Na/S, Zn/Br, Ni/Fe, Ni/Cd, Ni-metal hydride, and lead-acid). These evaluations were performed for the Department of Energy and Electric Power Research Institute. The results provide battery users, developers, and program managers an interim measure of the progress being made in battery R D programs, a comparison of battery technologies, and a source of basic data for modelling and continuing R D. 1 ref., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

DeLuca, W.H.; Gillie, K.R.; Kulaga, J.E.; Smaga, J.A.; Tummillo, A.F.; Webster, C.E.

1991-01-01

324

Performance and life evaluation of advanced battery technologies for electric vehicle applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Advanced battery technology evaluations are performed under simulated electric vehicle (EV) operating conditions at the Argonne Analysis and Diagnostic Laboratory (ADL). The ADL provides a common basis for both performance characterization and life evaluation with unbiased application of tests and analyses. This paper summarizes the performance characterizations and life evaluations conducted in 1990 on nine single cells and fifteen 3- to 360-cell modules that encompass six technologies: (Na/S, Zn/Br, Ni/Fe, Ni/Cd, Ni-metal hydride, and lead-acid). These evaluations were performed for the Department of Energy and Electric Power Research Institute. The results provide battery users, developers, and program managers an interim measure of the progress being made in battery R and D programs, a comparison of battery technologies, and a source of basic data for modelling and continuing R and D.

Deluca, W. H.; Gillie, K. R.; Kulaga, J. E.; Smaga, J. A.; Tummillo, A. F.; Webster, C. E.

325

An assessment of the impact of transition on advanced winged entry vehicle thermal protection system mass  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study examines the impact of turbulent heating on thermal protection system (TPS) mass for advanced winged entry vehicles. Four basic systems are considered: insulative, metallic hot structures, metallic standoff, and hybrid systems. TPS sizings are performed using entry trajectories tailored specifically to the characteristics of each TPS concept under consideration. Comparisons are made between systems previously sized under the assumption of all laminar heating and those sized using a baseline estimate of transition and turbulent heating. The relative effect of different transition criteria on TPS mass requirements is also examined. Also investigated are entry trajectories tailored to alleviate turbulent heating. Results indicate the significant impact of turbulent heating on TPS mass and demonstrate the importance of both accurate transition criteria and entry trajectory tailoring.

Wurster, K. E.

1981-06-01

326

Wheeled mobility device transportation safety in fixed route and demand-responsive public transit vehicles within the United States.  

PubMed

An overview of the current status of wheelchair transportation safety in fixed route and demand-responsive, non-rail, public transportation vehicles within the US is presented. A description of each mode of transportation is provided, followed by a discussion of the primary issues affecting safety, accessibility, and usability. Technologies such as lifts, ramps, securement systems, and occupant restraint systems, along with regulations and voluntary industry standards have been implemented with the intent of improving safety and accessibility for individuals who travel while seated in their wheeled mobility device (e.g., wheelchair or scooter). However, across both fixed route and demand-responsive transit systems a myriad of factors such as nonuse and misuse of safety systems, oversized wheeled mobility devices, vehicle space constraints, and inadequate vehicle operator training may place wheeled mobility device (WhMD) users at risk of injury even under non-impact driving conditions. Since WhMD-related incidents also often occur during the boarding and alighting process, the frequency of these events, along with factors associated with these events are described for each transit mode. Recommendations for improving WhMD transportation are discussed given the current state of PMID:22876731

Frost, Karen L; van Roosmalen, Linda; Bertocci, Gina; Cross, Douglas J

2012-01-01

327

Graduate Automotive Technology Education (GATE) Program: Center of Automotive Technology Excellence in Advanced Hybrid Vehicle Technology at West Virginia University  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report summarizes the technical and educational achievements of the Graduate Automotive Technology Education (GATE) Center at West Virginia University (WVU), which was created to emphasize Advanced Hybrid Vehicle Technology. The Center has supported the graduate studies of 17 students in the Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering and the Lane Department of Computer Science and Electrical Engineering. These students

Nigle N. Clark

2006-01-01

328

Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Regulation Part 575 (Consumer Information). General Motors Corporation, 1970 Chevrolet Camaro.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The subject vehicle was tested to determine whether the required consumer information pertaining to stopping distance, tire reserve load, and acceleration and passing ability was supplied with the vehicle when purchased; and whether the actual performance...

1970-01-01

329

Safety Status Data Collection Methodology. Volume IV. Update of Vehicle Identification Code.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This volume contains an update of the NHTSA motor vehicle identification code. Vehicle production for model years 1974 through 1977 is identified and coded, and presented together with the original identification code. Since the update work was performed ...

G. K. Bentley M. A. Philippi

1977-01-01

330

Prospective study of the effect of safety belts on morbidity and health care costs in motor-vehicle accidents.  

PubMed

To assess the impact of safety belt use on the extent of injuries sustained in motor-vehicle accidents and the incurred health care costs, 1364 patients were prospectively evaluated at four Chicago-area hospitals. Of these, 791 (58%) were wearing a safety belt whereas 573 (42%) were not. The mean injury severity score for safety belt wearers was 1.8 +/- 0.07 vs 4.51 +/- 0.31 in those not wearing a safety belt. Only 6.8% of safety belt wearers required admission vs 19.2% of those not wearing a safety belt. Restrained occupants incurred mean charges of $534 +/- $67 compared with $1583 +/- $201 in unrestrained occupants. Thus, safety belt wearers had a 60.1% reduction in severity of injury, a 64.6% decrease in hospital admissions, and a 66.3% decline in hospital charges. Our findings demonstrate the significant societal burden of nonuse of safety belts in terms of morbidity and the costs of medical care. PMID:3193590

Orsay, E M; Turnbull, T L; Dunne, M; Barrett, J A; Langenberg, P; Orsay, C P

331

Advanced technologies seal in emissions, safety and reliability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pump sealing with zero fugitive emissions and 1,000 percent greater mean time between planned maintenance (MTBPM) becomes affordable with advanced technology mechanical seals. These new seals eliminate the need to replace pumps and related components with less economical, seal-less pumps, regardless of how strict emissions regulations, enforcement practices and monitoring requirements become. More companies are benefiting from new sealing technologies

Trytek

1993-01-01

332

A Freeway Safety Strategy for Advanced Proactive Traffic Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reactive traffic management strategies such as incident detection are becoming less relevant with the advancement of mobile phone usage. Freeway management in the 21st century needs to shift focus toward proactive strategies that include anticipating incidents such as crashes. A simple approach to identify freeway locations with high probability of crashes through real-time traffic surveillance data is presented here. The

Anurag Pande; Mohamed Abdel-Aty

2005-01-01

333

Advanced Light Source (ALS) Radiation Safety System. Revised.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Advanced Light Source (ALS) at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) is a 1.5 Gev synchrotron light source facility consisting of a 120 kev electron gun, 50 Mev linear accelerator, 1.5 Gev booster synchrotron, 200 meter circumference electron storage...

A. L. Ritchie D. E. Oldfather A. F. Lindner

1993-01-01

334

Advancing medication infusion safety through the clinical integration of technology.  

PubMed

Adverse drug events resulting from errors in prescribing or administering medications are preventable. Within a hospital system, numerous technologies are employed to address the common sources of medication error, including the use of electronic medical records, physician order entry, smart infusion pumps, and barcode medication administration systems. Infusion safety is inherently risky because of the high-risk medications administered and the lack of integration among the stand-alone systems in most institutions. Intravenous clinical integration (IVCI) is a technology that connects electronic medical records, physician order entry, smart infusion pumps, and barcode medication administration systems. It combines the safety features of an automatically programmed infusion pump (drug, concentration, infusion rate, and patient weight, all auto-programmed into the device) with software that provides visibility to real-time clinical infusion data. Our article describes the characteristics of IVCI at WellSpan Health and its impact on patient safety. The integrated infusion system has the capability of reducing medication errors, improving patient care, reducing in-facility costs, and supporting asset management. It can enhance continuous quality improvement efforts and efficiency of clinical work flow. After implementing IVCI, the institution realized a safer patient environment and a more streamlined work flow for pharmacy and nursing. PMID:24145584

Gerhart, Donald; O'Shea, Kristen; Muller, Sharon

2013-10-01

335

Advanced weigh-in-motion system for weighing vehicles at high speed  

SciTech Connect

A state-of-the-art, Advanced Weigh-In-Motion (WIM) system has been designed, installed, and tested on the west bound side of Interstate I-75/I-40 near the Knox County Weigh Station. The project is a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and International Road Dynamics, Inc. (IRD) sponsored by the Office of Uranium Programs, Facility and Technology Management Division of the Department of Energy under CRADA No. ORNL95-0364. ORNL, IRD, the Federal Highway Administration, the Tennessee Department of Safety and the Tennessee Department of Transportation have developed a National High Speed WIM Test Facility for test and evaluation of high-speed WIM systems. The WIM system under evaluation includes a Single Load Cell WIM scale system supplied and installed by IRD. ORNL developed a stand-alone, custom data acquisition system, which acquires the raw signals from IRD`s in-ground single load cell transducers. Under a separate contract with the Federal Highway Administration, ORNL designed and constructed a laboratory scale house for data collection, analysis and algorithm development. An initial advanced weight-determining algorithm has been developed. The new advanced WIM system provides improved accuracy and can reduce overall system variability by up to 30% over the existing high accuracy commercial WIM system.

Beshears, D.L.; Muhs, J.D.; Scudiere, M.B. [and others

1998-02-01

336

Advanced Concepts for Pressure-Channel Reactors: Modularity, Performance and Safety  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on an analysis of the development of advanced concepts for pressure-tube reactor technology, we adapt and adopt the pressure-tube reactor advantage of modularity, so that the subdivided core has the potential for optimization of the core, safety, fuel cycle and thermal performance independently, while retaining passive safety features. In addition, by adopting supercritical water-cooling, the logical developments from existing

Romney B. Duffey; Igor L. Pioro; Sermet Kuran

2008-01-01

337

Advanced Test Reactor Critical Facility safety analysis report five year currency review  

Microsoft Academic Search

By DOE-ID Order 5481.1A, a five year currency review is required of the Safety Analysis Reports of all ID or ID contractor operations having hazards of a type and magnitude not routinely encountered and\\/or accepted by the public. In keeping with this order, a currency review has been performed of the Advanced Test Reactor Critical Facility (ADTRC) Safety Analysis Report

P. R. Napper; W. R. Carpenter; R. W. Garner

1991-01-01

338

AN ADVANCED TOOL FOR APPLIED INTEGRATED SAFETY MANAGEMENT  

SciTech Connect

WESKEM, LLC's Environmental, Safety and Health (ES&H) Department had previously assessed that a lack of consistency, poor communication and using antiquated communication tools could result in varying operating practices, as well as a failure to capture and disseminate appropriate Integrated Safety Management (ISM) information. To address these issues, the ES&H Department established an Activity Hazard Review (AHR)/Activity Hazard Analysis (AHA) process for systematically identifying, assessing, and controlling hazards associated with project work activities during work planning and execution. Depending on the scope of a project, information from field walkdowns and table-top meetings are collected on an AHR form. The AHA then documents the potential failure and consequence scenarios for a particular hazard. Also, the AHA recommends whether the type of mitigation appears appropriate or whether additional controls should be implemented. Since the application is web based, the information is captured into a single system and organized according to the >200 work activities already recorded in the database. Using the streamlined AHA method improved cycle time from over four hours to an average of one hour, allowing more time to analyze unique hazards and develop appropriate controls. Also, the enhanced configuration control created a readily available AHA library to research and utilize along with standardizing hazard analysis and control selection across four separate work sites located in Kentucky and Tennessee. The AHR/AHA system provides an applied example of how the ISM concept evolved into a standardized field-deployed tool yielding considerable efficiency gains in project planning and resource utilization. Employee safety is preserved through detailed planning that now requires only a portion of the time previously necessary. The available resources can then be applied to implementing appropriate engineering, administrative and personal protective equipment controls in the field.

Potts, T. Todd; Hylko, James M.; Douglas, Terence A.

2003-02-27

339

75 FR 50958 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Motorcoach Definition; Occupant Crash Protection  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...retains passengers, including those in child safety restraint systems, within the...a. NHTSA's 2007 Motorcoach Safety Plan In 2002, NHTSA held a public meeting...NHTSA's Approach to Motorcoach Safety, supra, in which we identified the...

2010-08-18

340

System safety and hazard analysis for the Advanced Technology Solar Telescope  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Advanced Technology Solar Telescope (ATST) is a four-meter class instrument being built to perform diffractionlimited observations of the sun. This paper describes how ATST has dealt with system safety and in particular hazard analysis during the design and development (D&D) phase. For ATST the development of a system safety plan and the oversight of the hazard analysis fell, appropriately, to systems engineering. We have adopted the methodology described in MIL-STD-882E, "Standard Practice for System Safety." While these methods were developed for use by the U.S. Department of Defense, they are readily applicable to the safety needs of telescope projects. We describe the details of our process, how it was implemented by the ATST design team, and some useful lessons learned. We conclude with a discussion of our safety related plans during the construction phase of ATST and beyond.

Hubbard, Robert P.

2010-07-01

341

Development of a Robust and Cost-Effective Friction Stir Welding Process for Use in Advanced Military Vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To respond to the advent of more lethal threats, recently designed aluminum-armor-based military-vehicle systems have resorted to an increasing use of higher strength aluminum alloys (with superior ballistic resistance against armor piercing (AP) threats and with high vehicle-light weighing potential). Unfortunately, these alloys are not very amenable to conventional fusion-based welding technologies and in-order to obtain high-quality welds, solid-state joining technologies such as Friction stir welding (FSW) have to be employed. However, since FSW is a relatively new and fairly complex joining technology, its introduction into advanced military vehicle structures is not straight forward and entails a comprehensive multi-step approach. One such (three-step) approach is developed in the present work. Within the first step, experimental and computational techniques are utilized to determine the optimal tool design and the optimal FSW process parameters which result in maximal productivity of the joining process and the highest quality of the weld. Within the second step, techniques are developed for the identification and qualification of the optimal weld joint designs in different sections of a prototypical military vehicle structure. In the third step, problems associated with the fabrication of a sub-scale military vehicle test structure and the blast survivability of the structure are assessed. The results obtained and the lessons learned are used to judge the potential of the current approach in shortening the development time and in enhancing reliability and blast survivability of military vehicle structures.

Grujicic, M.; Arakere, G.; Pandurangan, B.; Hariharan, A.; Yen, C.-F.; Cheeseman, B. A.

2011-02-01

342

AFV-soft: advanced data analysis software for electric and other alternative fuel vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The efficient evaluation of performance parameters for electric and other alternative fuel vehicles is a crucial step in the process of research, development and utilization of such vehicles. In this paper we present the design, organization and operation of the analysis system environment and the software package `AFV-SOFT'. AFV-SOFT has been developed for the evaluation of alternative fuel vehicle performance.

Mario Kovac; Elias Stefanakos; Timothy Arbogast

1996-01-01

343

Fostering innovation, advancing patient safety: the kidney health initiative.  

PubMed

To respond to the serious and underrecognized epidemic of kidney disease in the United States, the US Food and Drug Administration and the American Society of Nephrology have founded the Kidney Health Initiative-a public-private partnership designed to create a collaborative environment in which the US Food and Drug Administration and the greater kidney community can interact to optimize the evaluation of drugs, devices, biologics, and food products. The Kidney Health Initiative will bring together all the necessary stakeholders, including patients, regulators, industry, health care providers, academics, and other governmental agencies, to improve patient safety and foster innovation. This initiative is intended to enable the kidney community as a whole to provide the right drug, device, or biologic for administration to the right patient at the right time by fostering partnerships that will facilitate development and delivery of those products and addressing challenges that currently impede these goals. PMID:23744001

Archdeacon, Patrick; Shaffer, Rachel N; Winkelmayer, Wolfgang C; Falk, Ronald J; Roy-Chaudhury, Prabir

2013-06-06

344

Environmental, health, and safety issues of sodium-sulfur batteries for electric and hybrid vehicles  

SciTech Connect

This report examines the shipping regulations that govern the shipment of dangerous goods. Since the elemental sodium contained in both sodium-sulfur and sodium-metal-chloride batteries is classified as a dangerous good, and is listed on both the national and international hazardous materials listings, both national and international regulatory processes are considered in this report The interrelationships as well as the differences between the two processes are highlighted. It is important to note that the transport regulatory processes examined in this report are reviewed within the context of assessing the necessary steps needed to provide for the domestic and international transport of sodium-beta batteries. The need for such an assessment was determined by the Shipping Sub-Working Group (SSWG) of the EV Battery Readiness Working Group (Working Group), created in 1990. The Working Group was created to examine the regulatory issues pertaining to in-vehicle safety, shipping, and recycling of sodium-sulfur batteries, each of which is addressed by a sub-working group. The mission of the SSWG is to establish basic provisions that will ensure the safe and efficient transport of sodium-beta batteries. To support that end, a proposal to the UN Committee of Experts was prepared by the SSWG, with the goal of obtaining a proper shipping name and UN number for sodium-beta batteries and to establish the basic transport requirements for such batteries (see the appendix for the proposal as submitted). It is emphasized that because batteries are large articles containing elemental sodium and, in some cases, sulfur, there is no existing UN entry under which they can be classified and for which modal transport requirements, such as the use of packaging appropriate for such large articles, are provided for. It is for this reason that a specific UN entry for sodium-beta batteries is considered essential.

Hammel, C.J.

1992-09-01

345

U.S. Department of Energy Vehicle Technologies Program -- Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity -- Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Charging Infrastructure Review  

SciTech Connect

Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) are under evaluation by various stake holders to better understand their capability and potential benefits. PHEVs could allow users to significantly improve fuel economy over a standard HEV and in some cases, depending on daily driving requirements and vehicle design, have the ability to eliminate fuel consumption entirely for daily vehicle trips. The cost associated with providing charge infrastructure for PHEVs, along with the additional costs for the on-board power electronics and added battery requirements associated with PHEV technology will be a key factor in the success of PHEVs. This report analyzes the infrastructure requirements for PHEVs in single family residential, multi-family residential and commercial situations. Costs associated with this infrastructure are tabulated, providing an estimate of the infrastructure costs associated with PHEV deployment.

Kevin Morrow; Donald Darner; James Francfort

2008-11-01

346

Advanced Test Reactor Safety Basis Upgrade Lessons Learned Relative to Design Basis Verification and Safety Basis Management  

SciTech Connect

The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) is a pressurized light-water reactor with a design thermal power of 250 MW. The principal function of the ATR is to provide a high neutron flux for testing reactor fuels and other materials. The reactor also provides other irradiation services such as radioisotope production. The ATR and its support facilities are located at the Test Reactor Area of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). An audit conducted by the Department of Energy's Office of Independent Oversight and Performance Assurance (DOE OA) raised concerns that design conditions at the ATR were not adequately analyzed in the safety analysis and that legacy design basis management practices had the potential to further impact safe operation of the facility.1 The concerns identified by the audit team, and issues raised during additional reviews performed by ATR safety analysts, were evaluated through the unreviewed safety question process resulting in shutdown of the ATR for more than three months while these concerns were resolved. Past management of the ATR safety basis, relative to facility design basis management and change control, led to concerns that discrepancies in the safety basis may have developed. Although not required by DOE orders or regulations, not performing design basis verification in conjunction with development of the 10 CFR 830 Subpart B upgraded safety basis allowed these potential weaknesses to be carried forward. Configuration management and a clear definition of the existing facility design basis have a direct relation to developing and maintaining a high quality safety basis which properly identifies and mitigates all hazards and postulated accident conditions. These relations and the impact of past safety basis management practices have been reviewed in order to identify lessons learned from the safety basis upgrade process and appropriate actions to resolve possible concerns with respect to the current ATR safety basis. The need for a design basis reconstitution program for the ATR has been identified along with the use of sound configuration management principles in order to support safe and efficient facility operation.

G. L. Sharp; R. T. McCracken

2004-05-01

347

Preliminary evaluation of regulatory and safety issues for sodium-sulfur batteries in electric vehicle applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The US Department of Energy (DOE) Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Program is involved in the development and evaluation of sodium-sulfur energy storage batteries for electric vehicle (EV) applications. Laboratory testing of complete battery systems, to be followed by controlled in-vehicle testing and on-road usage, are expected to occur as components of the DOE program during the 1988--1990 time frame. Testing

D. R. Evans; G. L. Henriksen; G. L. Hunt

1987-01-01

348

Multidisciplinary Design of Air-launched Satellite Launch Vehicle Using Particle Swarm Optimization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Launch vehicle design is a complex, multidisciplinary engineering activity that requires making difficult compromises to achieve a balance among competing objectives for the vehicle, including safety, reliability, performance, operability, and cost. Significant work has been done in recent years to advance the design, analysis and optimization of launch vehicles. In the present research effort we propose the application of Particle

Amer Farhan Rafique; He LinShu; Qasim Zeeshan; Ali Kamran

349

The effect of population safety belt usage rates on motor vehicle-related fatalities  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effectiveness of safety belt usage in reducing mortality and morbidity among traffic crash victims has been well established. Population safety belt usage rates have been increasing from 11% in 1980 to 68% in 1995, as measured by observational surveys sponsored by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA). Safety incentive grants from NHTSA to the States with higher than

Richard A. Derrig; Maria Segui-Gomez; Ali Abtahi; Ling-Ling Liu

2002-01-01

350

Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) Facility 10CFR830 Safety Basis Related to Facility Experiments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) Advanced Test Reactor (ATR), a DOE Category A reactor, was designed to provide an irradiation test environment for conducting a variety of experiments. The ATR Safety Analysis Report, determined by DOE to meet the requirements of 10 CFR 830, Subpart B, provides versatility in types of experiments that may be conducted. This

Tomberlin

2002-01-01

351

Designing for safety in passenger ships utilizing advanced evacuation analyses—A risk based approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a novel set of well-defined evacuation scenarios for use in advanced evacuation analyses of passenger ships according to present maritime safety regulations. The scenarios are based on a recently performed risk assessment of passenger ship evacuation and can be related to actual accident scenarios, covering the major hazards passenger ships are exposed to. Furthermore, a risk-based methodology

Erik Vanem; Rolf Skjong

2006-01-01

352

Designing for safety in the conceptual design of the advanced neutron source  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) is a new research reactor facility for the Department of Energy currently in conceptual design at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Major design concepts for the heavy-water-cooled, -moderated, and -reflected reactor are described. The overall approach to nuclear safety adopted for the ANS relies heavily on probabilistic risk assessment and the incorporation of inherent means

1991-01-01

353

Using Level 1 PRA for enhanced safety of the Advanced Neutron Source Reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Phase 1 Level I probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) of the Advanced Neutron Source Reactor (ANS) has been completed as part of the conceptual design phase of this proposed research facility. Since project inception, PRA and reliability concepts have been an integral part of the design evolution, contributing to many of the safety features in the current design. The Level

C. T. Ramsey; M. A. Linn

1995-01-01

354

Using advanced manufacturing to produce unmanned aerial vehicles: a feasibility study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper reports on a feasibility study to explore the impact of advanced manufacturing on the production and maintenance of a 3D printed, unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) in theatre. Specifically, this report focuses on fused deposition modeling (FDM), the selective deposition of a molten thermoplastic. FDM is already a forward deployed technology, primarily used for printing custom tools and replacement parts. The authors ask if it is feasible to expand the printers' capacity to produce aerial platforms; the reduction in logistics and labor could significantly decrease costs per unit and enable far more platform customization and specialized deployment scenarios than are available in existing aircraft. The University of Virginia and The MITRE Corporation designed and built a prototype, 3D printed UAV for use as an aerial sensor platform. This report • Discusses the printed aerial platform, summarizes the design process, and compares printing methods • Describes the benefits and limitations to selecting FDM printers as the technology both for deployment as well as UAV design • Concludes with the current state and future expectations for FDM printing technologies relevant to UAV production. Our findings suggest that although 3D printing is not yet entirely field-ready, many of its advantages can already be realized.

Easter, Steven; Turman, Jonathan; Sheffler, David; Balazs, Michael; Rotner, Jonathan

2013-05-01

355

Safety Design Strategy for the Advanced Test Reactor Diesel Bus (E-3) and Switchgear Replacement Project  

SciTech Connect

In accordance with the requirements of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 413.3B, “Program and Project Management for the Acquisition of Capital Assets,” safety must be integrated into the design process for new or major modifications to DOE Hazard Category 1, 2, and 3 nuclear facilities. The intended purpose of this requirement involves the handling of hazardous materials, both radiological and chemical, in a way that provides adequate protection to the public, workers, and the environment. Requirements provided in DOE Order 413.3B and DOE Order 420.1B, “Facility Safety,” and the expectations of DOE-STD-1189-2008, “Integration of Safety into the Design Process,” provide for identification of hazards early in the project and use of an integrated team approach to design safety into the facility. This safety design strategy provides the basic safety-in-design principles and concepts that will be used for the Advanced Test Reactor Reliability Sustainment Project. While this project does not introduce new hazards to the ATR, it has the potential for significant impacts to safety-related systems, structures, and components that are credited in the ATR safety basis and are being replaced. Thus the project has been determined to meet the definition of a major modification and is being managed accordingly.

Noel Duckwitz

2011-06-01

356

Safety Design Strategy for the Advanced Test Reactor Primary Coolant Pump and Motor Replacement Project  

SciTech Connect

In accordance with the requirements of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 413.3B, “Program and Project Management for the Acquisition of Capital Assets,” safety must be integrated into the design process for new or major modifications to DOE Hazard Category 1, 2, and 3 nuclear facilities. The intended purpose of this requirement involves the handling of hazardous materials, both radiological and chemical, in a way that provides adequate protection to the public, workers, and the environment. Requirements provided in DOE Order 413.3B and DOE Order 420.1B, “Facility Safety,” and the expectations of DOE-STD-1189-2008, “Integration of Safety into the Design Process,” provide for identification of hazards early in the project and use of an integrated team approach to design safety into the facility. This safety design strategy provides the basic safety-in-design principles and concepts that will be used for the Advanced Test Reactor Reliability Sustainment Project. While this project does not introduce new hazards to the ATR, it has the potential for significant impacts to safety-related systems, structures, and components that are credited in the ATR safety basis and are being replaced. Thus the project has been determined to meet the definition of a major modification and is being managed accordingly.

Noel Duckwitz

2011-06-01

357

Safety Design Strategy for the Advanced Test Reactor Emergency Firewater Injection System Replacement Project  

SciTech Connect

In accordance with the requirements of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 413.3B, “Program and Project Management for the Acquisition of Capital Assets,” safety must be integrated into the design process for new or major modifications to DOE Hazard Category 1, 2, and 3 nuclear facilities. The intended purpose of this requirement involves the handling of hazardous materials, both radiological and chemical, in a way that provides adequate protection to the public, workers, and the environment. Requirements provided in DOE Order 413.3B and DOE Order 420.1B, “Facility Safety,” and the expectations of DOE-STD-1189-2008, “Integration of Safety into the Design Process,” provide for identification of hazards early in the project and use of an integrated team approach to design safety into the facility. This safety design strategy provides the basic safety-in-design principles and concepts that will be used for the Advanced Test Reactor Reliability Sustainment Project. While this project does not introduce new hazards to the ATR, it has the potential for significant impacts to safety-related systems, structures, and components that are credited in the ATR safety basis and are being replaced. Thus the project has been determined to meet the definition of a major modification and is being managed accordingly.

Noel Duckwitz

2011-06-01

358

Applicability of RELAP5 for safety analysis of AP600 and PIUS reactors. [Advanced reactors  

SciTech Connect

An assessment of the applicability of using RELAP5 for performing safety analyses of the AP600 and PIUS advanced reactor concepts is being performed. This ongoing work is part of a larger safety assessment of advanced reactors sponsored by the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission. RELAP5 models and correlations are being reviewed from the perspective of the new AP600 and PIUS phenomena and features that could be important to reactor safety. The purpose is to identify those areas in which new mathematical models of physical phenomena would be required to be added to RELAP5. In most cases, the AP600 and PIUS designs and systems and the planned and off-normal operations are similar enough to current Pressurized Water Reactors (PWR) that RELAP5 safety analysis applicability is unchanged. However, for AP600 the single most important systemic and phenomenological difference between it and current PWRs is in the close coupling between the reactor system and the containment during postulated Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA) events. This close coupling may require the addition of some thermal-hydraulic models to RELAP5. And for PIUS, the most important new feature is the thermal density locks. These and other important safety-related features are discussed. This document presents general descriptions of RELAP5, AP600, and PIUS, describes the new features and phenomena of the reactors, and discusses the code/reactors safety-related issues. 32 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

Motloch, C.G.; Modro, S.M.

1990-01-01

359

1997 hybrid electric vehicle specifications  

SciTech Connect

The US DOE sponsors Advanced Vehicle Technology competitions to help educate the public and advance new vehicle technologies. For several years, DOE has provided financial and technical support for the American Tour de Sol. This event showcases electric and hybrid electric vehicles in a road rally across portions of the northeastern United States. The specifications contained in this technical memorandum apply to vehicles that will be entered in the 1997 American Tour de Sol. However, the specifications were prepared to be general enough for use by other teams and individuals interested in developing hybrid electric vehicles. The purpose of the specifications is to ensure that the vehicles developed do not present a safety hazard to the teams that build and drive them or to the judges, sponsors, or public who attend the competitions. The specifications are by no means the definitive sources of information on constructing hybrid electric vehicles - as electric and hybrid vehicles technologies advance, so will the standards and practices for their construction. In some cases, the new standards and practices will make portions of these specifications obsolete.

Sluder, S.; Larsen, R.; Duoba, M.

1996-10-01

360

Using safety stocks and simulation to solve the vehicle routing problem with stochastic demands  

Microsoft Academic Search

After introducing the Vehicle Routing Problem with Stochastic Demands (VRPSD) and some related work, this paper proposes a flexible solution methodology. The logic behind this methodology is to transform the issue of solving a given VRPSD instance into an issue of solving a small set of Capacitated Vehicle Routing Problem (CVRP) instances. Thus, our approach takes advantage of the fact

A. Juan; J. Faulin; S. Grasman; D. Riera; J. Marull; C. Mendez

2011-01-01

361

77 FR 74144 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Event Data Recorders  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...pre-crash data are vehicle speed, engine throttle position...measured changes in forward velocity (delta-V) and air...such as the change in velocity) by traditional post-crash...data (e.g., vehicle speed and engine throttle...elements such as change in velocity, air bag...

2012-12-13

362

Reactor Accident Analysis Methodology for the Advanced Test Reactor Critical Facility Documented Safety Analysis Upgrade  

SciTech Connect

The regulatory requirement to develop an upgraded safety basis for a DOE nuclear facility was realized in January 2001 by issuance of a revision to Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations Section 830 (10 CFR 830).1 Subpart B of 10 CFR 830, “Safety Basis Requirements,” requires a contractor responsible for a DOE Hazard Category 1, 2, or 3 nuclear facility to either submit by April 9, 2001 the existing safety basis which already meets the requirements of Subpart B, or to submit by April 10, 2003 an upgraded facility safety basis that meets the revised requirements.1 10 CFR 830 identifies Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Regulatory Guide 1.70, “Standard Format and Content of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants”2 as a safe harbor methodology for preparation of a DOE reactor documented safety analysis (DSA). The regulation also allows for use of a graded approach. This report presents the methodology that was developed for preparing the reactor accident analysis portion of the Advanced Test Reactor Critical Facility (ATRC) upgraded DSA. The methodology was approved by DOE for developing the ATRC safety basis as an appropriate application of a graded approach to the requirements of 10 CFR 830.

Gregg L. Sharp; R. T. McCracken

2003-06-01

363

Reactor Accident Analysis Methodology for the Advanced Test Reactor Critical Facility Documented Safety Analysis Upgrade  

SciTech Connect

The regulatory requirement to develop an upgraded safety basis for a DOE Nuclear Facility was realized in January 2001 by issuance of a revision to Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations Section 830 (10 CFR 830). Subpart B of 10 CFR 830, ''Safety Basis Requirements,'' requires a contractor responsible for a DOE Hazard Category 1, 2, or 3 nuclear facility to either submit by April 9, 2001 the existing safety basis which already meets the requirements of Subpart B, or to submit by April 10, 2003 an upgraded facility safety basis that meets the revised requirements. 10 CFR 830 identifies Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Regulatory Guide 1.70, ''Standard Format and Content of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants'' as a safe harbor methodology for preparation of a DOE reactor documented safety analysis (DSA). The regulation also allows for use of a graded approach. This report presents the methodology that was developed for preparing the reactor accident analysis portion of the Advanced Test Reactor Critical Facility (ATRC) upgraded DSA. The methodology was approved by DOE for developing the ATRC safety basis as an appropriate application of a graded approach to the requirements of 10 CFR 830.

Sharp, G.L.; McCracken, R.T.

2003-05-13

364

The Advanced Re-Entry Vehicle (ARV) a Development Step from ATV Toward Manned Transportation Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Advanced Re-entry Vehicle (ARV) programme has been undertaken by Europe with the objective to contribute to the preparation of a future European crew transportation system, while providing a valuable logistic support to the ISS through an operational cargo return system. This development would allow: - the early acquisition of critical technologies; - the design, development and testing of elements suitable for the follow up human rated transportation system. These vehicles should also serve future LEO infrastructures and exploration missions. With the aim to satisfy the above objectives a team composed by major European industries and led by EADS Astrium Space Transportation is currently conducting the phase A of the programme under contract with the European Space Agency (ESA). Two vehicle versions are being investigated: a Cargo version, transporting cargo only to/from the ISS, and a Crew version, which will allow the transfer of both crew and cargo to/from the ISS. The ARV Cargo version, in its present configuration, is composed of three modules. The Versatile Service Module (VSM) provides to the system the propulsion/GNC for orbital manoeuvres and attitude control and the orbital power generation. Its propulsion system and GNC shall be robust enough to allow its use for different launch stacks and different LEO missions in the future. The Un-pressurised Cargo Module (UCM) provides the accommodation for about 3000 kg of un-pressurised cargo and is to be sufficiently flexible to ensure the transportation of: - orbital infrastructure components (ORU's); - scientific / technological experiments; - propellant for re-fuelling, re-boost (and deorbiting) of the ISS. The Re-entry Module (RM) provides a pressurized volume to accommodate active/passive cargo (2000 kg upload/1500 kg download). It is conceived as an expendable conical capsule with spherical heat- hield, interfacing with the new docking standard of the ISS, i.e. it carries the IBDM docking system, on a dedicated adapter. Its thermo-mechanical design, GNC, descent & landing systems take into account its future evolution for crew transportation. The ARV Crew version is also composed of three main modules: - an Integrated Resource Module (IRM) providing the main propulsion and power functions during the on-orbit phases of the mission; - a Re-entry Module (RM) providing the re-entry function and a pressurized environment for four crew members and about 250 kg of passive / active cargo; - a Crew Escape System (CES) providing the function of emergency separation of the RM from the launcher (in case of failure of this latter). The paper presents an overview of the ARV Cargo and Crew versions requirements derived from the above objectives, their mission scenarios, system architectures and performances. The commonality aspects between the ARV Cargo version and future transportation systems (including also the ARV Crew version and logistic carriers) are also highlighted.

Bottacini, M.; Berthe, P.; Vo, X.; Pietsch, K.

2011-08-01

365

Development of a collaborative vehicle collision avoidance system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Advanced systems for driver assistance in combination with new preventive safety systems offer great potential for collision avoidance, reducing accident severity and increasing occupant protection. This paper presents the development and evaluation of a system targeting to vehicle collision avoidance in emergency situations. The proposed system provides the nearby vehicles with information about possible accident involvement. The main feature of

Evdokimos I. Konstantinidis; George I. Patoulidis; Ioannis N. Vandikas; Constantinos Parisses; Nikos Asimopoulos

2010-01-01

366

Human-System Safety Methods for Development of Advanced Air Traffic Management Systems  

SciTech Connect

The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) is supporting the National Aeronautics and Space Administration in the development of advanced air traffic management (ATM) systems as part of the Advanced Air Transportation Technologies program. As part of this program INEEL conducted a survey of human-system safety methods that have been applied to complex technical systems, to identify lessons learned from these applications and provide recommendations for the development of advanced ATM systems. The domains that were surveyed included offshore oil and gas, commercial nuclear power, commercial aviation, and military. The survey showed that widely different approaches are used in these industries, and that the methods used range from very high-level, qualitative approaches to very detailed quantitative methods such as human reliability analysis (HRA) and probabilistic safety assessment (PSA). In addition, the industries varied widely in how effectively they incorporate human-system safety assessment in the design, development, and testing of complex technical systems. In spite of the lack of uniformity in the approaches and methods used, it was found that methods are available that can be combined and adapted to support the development of advanced air traffic management systems.

Nelson, W.R.

1999-05-24

367

The effectiveness of a multimedia intervention on parents' knowledge and use of vehicle safety systems for children.  

PubMed

Trauma due to road crashes is the leading cause of death and injury in Canadian children younger than 14 years, despite mandatory use of vehicle restraints since 1977. A multisite intervention study using a pretest-posttest design was conducted in four Ontario cities to test the effectiveness of an educational program on parents' knowledge of safety system use for children (0-12 years) 6 weeks following the educational intervention. The sample consisted of 418 families who reported on 732 children. Results indicated that knowledge increased significantly following the intervention. Use of professional sources of information was an important factor that is linked with increased parents' knowledge. PMID:18339338

Snowdon, Anne W; Hussein, Abdul; High, Lisa; Stamler, Lynnette; Millar-Polgar, Jan; Patrick, Linda; Ahmed, Ejaz

2008-04-01

368

Environmental and Safety Regulations and Standards Applicable to the Dispensing of Alternative Fuels for Vehicles.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

To gauge the degree of readiness for commercialization of alternative fuels in an environmentally responsible and safe manner, existing regulations and standards applicable to the dispensing of alternative fuels for vehicles at the point of retail sale we...

R. P. Larsen

1985-01-01

369

75 FR 15620 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Air Brake Systems  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...substantial improvements in stopping distance performance. In November 2009, the...Systems, to require improved stopping distance performance for truck tractors. The...vehicles to comply with the new stopping distance...

2010-03-30

370

76 FR 53648 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards: Occupant Crash Protection  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...effect of the rule in the preamble of the NPRM. A June 14, 2010 final rule on FMVSS No. 305, Electric-powered vehicles: electrolyte spillage and electrical shock protection, has previously responded to AAJ's concerns about the agency's discussion...

2011-08-29

371

Video technology to advance safety in the operating room and perioperative environment.  

PubMed

Video is a powerful medium and is underused for patient safety in several areas: education, real-time consultation, process improvement, research, and workflow coordination. We illustrate this point through an overview of uses of video in health care by the authors and others in several institutions. These uses were in the context of team work training, operating room coordination, technical skills of invasive procedures, process improvement, telementoring, and multimedia video records. Also described are several key issues associated with the use of video, such as ethics and legal concerns. Technology advances and new methods will make video an important tool for improving patient safety. PMID:17442881

Xiao, Yan; Schimpff, Stephen; Mackenzie, Colin; Merrell, Ronald; Entin, Eileen; Voigt, Roger; Jarrell, Bruce

2007-03-01

372

Teaching Advanced Vehicle Dynamics Using a Project Based Learning (PBL) Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents an interesting teaching experiment carried out at XXX University. The author offered a new course in computational/analytical vehicle dynamics to senior undergraduate students, graduate students and practicing engineers. The objective of the course was to present vehicle dynamics theory with practical applications using…

Redkar, Sangram

2012-01-01

373

Teaching Advanced Vehicle Dynamics Using a Project Based Learning (PBL) Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper presents an interesting teaching experiment carried out at XXX University. The author offered a new course in computational/analytical vehicle dynamics to senior undergraduate students, graduate students and practicing engineers. The objective of the course was to present vehicle dynamics theory with practical applications using…

Redkar, Sangram

2012-01-01

374

Advanced gear-shifting and clutching strategy for a parallel-hybrid vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

In parallel-hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), both the electric drive and the internal combustion engine provide driving torque to the wheels either separately or together. The electric drive also can be used as a generator to recharge the batteries when the engine produces more power than is needed to propel the vehicle. As a result of the battery peak power density

Hyeoun-Dong Lee; Seung-Ki Sul; Han-Sang Cho; Jang-Moo Lee

2000-01-01

375

Fault Detection And Identification With Application To Advanced Vehicle Control Systems: Final Report  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study reports on a preliminary design of a health monitoring system for automated vehicles. A new detailed nonlinear vehicle simulation which extends the current simulation is documented and will be used as a future testbed for evaluating the performance of the health monitoring system. A health monitoring system has been constructed for the lateral and longitudinal modes that monitors

R. K. Douglas; J. L. Speyer; D. L. Mingori; R. H. Chen; D. P. Malladi; W. H. Chung

1996-01-01

376

Accounting for the Variation of Driver Aggression in the Simulation of Conventional and Advanced Vehicles  

SciTech Connect

Hybrid electric vehicles, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, and battery electric vehicles offer the potential to reduce both oil imports and greenhouse gases, as well as to offer a financial benefit to the driver. However, assessing these potential benefits is complicated by several factors, including the driving habits of the operator. We focus on driver aggression, i.e., the level of acceleration and velocity characteristic of travel, to (1) assess its variation within large, real-world drive datasets, (2) quantify its effect on both vehicle efficiency and economics for multiple vehicle types, (3) compare these results to those of standard drive cycles commonly used in the industry, and (4) create a representative drive cycle for future analyses where standard drive cycles are lacking.

Neubauer, J.; Wood, E.

2013-01-01

377

Preliminary safety analysis report for the Decontamination and Decommissioning of the ARVFS (Army Reentry Vehicle Facility Site) NaK  

SciTech Connect

This document presents the safety analysis for the Decontamination and Decommissioning (D and D) of the contaminated NaK (sodium-potassium) eutectic solution stored at the Army Reentry Vehicle Facility Site (ARVFS). The D and D activity of processing NaK has been planned and designed to meet appropriate safety standards. A plan to process four containers of contaminated NaK eutectic solution (180 gallons of liquid metal), including transuranics, into a waste form acceptable for disposal has been developed. The NaK is stored in two 55-gallon drums and two vessels fabricated from pipe sections. The containers have been stored in an underground bunker at the ARVFS located near the center of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). 9 refs., 7 figs., 5 tabs.

Mobley, E.V.

1987-09-01

378

Developing a Comprehensive Software Suite for Advanced Reactor Performance and Safety Analysis  

SciTech Connect

This paper provides an introduction to the reactor analysis capabilities of the nuclear power reactor simulation tools that are being developed as part of the U.S. Department of Energy s Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation (NEAMS) Toolkit. The NEAMS Toolkit is an integrated suite of multi-physics simulation tools that leverage high-performance computing to reduce uncertainty in the prediction of performance and safety of advanced reactor and fuel designs. The Toolkit effort is comprised of two major components, the Fuels Product Line (FPL), which provides tools for fuel performance analysis, and the Reactor Product Line (RPL), which provides tools for reactor performance and safety analysis. This paper provides an overview of the NEAMS RPL development effort.

Pointer, William David [ORNL; Bradley, Keith S [ORNL; Fischer, Paul F [ORNL; Smith, Micheal A [ORNL; Tautges, Timothy J [ORNL; Ferencz, Robert M [ORNL; Martineau, Richard C [ORNL; Jain, Rajeev [ORNL; Obabko, Aleksandr [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Billings, Jay Jay [ORNL

2013-01-01

379

Recent advances in MRI technology: Implications for image quality and patient safety  

PubMed Central

Recent advances in MRI technology are presented, with emphasis on how this new technology impacts clinical operations (better image quality, faster exam times, and improved throughput). In addition, implications for patient safety are discussed with emphasis on the risk of patient injury due to either high local specific absorption rate (SAR) or large cumulative energy doses delivered during long exam times. Patient comfort issues are examined as well.

Sobol, Wlad T.

2012-01-01

380

Tracking studies of top-up safety for the Advanced Photon Source  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Advanced Photon Source (APS) is a 7-GeV, third-generation synchrotron radiation source. To provide more stable beam for users, we are pursuing a new operating mode called “top-up”. In this mode, the beam current is not allowed to decay as it normally would, but instead is maintained at a high level through frequent injection. A safety question with top-up mode

M. Borland; L. Emery

1999-01-01

381

Using level-I PRA for enhanced safety of the advanced neutron source reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The phase-1, level-I probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) of the Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) reactor has been completed as part of the conceptual design phase of this proposed research facility. Since project inception, PRA and reliability concepts have been an integral part of the design evolutions contributing to many of the safety features in the current design. The level-I PRA has

C. T. Ramsey; M. A. Linn

1995-01-01

382

Using Level 1 PRA for enhanced safety of the Advanced Neutron Source Reactor  

SciTech Connect

The Phase 1 Level I probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) of the Advanced Neutron Source Reactor (ANS) has been completed as part of the conceptual design phase of this proposed research facility. Since project inception, PRA and reliability concepts have been an integral part of the design evolution, contributing to many of the safety features in the current design. The Level I PRA has been used to evaluate the internal events core damage frequency against project goals, to identify systems important to safety and availability, and will continue to guide and provide support to accident analysis, both severe and nonsevere. The results also reflect the risk value of defense-in-depth safety features in reducing the likelihood of core damage.

Ramsey, C.T.; Linn, M.A.

1995-04-01

383

Consolidated Advanced Technologies for Law Enforcement Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Consolidated Advanced Technologies for Law Enforcement Program (CAT Program) is a collaborative effort between the University of New Hampshire and the New Hampshire Department of Safety. The program addresses related problems in the integration of electronic devices within police vehicles, and in the network communications integrating vehicles and law enforcement agencies, all of which impact the ability to seamlessly

W. Thomas Miller; Andrew L. Kun; William H. Lenharth

2004-01-01

384

Efficient, High-Torque Electric Vehicle Motor: Advanced Electric Vehicle Motors with Low or No Rare Earth Content  

SciTech Connect

REACT Project: QM Power will develop a new type of electric motor with the potential to efficiently power future generations of EVs without the use of rare-earth-based magnets. Many of today’s EV motors use rare earth magnets to efficiently provide torque to the wheels. QM Power’s motors would contain magnets that use no rare earth minerals, are light and compact, and can deliver more power with greater efficiency and at reduced cost. Key innovations in this project include a new motor design with iron-based magnetic materials, a new motor control technique, and advanced manufacturing techniques that substantially reduce the cost of the motor. The ultimate goal of this project is to create a cost-effective EV motor that offers the rough peak equivalent of 270 horsepower.

None

2012-01-01

385

Recent Advances in LOX \\/ LH2 Propulsion System for Reusable Vehicle Testing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The third-generation vehicle RVT#3 equipped with a pressure-fed engine, which had upgraded in terms of durability enhancement and a LH2 tank of composite material, successfully performed in repeated flight operation tests; and the vehicle reached its maximum flying altitude of 42m in October 2003. The next step for demonstrating entire sequence of full-scale operation is to put a turbopump-fed system

Shinichiro Tokudome; Yoshihiro Naruo; Tsuyoshi Yagishita; Satoshi Nonaka; Maki Shida; Hatsuo Mori; Takeshi Nakamura

2009-01-01

386

DEVELOPMNET STRATEGY OF THE ROAD SAFETY SURVEY AND ANALYSIS VEHICLE : ROSSAV  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this research is to develop a strategy to build a mobile system which can be useful for the road safety analysis. Most commonly used data for the road safety analysis are road geometric information. In order to collect and analyze road geometric data, various sensors were tested and installed to collect position data, attitude data, and image

Chunjoo YOON; Donghoon JEONG; Junggon SUNG

387

Worldwide advanced nuclear power reactors with passive and inherent safety: What, why, how, and who  

SciTech Connect

The political controversy over nuclear power, the accidents at Three Mile Island (TMI) and Chernobyl, international competition, concerns about the carbon dioxide greenhouse effect and technical breakthroughs have resulted in a segment of the nuclear industry examining power reactor concepts with PRIME safety characteristics. PRIME is an acronym for Passive safety, Resilience, Inherent safety, Malevolence resistance, and Extended time after initiation of an accident for external help. The basic ideal of PRIME is to develop power reactors in which operator error, internal sabotage, or external assault do not cause a significant release of radioactivity to the environment. Several PRIME reactor concepts are being considered. In each case, an existing, proven power reactor technology is combined with radical innovations in selected plant components and in the safety philosophy. The Process Inherent Ultimate Safety (PIUS) reactor is a modified pressurized-water reactor, the Modular High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (MHTGR) is a modified gas-cooled reactor, and the Advanced CANDU Project is a modified heavy-water reactor. In addition to the reactor concepts, there is parallel work on super containments. The objective is the development of a passive box'' that can contain radioactivity in the event of any type of accident. This report briefly examines: why a segment of the nuclear power community is taking this new direction, how it differs from earlier directions, and what technical options are being considered. A more detailed description of which countries and reactor vendors have undertaken activities follows. 41 refs.

Forsberg, C.W.; Reich, W.J.

1991-09-01

388

78 FR 54209 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Lamps, Reflective Devices, and Associated Equipment  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Ford stated that the license plate mounting provisions of SAE J587 OCT81 were intended as instructions for evaluating the photometric performance of license plate lamps, not as a requirement for how license plates must be mounted on a vehicle....

2013-09-03

389

Environmental and safety regulations and standards applicable to the dispensing of alternative fuels for vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

To gauge the degree of readiness for commercialization of alternative fuels in an environmentally responsible and safe manner, existing regulations and standards applicable to the dispensing of alternative fuels for vehicles at the point of retail sale were examined. The fuels covered were compressed natural gas (CNG), liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), and neat methanol. The study found many industry-developed and

1985-01-01

390

Task-based vehicle interior layout design using optimization method to enhance safety  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a virtual environment for conducting vehicle interior layout design. A virtual human called Santos that is biomechanically correct, has realistic musculoskeletal system, and natural motion\\/posture is created to live in this virtual world. One of the objectives of this virtual environment is to allow Santos to explore the interior package design such that one designs new defense

Joo Kim; Jingzhou Yang; Karim Abdel-Malek; Kyle Nebel

2005-01-01

391

75 FR 15621 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Theft Protection and Rollaway Prevention  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...However, we find no indication either in the text...rulemaking be done, indicating that the agency is...vehicles, if the battery is dead or at a low state of charge, the shift selector...unless the collection displays a valid OMB...

2010-03-30

392

Examining cognitive interference and adaptive safety behaviours in tactical vehicle control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concurrent mental workload degrades some aspects of driving performance, but drivers might be able to modify their behaviour adaptively to accommodate cognitive impairments. For example, they might maintain longer vehicle headway in dual-task conditions to compensate for slowed response times. Studies documenting such adaptive behaviours typically use steady-state driving scenarios such as car following. Yet, driving often involves tactical control

W. J. Horrey; D. J. Simons

2007-01-01

393

76 FR 78 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard; Engine Control Module Speed Limiter Device  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...only cause of crashes, that weather and highway conditions are also...all vehicles on the nation's roads and highways; several comments...the equipment currently on the road...1990 with a 56-mph limit for road trains (a road train...

2011-01-03

394

User perceptions and safety implications of in-vehicle navigation systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Researchers at the University are engaged in two projects related to the testing of in-vehicle navigation systems. One project is concerned with the interrelationship between the given route guidance information, the driver's belief or anticipation, and the route choice made by the driver. Additionally, the impact of alternative route guidance schemes (information content and the format of information transfer) is

Paul P. Jovanis; Ryuichi Kitamura

1989-01-01

395

77 FR 19155 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Seat Belt Assembly Anchorages; Incorporation by Reference  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...easier to use than the current body blocks. DATES: Comments must...shoulder belt) by an upper torso body block (Figure 3 in FMVSS No...repeated trials on the same vehicle body design. Our assessment is based...variability. Anchorage load cells were mounted to a rigid...

2012-03-30

396

70 FR 49223 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Roof Crush Resistance  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...NHTSA, before the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation. U.S. Senate...factor of 2.5. Safety Analysis and Forensic Engineering (SAFE) and Syson-Hille...difficult to discriminate between good and bad performing roof structures,...

2005-08-23

397

Technology assessments of advanced energy storage systems for electric and hybrid vehicles  

SciTech Connect

Flywheels, hydropneumatic accumulators (in vehicles with a hydrostatic powertrain), and superconducting magnets were assessed as candidate technologies for recovering braking energy and averaging power demands in electric and hybrid vehicles. The technologies were also assessed for their suitability for fulfilling the entire energy storage requirement in vehicles. The scope of the technology assessments included the current state-of-the-art and developments anticipated within the next few years in the US and abroad. Key individuals and companies currently working on each technology contributed technical information to the study. Some of these individuals and companies are nearing the pre-production prototype stage with systems suitable for automobiles. Several have constructed systems using similar technology for other applications, including satellites and industrial equipment.

Not Available

1993-04-30

398

Advanced Technologies for Light-Duty Vehicles (released in AEO2006)  

EIA Publications

A fundamental concern in projecting the future attributes of light-duty vehiclespassenger cars, sport utility vehicles, pickup trucks, and minivans is how to represent technological change and the market forces that drive it. There is always considerable uncertainty about the evolution of existing technologies, what new technologies might emerge, and how consumer preferences might influence the direction of change. Most of the new and emerging technologies expected to affect the performance and fuel use of light-duty vehicles over the next 25 years are represented in NEMS; however, the potential emergence of new, unforeseen technologies makes it impossible to address all the technology options that could come into play. The previous section of Issues in Focus discussed several potential technologies that currently are not represented in NEMS. This section discusses some of the key technologies represented in NEMS that are expected to be implemented in light-duty vehicles over the next 25 years.

Information Center

2006-02-01

399

Effect of increase in weight and stiffness of vehicles on the safety of rear seat occupants  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, full-scale finite element (FE) simulations have been performed to identify factors affecting the protection of rear seat occupants. An FE model based on the 2001 Ford Taurus was used and coupled with a Hybrid III 5th percentile female dummy model in the rear seat of the vehicle. The dummy model was restrained using a three-point belt system.

Elham Sahraei Esfahani; Dhafer Marzougui; Kennerly Digges; C. D. Kan

2011-01-01

400

Mobile Alternative Fueling Station Locator. Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center. Fact Sheet.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Driving cross-country or even around town in an alternative fuel vehicle used to require work ahead of time to find the nearest fueling station--but not anymore. Consumers and fleets can now access the U.S. Department of Energys (DOE) Alternative Fueling ...

2009-01-01

401

Extending the Endurance of Small Unmanned Aerial Vehicles Using Advanced Flexible Solar Cells.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Most currently fielded small unmanned aerial vehicles (SUAV) have flight times limited to 90 minutes due to battery life and are often forced to work in teams of multiple craft to provide tactical level units with continuous observation of the battlefield...

C. R. Gromadski

2012-01-01

402

Graphite-Fiber-Reinforced Plastic Pressure Hull Mod 2 for the Advanced Unmanned Search System Vehicle.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report summarizes the fabrication and testing of the AUSS Mod 2 cylindrical pressure hull with a 30.75-inch outer diameter X 25.75-inch diameter X 65.0-inch length that successfully met the 20,000-foot design depth requirement of the AUSS vehicle. Th...

J. D. Stachiw B. Frame

1988-01-01

403

Fault Detection And Identification With Application To Advanced Vehicle Control Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report continues work on the design of a health monitoring system for automated vehicles. The approach is designed to fuse data from dissimilar instruments using modeled dynamic relationships and fault detection and identification filters. Issues relating to sensor models, output separability, steady-state fault persistence and the spectral content of sensor faults are considered.

Randal K. Douglas; Walter H. Chung; Durga P. Malladi; Robert H. Chen; D. Lewis Mingori

1997-01-01

404

Advanced Distributed Simulation Technology II (ADST-II) Hybrid Electric Combat Vehicle Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This project was originally titled the Hybrid Electric Combat Vehicle (HECV); hence the title on the cover. It was subsequently named the Combat Hybrid Power System (CHPS) project and is so-called hereafter. This paper presents two different analyses of t...

1998-01-01

405

On-road evaluation of advanced hybrid electric vehicles over a wide range of ambient temperatures.  

SciTech Connect

In recent years, Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEV's) have become a production viable and effective mode of efficient transportation. HEV's can provide increased fuel economy over convention technology vehicle, but these advantages can be affected dramatically by wide variations in operating temperatures. The majority of data measured for benchmarking HEV technologies is generated from ambient test cell temperatures at 22 C. To investigate cold and hot temperature affects on HEV operation and efficiency, an on-road evaluation protocol is defined and conducted over a six month study at widely varying temperatures. Two test vehicles, the 2007 Toyota Camry HEV and 2005 Ford Escape HEV, were driven on a pre-defined urban driving route in ambient temperatures ranging from -14 C to 31 C. Results from the on-road evaluation were also compared and correlated to dynamometer testing of the same drive cycle. Results from this on-road evaluation show the battery power control limits and engine operation dramatically change with temperature. These changes decrease fuel economy by more than two times at -14 C as compared to 25 C. The two vehicles control battery temperature in different manners. The Escape HEV uses the air conditioning system to provide cool air to the batteries at high temperatures and is therefore able to maintain battery temperature to less than 33 C. The Camry HEV uses cabin air to cool the batteries. The observed maximum battery temperature was 44 C.

Carlson, R.; Duoba, M. J.; Bocci, D.; Lohse-Busch, H. (Energy Systems)

2007-01-01

406

Real time lane detection for autonomous vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

An increasing safety and reducing road accidents, thereby saving lives are one of great interest in the context of Advanced Driver Assistance Systems. Apparently, among the complex and challenging tasks of future road vehicles is road lane detection or road boundaries detection. It is based on lane detection (which includes the localization of the road, the determination of the relative

A. A. M. Assidiq; O. O. Khalifa; R. Islam; S. Khan

2008-01-01

407

Engineering, safety, and economic evaluations of ASPIRE (Advanced Safe Pool Immersed REactor)  

SciTech Connect

A preconceptual design of a tokamak fusion reactor concept called ASPIRE (Advanced Safe Pool Immersed REactor) has been developed. This concept provides many of the attractive features that are needed to enhance the capability of fusion to become the power generation technology for the 21st century. Specifically, these features are: inherent safety, low pressure, environmental compatibility, moderate unit size, high availability, high thermal efficiency, simplicity, low radioactive inventory, Class C radioactive waste disposal, and low cost of electricity. We have based ASPIRE on a second stability tokamak. However, the concept is equally applicable to a first stability tokamak or to most other magnetic fusion systems.

Sze, D.K.; Gordon, J.; Piet, S.; Cheng, E.T.; Klein, A.

1988-02-01

408

Trafikksikkerhetsindikator for Trafikantadferd og Kjoeretoeykvalitet. Statens Vegvesens Tilstandsindikator for Tafikant og Kjoeretoy (Traffic Safety Indicator for Road User Behaviour and Vehicle Condition).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A traffic safety indicator based on six component indicators in road traffic is being developed. There are two indicators for the use of seat belts, two related to hours of service and rest, one for brakes on heavy vehicles, and one for the amount and qua...

S. F. Olsen

2004-01-01

409

Safety Assessment of Two Advanced Ferritic Steel Molten Salt Blanket Design Concepts  

SciTech Connect

In this article we explore some of the safety issues associated with two advanced ferritic steel (AFS) molten salt blanket designs from the Advanced Power Extraction (APEX) design study. In particular, we examine radiological inventories, decay heat, waste disposal ratings, and toxic chemical inventories of these design concepts. In addition, we predict the thermal response of these blanket designs during accident conditions, and the mobilization of the radiological inventories and site boundary dose from the release of this mobilized material during a worst-case confinement-boundary-bypass accident. The molten salts being proposed for these blanket concepts are Flibe and Flinabe, and the structural material is a nano-composite strengthened ferritic steel alloy called 12YWT. The estimated dose at the site boundary is less than the no-evacuation limit of 10 mSv for a ground level release during worst-case weather conditions if plant isolation occurs within five days.

B. J. Merrill; M. Sawan; C.P.C. Wong; R. E. Nygren; L. C. Cadwallader; S. Malang; D.-K. Sze

2004-11-01

410

76 FR 55859 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards No. 121; Air Brake Systems  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...by the petitioner does not support the conclusion that safety...deactivated. Rather, the data supports the conclusion that removing...trucks and buses equipped with hydraulic brakes), the agency solicited...petitioner provide any, to support this claim. However, we...

2011-09-09

411

Compliance Test Reports on Safety Glazing Materials for Glazing Motor Vehicles Operating on Land Highways.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Results are given of tests of the following safety glass brands made in accordance with USA Standard Z26.1-1966: Temp-R-Lite AS-2 M-9; PPG Sunshade Solex Duplate AS-1 M23; PPG Duplate AS-1 M-21; PPG AS-2 M20.8; Carlite AS-1 M-55; Carlite AS-2 FM-M60; PPG ...

1968-01-01

412

76 FR 49532 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Electronic Stability Control; Technical Report on the...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Electronic Stability Control Systems for Cars and LTVs AGENCY: National Highway Traffic...stability control (ESC) for passenger cars and LTVs (light trucks and vans). Safety...involved in a fatal crash. For passenger cars, the reductions are 5 percent and 23...

2011-08-10

413

76 FR 53660 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Seat Belt Assemblies  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...denying the petition because the petitioner did not demonstrate a safety need for such a...serious injuries. Given that the petitioner did not go into the specifics \\3\\ of how the...appropriately actuate the invention, but it did not give specifics on how it would...

2011-08-29

414

Advanced onboard storage concepts for natural gas-fueled automotive vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The evaluation of several advanced concepts for storing natural gas at reduced pressure is presented. The advanced concepts include adsorption on high surface area carbon, adsorption in high porosity zeolite, storage in clathration compounds, and storage by dissolution in liquid solvents. High surface area carbons with high packing density are the best low pressure storage mediums. A simple mathematical model

R. J. Remick; R. H. Elkins; E. H. Camara; T. Bulicz

1984-01-01

415

Idling-stop vehicle road tests of advanced valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) battery  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results of road tests on valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) batteries in an idling-stop (stop and go) vehicle are reported. Idling-stop systems are simple systems to improve fuel economy of automobiles. They are expected to spread widely from an environmental perspective. Performances of a conventional flooded battery, a conventional VRLA battery, and an improved VRLA battery were compared in road tests

Ken Sawai; Takao Ohmae; Hironori Suwaki; Masaaki Shiomi; Shigeharu Osumi

2007-01-01

416

Recent Advances in LOX / LH2 Propulsion System for Reusable Vehicle Testing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The third-generation vehicle RVT#3 equipped with a pressure-fed engine, which had upgraded in terms of durability enhancement and a LH2 tank of composite material, successfully performed in repeated flight operation tests; and the vehicle reached its maximum flying altitude of 42m in October 2003. The next step for demonstrating entire sequence of full-scale operation is to put a turbopump-fed system into propulsion system. From a result of primary system analysis, we decided to build an expander-cycle engine by diverting a pair of turbopumps, which had built for another research program, to the present study. A combustion chamber with long cylindrical portion adapted to the engine cycle was also newly made. Two captive firing tests have been conducted with two different thrust control methods, following the component tests of combustor and turbopumps separately conducted. A considerable technical issues recognized in the tests were the robustness enhancement of shaft seal design, the adjustment of shaft stiffness, and start-up operation adapted to the specific engine system. Experimental study of GOX/GH2 RCS thrusters have also been started as a part of a conceptual study of the integration of the propulsion system associated with simplification and reliability improvement of the vehicle system.

Tokudome, Shinichiro; Naruo, Yoshihiro; Yagishita, Tsuyoshi; Nonaka, Satoshi; Shida, Maki; Mori, Hatsuo; Nakamura, Takeshi

417

Advances in ground operations for the next generation space launch vehicle programs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Future launch vehicle programs, such as the National Launch System (NLS) and the Single Stage to Orbit (SSTO), will need to satisfy extremely stringent requirements. Low lift cycle costs, high launch rates, demanding surge capacities, short turnaround times, and continuous program evolution and growth considerations will shape the next generation space launch vehicle programs. Efficient ground operations are to play an increasingly important role in meeting the requirements of these new programs. The design of future ground operations for these programs has developed into analysis of two major subject areas: simplification of current practices and the use of modular designs. To make the NLS processing more efficient, special tooling and ground support equipment concepts that minimize the amount of handling required have been developed. To maximize launch pad throughput, the NLS and SSTO processing schemes provide upper-stage and payload integration away from the pad at a separate facility. By incorporating modular concepts into a facility design, a launch vehicle program can expand over a long period of time with minimal interference to operational systems in use.

Moeller, Mark; Ewing, Shelly

418

Hybrid synthetic-vision system for the X-38 crew return vehicle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The X-38 program began in early 1995 and is developing a series of test vehicles to demonstrate the low-cost technologies and methods required to develop a fully functional CRV that can rapidly return astronauts from onboard the International Space Station to earth. The X-38 program uses a gradual buildup approach and where appropriate, is taking advantage of advanced technologies that may help improve safety, decrease cost, reduce development time, and outperform traditional technologies. Four atmospheric test vehicles and one space-rated vehicle will be developed and tested during the X-38 program. The atmospheric test vehicles are known as vehicle 131 (V131), vehicle 132 (V132), vehicle 131R (V131R), and vehicle 133 (V133). The space-rated vehicle that will fly on the Shuttle in 2002, as a payload bay experiment, is known as vehicle 201 (V201).

Delgado, Frank J.; Abernathy, Michael F.; White, Janis

2001-08-01

419

Safety, usability, and independence for wheelchair-seated drivers and front-row passengers of private vehicles: a qualitative research study.  

PubMed

A survey and observational study was conducted with 29 people who remain seated in their wheelchair when driving (21) or riding as a front-row passenger (8) in their personal vehicle. Each subject was observed and surveyed in their own personal vehicle that has been modified for use by occupants seated in wheelchairs. Our survey obtained responses on issues related to occupant restraint (seat belt) system usage, wheelchair securement device usage, and perception of personal safety while riding in a vehicle. Usability and accessibility issues related to seat belt and automated (docking) wheelchair securement technology were revealed, suggesting that wheelchair-seated occupants travel with a higher risk of serious injury in vehicle crashes than front-row occupants seated in original equipment manufacturer (OEM) vehicle seats and using OEM seat belts. Study results also indicate the need for improved torso support for many wheelchair-seated drivers to maintain a posture that allows for effective vehicle control. Study results demonstrate the need for innovative passive restraint technologies that provide postural support during normal vehicle operation and improved occupant restraint during crash conditions for people who drive while seated in their wheelchairs. PMID:23761005

van Roosmalen, Linda; Ritchie Orton, Nichole; Schneider, Lawrence

2013-04-01

420

Advanced Fuel Cycles for Fusion Reactors: Passive Safety and Zero-Waste Options  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nuclear fusion is seen as a much ''cleaner'' energy source than fission. Most of the studies and experiments on nuclear fusion are currently devoted to the Deuterium-Tritium (DT) fuel cycle, since it is the easiest way to reach ignition. The recent stress on safety by the world's community has stimulated the research on other fuel cycles than the DT one, based on 'advanced' reactions, such as the Deuterium-Helium-3 (DHe) one. These reactions pose problems, such as the availability of 3He and the attainment of the higher plasma parameters that are required for burning. However, they have many advantages, like for instance the very low neutron activation, while it is unnecessary to breed and fuel tritium. The extrapolation of Ignitor technologies towards a larger and more powerful experiment using advanced fuel cycles (Candor) has been studied. Results show that Candor does reach the passive safety and zero-waste option. A fusion power reactor based on the DHe cycle could be the ultimate response to the environmental requirements for future nuclear power plants.

Zucchetti, Massimo; Sugiyama, Linda E.

2006-05-01

421

14 CFR Appendix A to Part 417 - Flight Safety Analysis Methodologies and Products for a Launch Vehicle Flown With a Flight Safety...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...417.107(b). When employing hazard isolation, the analysis must establish flight...flight safety analysis employs hazard isolation to establish flight safety limits as...safety analysis does not employ hazard isolation to establish the flight safety...

2010-01-01

422

14 CFR Appendix A to Part 417 - Flight Safety Analysis Methodologies and Products for a Launch Vehicle Flown with a Flight Safety...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...417.107(b). When employing hazard isolation, the analysis must establish flight...flight safety analysis employs hazard isolation to establish flight safety limits as...safety analysis does not employ hazard isolation to establish the flight safety...

2009-01-01

423

Skateboarding Safety  

MedlinePLUS

... SAFETY Like other sports activities, skateboarding has risks. Vehicle traffic, trick riding, and excessive speed can lead ... t become another statistic. ? Stay clear of moving vehicles. Some of the most common and severe skateboarding ...

424

Electric and hybrid vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study of the energy utilization of gasoline and battery-electric powered special purpose vehicles is discussed along with the impact of electric cars on national energy consumption, the development of electric vehicles in Japan, the applicability of safety standards to electric and hybrid-vehicles, and crashworthiness tests on two electric vehicles. Aspects of energy storage are explored, taking into account a

L. J. Jacovides; E. P. Cornell; R. Kirk

1981-01-01

425

Environmental, health, and safety issues of sodium-sulfur batteries for electric and hybrid vehicles  

SciTech Connect

Recycling and disposal of spent sodium-sulfur (Na/S) batteries are important issues that must be addressed as part of the commercialization process of Na/S battery-powered electric vehicles. The use of Na/S batteries in electric vehicles will result in significant environmental benefits, and the disposal of spent batteries should not detract from those benefits. In the United States, waste disposal is regulated under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Understanding these regulations will help in selecting recycling and disposal processes for Na/S batteries that are environmentally acceptable and cost effective. Treatment processes for spent Na/S battery wastes are in the beginning stages of development, so a final evaluation of the impact of RCRA regulations on these treatment processes is not possible. The objectives of tills report on battery recycling and disposal are as follows: Provide an overview of RCRA regulations and requirements as they apply to Na/S battery recycling and disposal so that battery developers can understand what is required of them to comply with these regulations; Analyze existing RCRA regulations for recycling and disposal and anticipated trends in these regulations and perform a preliminary regulatory analysis for potential battery disposal and recycling processes. This report assumes that long-term Na/S battery disposal processes will be capable of handling large quantities of spent batteries. The term disposal includes treatment processes that may incorporate recycling of battery constituents. The environmental regulations analyzed in this report are limited to US regulations. This report gives an overview of RCRA and discusses RCRA regulations governing Na/S battery disposal and a preliminary regulatory analysis for Na/S battery disposal.

Corbus, D.

1992-09-01

426

NHTSA (National Highway Traffic Safety Administration) Heavy Duty Vehicle Brake Research Program Report No. 4 - Stopping Capability of Hydraulically Braked Vehicles. Volume 5. Appendices I-M.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The volume contains Appendices I, J, K, L and M to the technical report (Volume I). Each appendix includes all of the test data collected for a particular vehicle that was evaluated in the test program along with photographs, vehicle information sheets, a...

R. L. Kirkbride R. W. Radlinski

1985-01-01

427

NHTSA (National Highway Traffic Safety Administration) Heavy Duty Vehicle Brake Research Program Report No. 4 - Stopping Capability of Hydraulically Braked Vehicles. Volume 2. Appendices A-C.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The volume contains Appendices A, B and C to the technical report (Volume I). Each appendix includes all of the test data collected for a particular vehicle that was evaluated in the test program along with photographs, vehicle information sheets, and sum...

R. L. Kirkbride R. W. Radlinski

1985-01-01

428

14 CFR Appendix A to Part 417 - Flight Safety Analysis Methodologies and Products for a Launch Vehicle Flown With a Flight Safety...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...flight path, position and velocity, where all vehicle aerodynamic...launch vehicle's position and velocity as a function of winds and...weight at impact, the impact speed, the orientation of the propellant...launch vehicle achieves orbital velocity for an orbital launch....

2013-01-01

429

Proceedings of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission twentieth water reactor safety information meeting. Volume 1, Plenary session, Advanced reactor research, Advanced passive LWRs, Advanced instrumentation and control hardware, Advanced control system technology, Human factors research, EPRI`s nuclear safety research and development  

SciTech Connect

This three-volume report contains papers presented at the Twentieth Water Reactor Safety Information Meeting held at the Bethesda Marriott Hotel, Bethesda, Maryland, during the week of October 21--23, 1992. The papers describes progress and results of programs in nuclear safety research conducted in this country and abroad. Foreign participation in the meeting included 10 different papers presented by researchers from CEC, China, Finland, France, Germany, Japan, Spain and Taiwan. This document, Volume 1, presents, papers on: Advanced Reactor Research; Advanced passive LWR`s; advanced instrumentation and control hardware, advanced control system technology; human factors research; and EPRI`s nuclear safety research and development. The individual papers have been cataloged separately.

Weiss, A.J. [comp.] [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

1993-03-01

430

Nonlinear-Control Strategy for Advanced Vehicle Thermal-Management Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Advanced thermal-management systems for internal combustion engines can improve coolant-temperature regulation and servomotor power consumption by better regulating the combustion process with multiple computer-controlled electromechanical components. The traditional thermostat valve, coolant pump, and clutch-driven radiator fan are upgraded with servomotor actuators. When the system components function harmoniously, desired thermal conditions can be accomplished in a power-efficient manner. In this paper,

Mohammad H. Salah; Tom H. Mitchell; John R. Wagner; Darren M. Dawson

2008-01-01

431

Efficacy and safety evaluation of icotinib in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluate the efficacy and safety of icotinib hydrochloride in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods A total of 89 patients with stage IIIB or IV NSCLC received icotinib at a dose of 125 mg administered 3 times a day. Icotinib treatment was continued until disease progression or development of unacceptable toxicity. Results A total of 89 patients were assessable. In patients treated with icotinib, the overall response rate (RR) was 36.0% (32/89), and the disease control rate (DCR) was 69.7% (62/89). RR and DCR were significantly improved in patients with adenocarcinoma versus non-adenocarcinoma (P<0.05). The symptom improvement rate was 57.3% (51/89), and the main symptoms improved were cough, pain, chest distress, dyspnea, and Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status. The main toxic effects were rash [30/89 (33.7%)] and diarrhea [15/89 (16.9%)]. The level of toxicity was typically low. Conclusions The use of icotinib hydrochloride in the treatment of advanced NSCLC is efficacious and safe, and its toxic effects are tolerable.

Shi, Chunlei; Xiong, Liwen; Chu, Tianqing; Pei, Jun; Han, Baohui

2013-01-01

432

Assessment of modular construction for safety-related structures at advanced nuclear power plants  

SciTech Connect

Modular construction techniques have been successfully used in a number of industries, both domestically and internationally. Recently, the use of structural modules has been proposed for advanced nuclear power plants. The objective in utilizing modular construction is to reduce the construction schedule, reduce construction costs, and improve the quality of construction. This report documents the results of a program which evaluated the proposed use of modular construction for safety-related structures in advanced nuclear power plant designs. The program included review of current modular construction technology, development of licensing review criteria for modular construction, and initial validation of currently available analytical techniques applied to concrete-filled steel structural modules. The program was conducted in three phases. The objective of the first phase was to identify the technical issues and the need for further study in order to support NRC licensing review activities. The two key findings were the need for supplementary review criteria to augment the Standard Review Plan and the need for verified design/analysis methodology for unique types of modules, such as the concrete-filled steel module. In the second phase of this program, Modular Construction Review Criteria were developed to provide guidance for licensing reviews. In the third phase, an analysis effort was conducted to determine if currently available finite element analysis techniques can be used to predict the response of concrete-filled steel modules.

Braverman, J.; Morante, R.; Hofmayer, C.

1997-03-01

433

The Transplantation of Human Fetal Neuroretinal Cells in Advanced Retinitis Pigmentosa Patients: Results of a Long-Term Safety Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to determine the long-term safety of transplanting human fetal neuroretinal cells (14 to 18 week gestational age) into a series of patients with advanced retinitis pigmentosa (RP). After obtaining informed consent, both hosts and mothers of donors were screened for transmissible diseases. Pre- and postoperative clinical exams, visual acuity, electroretinograms, and fluorescein angiograms were

Taraprasad Das; Manuel del Cerro; Subhadra Jalali; Vallam S. Rao; Vamsi K. Gullapalli; Caroline Little; David A. D. Loreto; Savitri Sharma; A. Sreedharan; Constancia del Cerro; Gullapalli N. Rao

1999-01-01

434

Fieldcrest Cannon, Inc. Advanced Technical Preparation. Statistical Process Control (SPC). Safety Section: Modules 1-3. Instructor Book.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|These three modules, which were developed for use by instructors in a manufacturing firm's advanced technical preparation program, contain the materials required to present the safety section of the plant's adult-oriented, job-specific competency-based training program. The 3 modules contain 12 lessons on the following topics: lockout/tagout…

Averitt, Sallie D.

435

Analysis of two-phase flow phenomena with FLUENT4 code in the experiments for advanced light water reactor safety  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the development of advanced light water reactors, thermohydraulic phenomena are versatile in comparison with the present concepts. The new features are the passive safety systems, where energy transport takes place by natural circulation instead of forced flow. For cooling of the molten core, new concepts have been created including external vessel cooling and core catchers. In all new concepts,

J. Miettinen; M. Tuomainen; I. Karppinen; J. Tuunanen

2002-01-01

436

Modeling the Behaviour of an Advanced Material Based Smart Landing Gear System for Aerospace Vehicles  

SciTech Connect

The last two decades have seen a substantial rise in the use of advanced materials such as polymer composites for aerospace structural applications. In more recent years there has been a concerted effort to integrate materials, which mimic biological functions (referred to as smart materials) with polymeric composites. Prominent among smart materials are shape memory alloys, which possess both actuating and sensory functions that can be realized simultaneously. The proper characterization and modeling of advanced and smart materials holds the key to the design and development of efficient smart devices/systems. This paper focuses on the material characterization; modeling and validation of the model in relation to the development of a Shape Memory Alloy (SMA) based smart landing gear (with high energy dissipation features) for a semi rigid radio controlled airship (RC-blimp). The Super Elastic (SE) SMA element is configured in such a way that it is forced into a tensile mode of high elastic deformation. The smart landing gear comprises of a landing beam, an arch and a super elastic Nickel-Titanium (Ni-Ti) SMA element. The landing gear is primarily made of polymer carbon composites, which possess high specific stiffness and high specific strength compared to conventional materials, and are therefore ideally suited for the design and development of an efficient skid landing gear system with good energy dissipation characteristics. The development of the smart landing gear in relation to a conventional metal landing gear design is also dealt with.

Varughese, Byji; Dayananda, G. N.; Rao, M. Subba [National Aerospace Laboratories, P.B. No: 1779, Airport Road, Bangalore-560017 (India)

2008-07-29

437

Model based vehicle detection for intelligent vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the Advanced Driver Assistance Systems are being researched nowadays for Intelligent Vehicles has to deal -with the detection and tracking of other vehicles. It will have many applications: Platooning, Stop&go, Blind angle perception, Manoeuvres supervisor. In this paper, a system based on computer vision is presented. A geometric model of the vehicle is defined where its energy function

J. M. Collado; C. Hilario; J. M. Armingol

2004-01-01

438

Evaluating the Effects of Transient Faults on Vehicle Dynamic Performance in Automotive Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current automotive systems are integrating more and more electronic components in the handling and performance areas, for supporting advanced comfort and safety features. The effects of component or network failures raise serious concerns about the overall vehicle stability and safety. This paper proposes a methodology for analyzing at the system level (taking into account both mechanical and electronic components) the

Fulvio Corno; Matteo Sonza Reorda; S. Tosato; F. Esposito

2004-01-01

439

Efficacy, Safety, and Biomarkers of Single-Agent Bevacizumab Therapy in Patients with Advanced Hepatocellular Carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Objective. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a highly vascularized tumor in which neoangiogenesis contributes to growth and metastasis. We assessed the safety, efficacy, and potential biomarkers of activity of bevacizumab in patients with advanced HCC. Methods. In this phase II trial, eligible patients received bevacizumab, 5 mg/kg or 10 mg/kg every 2 weeks. The disease-control rate at 16 weeks (16W-DCR) was the primary endpoint. Circulating endothelial cells (CECs) and plasma cytokines and angiogenic factors (CAFs) were measured at baseline and throughout treatment. Results. The 16W-DCR was 42% (95% confidence interval, 27%–57%). Six of the 43 patients who received bevacizumab achieved a partial response (objective response rate [ORR], 14%). Grade 3–4 asthenia, hemorrhage, and aminotransferase elevation occurred in five (12%), three (7%), and three (7%) patients, respectively. During treatment, placental growth factor markedly increased, whereas vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A dramatically decreased (p < .0001); soluble VEGF receptor-2 (p < .0001) and CECs (p = .03) transiently increased on day 3. High and increased CEC counts at day 15 were associated with the ORR (p = .04) and the 16W-DCR (p = .02), respectively. Lower interleukin (IL)-8 levels at baseline (p = .01) and throughout treatment (p ? .04) were associated with the 16W-DCR. High baseline IL-8 and IL-6 levels predicted shorter progression-free and overall survival times (p ? .04). Conclusion. Bevacizumab is active and well tolerated in patients with advanced HCC. The clinical value of CECs, IL-6, and IL-8 warrants further investigation.

Malka, David; Bourredjem, Abderrahmane; Dromain, Clarisse; Baey, Charlotte; Jacques, Nathalie; Pignon, Jean-Pierre; Vimond, Nadege; Bouvet-Forteau, Nathalie; De Baere, Thierry; Ducreux, Michel; Farace, Francoise

2012-01-01

440

Criticality Safety Evaluation for the Advanced Test Reactor U-Mo Demonstration Elements  

SciTech Connect

The Reduced Enrichment Research Test Reactors (RERTR) fuel development program is developing a high uranium density fuel based on a (LEU) uranium-molybdenum alloy. Testing of prototypic RERTR fuel elements is necessary to demonstrate integrated fuel performance behavior and scale-up of fabrication techniques. Two RERTR-Full Size Demonstration fuel elements based on the ATR-Reduced YA elements (all but one plate fueled) are to be fabricated for testing in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR). The two fuel elements will be irradiated in alternating cycles such that only one element is loaded in the reactor at a time. Existing criticality analyses have analyzed Standard (HEU) ATR elements (all plates fueled) from which controls have been derived. This criticality safety evaluation (CSE) documents analysis that determines the reactivity of the Demonstration fuel elements relative to HEU ATR elements and shows that the Demonstration elements are bound by the Standard HEU ATR elements and existing HEU ATR element controls are applicable to the Demonstration elements.

Leland M. Montierth

2010-12-01

441

FED-A, an advanced performance FED based on low safety factor and current drive  

SciTech Connect

This document is one of four describing studies performed in FY 1982 within the context of the Fusion Engineering Device (FED) Program for the Office of Fusion Energy, U.S. Department of Energy. The documents are: 1. FED Baseline Engineering Studies (ORNL/FEDC-82/2), 2. FED-A, An Advanced Performance FED Based on Low Safety Factor and Current Drive (this document), 3. FED-R, A Fusion Device Utilizing Resistive Magnets (ORNL/FEDC-82/1), and 4. Technology Demonstration Facility TDF. These studies extend the FED Baseline concept of FY 1981 and develop innovative and alternative concepts for the FED. The FED-A study project was carried out as part of the Innovative and Alternative Tokamak FED studies, under the direction of P. H. Rutherford, which were part of the national FED program during FY 1982. The studies were performed jointly by senior scientists in the magnetic fusion community and the staff of the Fusion Engineering Design Center (FEDC). Y-K. M. Peng of the FEDC, on assignment from Oak Ridge National Laboratory, served as the design manager.

Peng, Yueng Kay Martin [ORNL; Rutherford, P. H. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Hogan, J.T. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Attenberger, S. E. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Holmes, J.A. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Borowski, S. K. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Brown, T. G. [Grumman Aerospace; Carreras, B. A. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Ehst, D. A. [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Haines, J.R. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Hively, L. M. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Houlberg, Wayne A [ORNL; Iida, H. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI); Lee, V. D. [McDonnell Douglas Aerospace; Lynch, S.J. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Reid, R. L. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Rothe, K. E. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Strickler, Dennis J [ORNL; Stewart, L. D. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL)

1983-08-01

442

Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation Waste Integrated Performance and Safety Codes (NEAMS Waste IPSC).  

SciTech Connect

The objective of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation Waste Integrated Performance and Safety Codes (NEAMS Waste IPSC) is to provide an integrated suite of computational modeling and simulation (M&S) capabilities to quantitatively assess the long-term performance of waste forms in the engineered and geologic environments of a radioactive-waste storage facility or disposal repository. Achieving the objective of modeling the performance of a disposal scenario requires describing processes involved in waste form degradation and radionuclide release at the subcontinuum scale, beginning with mechanistic descriptions of chemical reactions and chemical kinetics at the atomic scale, and upscaling into effective, validated constitutive models for input to high-fidelity continuum scale codes for coupled multiphysics simulations of release and transport. Verification and validation (V&V) is required throughout the system to establish evidence-based metrics for the level of confidence in M&S codes and capabilities, including at the subcontiunuum scale and the constitutive models they inform or generate. This Report outlines the nature of the V&V challenge at the subcontinuum scale, an approach to incorporate V&V concepts into subcontinuum scale modeling and simulation (M&S), and a plan to incrementally incorporate effective V&V into subcontinuum scale M&S destined for use in the NEAMS Waste IPSC work flow to meet requirements of quantitative confidence in the constitutive models informed by subcontinuum scale phenomena.

Schultz, Peter Andrew

2011-12-01

443

A longitudinal study of the effectiveness of a multi-media intervention on parents' knowledge and use of vehicle safety systems for children.  

PubMed

Motor-vehicle crashes are the leading cause of death and serious injury for children under the age of 14 in Canada and in the United States despite mandatory use of vehicle restraints since 1977. Using a pre- and post-test design, the present study tests the effectiveness of a multi-media intervention study on parents' knowledge of car safety seat use for children (0-12 years). The sample included 201 parents from four Ontario cities. Results indicate that parents' knowledge of when to accurately and safely transition a child to the appropriate car safety seat based on child's age, weight and height was retained at the 1 year post-test for children 4-8 years of age. The rates of correct use of safety seats significantly increased 1 year following the intervention program. Other factors that influenced parent's knowledge included being a parent versus non-parents, gender, income, education, sources of information, and regional location. The results of this study can help guide the development and implementation of future intervention programs and injury prevention policy. PMID:19393799

Snowdon, Anne W; Hussein, Abdul; Purc-Stevenson, Rebecca; Follo, Giovanna; Ahmed, Ejaz

2009-02-18

444

Proceedings of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission nineteenth water reactor safety information meeting. Volume 3, Structural engineering; Advanced reactor research; Advanced passive reactors; Human factors research; Human factors issues related to advanced passive LWRs; Thermal hydraulics; Earth sciences  

SciTech Connect

This three-volume report contains 83 papers out of the 108 that were presented at the Nineteenth Water Reactor Safety Information Meeting held at the Bethesda Marriott Hotel, Bethesda, Maryland, during the week of October 28--30, 1991. The papers are printed in the order of their presentation in each session and describe progress and results of programs in nuclear safety research conducted in this country and abroad. Foreign participation in the meeting included 14 different papers presented by researchers from Canada, Germany, France, Japan, Sweden, Taiwan, and USSR. This document, Volume 3, presents papers on: Structural engineering; Advanced reactor research; Advanced passive reactors; Human factors research; Human factors issues related to advanced passive light water researchers; Thermal Hydraulics; and Earth sciences. The individual papers have been cataloged separately.

Weiss, A.J. [comp.] [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

1992-04-01

445

Advanced Concepts for Pressure-Channel Reactors: Modularity, Performance and Safety  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Based on an analysis of the development of advanced concepts for pressure-tube reactor technology, we adapt and adopt the pressure-tube reactor advantage of modularity, so that the subdivided core has the potential for optimization of the core, safety, fuel cycle and thermal performance independently, while retaining passive safety features. In addition, by adopting supercritical water-cooling, the logical developments from existing supercritical turbine technology and “steam” systems can be utilized. Supercritical and ultra-supercritical boilers and turbines have been operating for some time in coal-fired power plants. Using coolant outlet temperatures of about 625°C achieves operating plant thermal efficiencies in the order of 45-48%, using a direct turbine cycle. In addition, by using reheat channels, the plant has the potential to produce low-cost process heat, in amounts that are customer and market dependent. The use of reheat systems further increases the overall thermal efficiency to 55% and beyond. With the flexibility of a range of plant sizes suitable for both small (400 MWe) and large (1400 MWe) electric grids, and the ability for co-generation of electric power, process heat, and hydrogen, the concept is competitive. The choice of core power, reheat channel number and exit temperature are all set by customer and materials requirements. The pressure channel is a key technology that is needed to make use of supercritical water (SCW) in CANDU®1 reactors feasible. By optimizing the fuel bundle and fuel channel, convection and conduction assure heat removal using passive-moderator cooling. Potential for severe core damage can be almost eliminated, even without the necessity of activating the emergency-cooling systems. The small size of containment structure lends itself to a small footprint, impacts economics and building techniques. Design features related to Canadian concepts are discussed in this paper. The main conclusion is that development of SCW pressure-channel nuclear reactors is feasible and significant benefits can be expected over other thermal-energy systems.

Duffey, Romney B.; Pioro, Igor L.; Kuran, Sermet

446

14 CFR 417.233 - Analysis for an unguided suborbital launch vehicle flown with a wind weighting safety system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01...Section 417.233 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION...TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LAUNCH SAFETY Flight Safety Analysis §...

2013-01-01

447

Integration of the advanced transparency framework to advanced nuclear systems : enhancing Safety, Operations, Security and Safeguards (SOSS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The advent of the nuclear renaissance gives rise to a concern for the effective design of nuclear fuel cycle systems that are safe, secure, nonproliferating and cost-effective. We propose to integrate the monitoring of the four major factors of nuclear facilities by focusing on the interactions between Safeguards, Operations, Security, and Safety (SOSS). We proposed to develop a framework that

Carmen Margarita Mendez; Gary Eugene Rochau; Virginia D. Cleary

2008-01-01

448

Integration of the advanced transparency framework to advanced nuclear systems : enhancing Safety, Operations, Security and Safeguards (SOSS).  

SciTech Connect

The advent of the nuclear renaissance gives rise to a concern for the effective design of nuclear fuel cycle systems that are safe, secure, nonproliferating and cost-effective. We propose to integrate the monitoring of the four major factors of nuclear facilities by focusing on the interactions between Safeguards, Operations, Security, and Safety (SOSS). We proposed to develop a framework that monitors process information continuously and can demonstrate the ability to enhance safety, operations, security, and safeguards by measuring and reducing relevant SOSS risks, thus ensuring the safe and legitimate use of the nuclear fuel cycle facility. A real-time comparison between expected and observed operations provides the foundation for the calculation of SOSS risk. The automation of new nuclear facilities requiring minimal manual operation provides an opportunity to utilize the abundance of process information for monitoring SOSS risk. A framework that monitors process information continuously can lead to greater transparency of nuclear fuel cycle activities and can demonstrate the ability to enhance the safety, operations, security and safeguards associated with the functioning of the nuclear fuel cycle facility. Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has developed a risk algorithm for safeguards and is in the process of demonstrating the ability to monitor operational signals in real-time though a cooperative research project with the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA). The risk algorithms for safety, operations and security are under development. The next stage of this work will be to integrate the four algorithms into a single framework.

Mendez, Carmen Margarita (Sociotecnia Solutions); Rochau, Gary Eugene; Cleary, Virginia D.

2008-08-01

449

Phase II Study to Investigate the Efficacy, Safety, and Pharmacokinetics of Sorafenib in Japanese Patients with Advanced Renal Cell Carcinoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Sorafenib (Nexavarw) is an oral multi-kinase inhibitor that targets tumor growth and angiogenesis. This phase II study investigated efficacy, safety, and pharmacokinetics of sorafenib in Japanese patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Methods: Nonrandomized, open-label study in Japanese patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma who had received nephrectomy and failed ? 1 cytokine-containing therapy. The primary endpoint was

Hideyuki Akaza; Taiji Tsukamoto; Masaru Murai; Keiko Nakajima; Seiji Naito

2007-01-01

450

75 FR 25927 - Vehicle/Track Interaction Safety Standards; High-Speed and High Cant Deficiency Operations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Track Interaction Safety Standards; High-Speed and High Cant Deficiency Operations; Proposed...Track Interaction Safety Standards; High-Speed and High Cant Deficiency Operations AGENCY...Equipment Safety Standards applicable to high-speed and high cant deficiency train...

2010-05-10

451

Advanced Test Reactor Safety Basis Upgrade Lessons Learned Relative to Design Basis Verification and Safety Basis Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) is a pressurized light-water reactor with a design thermal power of 250 MW. The principal function of the ATR is to provide a high neutron flux for testing reactor fuels and other materials. The reactor also provides other irradiation services such as radioisotope production. The ATR and its support facilities are located at the Test

Gregg L. Sharp; Richard T. McCracken

2004-01-01

452

Shuttle orbiter experiments: Use of an operational vehicle for advancement and validation of space systems design technologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The NASA Orbiter Experiments (OEX) Program provided a mechanism for utilization of an operational space shuttle orbiter as a flight research vehicle, as an adjunct to its normal space transportation mission. OEX Program experiments were unique among orbiter payloads, as the research instrumentation for these experiments were carried as integral parts of the vehicle's structure, rather than being placed in

Paul F. Holloway; David A. Throckmorton

1995-01-01

453

Human-System Safety Methods for Development of Advanced Air Traffic Management Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) is supporting the National Aeronautics and Space Administration in the development of advanced air traffic management (ATM) systems as part of the Advanced Air Transportation Technologies...

1999-01-01

454

Providing the Basis for Innovative Improvements in Advanced LWR Reactor Passive Safety Systems Design: An Educational R&D Project  

SciTech Connect

This project characterizes typical two-phase stratified flow conditions in advanced water reactor horizontal pipe sections, following activation of passive cooling systems. It provides (1) a means to educate nuclear engineering students regarding the importance of two-phase stratified flow in passive cooling systems to the safety of advanced reactor systems and (2) describes the experimental apparatus and process to measure key parameters essential to consider when designing passive emergency core cooling flow paths that may encounter this flow regime. Based on data collected, the state of analysis capabilities can be determined regarding stratified flow in advanced reactor systems and the best paths forward can be identified to ensure that the nuclear industry can properly characterize two-phase stratified flow in passive emergency core cooling systems.

Brian G. Williams; Jim C. P. Liou; Hiral Kadakia; Bill Phoenix; Richard R. Schultz

2007-02-27

455

Road safety issues for bus transport management.  

PubMed

Because of the low percentage of crashes involving buses and the assumption that public transport improves road safety by reducing vehicular traffic, public interest in bus safety is not as great as that in the safety of other types of vehicles. It is possible that less attention is paid to the significance of crashes involving buses because the safety level of bus systems is considered to be adequate. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the knowledge and perceptions of bus managers with respect to safety issues and the potential effectiveness of various technologies in achieving higher safety standards. Bus managers were asked to give their opinions on safety issues related to drivers (training, skills, performance evaluation and behaviour), vehicles (maintenance and advanced devices) and roads (road and traffic safety issues) in response to a research survey. Kendall's algorithm was used to evaluate the level of concordance. The results showed that the majority of the proposed items were considered to have great potential for improving bus safety. The data indicated that in the experience of the participants, passenger unloading and pedestrians crossing near bus stops are the most dangerous actions with respect to vulnerable users. The final results of the investigation showed that start inhibition, automatic door opening, and the materials and internal architecture of buses were considered the items most strongly related to bus passenger safety. Brake assistance and vehicle monitoring systems were also considered to be very effective. With the exception of driver assistance systems for passenger and pedestrian safety, the perceptions of the importance of other driver assistance systems for vehicle monitoring and bus safety were not unanimous among the bus company managers who participated in this survey. The study results showed that the introduction of new technologies is perceived as an important factor in improving bus safety, but a better understanding of their actual effectiveness and related risk factor avoidance must be developed to permit their useful implementation in bus fleets. PMID:23850401

Cafiso, Salvatore; Di Graziano, Alessandro; Pappalardo, Giuseppina

2013-06-20

456

NHTSA's Vehicle Compatibility Research Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) is conducting a research program to investigate the crash compatibility of passenger cars, light trucks and vans (LTVs) in vehicle-to-vehicle collisions. NHTSA has conducted a series of eight full...

S. Summers A. Prasad W. T. Hollowell

2002-01-01

457

Reactor Accident Analysis Methodology for the Advanced Test Reactor Critical Facility Documented Safety Analysis Upgrade  

Microsoft Academic Search

The regulatory requirement to develop an upgraded safety basis for a DOE Nuclear Facility was realized in January 2001 by issuance of a revision to Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations Section 830 (10 CFR 830). Subpart B of 10 CFR 830, ''Safety Basis Requirements,'' requires a contractor responsible for a DOE Hazard Category 1, 2, or 3

G. L. Sharp; R. T. McCracken

2003-01-01

458

Autonomous Flight Safety System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Autonomous Flight Safety System (AFSS) is an independent flight safety system designed for small to medium sized expendable launch vehicles launching from or needing range safety protection while overlying relatively remote locations. AFSS replaces the ne...

B. Bull B. Ferrell J. Lanzi J. Simpson R. Zoerner S. Santuro

2004-01-01

459

Development of a Robust and Cost-Effective Friction Stir Welding Process for Use in Advanced Military Vehicles.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

To respond to the advent of more lethal threats, recently designed aluminum-armor-based military-vehicle systems have resorted to an increasing use of higher strength aluminum alloys (with superior ballistic resistance against armor piercing (AP) threats ...

A. Hariharan B. Pandurangan C. Yen G. Arakere M. Grujicic

2011-01-01

460

Highway Safety: Law Enforcement; Alcohol; Driver Training; Safety Planning and Management; Commercial Vehicles; and Motorcycles. Transportation Research Record. Journal of the Transportation Research Board, No.1969.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Partial Contents: Analysis of Speeding in Saudi Arabia and Effectiveness of Enforcement Methods; Reasonable Speed Limits on Suburban Multilane Highways with Curbs; Effect of Red Light Cameras on Accident Risk at Intersections; Safety impacts of Photo-Red ...

2006-01-01

461

Electric vehicle fleet operations in the United States  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy (DOE) is actively supporting the development and commercialization of advanced electric vehicles, batteries, and propulsion systems. As part of this effort, the DOE Field Operations Program is performing commercial validation testing of electric vehicles and supporting the development of an electric vehicle infrastructure. These efforts include the evaluation of electric vehicles in baseline performance, accelerated reliability, and fleet operations testing. The baseline performance testing focuses on parameters such as range, acceleration, and battery charging. This testing, performed in conjunction with EV America, has included the baseline performance testing of 16 electric vehicle models from 1994 through 1997. During 1997, the Chevrolet S10 and Ford Ranger electric vehicles were tested. During 1998, several additional electric vehicles from original equipment manufacturers will also be baseline performance tested. This and additional information is made available to the public via the Program`s web page (http://ev.inel.gov/sop). In conjunction with industry and other groups, the Program also supports the Infrastructure Working Council in its development of electric vehicle communications, charging, health and safety, and power quality standards. The Field Operations Program continues to support the development of electric vehicles and infrastructure in conjunction with its qualified vehicle test partners: Electric Transportation Applications, and Southern California Edison. The Field Operations Program is managed by the Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Company at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory.

Francfort, J.E. [Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Lab.; O`Hara, D. [Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States)

1998-03-01

462

Advanced materials for automobiles  

SciTech Connect

Quite early on, manufacturers realized that lighter automobiles (with gas and diesel engines) would be more fuel efficient and produce fewer tailpipe emissions. They also realized that burning diesel fuel at elevated temperatures (1,315 C) would result in similar improvements. However, materials limitations prevent the operation of diesel vehicles at high temperatures. The fuel efficiency of gasoline-powered vehicles is currently improved by reducing the weight of the automobile and treated the emissions with a three-way catalyst. Additional improvements can be achieved with the use of advanced materials that reduce the weight of vehicles without compromising safety. The use of ceramics, fiber-reinforced plastics, and metal-matrix composites are discussed. The paper also discusses automotive catalysts and their components, electrically heated catalyst devices, a lean-burn NOx catalyst, and the future for materials chemistry.

Narula, C.K.; Allison, J.E.; Bauer, D.R.; Gandhi, H.S. [Ford Motor Co., Dearborn, MI (United States)

1996-11-01

463

Advanced practice nursing students' identification of patient safety issues in ambulatory care.  

PubMed

Despite more than a decade of patient safety initiatives in our health care system, nurses (N = 172) identified a large number of safety issues in the ambulatory care setting, including issues in their own practice (50.7% of the encounters), feeling rushed or hurried (34.8% of encounters), and being interrupted (27.0% of encounters). Greater patient complexity was a significant predictor of identifying a diagnostic or management and treatment issue. The presence of an electronic health record was not related to reporting of a patient safety issue. PMID:23222147

Schnall, Rebecca; Larson, Elaine; Stone, Patricia W; John, Rita Marie; Bakken, Suzanne

464

A comprehensive program to improve safety for pregnant women and fetuses in motor vehicle crashes: A preliminary report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: A program was developed to study the mechanisms of abruptio placentae and pregnancy loss caused by motor vehicle crashes. The results were intended to be used to develop strategies to improve protection of the fetus in this setting. Study Design: Four integrated projects were conducted: (1) seated anthropometric measurements and belt fit determination during pregnancy, (2) development of new

Mark D Pearlman; Kathleen DeSantis Klinich; Lawrence W Schneider; Jonathan Rupp; Steve Moss; James Ashton-Miller

2000-01-01

465

Taguchi's approach for reliability and safety assessments in the stage separation process of a multistage launch vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents in brief the formulation for lateral and longitudinal dynamics associated with the separation and pull out of an ongoing functional stage from the spent stage of a multistage launch vehicle using separation motors as jettisoning system. Taguchi method is employed to understand the influencing parameters in the separation process. It is possible to minimize the number of

J. Singaravelu; D. Jeyakumar; B. Nageswara Rao

2009-01-01

466

National Highway Traffic Safety Administration  

MedlinePLUS

... SAFETY 1N NUM3ERS Archive NHTSA Statement on 5-Star Safety Ratings The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration ... vehicles they are considering purchasing. The agency’s 5-Star Safety Ratings program is designed to provide consumers ...

467

Advanced Reactor Safety Research Program. Quarterly Report, July--September 1977.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Progress is summarized in the following LMFBR-related safety studies: (1) accident energetics, (2) core debris behavior, (3) sodium containment and structural integrity, (4) research of elevated temperature design criteria, (5) fuel motion detection, (6) ...

1978-01-01

468

Study of Cost Effective Large Advanced Pressurized Water Reactors that Employ Passive Safety Features  

Microsoft Academic Search

A report of DOE sponsored portions of AP1000 Design Certification effort. On December 16, 1999, The United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission issued Design Certification of the AP600 standard nuclear reactor design. This culminated an 8-year review of the AP600 design, safety analysis and probabilistic risk assessment. The AP600 is a 600 MWe reactor that utilizes passive safety features that, once

J. W. Winters; M. M. Corletti; Y. Hayashi

2003-01-01

469

Study of Cost Effective Large Advanced Pressurized Water Reactors that Employ Passive Safety Features  

SciTech Connect

A report of DOE sponsored portions of AP1000 Design Certification effort. On December 16, 1999, The United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission issued Design Certification of the AP600 standard nuclear reactor design. This culminated an 8-year review of the AP600 design, safety analysis and probabilistic risk assessment. The AP600 is a 600 MWe reactor that utilizes passive safety features that, once actuated, depend only on natural forces such as gravity and natural circulation to perform all required safety functions. These passive safety systems result in increased plant safety and have also significantly simplified plant systems and equipment, resulting in simplified plant operation and maintenance. The AP600 meets NRC deterministic safety criteria and probabilistic risk criteria with large margins. A summary comparison of key passive safety system design features is provided in Table 1. These key features are discussed due to their importance in affecting the key thermal-hydraulic phenomenon exhibited by the passive safety systems in critical areas. The scope of some of the design changes to the AP600 is described. These changes are the ones that are important in evaluating the passive plant design features embodied in the certified AP600 standard plant design. These design changes are incorporated into the AP1000 standard plant design that Westinghouse is certifying under 10 CFR Part 52. In conclusion, this report describes the results of the representative design certification activities that were partially supported by the Nuclear Energy Research Initiative. These activities are unique to AP1000, but are representative of research activities that must be driven to conclusion to realize successful licensing of the next generation of nuclear power plants in the United States.

Winters, J. W.; Corletti, M. M.; Hayashi, Y.

2003-11-12

470

Effect and safety of duodenal levodopa infusion in advanced Parkinson's disease: a retrospective multicenter outcome assessment in patient routine care.  

PubMed

Duodenal levodopa infusion represents an effective strategy to manage motor and non-motor complications in patients with advanced Parkinson's disease (PD). However, most published clinical series regard small numbers of patients and do not exceed 1 year follow-up. In this multi-national observational cohort study conducted in seven specialised PD clinics and university hospitals we assessed long-term safety and outcome of chronic treatment with intra-duodenal levodopa infusions in a large population of patients with advanced PD. The starting population consisted of 98 treated patients (safety population). We report clinical outcomes of 73 patients with subsequent efficacy assessment(s) (efficacy population) over a follow-up period up to 2 years. Follow-up periods and collection of clinical observations varied based on individual routine care program. At last follow-up there was a significant (p ? 0.05) reduction in duration of "Off" periods as well as dyskinesia duration and severity that was associated with an improvement of quality of life. Twenty three patients (25.3 % of the safety population) withdraw, due to adverse drug reaction (5), procedure and device related events (7), compliance (3) and lack of efficacy (8). The mean duration for last value reported after baseline (LV) was 608 ± 292 days (median: 697 days). Our results demonstrate significant and sustained benefit over a long observation period in motor complications and in quality of life following a change from oral pulsatile to continuous levodopa delivery. The relatively large number of withdrawals reflects the current use of duodenal levodopa infusion in very advanced PD patients. PMID:23595879

Antonini, A; Odin, P; Opiano, L; Tomantschger, V; Pacchetti, C; Pickut, B; Gasser, U E; Calandrella, D; Mancini, F; Zibetti, M; Minafra, B; Bertaina, I; De Deyn, P; Cras, C; Wolf, E; Spielberger, S; Poewe, W

2013-04-18

471

The Use of Probabilistic Safety Techniques for Evaluating the Advanced CANDU Reactor (ACR)  

Microsoft Academic Search

THAT WAS SUBMITTED The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is anticipating licensing applications for reactor facilities that are significantly advanced beyond the current generation of operating reactors. One proposed reactor design, developed by Atomic Energy of Canada, Limited (AECL), is an Advanced CANada Deuterium Uranium (CANDU) Reactor (ACR), the ACR-700. The ACR is an enhanced version of earlier CANDU designs.

Michael D. Muhlheim; Donald A. Copinger; Joseph W. Cletcher; A. Linn; Donald L. Williams; John N. Ridgely

472

Heavy Vehicle and Engine Resource Guide  

SciTech Connect

The Heavy Vehicle and Engine Resource Guide is a catalog of medium- and heavy-duty engines and vehicles with alternative fuel and advanced powertrain options. This edition covers model year 2003 engines and vehicles.

Not Available

2004-03-01

473

77 FR 43416 - ITS Industry Forum on Connected Vehicles: Moving From Research Towards Implementation; Notice of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Industry Forum on Connected Vehicles: Moving From Research Towards...of Transportation (USDOT) Intelligent Transportation System Joint...discussion on the Connected Vehicle Safety, Vehicle-to-Infrastructure,...

2012-07-24

474

Development of a Robust and Cost-Effective Friction Stir Welding Process for Use in Advanced Military Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

To respond to the advent of more lethal threats, recently designed aluminum-armor-based military-vehicle systems have resorted\\u000a to an increasing use of higher strength aluminum alloys (with superior ballistic resistance against armor piercing (AP) threats\\u000a and with high vehicle-light weighing potential). Unfortunately, these alloys are not very amenable to conventional fusion-based\\u000a welding technologies and in-order to obtain high-quality welds, solid-state joining

M. Grujicic; G. Arakere; B. Pandurangan; A. Hariharan; C.-F. Yen; B. A. Cheeseman

2011-01-01

475

Electric Vehicle Conceptual Design Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The conceptual design of an electric vehicle is presented. The vehicle has been designed to accommodate a number of alternate drive trains. The initial drive will consist of commercially available dc components; more advanced drives may be installed to up...

1976-01-01

476

Recent Advances in Image Assisted Neurosurgical Procedures: Improved Navigational Accuracy and Patient Safety  

SciTech Connect

Neurosurgical procedures require precise planning and intraoperative support. Recent advances in image guided technology have provided neurosurgeons with improved navigational support for more effective and safer procedures. A number of exemplary cases will be presented.

Olivi, Alessandro, M.D.

2010-08-28

477

Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Systems Assessment Seminar: Proceedings.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The following twenty papers are included in these proceedings: (1) electric and hybrid vehicle assessment overview, (2) electric and hybrid vehicle systems considerations, (3) advanced vehicle assessment, (4) hybrid vehicle assessment, (5) battery optimiz...

1984-01-01

478

Electric and hybrid vehicles  

SciTech Connect

A study of the energy utilization of gasoline and battery-electric powered special purpose vehicles is discussed along with the impact of electric cars on national energy consumption, the development of electric vehicles in Japan, the applicability of safety standards to electric and hybrid-vehicles, and crashworthiness tests on two electric vehicles. Aspects of energy storage are explored, taking into account a review of battery systems for electrically powered vehicles, the dynamic characterization of lead-acid batteries for vehicle applications, nickel-zinc storage batteries as energy sources for electric vehicles, and a high energy tubular battery for a 1800 kg payload electric delivery van. Subjects considered in connection with drive systems include the drive system of the DOE near-term electric vehicle, a high performance AC electric drive system, an electromechanical transmission for hybrid vehicle power trains, and a hybrid vehicle for fuel economy. Questions of vehicle development are examined, giving attention to the Electrovair electric car, special purpose urban cars, the system design of the electric test vehicle, a project for city center transport, and a digital computer program for simulating electric vehicle performance.

Jacovides, L.J.; Cornell, E.P.; Kirk, R.

1981-01-01

479

Appears in: Proceedings of Intelligent Systems and Advanced Manufacturing, 1997 A distributed tactical reasoning framework for intelligent vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

In independent vehicle concepts for the Automated Highway System (AHS), the ability to make competent tactical- level decisions in real-time is crucial. Traditional approaches to tactical reasoning typically involve the implementation of large monolithic systems, such as decision trees or nite state machines. However, as the complexity of the environment grows, the unforeseen interactions between components can make modications to

Rahul Sukthankar; Dean Pomerleau; Chuck Thorpe

480

Longitudinal Control of a Platoon of Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a systematic analysis of a longitudinal control law for a platoon of non-identical vehicles using a non-linear model to represent the vehicle dynamics of each vehicle within the platoon. The basic idea is to take full advantage of recent advances in communication and measurement and using these advances in longitudinal control of a platoon of vehicles: in

Shahab Sheikholeslam; Charles A. Desoer

1990-01-01