Potter, Tom G.; Socha, Teresa L.; O'Connell, Timothy S.
In the light of recent challenges facing the field of outdoor adventure education in higher education, this exploratory study sought to identify some of the underlying political and institutional factors and societal influences on an international level that have led to the success of some programmes and the closure of others. Thirty-eight outdoor…
Miles, John C., Ed.; Priest, Simon, Ed.
Adventure education seeks to promote individual growth and development through the purposeful planning and implementation of educational processes that include risk in some way. This book introduces major topics in the broad literature of adventure education by bringing together 53 writings of adventure education practitioners. The writings are…
Adventure is the most dynamic form of education currently available and as such should move from its peripheral position in British education to become a part of the core curriculum. This move will require that school administrators better understand the philosophy and content of Adventure Education and that staff receive more rigorous training…
Sibthorp, Jim; Jostad, Jeremy
Many components of the social system interact with one another to produce group-level behavior that determines the functionality of the small group in outdoor adventure education (OAE). This article synthesizes the contemporary literature and theory regarding eight aspects of the OAE social system: (a) Macro Contextual Factors, (b) Student…
Sheard, Michael; Golby, Jim
To date, little empirical research has been conducted to support the claim that outdoor adventure education (OAE) develops desirable psychological characteristics in participants. This study examined the effects of an OAE foundation degree curriculum on positive psychological development. Fifty-two students (26 OAE students, 26 controls on an…
In adventure education, risk is important to achieving program objectives. An increased concern with legal liability and the concentration of media attention on negative outcomes have contributed to an increased social aversion to risk. Adventure education must establish that risk leads to personal growth and can be managed constructively in the…
Sibthorp, Jim; Collins, Rachel; Rathunde, Kevin; Paisley, Karen; Schumann, Scott; Pohja, Mandy; Gookin, John; Baynes, Sheila
Learners thrive when they have the capacity to regulate interest and goal direction. Through direct experiences that are interesting and goal-relevant, learners can internalize and better understand their own agency in the learning process. This article further examines this premise in an outdoor adventure education (OAE) context through two…
Daniel, Brad; Bobilya, Andrew J.; Kalisch, Kenneth R.; McAvoy, Leo H.
This article explores the current state of knowledge regarding the use of autonomous student experiences (ASE) in outdoor and adventure education (OAE) programs. ASE are defined as components (e.g., solo, final expedition) in which participants have a greater measure of choice and control over the planning, execution, and outcomes of their…
Jostad, Jeremy; Sibthorp, Jim; Paisley, Karen
Relationships are a critical component to the experience of an outdoor adventure education (OAE) program, therefore, more fruitful ways of investigating groups is needed. Social network analysis (SNA) is an effective tool to study the relationship structure of small groups. This paper provides an explanation of SNA and shows how it was used by the…
Scrutton, Roger A.
Outdoor adventure education (OAE) is widely recognised for its ability to elicit personal and social development for its participants. However, quantitative evidence on which this recognition is based is frequently questioned, and is virtually absent in Scotland. To provide some of the first statistically determined evidence from Scotland that OAE…
Man answers a natural call for adventure in many ways including escape into fantasy, vertigo seeking, kinetic euphoria, and by exercising the pioneer spirit. Adventure education can help equip people to satisfy their need for adventure in meaningful, enriching ways. A reaction to unsatisfactory educational milieus, adventure education has emerged…
Cooley, Sam J.; Burns, Victoria E.; Cumming, Jennifer
Groupwork is an increasingly popular method of learning in higher education and the ability to work effectively with others is important for academic success and employability. This systematic review investigated the use of outdoor adventure education (OAE) in facilitating the development of transferable groupwork skills in higher education. The…
Speelman, Elizabeth A; Wagstaff, Mark
This chapter provides background in adventure education and its connection to student leadership pedagogy. An adventure program is the ideal experiential learning setting promoting students' leadership development through direct experience, reflection, and application. PMID:26895017
Wurdinger, Scott D.
Adventure education is filled with "doers," which improves practice but does not necessarily enhance theory. This book addresses that gap by examining the philosophy of adventure education. Chapter 1 examines foundational principles, which have their roots in the ideas of philosophers such as Plato, Aristotle, Rousseau, and Dewey, and their…
In this article I question whether a focus on transfer within outdoor adventure education (OAE) is desirable and if it is worth continuing to emphasize as a central construct. I argue that transfer is a highly problematic concept that has been difficult to empirically substantiate beyond controlled experimental settings. Given the ambiguity of the…
Experiential approaches to learning underpin teaching and learning strategies in outdoor adventure education (OAE). Recent critiques of experiential learning have problematised the individualistic and overly cognitive focus of this approach which creates binaries between experience-reflection and the learner-situation. This paper summarises these…
Uhlik, Kim S.
Nature continually impresses humans in its role as an omnipresent, if not ultimate, source of power. One hallmark of outdoor and adventure education (OAE) has been its presumption that humans' interaction with aspects of Nature's "power" promotes the antecedents of leadership: measurable, persistent psychological effects and behavioral…
D'Amato, Laura Galen; Krasny, Marianne E.
We conducted a qualitative study of the experiences of 23 Outdoor Adventure Education (OAE) participants to determine what participants found significant about their course and to what course elements they attributed this significance. Participants experienced personal transformations, which they attributed to spending extended time in pristine…
Scrutton, Roger; Beames, Simon
Outdoor adventure education (OAE) has a long history of being credited with the personal and social development (PSD) of its participants. PSD is notoriously difficult to measure quantitatively, yet stakeholders demand statistical evidence that given approaches to eliciting PSD are effective in their methods. Rightly or wrongly, many stakeholders…
Schleien, Stuart J.; And Others
This guide presents a comprehensive framework for the development and provision of outdoor education and adventure programs for people of all abilities, including those who significantly challenge the service delivery system. Chapter 1 provides a rationale for the integration of disabled persons into outdoor education and adventure programs, and…
Tucker, Anita R.; Rheingold, Alison
Although the importance of addressing and evaluating treatment and program fidelity is clearly emphasized in the literature on psychology, education, and health, little attention has been given to fidelity in adventure literature or research. Program fidelity refers to whether or not, and how well, a specific intervention or program was…
Allan, John F.; McKenna, Jim; Hind, Karen
Understanding of the active beneficial processes of adventure learning remains elusive. Resilience may provide one foundation for understanding the positive adaptation derived from Outdoor Adventure Education (OAE) and Adventure Therapy (AT) programming. From a neurological perspective, resilience may be explained by the brain's innate capability…
Recently, the place of adventure activities in outdoor education has become contentious, particularly in Australia and the United Kingdom. It can be challenging for outdoor leaders to incorporate adventure activities with attempts to foster environmental awareness, understanding and action. Recently, some authors have suggested practitioners…
Davidson, Curt; Ewert, Alan; Chang, Yun
The purpose of this study was to provide insight into what occurs in moments of high challenge within participants during an outdoor adventure education (OAE) program. Given the inherent risk and remote locations often associated with OAE programs, it has remained challenging to measure selected psychological constructs while the program is taking…
Adventure learning (AL) is a hybrid distance education approach that provides students with opportunities to explore real-world issues through authentic learning experiences within collaborative learning environments. This article defines this online distance education approach, outlines an AL framework, and showcases an AL archetype. In AL…
A professional adventure educator offers numerous resources about adventure-based learning, drawn from his book, "Teamwork and Teamplay." Organizational resources include libraries, the Educational Resource Information Center (ERIC), Kendall/Hunt publishers, the American Camping Association book store, Project Adventure, the Association for…
Beightol, Jesse; Jevertson, Jenn; Carter, Susan; Gray, Sky; Gass, Michael
This study assessed the effect of an experiential, adventure-based program on levels of resilience in fifth-grade Latino students. A mixed methods, quasi-experimental design was used to measure the impact of the Santa Fe Mountain Center's Anti-Bullying Initiative on internal assets commonly associated with resilient individuals. Results indicated…
Brown, Mike; Fraser, Deborah
Risk is positioned as a distinguishing feature of outdoor adventure education (OAE) pedagogy. Risk defines much of what happens in OAE, from participants "taking" risks to instructors "managing" risks. The taken-for-granted centrality of risk continues to have currency due to the thrill and allure of adventurous outdoor activities. This paper…
Zmudy, Mark H.; Curtner-Smith, Matthew D.; Steffen, Jeff
Many of the characteristics of effective physical education lessons have been discovered by sport pedagogy researchers by employing what has become known as the ecological or task structures perspective. The purpose of this study was to describe the task structures and ecology that existed in two consecutive 7-day summer adventure camps run by an…
Zmudy, Mark H.; Curtner-Smith, Matthew D.; Steffen, Jeff
Sport pedagogy researchers have contributed much to the literature on physical education teaching by describing the participation styles of children, youth and young adults in various settings. The purpose of this study was to describe the participation styles of children enrolled in two consecutive week-long summer adventure camps. Primary…
A teacher of student teachers at Lulea University of Technology in Sweden uses fantasy and story telling to integrate mathematical thinking and problem solving into adventure-education programs for elementary students in nearby forests. Maps, magic places, rituals, mysterious signs, audiovisual aids, actors, and darkness restore a sense of magic…
Wurdinger, Scott D.; Potter, Tom G.
Adventure education has its own set of unique questions that help to define what it is and how it differs from other fields of education. Adventure education has grown rapidly over the past several decades, and with its evolution, many critical topics for deliberation have emerged. This book contains 15 chapters, each arranged in a debate format…
Gehris, Jeffrey; Myers, Elizabeth; Whitaker, Robert
Adventure-physical education has been proposed to promote adolescents' physical development, but little is known about physical activity levels during such lessons. Using the System for Observing Fitness Instruction Time, we observed students' (ages 11-14 years) physical activity levels in co-educational classes during 43 adventure-physical…
Seaman, Jayson; Coppens, Andrew D.
Historically, adventure educators have used the metaphor of hard and soft skills to understand their practice: hard skills representing technical competencies, and soft skills representing interpersonal competencies. In light of current research and in the face of increasingly complex varieties of adventure practice, the categorization of skills…
Watson, Doris L.; Clocksin, Brian D.
Historically, physical education has purported to promote student learning across the psychomotor, cognitive, and affective domains. Use of adventure-type activities within a physical education curriculum can provide a valuable tool for physical educators toward truly meeting the affective domain. Recently published works have provided physical…
Baldwin, Cheryl; Persing, John; Magnuson, Douglas
Some of the present approaches for studying adventure education are based on grounded theory, folk pedagogies, and existing social science theory. These approaches share some problems, including: (a) an overemphasis on outcomes without specifying processes, (b) a misunderstanding of how different types of evaluation contribute to theory, and (c)…
Sibthorp, Jim; Paisley, Karen; Gookin, John; Furman, Nate
Allowing students a sense of autonomy has long been considered an important pedagogical tool. This paper synthesizes the current literature on student autonomy from the education, youth development, and outdoor adventure fields and explores its value through an analysis of data from the National Outdoor Leadership School (NOLS). The results…
Rubendall, Robert L., Jr.
On the premise that the benefits of adventure education far outweigh risks in any well managed program, this document provides such programs, which stand on relatively untested ground in the eye of the law in this litigious society, with strategies for reduction of risk by controlling the nature and frequency of accidents. The first section…
Relational processes are well known to play a central role in human development. This qualitative, descriptive case study examined relational issues of early adolescent girls that arose during a two-week adventure education expedition. Interviews were conducted with 12 ethnically and socio-economically diverse girls. Results revealed the…
Decreasing emphasis on the environment in outdoor and adventure education is resulting in ecologically less knowledgeable participants. It is critical that the environment continue to be part of these programs for three reasons: citizenship and stewardship; empathy and counterbalancing a narcissistic focus on thrills; and opportunities to get in…
Miles, John C., Ed.; Priest, Simon, Ed.
Adventure programming is the deliberate use of adventurous experiences to create learning in individuals or groups, often with the goal of improving society or communities. Adventure programming may focus on recreation, education, individual or group development, or therapy, or on a combination of these. This second edition contains 61 chapters by…
Karppinen, Seppo J. A.
Adventure in school culture may seem quite a contradiction. In this paper I will present arguments on the idea that outdoor adventure learning contributes to formal education and is compatible with school practice and goals. This paper is based on research conducted for my thesis. The doctoral degree was completed at Oulu University, Finland, in…
Boniface, Maggie; Bunyan, Peter
The School of Physical Education at Chichester Institute (England) has developed an outdoor and adventurous activities (OAA) program that trains teachers to optimize the full potential of the outdoors as classroom. The philosophy underpinning the OAA program challenges the traditional view that exposure to adventure necessarily results in…
Passarelli, Angela; Hall, Eric; Anderson, Mallory
Outdoor and adventure education has been shown to result in positive psychological outcomes. This paper connects positive psychology--specifically, strengths-based education--to important outcomes in outdoor and adventure education. Strengths-based education encourages participants to intentionally use their talents to achieve success in the…
Furman, Nathan Neil
The issue of learning transfer is of prime importance to the field of adventure education. Adventure education programs are designed to promote a variety of personal development outcomes for participants, and a significant amount of research has validated these outcomes. However, in order for students to use the learning gained during their…
Surveys a variety of conflicting philosophies and their underlying values that have influenced the development and direction of outdoor adventure education. Suggests that outdoor adventure education and experiential ways of learning are intrinsically at the margins of pedagogy and demand a generalized framework that incorporates and balances…
Pryor, Anita; Carpenter, Cathryn; Townsend, Mardie
Together, outdoor education and bush adventure therapy can be seen to constitute a population-wide health intervention strategy. Whether in educational or therapeutic settings, the intentional use of contact with nature, small groups, and adventure provides a unique approach in the promotion of health and wellbeing for the general population, and…
Outdoor adventure activities, typically originating from other countries, form the basis of most Australian outdoor education programs. Research on adventure-based outdoor education in Australia and elsewhere has tended to focus on determining the benefits of participating in such programs. Less attention has been paid to a critical examination of…
Wolff, Robert M.; Washburn, Nancy
lines insurance needs for adventure education programs. Gives results of a survey (65 percent response rate) of 68 adventure education programs and their insurance coverage or reasons why they had no insurance. Discusses risk management for adventure education programs. (MH)
Ewert, Alan; Wu, Guan-Jang
Outdoor adventure activities such as whitewater boating, caving, rock climbing, and mountaineering continue to be popular among the public. As a result of this popularity, numerous organizations "contract out" the leadership and delivery of the adventure portion of their curriculum. This paper explores two widely used venues for offering outdoor…
Sibthorp, Jim; Furman, Nate; Paisley, Karen; Gookin, John; Schumann, Scott
Transfer of learning from adventure programs remains of critical interest to adventure education professionals. Although some research has investigated what transfers, notably less has focused on mechanisms that might influence transfer. This paper explores the mechanisms of transfer reported by a stratified random sample of National Outdoor…
This study examines components of outdoor adventure programs for middle school students, using a school with a successful program as a model. Outdoor education is often left out of these years for financial and safety reasons, however the benefits of adventure programs are both measurable and profound to self-concept, confidence, identity growth,…
Relates adventure seeking and adventure education to the Norwegian phenomenon "friluftsliv" to focus on the inclusion of nature and nature-related values. Discusses the dichotomy between nature and culture. Describes friluftsliv as the legacy of the 19th-century explorer and environmental philosopher Fridtjof Nansen who praised the simple life in…
Albright, Richard L.
General education, middle school students' experience and outcomes related to their participation in adventure based counseling (ABC) were investigated through the use of qualitative research case study design. Research questions examine what students expect, experience, and perceive as the impact of an adventure based intervention. Analysis of…
MacDonald, Teresa; Bean, Alice
Particle physics is a subject that can send shivers down the spines of students and educators alike--with visions of long mathematical equations and inscrutable ideas. This perception, along with a full curriculum, often leaves this topic the road less traveled until the latter years of school. Particle physics, including quarks, is typically not…
Lynch, Pip; Moore, Kevin
The popularity of adventure recreation and adventure education has arisen, in part, from an assumption that adventure experiences are radically different from those of everyday life in modern societies. A paradox previously pointed out is that those seeking adventurous experiences often make use of technical and technological prosthetics, thus…
Timken, Gay L.; McNamee, Jeff
The purpose of this study was to gauge preservice physical education teachers' perspectives during one physical activity pedagogy course, teaching outdoor and adventure education. Teacher belief, occupational socialization and experiential learning theories overlaid this work. Over three years 57 students (37 males; 20 females) participated in the…
Miles, Beau; Wattchow, Brian
This paper explores the complex and changing nature of adventure as a form of cultural practice. Borrowing from Joseph Conrad's memoirs "The Mirror of The Sea" (1907), sea kayaking is contextualized here as a journey that takes place just as much between "landfall and departure" as it does between the paddler's ears (i.e., in…
Doering, Aaron; Miller, Charles; Veletsianos, George
Adventure learning (AL) is a hybrid distance education approach that provides students with opportunities to explore real-world issues through authentic learning experiences within collaborative learning environments. Within hybrid environments, designers habitually attempt to replicate traditional classroom pedagogy resulting in experiences that…
Ingman, Benjamin Charles
This study is an investigation of the adventure education (AE) experience with particular attention to what happens during the AE experience, the meanings participants ascribe to the experience, how personal backgrounds and institutional cultures coalesce in AE, and the significance of the AE experience for schooling. These topics are explored…
Richardson, Rick; Kalvaitis, Darius; Delparte, Donna
This study examined how adventure educators could use systematic feedback to improve their teaching skills. Evaluative instruments demonstrated a statistically significant improvement in teaching skills when applied at an outdoor education center in Western Canada. Concurrent focus group interviews enabled instructors to reflect on student…
Sutherland, Sue; Stuhr, Paul T.
The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore the reactions of 13 pre-service teachers (PTs) implementing an adventure-based learning (ABL) unit through the lens of occupational socialization. Data were collected through interviews, critical reflections and reflection of videotaped ABL lesson. Analysis of the data resulted in two themes:…
Baker, Molly Ames
A study examined the effects of integrating cultural history interpretation of the environment into wilderness adventure trips for college students. At Colgate University (New York), pre-orientation camping trips available to all incoming students integrated interpretive activities related to the local environment. Before the trips, leaders…
Ressler, James Donald
Adventure-based Learning (ABL) is the purposeful use of activities in sequence to improve personal and social development of participants (Cosgriff, 2000). ABL goes beyond instant activities (i.e. ice-breakers, cooperative games) to create an environment in which students enjoy the challenge while developing emotional and social competencies…
Kirkpatrick, Beth; Buck, Marilyn M.
The Heart Adventures Challenge Course teaches students about the circulatory system's design and functions, taking them through a model of the circulatory system in the gym. The article provides detailed instructions for presenting the unit. It describes how the course was developed and taught in a middle school. (SM)
Zmudy, Mark H.; Curtner-Smith, Matthew D.; Steffen, Jeff
A relatively small number of researchers have found it interesting and useful to examine why and how persons choose to be and become adventure educators (AEs) and why they teach as they do. The implications of this knowledge are: (1) gaining insight into novice AEs' perceptions of what is required to provide in-depth and high quality instruction…
Facilitated discussion before, during and after experiences is widely accepted practice in the field of outdoor adventure education. Much of the literature appears to house the assumption that individual learning may be considerably restricted if participants' experiences are not processed with the help of an external facilitator, as they may not…
Lo, Simon; Gidlow, Bob; Cushman, Grant
This article reports on research that demonstrates how parents in first-generation Chinese families in Vancouver, Canada, most of them from Hong Kong, control their children's involvement in local adventure education (AE) programs and in so doing minimize the likelihood of intergenerational culture conflict involving those children. The research…
Residential, challenging, learning experiences can provide a powerful and essential education in environmental values and interpersonal relationships. Presents a basic-needs planning guide for residential adventure programs that considers the need for water, air, food, clothing, accommodation, waste disposal, health, energy, resources, love of…
Gehris, Jeffrey; Kress, Jeff; Swalm, Ricky
This study investigated 10th-grade students' views concerning the physical effects of an adventure-physical education curriculum and the potential of such a curriculum to enhance components of a multidimensional model of physical self-concept. Semistructured interviews were used to obtain students' views and participant observations were conducted…
Miner, Joshua L.; Boldt, Joe
Joshua Miner recounts his 30 years' experience with people and places significant to the history of Adventure-Based Education and Outward Bound in the United States. Fourteen Outward Bound schools visited or assisted by Miner are described in chapters recording events such as the school's inception, daily activities, individuals enrolled, and…
Potter, Tom G.; Henderson, Bob
Canada is the second largest country in the world by area. With its diverse geophysical features and relatively small population density it is a mecca for outdoor enthusiasts of all types. In the Canadian outdoor adventure education field there is an awakened acknowledgement of the centrality of Native peoples that pervades its practice today.…
Henrickson, Jeni; Doering, Aaron
There is a recognized need for theoretical frameworks that can guide designers and educators in the development of engagement-rich learning experiences that incorporate emerging technologies in pedagogically sound ways. This study investigated one such promising framework, adventure learning (AL). Data were gathered via surveys, interviews, direct…
Braus, Judy, Ed.
Ranger Rick's NatureScope is a creative education series dedicated to inspiring in children an understanding and appreciation of the natural world while developing the skills they will need to make responsible decisions about the environment. The topic of this issue is "Astronomy Adventures." Contents are organized into the following sections: (1)…
Fortunato, Barbara; De Guzman, Sylvia
In the face of compelling challenges, the Asia South Pacific Association for Basic and Adult Education (ASPBAE), the Global Campaign for Education (GCE), as well as the national education coalitions in Asia, have levelled up efforts in the past five years to advance the right of all citizens to quality education and learning opportunities…
Tsuji, Leonard J. S.; Nieboer, Evert
Describes a study designed to examine the effectiveness of the family-based environmental education lead poisoning program called "The Adventure of Lead Commander". Design and methodological weaknesses call into question the conclusions reached in the study. The effectiveness of the educational program cannot be ascertained from the data…
Fisher, D.; Leon, N.
Informal education settings provide unique opportunities to convey Earth and space science learning to a variety of audiences. The NASA Space Place suite of outreach products and activities include deliverables to both the formal and the informal education arenas. The question is, how can Earth and space science efforts best create high-quality products and activities for the informal education sector- and how can these products and activities be effectively disseminated to these audiences? This session will describe the approach by a small outreach team for NASA's New Millennium Program (NMP) Space Place effort. The Space Place team's approach has been three-fold: 1) develop a suite of products designed to appeal to (and educate) the informal education audience, 2) disseminate these products through leveraged distribution channels which serve the informal education community, and 3) invite participation by missions beyond those within NMP, but rather NASA-wide - for a richer and broader message, and a greater variety of content The informal education audience served by the Space Place can be found in science centers, museums, planetariums, libraries, community centers, and community organizations. This informal education audience seeks to be entertained as well as to be educated, and this audience often includes multiple generations. Personnel at informal education venues may or may not have a science background, may or may not have significant training in conducting activities, and may, as often as not, be volunteers. As a result of valuable lessons learned, Space Place materials developed for informal education settings attempt to be adaptable for multiple age groups, and easy to administer. Dissemination to the informal education community could be a daunting effort. But another lesson learned by the Space Place team is the value of alliances with national organizations within that community. These alliances make distribution of the Space Place activities and
Background A medical intervention is a medical procedure or application intended to relieve or prevent illness or injury. Examples of medical interventions include vaccination and drug administration. After a medical intervention, adverse events (AEs) may occur which lie outside the intended consequences of the intervention. The representation and analysis of AEs are critical to the improvement of public health. Description The Ontology of Adverse Events (OAE), previously named Adverse Event Ontology (AEO), is a community-driven ontology developed to standardize and integrate data relating to AEs arising subsequent to medical interventions, as well as to support computer-assisted reasoning. OAE has over 3,000 terms with unique identifiers, including terms imported from existing ontologies and more than 1,800 OAE-specific terms. In OAE, the term ‘adverse event’ denotes a pathological bodily process in a patient that occurs after a medical intervention. Causal adverse events are defined by OAE as those events that are causal consequences of a medical intervention. OAE represents various adverse events based on patient anatomic regions and clinical outcomes, including symptoms, signs, and abnormal processes. OAE has been used in the analysis of several different sorts of vaccine and drug adverse event data. For example, using the data extracted from the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS), OAE was used to analyse vaccine adverse events associated with the administrations of different types of influenza vaccines. OAE has also been used to represent and classify the vaccine adverse events cited in package inserts of FDA-licensed human vaccines in the USA. Conclusion OAE is a biomedical ontology that logically defines and classifies various adverse events occurring after medical interventions. OAE has successfully been applied in several adverse event studies. The OAE ontological framework provides a platform for systematic representation and analysis of
Since late 2007, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration has undertaken the development of a 20-year Education Strategic Plan, has undergone an external review by the National Research Council of the National Academies, and has drafted a guiding document on an agency-wide approach for monitoring and evaluation of its education activities and programs. This presentation will review all these processes with special emphasis on lessons learned and on the implications of each one on NOAA’s ability to improve and better coordinate its educational portfolio.
Sproule, John; Martindale, Russell; Wang, John; Allison, Peter; Nash, Christine; Gray, Shirley
The purpose of this study was to carry out a preliminary investigation to explore the use of outdoor and adventurous project work (PW) within an educational setting. Specifically, differences between the PW and normal academic school experiences were examined using a self-determination theory framework integrated with a goal orientation and…
Miller, Charles; Veletsianos, George; Doering, Aaron
Grounded in the theoretical approaches of experiential learning and inquiry-based learning, adventure learning (AL) is a hybrid distance education approach that seeks to transform the experiences of students by having learners explore real-world issues and pursue answers to their own questions in an authentic, anchor-based environment. In this…
McGuire, Robert F.
At the Milpitas City-School Recreation Department's "adventure playground," piles of scrap wood, cardboard, and other building materials are provided for building at the youngsters' inclinations. (MB)
Ewert, Alan; Van Puymbroeck, Marieke; Frankel, Jon; Overholt, Jillisa
This article describes two studies examining the effects of an experiential and adventure-based program (Outward Bound) on returning military veterans. The assumption underlying these studies is the belief that adventure-based programs can serve as a beneficial mediator in the reintegration of returning military veterans into society. The two…
Veletsianos, George; Kleanthous, Irene
Adventure learning (AL) is an approach for the design of digitally-enhanced teaching and learning environments driven by a framework of guidelines grounded on experiential and inquiry-based education. The purpose of this paper is to review the adventure learning literature and to describe the status quo of the practice by identifying the current…
Lynch, Pip; Moore, Kevin; Minchington, Lyn
In previous work, Lynch and Moore theorised that the current popularity of adventure in recreation and education contexts is deeply paradoxical at social, economic and technological levels. Extending this thesis, we investigated the extent to which "adventure culture" can be considered quantitatively and qualitatively specific to particular…
This paper describes the competencies in the domain of human interaction that are required of leaders in various outdoor adventure programs. These programs may be grouped on a continuum from recreational outdoor adventure to primary (adventure) therapy. In the middle of the continuum, educational, enrichment, and adjunctive (adventure) therapy…
The underlying values and principles of the "common adventure" model are presented. Features of a common adventure trip include a group of individuals working cooperatively toward mutual goals and sharing expenses, decision making, and responsibilities equitably. The common adventure model is contrasted with adventure education, adventure therapy,…
Beck, Bernhard R
Extreme travelling experiences appear to be a quite popular kick offered by tourist operators and sought by some travellers. But some travellers expose themselves to increased risk also during normal holidays, either voluntarily by booking hikes or tours leading them to adventurous locations or to unexpectedly encountering dangerous situations. In planned adventures, precise information in advance, good physical condition, careful planning, and profound medical preparation may contribute to a less hazardous adventure. Advising medical persons may need an expert consultation for specific topics in order to optimise the preparation. Based on three specific environmental situations (jungle, desert, and cave) the specific conditions, dangers and some medical aspects are outlined. PMID:23732454
Map Adventures, with seven accompanying lessons, is appropriate for grades K-3. Students will learn basic concepts for visualizing objects from different perspectives and how to understand /and use maps.
The communist regime in Romania destroyed civil society by breeding suspicion and distrust. Viata, an adventure education program in a depressed coal mining region, assists social redevelopment by providing youth with free, positive experiences of self-efficacy and interconnectedness within the larger web of community. (TD)
Cooley, Sam J.; Holland, Mark J.; Cumming, Jennifer; Novakovic, Emily G.; Burns, Victoria E.
Outdoor adventure education courses are used in higher education to develop transferable skills such as groupwork and problem-solving skills. There is a need for exploratory investigation into students' perceptions of this experience. This study aimed to develop an innovative qualitative data collection method, and to use it to explore…
This paper summarizes European views on adventure therapy and therapeutic outdoor activities. Opening sections list the elements of outdoor adventure education and current trends affecting its development and direction, describe the mission and activities of the European Institute for Outdoor Adventure Education and Experiential Learning, and note…
The purpose of this study is threefold: (a) to explore what 18 adolescents learned while participating in a three week long adventure program, (b) to examine how they learned while on the program, and (c) to determine what program outcomes they considered most applicable to their home environments, or which learning is "transferable". To address…
Harper, Nevin; Robinson, David W.
Leaders working in the outdoor adventure field are faced with making critical decisions that keep students, clients, or customers safe from the perils of risk-related activities while enabling them to benefit from these experiences. The knowledge and competency necessary to analyze and manage risk is integral to those providing outdoor adventure…
Hattie, John; And Others
This meta-analysis examines the effects of adventure programs on diverse outcomes such as self-concept, locus of control, and leadership. Analysis of 1,728 effect sizes from 96 studies shows that effect sizes varied substantially and improved as the length of the program and ages of the participants increased. (SLD)
Reed, Jane; Maskell, Kathy; Allinson, David; Bailey, Rosemary; Bates, Fernanda; Davies, Sian; Gallimore, Catherine
"The Adventurous School" tells the uplifting stories of three primary schools who took charge of renewing their vision, their place in the community and their curriculum to become environments where children, teachers, parents and partners thrived. The book takes the reader through each school's five year journey and gives real-life practical…
Stuhlmiller, Cynthia M.
Describes an outdoor adventure camp to help mental health consumers and nursing students explore the issues of mental health and illness through experiential and perceived risk challenges. Evaluation data reveals a breakdown in the stigma of mental illness as consumers and students came to know, trust, and count on each other in order to succeed…
This guide is designed to accompany "The Great American Landmarks Adventure," a book for students that describes 43 of the National Historic Landmarks located in the United States. The guide includes suggested activities in the areas of: (1) art and communication; (2) architecture and engineering; (3) commerce and economics; (4) home and…
Adventure-based programs may be designed in a way that not only provides an intervention aimed at therapy or development, but also teaches participants to become their own agents of change. McWhirter's model proposes that empowerment is broader than notions of personal autonomy and efficacy, reaching outside the individual. The model specifies…
Stuhr, Paul T.; Sutherland, Sue; Ressler, James; Ortiz-Stuhr, Esther M.
Adventure-based learning (ABL) is a sequenced curriculum using structured physical and team building activities that create the space for participants to work on group communication, cooperation, trust, and problem solving. Reflection (i.e., debriefing) is an essential aspect of the ABL curriculum (Cosgriff, 2000). A debrief in ABL is the…
Brassell, S. C.
Most biomarker studies of Cretaceous OAE have tended to focus on investigations of hydrocarbon constituents, which means that evidence of environmental conditions contained in the distributions and abundance of more polar components has rarely been utilized with the notable exception of GDGTs as paleotemperature proxies. One group of functionalized lipids, tocopherols, fulfills various critical functions in plants and bacteria, including optimization of photosynthetic activity and macronutrient homeostasis in cyanobacteria. These compounds are often prevalent constituents of immature Cretaceous sediments rich in organic matter (OM) in those instances where analytical protocols have assessed their presence. They occur in Cenomanian-Turonian (OAE2), early Aptian (OAE1a), Valanginian, and other Cretaceous sediments, and their concentrations can exceed 2-5 mg/g dry sediment. One possible explanation for the abundance of tocopherols is that environmental conditions prevailing during OAE led to enhanced biochemical production of these components by phytoplankton, given their key biophysiochemical role of protecting lipids and membranes against oxidative stress. High concentrations of tocopherols (>250 mg/g dry weight) have been reported in haptophytes and marine green algae, and their production in cyanobacteria increases under high light intensity. Hence, environmental conditions during Cretaceous OAE may have been conducive to production of copious amounts of tocopherols by phytoplankton in response to environment stresses. Previous work in contemporary systems has suggested that the propensity of tocopherols to autooxidation would make their survival in sediments unlikely. However, this scenario and interpretation is clearly not applicable during Cretaceous episodes of enhanced OM sequestration and/or dysoxia. Since tocopherols serve to protect plant cells from oxidative damage it seems plausible that they might fulfill a similar function in settling, particulate, and
johnson, jay; Chin, Jessica W.
This study is a qualitative examination of the experiences and impact of participating in an outdoor-based and adventure education-based orientation as an alternative to traditional forms of sport team initiation. Traditional forms of initiation for the participants in this study had included hazing ceremonies, whereby new team members were forced…
Bates, Dana; Bates, Brandi
An adventure education program combines environmental education, character education, and service learning with ropes courses, orienteering, and rock climbing to offer Romanian youth opportunities for trust building and reconciliation in the wake of the economic, environmental, and moral devastation left by the Communist dictator. An ecotourism…
This paper introduces the notion of a spiritual component of adventure, with reference to the potential role of adventure within the peace and reconciliation process in Northern Ireland. Influenced by tradition and culture, past constructions of adventure have often associated it with educational benefits and personal development of specific…
In this article, the author shares his views on how reality television shows have altered participants' expectations of adventure programs and explores how such changes affect what leaders do with groups who sign on for an adventure education program. For some individuals, the chance to participate in an adventure program focused on group building…
Sailing expeditions have played an important role in adventure provision for young people in Great Britain over many years. Adventure experiences under sail can achieve social and personal development goals similar to those of land-based adventure education programs. In addition, participants can earn certification in sailing skills. Most voyages…
Collins, Loel; Collins, Dave
As a comparatively recent development, the adventure-sports coach struggles for a clear and distinct identity. The generic term "instructor" no longer characterizes the role and function of this subgroup of outdoor professionals. Indeed, although the fields of adventure/outdoor education and leadership are comparatively well researched, the…
Bunting, Camille J.
Outdoor adventure education programs may offer opportunities for improving overall wellness beyond the realm of physical fitness. A hypothetical framework is presented as follows: (1) outdoor adventure experiences provide individuals with opportunities to be truly challenged; (2) success in challenging situations builds self-efficacy and…
Gass, Michael, Ed.
In response to the growth and diversification of adventure programming, the Association for Experiential Education developed an accreditation process that addresses both the fluid nature of adventure programming and the need for specificity in standards. This book describes exemplary administrative practices and policies of accredited adventure…
Understanding and action are central themes in Hannah Arendt's thought and an idea that runs throughout her work is that whenever human beings act, they start processes. It is in this light that she saw education as a process whose aim is to make human beings feel at home in the world. Given the centrality of process in understanding action, early…
The Wilderness Education Association (WEA) is increasingly offering more international courses (Williams, 2007). Recent examples of such courses have included courses operating in Taiwan, Japan, New Zealand, Romania, and East Africa. This article compares the ethnographic data resulting from a recent 14 day Wilderness Stewardship Course in Taiwan…
Gomes, Maya L.; Hurtgen, Matthew T.; Sageman, Bradley B.
Biogeochemical sulfur cycling has varied widely over geologic time, mainly in response to changes in primary productivity and organic carbon burial, volcanism, weathering, and evaporite deposition. Several of these processes are explicitly linked to discreet (<1.2 Ma) intervals of widespread organic carbon burial, termed oceanic anoxic events (OAEs). During the Cretaceous, there is a highly distinctive ~4‰ negative excursion in the sulfur isotope composition of seawater sulfate (δ34SSO4) that is bracketed by the two most prominent OAEs (OAE1a and OAE2). This excursion lasted for ~25 Ma and has been variously attributed to enhanced volcanism, changes in weathering, evaporite burial, and/or changes in modes of organic carbon remineralization. We present new high-resolution carbon and sulfur isotope records from carbonate-associated sulfate and pyrite for OAE1a and OAE2. OAE1a is characterized by a monotonic decrease in δ34SSO4 values. Both negative and positive δ34SSO4 excursions are associated with OAE2. To refine hypotheses for the observed changes in biogeochemical sulfur cycling associated with these events, we use a simple sulfur isotope box model. Both empirical and modeling results indicate that δ34SSO4 variability was dominated by input fluxes during OAE1a, whereas enhanced volcanism, weathering, and pyrite burial controlled δ34SSO4 records during OAE2. Our analysis supports the conclusion that Cretaceous marine sulfate concentrations were much lower than modern concentrations and indicates that increases in marine sulfate occurred at the onset of both events. We conclude that increases in marine sulfate from low background concentrations, in conjunction with other environmental characteristics, contributed to the development of OAEs.
Johanson, Karl M., Ed.
The goals of this manual are to raise the level of safety, environmental awareness, and quality in outdoor adventure education, and to encourage the development of skilled, knowledgeable outdoor leaders through the compilation and dissemination of common practices and information. Other goals are to provide information for programs to use as a…
This essay proposes that stress has been misused in traditional adventure education and presents a new model of risk taking based on the literature on stress and feminist perspectives in adventure education. Proponents of the traditional adventure perspective state that the intentional use of stress is central to the change process in wilderness…
James, Carol S.
Yoga creates a union of the body, mind, and spirit, and develops in the participant a conscious awareness of self. Noting that adventure education programs give participants the opportunity to come to a greater awareness of self, an experiential educator started combining yoga with adventure activities. Several anecdotes illustrate the mind/body…
Henschke, John A.
In this article, the author shares his experience of how travel and adult education merged, for him, into a major emphasis in international adult education (AE) and human resource development (HRD). International ventures have been some of the most exciting and learning-filled aspects of the author's career in AE and HRD. His involvement in…
The paper presents an analysis of the forms of meaning making in "Teaching in Higher Education" between 2005 and 2013. Unlike other papers which have reviewed higher education journals the analysis was based on reading full papers. Previous analyses of journals have commented on the a-theoretical nature of much research into higher…
McClam, Sherie; Sevier, Brian
In this paper, two teacher educators work to understand their attempts to transform teacher-student relations by altering traditional grading practices. Using actor-network theory, the authors examine the social effects produced across and throughout a school of education when they changed the meaning and significance of grades. Detailed analysis…
Lindenmeier, Donna K.
Historically, outdoor recreation/education (ORE) has been associated with environmental recreation/education, but in the past few decades has become increasingly associated with adventure education/recreation. Many outdoor programs have attempted to combine the two elements; others question the combination of the two elements in a single program.…
The dilemma in adventure education is to eliminate unreasonable risks to participants without reducing the levels of excitement, challenge, and stress that are inherent in adventure programming. Most accidents in outdoor pursuits are caused by a combination of unsafe conditions; unsafe acts (usually on the part of the student); and error judgments…
This summary article situates the articles in this collection within the historical unfolding of the commodification and neoliberalisation of higher education. From the 1970s to the present, the article suggests that commodification and neoliberalisation are two social forces that in many nations are difficult to disentangle. It is important to…
Schwab, Keri; Dustin, Daniel
Engaging youth in traditional physical education exercises or ball sports can be a challenging task, especially when they prefer novelty, entertainment, or excitement in their leisure-time activities. In addition, many youth are unaware of the opportunities that exist to exercise or recreate in nature, often preferring to spend time indoors…
Kephart, Newell C.
Educational implications and symptoms are described for learning disorders, the disruption in the processing of information within the central nervous system caused by brain damage, emotional disturbance, or inadequate presentation of learning experiences. Developmental sequences, developmental progression, and restoration of development are…
Hickey, F. R.
An adventure-type computer game in which treasure can be acquired by solving problems in ray optics is described. The program is shorter than most adventures and is designed to run in a 16-K Commodore PET microcomputer with tape cassette input. Program and documentation are available at cost from the author. (Author/JN)
Wallstrom, Timothy J.
This article discusses the project developed by the Southeast Island School District (SISD) to improve their physical education curriculum. The challenge faced by SISD was to determine a way to provide training that had immediate impact. An important aspect of the project was the incorporation of adventure activities--such as using kayaks,…
Brendtro, Larry K.; Strother, Mark A.
A century ago, John Dewey proposed educating children through a curriculum rich in real-life problem-solving experiences. While many traditional schools have been slow to adopt such methods, experiential learning is making a significant impact in alternative education, youth development, and treatment settings. Challenge and adventure activities…
Mehrparvar, Amir Houshang; Mollasadeghi, Abolfazl; Hashemi, Seyed Hesam; Sakhvidi, Mohammad Javad Zare; Mostaghaci, Mehrdad; Davari, Mohammad Hossein
Noise is one of the most pervasive hazardous factors in the workplace. Noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) is the most common disorder related to noise exposure. Smoking is probably associated with hearing loss. The simultaneous effect of noise and smoking on hearing is a recent concern. In this study, we assessed the simultaneous effect of noise and smoking on standard pure tone audiometry (PTA) and distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DP-OAEs). This was an historical cohort study on 224 workers exposed to noise who were divided into two groups: Smokers and nonsmokers. DP-OAE response amplitudes were assessed. Data were analyzed by SPSS software (version 19) using Student's t-test and Mann-Whitney U test. One hundred and five subjects were smokers (case group) and 119 individuals were nonsmokers (control group). All the subjects were exposed to 91.08 ± 2.29 dBA [time-weighted average (TWA) for an 8 h work shift]. Mean DP-OAE response amplitude at frequencies higher than 1,000 Hz was significantly higher in the smokers than the nonsmokers. This study showed that smoking can aggravate the effect of noise on hearing in DP-OAEs. PMID:26168954
Riemenschneider, P A
The author recently spent 4 months at the University of Malaya in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, as a visiting professor of radiology. In this report he describes his experiences in the country and at the hospital and medical school, which is one of only three in Malaysia. Each day, the author worked one-on-one with a different resident, supervising either procedures or image interpretation. Additional activities included conferences, grand rounds, and medical student teaching. Because of the mixed ethnicity of the population, the incidence and variety of pathologic conditions that were encountered clinically provided an unparalleled educational experience. The author encourages anyone with available time to consider a sabbatical such as this; it is a rewarding personal and professional experience. PMID:1535889
Martin, E. E.; MacLeod, K. G.; Blair, S. W.
The role of deep ocean circulation in the development of Ocean Anoxic Events (OAEs) has long been debated; one of the primary discussions focuses on whether high levels of organic carbon burial are related to high rates of surface productivity or enhanced preservation. New Nd and oxygen isotopic data from Demerara Rise provide an opportunity to evaluate circulation and water column stratification across OAE2. During much of the Cenomanian to Santonian δ18O data from planktic foraminifera, benthic bivalves, fish debris and coprolites indicate that bottom waters on Demerara Rise were ~5°C warmer than thermocline waters. This bottom water mass also had a uniquely nonradiogenic ɛNd signature of ~-15, which contrasts to contemporaneous values > -11.5 from the Pacific, North Atlantic, and Tethys. We believe this nonradiogenic signature was acquired from relatively proximal weathering sources and introduced into the deep ocean without appreciable mixing, indicativing a low latitude source of relatively warm bottom water. The most striking feature of the Nd isotopic record at Site 1258 is a dramatic positive excursion of 8 ɛNd units across OAE2, with a similar, but smaller shift of at least 4.5 ɛNd units across the Mid Cenomanian Event (MCE). The initiation of the OAE2 excursion appears to be very rapid and closely correlated with the δ13C excursion. Lower resolution sampling across the MCE shows a similar pattern. These excursions occur within a continuous lithofacies of finely laminated black shales. In contrast, there is no change in ɛNd across a major lithologic transition from organic-rich shale to chalk and marl, arguing against a diagenetic control on observed patterns. Eruption of the Caribbean LIP is a potential source of radiogenic Nd observed during OAE2; however, anoxic conditions are probably required to prevent the quantitative removal of Nd by oxides. This scenario predicts that the δ13C shift should precede the shift in ɛNd, which is counter to our
Graduating with a Bachelor of Physical and Health Education (BPHE) degree with a specialty in Outdoor Adventure Leadership (ADVL) is a unique reality in Canada offered by Sudbury's Laurentian University. Developed over 20 years ago, the ADVL program has been one of Laurentian's six landmark Human Kinetics programs. From a scholastic perspective…
Stuhr, Paul T.; Sutherland, Sue; Ressler, Jim; Ortiz-Stuhr, Esther M.
Adventure-based learning (ABL) consists of highly structured physical activity with periods of reflection (i.e., debrief) that help promote personal and social development. It can be used as a valid curriculum in physical education to promote intrapersonal and interpersonal relationships. This type of curriculum can also help physical educators…
Insights from chaos theory--the interconnectedness of everything, nonlinear cause and effect, leverage and the "tipping point," and the importance of aligning interventions within a system--are applied to social action and illustrated via the role of adventure education in school and community interventions in the Brattleboro (Vermont) Leadership…
Miller, B. G.; Cox, C. J.; Hougham, J.; Walden, V. P.; Eitel, K.; Albano, A.
Teaching the general public and K-12 communities about scientific research has taken on greater importance as climate change increasingly impacts the world we live in. Science researchers and the educational community have a widening responsibility to produce and deliver curriculum and content that is timely, scientifically sound and engaging. To address this challenge, in the summer of 2012 the Adventure Learning @ Greenland (AL@GL) project, a United States' National Science Foundation (NSF) funded initiative, used hands-on and web-based climate science experiences for high school students to promote climate and science literacy. This presentation will report on an innovative approach to education and outreach for environmental science research known as Adventure Learning (AL). The purpose of AL@GL was to engage high school students in the US, and in Greenland, in atmospheric research that is being conducted in the Arctic to enhance climate and science literacy. Climate and science literacy was explored via three fundamental concepts: radiation, the greenhouse effect, and climate vs. weather. Over the course of the project, students in each location engaged in activities and conducted experiments through the use of scientific instrumentation. Students were taught science research principles associated with an atmospheric observatory at Summit Station, Greenland with the objective of connecting climate science in the Arctic to student's local environments. Summit Station is located on the Greenland Ice Sheet [72°N, 38°W, 3200 m] and was the primary location of interest. Approximately 35 students at multiple locations in Idaho, USA, and Greenland participated in the hybrid learning environments as part of this project. The AL@GL project engaged students in an inquiry-based curriculum with content that highlighted a cutting-edge geophysical research initiative at Summit: the Integrated Characterization of Energy, Clouds, Atmospheric state, and Precipitation at
Gomez, Andrew Thomas; Rao, Ashwin
Adventure and extreme sports often involve unpredictable and inhospitable environments, high velocities, and stunts. These activities vary widely and include sports like BASE jumping, snowboarding, kayaking, and surfing. Increasing interest and participation in adventure and extreme sports warrants understanding by clinicians to facilitate prevention, identification, and treatment of injuries unique to each sport. This article covers alpine skiing and snowboarding, skateboarding, surfing, bungee jumping, BASE jumping, and whitewater sports with emphasis on epidemiology, demographics, general injury mechanisms, specific injuries, chronic injuries, fatality data, and prevention. Overall, most injuries are related to overuse, trauma, and environmental or microbial exposure. PMID:26900120
Liddle, Jeff, Ed.; Storck, Steve, Ed.
This report presents data collected during 1989-90 for the Adventure Program Incident Reporting Project, a joint project between the Wilderness Risk Managers Committee and the Association for Experiential Education. The project provides a means to educate interested parties about the risk management implications of different adventure activities,…
Summers, B.G.; Hicks, H.R.; Oliver, C.E.
Within the realm of education, seldom does an innovative program become available with the potential to change an educator`s teaching methodology and serve as a spur to systemic reform. The Adventures in Supercomputing (AiS) program, sponsored by the Department of Energy, is such a program. Adventures in Supercomputing is a program for high school and middle school teachers. It has helped to change the teaching paradigm of many of the teachers involved in the program from a teacher-centered classroom to a student-centered classroom. ``A student-centered classroom offers better opportunities for development of internal motivation, planning skills, goal setting and perseverance than does the traditional teacher-directed mode``. Not only is the process of teaching changed, but evidences of systemic reform are beginning to surface. After describing the program, the authors discuss the teaching strategies being used and the evidences of systemic change in many of the AiS schools in Tennessee.
Norton, Christine Lynn; Tucker, Anita; Russell, Keith C.; Bettmann, Joanna E.; Gass, Michael A.; Gillis, H. L.; Behrens, Ellen
This state of knowledge article provides an overview of Adventure Therapy (AT) as it is practiced with adolescents in North America, presenting (a) current findings in AT research with adolescents, (b) critical issues in AT, (c) the need for training and professional development in AT, and (d) professionalization in AT. Implications of current…
Strother, Mark A.
Formal schooling began centuries before scientists would discover how the brains of children actually learn. Not surprisingly, traditional teaching was often boring and brain antagonistic. But great teachers in every era intuitively recognized what has now been validated by neuroscience: powerful learning is an adventure of the mind. Students,…
This paper describes the theory of psychosynthesis and suggests how it may be applied to the facilitation of adventure groups. Robert Assagioli's theory of psychosynthesis emphasizes inner psychological parts or elements and their interrelationships. He theorizes that integration or synthesis of these elements is possible. The goal then of…
Arthur, M. A.
The search for commonality in the nature and origin of "black shale" units that characterize Jurassic-Cretaceous "Oceanic Anoxic Events" has not come to fruition. Indeed, it would appear that OAEs differ from one another in duration, distribution, organic carbon contents, and carbon isotope signatures. In addition, they differ in origin as interpreted from faunal, floral and stable isotope data. Considerable uncertainty remains regarding the relative roles of productivity (carbon flux) and mechanisms of preservation (low dissolved oxygen at the sediment/water interface, high sedimentation rate, or high mineral surface area) during OAEs in general. For example, it is difficult to separate anoxia from high surface-water productivity as a cause for enhanced organic matter preservation, in part because oxygen depletion in deeper water masses is a response to high fertility and organic carbon flux. Mineral surface area recently has been proposed as the only control on organic carbon contents, but this seems doubtful. There are, however, interesting patterns that bear further examination. OAEs, and black shales in general, typically form during transgressive episodes. For epicontinental black shales, transgression creates conditions that favor nutrient trapping in relatively isolated basins; these nutrients originate either from fluvial sources or are transported into epicontinental seas from adjacent ocean basins with well-developed, nutrient-rich oxygen minimum zones. It is not clear how transgression induces more global, open-ocean OAEs. They may be a response to several factors related to the cause(s) of the transgressions, including changes in deepwater overturn rates induced by increasing expanse of shallow shelf regions or opening of oceanic gateways, and/or by overall higher nutrient fluxes from weathering brought about by warmer, wetter climates related to times of greater outgassing resulting from increased volcanism. In some cases, enhanced oceanic
Silva-Tamayo, J. C.; Eisenhauer, A.
The acidification and deoxygention of modern oceans are major environmental concerns to the international community. The effects of ocean acidification and deoxigention in the biogeochemical cycles of modern tropical oceans are poorly constrained mainly due to the lack of empirical and quantitative data. The Cretaceous World witnessed several period of potential ocean acidification and deoxygenation, which resulted from the rapid additions of volcanic derived CO2 to the atmosphere. The effects of ocean acidification and deoxygenation on the Cretaceous biogeochemical cycles are evidenced mainly by major global C-isotope anomalies. These anomalies parallel the occurrence of organic rich black shales as well as major decreases in the deposition of shallow marine carbonates worldwide. Here we use detailed C- and Sr- chemostratigraphy as well as published bioestratigraphic information and volcanic zircon U-Pb ages to precisely constrain the geochemical and sedimentologic expression of the Cretaceous OAES along a tropical epicontinental sea, the La Luna Sea. Our multi-pronged approach allows identifying the occurrence of several of the Cretaceous Oceanic Anoxic Events (OAEs) in carbonate units paleogeographically located along the northern most part of the La Luna Sea, i.e. Weissert-OAE-(Palanz and Rosablanca Formations), Faraoni-(Rosablanca Formation), AOE1a-(Paja and Fomeque Formations, Cogollo Group), OAE1c-(Cogollo Group), OAE2-(Cogollo Group), OAE3-(La Luna Formation). These events are preserved in highly euxinic - organic rich "black shales" successions deposited along the deepest part of the seaway at the Middle Magdalena Valley and Cundinamarca Basin; Weiser-OAE-(Lutitas de Macanal Formation), OAE1a-(Paja Formation, Fomeque Formation), OAE1C-(San Gil Formation). Regional changes in depositional settings and sedimentary facies preserving the different Cretaceous OAEs were likely the result of the combined action of regional changes in paleogeography and tectonic
Gill, B.; Young, S.; Kump, L.; Saltzman, M.; Lyons, T.
The Paleozoic Era contains many large, commonly globally expressed positive carbon isotope excursions recorded in carbonate rocks. In younger Mesozoic rocks, similar excursions are often easily linked to organic-rich deposits formed from enhanced carbon burial under ocean-scale anoxia -i.e., oceanic anoxic events (OAEs). These events are important since voluminous organic carbon and pyrite burial in anoxic settings can be a central player in modulating the amount of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, and many of Earth's major extinctions are coeval with ocean-scale anoxia. In contrast, physical records of organic carbon burial tied to the carbon isotope record are scarce in the Paleozoic; leading to ambiguity in the interpretation of the isotope data. These data become less cryptic when viewed in light of coeval seawater sulfur isotope trends. For the globally expressed, Late Cambrian (SPICE) carbon isotope excursion, carbonate-C and sulfate-S records reveal parallel, positive isotope shifts suggesting enhanced organic C and pyrite S burial. Additionally, both organic carbon and pyrite sulfur isotope data from the Alum Shale of Sweden record the SPICE Event, putting to rest questions of the primary nature of the carbonate records. Comparison of the SPICE to similar isotope data from the Toarcian OAE and results from geochemical box modeling of both events lead us to conclude that the SPICE Event is a prime candidate for an early Paleozoic OAE. Additional evidence for increased ocean anoxia coincident with the SPICE also comes from the Alum Shale. Molybdenum concentrations show muted enrichment during the extent of the SPICE, despite data that show the basin was persistently euxinic before, during and after the event. Significant increases in molybdenum concentration occur only immediately after the event; suggesting a depleted seawater Mo inventory associated with a greatly expanded global anoxic Mo sink during the SPICE. An interesting result from
Adventure travels to volcanoes offer chance encounters with danger, excitement, and romance, plus opportunities to experience scientific enlightenment and culture. To witness a violently erupting volcano and its resulting impacts on landscape, climate, and humanity is a powerful personal encounter with gigantic planetary forces. To study volcano processes and products during eruptions is to walk in the footsteps of Pliny himself. To tour the splendors and horrors of 25 preeminent volcanoes might be the experience of a lifetime, for scientists and nonscientists alike. In The Volcano Adventure Guide, we now have the ultimate tourist volume to lead us safely to many of the world's famous volcanoes and to ensure that we will see the important sites at each one.
Ranchordas, Mayur K
Adventure racing requires competitors to perform various disciplines ranging from, but not limited to, mountain biking, running, kayaking, climbing, mountaineering, flat- and white-water boating and orienteering over a rugged, often remote and wilderness terrain. Races can vary from 6 hours to expedition-length events that can last up to 10-consecutive days or more. The purpose of this article is to provide evidence-based nutritional recommendations for adventure racing competitors. Energy expenditures of 365-750 kcal/hour have been reported with total energy expenditures of 18 000-80 000 kcal required to complete adventure races, and large negative energy balances during competitions have been reported. Nutrition, therefore, plays a major role in the successful completion of such ultra-endurance events. Conducting research in these events is challenging and the limited studies investigating dietary surveys and nutritional status of adventure racers indicate that competitors do not meet nutrition recommendations for ultra-endurance exercise. Carbohydrate intakes of 7-12 g/kg are needed during periods of prolonged training to meet requirements and replenish glycogen stores. Protein intakes of 1.4-1.7 g/kg are recommended to build and repair tissue. Adequate replacement of fluid and electrolytes are crucial, particularly during extreme temperatures; however, sweat rates can vary greatly between competitors. There is considerable evidence to support the use of sports drinks, gels and bars, as they are a convenient and portable source of carbohydrate that can be consumed during exercise, in training and in competition. Similarly, protein and amino acid supplements can be useful to help meet periods of increased protein requirements. Caffeine can be used as an ergogenic aid to help competitors stay awake during prolonged periods, enhance glycogen resynthesis and enhance endurance performance. PMID:23006142
A study of outdoor adventure risk management education was conducted in the fall of 2003 following the devastating avalanche season of winter 2002-2003, which took close to 50 lives in North America. The study was guided by the desire to better understand effective risk management training of outdoor adventure leaders in postsecondary…
Guidelines for beginning adventure education instructors include preparing to effectively manage accidents by identifying all risks associated with an activity, leading only those adventure activities in which one feels competent, and establishing goals in order to make good decisions in the field and approach programs with clarity and purpose.…
Woollven, Rowland; Allison, Pete; Higgins, Peter
The Lyme Bay kayaking incident of 1993, in which four children died, led to an Act of Parliament and the introduction by the British Government of the Adventure Activities Licensing Authority (AALA), a body established to regulate adventurous recreational and educational outdoor activities. The perception at the time, a view to which some …
Boyes, Michael A.; O'Hare, David
Decision making by outdoor adventure educators revolves around balancing risk and competence. A model of outdoor adventure decision making is presented that draws on naturalistic decision-making processes and emphasizes the importance of situational recognition and prior experience. Leaders draw key information from the natural environment,…
Spacht, Roger J.; Hirsch, Jude
Addresses issues related to administration of adventure programs, including liability, hiring well-trained staff, conducting safe activities, supervising safe adventure programs, maintaining appropriate facilities and equipment, keeping accurate records, posting information about potentially unsafe sites and activities, carrying adequate insurance…
Smith, Thomas E.
The Fresh Start Program was an experiment in providing a comprehensive educational and therapeutic program for sexually abused and exploited adolescents. The program was based on the theory and practice of experiential, outdoor-challenge adventure education. The experiment involved 16 youth in a living and learning environment in the north woods…
The present study was concerned with the effects of a residential woodland education program, incorporating both educational and adventure elements, on proenvironmental attitudes and aspects of well-being. Specifically, adolescent participants (N = 25) from a broad range of backgrounds, including some with challenging behavioral characteristics,…
Bauch, Todd M.
A survey of 652 adventure recreation agencies in higher education settings examined the use of risk management practices and the relationships between agency characteristics and risk management techniques. The survey contained 27 Likert Scale questions divided into four categories (agency guidance, staff development, participant education, and…
Latess, Dennis R.; Walker, Richard L.
There are a variety of curricular approaches in physical education, any one of which can provide a framework and scheme that is the foundation of a physical education unit of study. This article will discuss the use of an adventure model to teach about diversity, multi-cultural understanding and tolerance. Teaching children diversity and tolerance…
Williamson, John E., Comp.; Gass, Michael, Comp.
This manual presents standards for adventure education programs seeking accreditation from the Association for Experiential Education. The manual is set up sequentially, focusing both on objective standards such as technical risk management aspects, and on subjective standards such as teaching approaches used in programs. Chapter titles provide…
A female outdoor educator who had recovered from anorexia nervosa reflects on the boundaries between her personal and professional identity as she anticipates taking on a research role in adventure-therapy programs. Gender issues in outdoor education are discussed in relation to women's body image and eating disorders. (SV)
Less than one third of early childhood educators have a bachelor's degree, yet national indicators of high-quality early childhood program standards emphasize the importance of higher education for these practitioners. In order to adequately serve and retain these nontraditional learners as they strive to earn their degrees, teacher education…
Storm, R.; Benson, T.; Galica, C.; McCredie, P.
This guide was produced by the NASA Glenn Research Center Office of Educational Programs in Cleveland, OH, and the NASA Aerospace Educational Coordinating Committee. It includes activity modules for students, including the history of the Wright Brothers and their family in Dayton, Ohio and flight experimentation in Kitty Hawk, North Carolina. Student activities such as building models of the Wright Brothers glider and writing press releases of the initial flight are included.
Billica, Roger D.
Human space flight experience has demonstrated a variety of hazards and risks to health and performance. In developing ways to help respond to these issues, the field of space medicine has developed a comprehensive program of space flight health risk management that has resulted in positive contributions to medicine and society in general. Examples include accelerated focus on critical health issues such as aging and osteoporosis, and development of new technologies such as non-invasive diagnostic testing for diabetics. The role of health care professionals in human space exploration represents a fulfillment of new adventures and expanding frontiers.
Storm, Roger; Benson, Thomas; Galica, Carol; McCredie, Patty
This educator guide provides background information on Wilbur and Orville Wright. It also presents activities on aeronautics that provide templates for building the 1900, 1901, and 1902 Gliders and the 1903 Flyer. Activities include: (1) Early Aviation; (2) Your First Interview; (3) Your First Report; (4) Build a Model of the 1900 Glider; (5)…
Lechler, Maria; Pogge von Strandmann, Philip A. E.; Jenkyns, Hugh C.; Prosser, Giacomo; Parente, Mariano
An abrupt rise in temperature, forced by a massive input of CO2 into the atmosphere, is commonly invoked as the main trigger for Oceanic Anoxic Events (OAEs). Global warming initiated a cascade of palaeoenvironmental perturbations starting with increased continental weathering and an accelerated hydrological cycle that delivered higher loads of nutrients to coastal areas, stimulating biological productivity. The end-result was widespread anoxia and deposition of black shales: the hallmarks of OAEs. In order to assess the role of weathering as both an OAE initiator and terminator (via CO2 sequestration) during the Early Aptian OAE 1a (Selli Event, ∼120 Ma) the isotopic ratio of lithium isotopes was analysed in three sections of shallow-marine carbonates from the Pacific and Tethyan realms and one basinal pelagic section from the Tethyan domain. Because the isotopic composition of lithium in seawater is largely controlled by continental silicate weathering and high- and low-temperature alteration of basaltic material, a shift to lighter δ7Li values is expected to characterize OAEs. The studied sections illustrate this phenomenon: δ7Li values decrease to a minimum coincident with the negative carbon-isotope excursion that effectively records the onset of OAE 1a. A second negative δ7Li excursion occurs coeval with the minimum in strontium isotopes after the event. The striking similarity to the strontium-isotope record argues for a common driver. The formation and destruction (weathering) of an oceanic LIP could account for the parallel trend in both isotope systems. The double-spike in lithium isotopes is probably related to a change in weathering congruencies. Such a chemostratigraphy is consistent with the hypothesis that an increase in silicate weathering, in conjunction with organic-carbon burial, led to drawdown of atmospheric CO2 during the early Aptian OAE 1a.
Quinn, William J.; Smith, Thomas E.
This paper advocates the potentials of "sweat lodge" rituals for adventure education programs. Historically, rituals and ceremonies have been instrumental in passing major philosophical and sociological paradigms from one generation to the next. However, there is little theory and research about how ritual and ceremony results in the transmission…
Mullins, Philip M.
In response to the crisis of sustainability, this paper revisits understandings of human--environment relations established through skill-based outdoor activities that are used commonly among adventure recreation, education, and tourism. Reconsidering a predominant focus on risk and a persistent tension between technical and environmental…
Johnson, Laura; McGee, John; Campbell, James; Hays, Amy
Geospatial technologies have become increasingly prevalent across our society. Educators at all levels have expressed a need for additional resources that can be easily adopted to support geospatial literacy and state standards of learning, while enhancing the overall learning experience. The Virginia Geocoin Adventure supports the needs of 4-H…
Gerstein, Jackie, Ed.
This directory lists 257 organizations with therapeutic adventure and experiential programs for special needs populations. The information was generated from a survey of members of the Association for Experiential Education. Special needs populations include youth-at-risk, persons with addictions, juvenile and adult offenders, inpatient and…
Miller, Brant G.; Hougham, R. Justin; Eitel, Karla Bradley
The Adventure Learning (AL) approach to designing and implementing learning experiences has great potential for practitioners. This manuscript delineates the practical enactment of AL to support the K-12 community, teacher educators, and residential environmental science program providers in the conceptualization and delivery of their own AL…
Khan, Masood Mehmood
Describes the implementation of an intelligent tutoring system that employs a game environment and object-oriented user interface for teaching and learning, based on a computer game developed for industrial training. Discusses adventure games, game environments in education, simulation support, and user interface design. (Author/LRW)
Summer Adventure, a university-based, full-day, community education program for kindergartners and elementary students is described. The program offers physical and enrichment activities, an "extravaganza," and production and leadership in training activities. The physical activities include golf, swimming, volleyball, and gymnastics. Fitness…
A multimedia, CD ROM to teach 2nd graders about remote sensing was created and developed into a web site. Distribution was expanded for Grades K-4 or 5-8. The idea was to have a story introduction, interactive story and a teacher's website. Interactive Multimedia Adventures in Grade School Education using Remote Sensing (I.M.A.G.E.R.S.) was created. The lessons are easy to use, readily available and aligned with national standards. This resource combines hands-on activities with an interactive web site
What is your communication goal? That is the opening question asked in NASA's first agency-wide science communication leadership development program. Many scientists know what they want to communicate, some know to whom they'd like to communicate, but few can clearly express why they want to do it. So what? First, being clear about one's goal is critical in being able to measure success. Second, when asked to think critically about communication goals, some scientists may shift their communication behaviors and practices to better achieve those goals. To that end, NASA has designed a deep learning experience for scientists (and engineers and others) to: critically examine their communication goals; learn techniques for getting to know their intended audience; and develop and apply specific communication skills to a project of their choice. Participants in this program come into the classroom with projects that span a wide spectrum including: formal and informal education, public outreach, media interviews, public speaking, stakeholder briefings, and internal awareness-building. Through expert advisors, professional coaches and peer networks, this program provides a supportive environment for individuals to workshop their project in the classroom and receive feedback before, during, and after the project is complete. This program also provides an opportunity for scientists and other participants to learn more about communication at NASA, and to directly influence the agency's science communication culture through action learning. In this presentation, I will summarize NASA's dual-design science communication leadership development program and present some lessons-learned, participant feedback and evaluation data from the initial course offerings.
Veletsianos, George; Doering, Aaron
In this paper we investigate the experiences of elementary school children over a two-year period during which they engaged with a hybrid Adventure Learning program. In addition to delineating Adventure Learning experiences, we report on educational technology implementations in ecologically valid and complex environments, while drawing inferences…
Mid-Cretaceous is characterized by intensified oceanic anoxia (Oceanic Anoxic Events: OAEs) that raised global deposition of organic black shales. Several models have been proposed to explain the cause of the OAEs in conjunction with Cretaceous global warmth, active volcanism, sea-level changes and others. For example, Weissert et al. (1998) proposed a mechanism called 'weathering hypothesis'. In this model, the cause of the OAEs is explained in a following chain reaction, (1) global warmth and increase in atmospheric CO2 enhanced weathering of continental crust, (2) enhanced land weathering led excessive influx of nutrients from continents to oceans, (3) eutrophication enhanced primary productivity, (4) the excessive primary producers consumed dissolved oceanic oxygen that finally led to the OAEs. Several studies, in fact, revealed a causal relation between enhanced weathering and OAEs in northern Tethys region. However, it is necessary to collect worldwide information to unravel the global response of weathering hypothesis as a cause of OAEs. For such reason, the present contribution conducted measurements of the degree of hinterland paleoweathering during OAEs in northern Japan, for the purpose to provide a first report on the relation between continental weathering and OAEs in open ocean, the western Panthalassa Ocean. Aptian to Campanian forearc basin mudstones (Yezo Group) were analyzed by XRF and the degree of hinterland weathering was evaluated by geochemical weathering index (W index; Ohta and Arai, 2007). The W values obtained for the Yezo Group are 30~50, which is equivalent to the W values of recent soils developed in temperate mid-latitude climate. The W values show a fluctuation pattern that is concordant with the Cretaceous paleotemperature changes. This match indicates that the change in paleotemperature governed the weathering rates of East Asian continental crust. In addition, hinterland weathering rates show instantaneous increase during the OAE
Zhou, Xiaoli; Jenkyns, Hugh C.; Owens, Jeremy D.; Junium, Christopher K.; Zheng, Xin-Yuan; Sageman, Bradley B.; Hardisty, Dalton S.; Lyons, Timothy W.; Ridgwell, Andy; Lu, Zunli
Global warming lowers the solubility of gases in the ocean and drives an enhanced hydrological cycle with increased nutrient loads delivered to the oceans, leading to increases in organic production, the degradation of which causes a further decrease in dissolved oxygen. In extreme cases in the geological past, this trajectory has led to catastrophic marine oxygen depletion during the so-called oceanic anoxic events (OAEs). How the water column oscillated between generally oxic conditions and local/global anoxia remains a challenging question, exacerbated by a lack of sensitive redox proxies, especially for the suboxic window. To address this problem, we use bulk carbonate I/Ca to reconstruct subtle redox changes in the upper ocean water column at seven sites recording the Cretaceous OAE 2. In general, I/Ca ratios were relatively low preceding and during the OAE interval, indicating deep suboxic or anoxic waters exchanging directly with near-surface waters. However, individual sites display a wide range of initial values and excursions in I/Ca through the OAE interval, reflecting the importance of local controls and suggesting a high spatial variability in redox state. Both I/Ca and an Earth System Model suggest that the northeast proto-Atlantic had notably higher oxygen levels in the upper water column than the rest of the North Atlantic, indicating that anoxia was not global during OAE 2 and that important regional differences in redox conditions existed. A lack of correlation with calcium, lithium, and carbon isotope records suggests that neither enhanced global weathering nor carbon burial was a dominant control on the I/Ca proxy during OAE 2.
Bersch, Gretchen T.
In this article, the author describes how her grandmother and parents inspired in her a lifelong interest in international work throughout many parts of the world. As a consequence, the author built a figurative bridge from Alaska over the Bering Strait to Magadan, Russia (in far Eastern Siberia). She poignantly describes the work she has done…
Du Vivier, A.; Selby, D. S.; Takashima, R.; Condon, D. J.; Nishi, H.
Globally the marine realm across the Cenomanian-Turonian boundary interval records the oceanic anoxic event (OAE) 2. This event has been studied using several geochemical proxies at several sites from the proto-Atlantic. In contrast, there are limited studies from the proto-Pacific. We present initial osmium isotope stratigraphy (Osi) from two proto-Pacific sites: the Yezo Group (YG) section, Hokkaido, Japan, and the Great Valley Sequence (GVS), California, USA; to evaluate the Os seawater chemistry of the proto-Pacific with that of the proto-Atlantic. For the YG section the Osi prior to OAE2 are moderately radiogenic and heterogeneous. Synchronous with OAE2 onset the Osi abruptly become unradiogenic and remain homogenous before showing a gradual return to more radiogenic Osi throughout the middle to late OAE2. The Osi profile from the YG is analogous to the record from the Portland #1 core of the Western Interior Seaway (WIS). In contrast, the Osi profile from the GVS is disparate to the YG profile and those of several proto-Atlantic locations. The Osi for the GVS oscillate from radiogenic to unradiogenic values across the OAE2. We suggest the Osi of the GVS was influenced interchangeably by both unradiogenic and radiogenic Os; where radiogenic Osi is associated with weathered evolved continental rocks and unradiogenic Osi is derived from a submarine hydrothermal input associated with the Caribbean Large Igneous Province (CLIP). All proto-Atlantic sections show a synchronous correlation between Osi and δ13Corg excursions. However, this is not the case for the YG. As such we infer that the OAE2 excursion has been misidentified in the δ13Cwood analysis for the YG and thus the onset is ~24 m higher in the section. In order to further facilitate correlation we identified a number of zircon bearing tuff horizons throughout the YG for U-Pb ID-TIMS zircon geochronology. The Osi data and U-Pb age(s) combined, improves the correlation and the identification of the OAE2
Helesic, Terri; Priest, Simon
Examines ways in which outdoor adventure programs can guard against charges of negligence and the possibility of lawsuits without diluting challenge or participant satisfaction. Discusses risk management, insurance, safety guidelines to use in the development of program-specific standards, and accident prevention. Contains 19 references. (SV)
Joo, Y.; Hurtgen, M. T.; Sageman, B. B.
The Mid-Cenomanian Event (MCE; 96 Ma) is a globally-recognized perturbation in the Late Cretaceous carbon cycle that precedes the Cenomanian - Turonian Oceanic Anoxic Event 2 (OAE2; 94 Ma) by about 2 Ma. It is marked by a positive carbon isotope excursion (~2‰ in organic carbon; ~1‰ in carbonates) and considerable changes in foraminifera and radiolarian faunal assemblages. Despite lack of a discreet widespread layer of organic-rich black shales (much of the mid- to Late Cenomanian is pervasively enriched in organic carbon), the MCE has been considered as a potential OAE or a 'turning point' in the Cretaceous ocean-atmosphere system from a normal, stable system to a stressed period of preconditioning, that ultimately led to OAE2. This study reports the sulfur isotope composition of pyrite from the Middle to Late Cenomanian sediments of two distinct ocean basins, the Western Interior of North America and Demerara Rise (Ocean Drilling Program Leg 207 Site 1258) in the tropical North Atlantic, in order to examine changes in the coupled carbon and sulfur cycles during and after the MCE. Our results from the two sites consistently display a large positive sulfur isotope excursion during the MCE that is followed by persistently heavy δ34S values during the Late Cenomanian, and then a shift to lighter values ~ 500 kyr before the onset of OAE2. We interpret this as a result of enhanced pyrite formation during a period of low marine sulfate concentrations (relative to the modern ocean), which have been suggested for the Late Cretaceous oceans. The lower marine sulfate levels likely prevailed for the majority of the Cenomanian, partly owing to continued sequestration via pyrite burial. Previous study on aspects of the sulfur cycle before and during OAE2 suggested that the low marine sulfate levels were sustained until a massive eruption of the Caribbean Large Igneous Province (LIP) supplied a large amount of sulfur to the ocean-atmosphere system, starting ~ 500 kyr
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Lehn, G. O.; Jacobson, A. D.; Du Vivier, A.; Selby, D. S.; Hurtgen, M.; Sageman, B. B.
We used a new high-precision MC-TIMS method to generate Ca isotope records (δ44/40Ca; 2SD = ± 0.04‰) for three sections spanning OAE 2: central Colorado, USA (Portland #1 core), southeastern France (Pont d'Issole), and Eastbourne, England (Eastbourne Chalk). The Eastbourne Chalk δ44/40Ca values are higher than previously reported but define a similar trend, where δ44/40Ca values increase prior to OAE 2 and then decrease at the onset. The Portland core and the Pont d'Issole section display comparable δ44/40Ca values, which increase by ~0.10 - 0.15‰ immediately at the onset of OAE 2 and then decrease to near-initial values across the event. According to a numerical model of the marine Ca cycle, reasonable changes to the riverine and hydrothermal input fluxes cannot explain the rate and magnitude of the positive isotope excursion. A decrease in the magnitude of the carbonate fractionation factor provides the best explanation for the data. Because a decrease in the fractionation factor corresponds to an increase in the Ca/CO3 ratio of seawater, we tentatively attribute the positive Ca isotope excursion to transient ocean acidification, i.e., a reduction in the concentration of CO3 during CO2 uptake. Other studies implicate eruption of the Caribbean Large Igneous Province as the most likely source of CO2.
Lowenstein, Daniel H.
Focusing upon the adventure aspect of wilderness programs, this paper presents a profile of those program activities which create a number of challenges and often stressful situations as the means of attaining specified goals and which can best be incorporated under the term "Wilderness Adventure Program" (WAP). Providing information of interest…
Gass, Michael; And Others
Effective corporate adventure training programs: (1) develop parallel structures between the adventure experience and the workplace (context); (2) consider how the learning will address a company's future needs (continuity); (3) provide learners with valid information and feedback on their actions (consequences); and (4) create physically and…
Rubin, Lawrence C.
Utilizing Joseph Campbell's concept of the hero's adventure, this article provides a technique through which clients can story their lives and challenges as an unfolding personal myth or epic adventure. The use of personal narrative and storytelling has found efficacy in the counseling field and, as such, forms a useful foundation for clinical…
Many forms of adventure therapy, in particular wilderness therapy, rely on challenges in the outdoors to achieve objectives of client change. While nature is drawn on as a medium for therapy and healing, some adventure therapists give nature little if any mention when it comes to explaining therapeutic success. The dominant paradigm in psychology…
Moorman, Marta K.; English, Kathleen A.
Adventure racing got started in the 1990s. The Eco-Challenge and Primal Quest races were multi-day events that included challenging physical activities and extreme conditions. Today, highly publicized adventure races like the Eco-Challenge and Amazing Race usually feature elite athletes or celebrities completing exotic tasks or globe-hopping to…
With "adventure-based" learning, instructors present activities in a way that allows the group to develop its own abilities, with guidance from the instructor when appropriate. Adventure-based learning activities (which emphasize the importance of play) lend themselves to inclusion in the basic speech communication course, particularly when…
Moorman, Marta; Schlatter, Barbara E.; Hurd, Amy R.
Adventure recreation activities like mountain biking, bouldering, and kayaking used to require considerable travel to unique locations. This is changing, however, as the new trend emerges in the United State of providing adventure recreation experiences in cities and towns, such as New York City and Golden, Colorado. This article highlights…
Burg, James E.
Therapeutic adventure with families is a promising integration of adventure therapy and family therapy. Issues that must be addressed to legitimize the field include licensure and legal scope of practice, developing minimum standards for practitioners, incorporating family development and family therapy theories into practice, and conducting more…
Traces the development of peace-oriented experiential philosophy in both its Western and Soviet contexts, suggesting that adventure-based citizen diplomacy is a valuable means to build bridges between them. Adventure Based Citizen Diplomacy projects are working to decrease the cultural, sociopolitical, and psychological barriers that remain in the…
In the United Kingdom, insurance is becoming harder to get and society is becoming increasingly more likely to demand criminal sanctions when accidents occur. Adventure educators can protect themselves by having a demonstrable, transparent system of risk assessment, safety equipment, training, and control, but they must also educate the public to…
Leather, Mark; Nicholls, Fiona
There has been increasing interest in recent years in the significance of a sense of place in the literature of outdoor adventure education. In the UK relationships between outdoor education and the environment still appear largely focused on the science of the natural environment and the activity in question. In this paper, we present empirical…
Alejandro Ruiz-Ortiz, Pedro; Castro, José Manuel; de Gea, Ginés Alfonso; Jarvis, Ian; Molina, José Miguel; Nieto, Luis Miguel; Pancost, Richard David; Quijano, María Luisa; Reolid, Matías; Skelton, Peter William; Jürg Weissert, Helmut
The Cretaceous was punctuated by several episodes of accelerated global change, defined as Oceanic Anoxic Events (OAEs), that reflect abrupt changes in global carbon cycling. The Aptian Oceanic Anoxic Event (OAE1a; 120 Ma) represents an excellent example, recorded in all major ocean basins, and associated with massive burial of organic matter in marine sediments. The OAE1a is concomitant with the "nannoconid crisis", which is characterized by a major biotic turnover, and a widespread demise of carbonate platforms. Many studies have been published over the last decades on OAE1a's from different sections in the world, and provide a detailed C-isotope stratigraphy for the event. Nevertheless, new high-resolution studies across the event are essential to shed light on the precise timing and rates of the multiple environmental and biotic changes that occurred during this critical period of Earth history. Here we present a new drill core recovering an Aptian section spanning the OAE1a in southern Spain. The so-called Cau section was drilled in the last quarter of 2015. The Cau section is located in the easternmost part of the Prebetic Zone (Betic Cordillera), which represents platform deposits of the southern Iberian palaeomargin. The lower Aptian deposits of the Cau section belong to a hemipelagic unit (Almadich Formation), deposited in a highly subsident sector of the distal parts of the Prebetic Platform. Previous work on the early Aptian of the Cau succession has focused on stratigraphy, bioevents, C-isotope stratigraphy, and organic and elemental geochemistry. A more recent study based on biomarkers has presented a detailed record of the pCO2 evolution across the OAE1a (Naafs et al., 2016). All these studies reveal that the Cau section represents an excellent site to further investigate the OAE1a, based on its unusually high sedimentation rate and stratigraphic continuity, the quality and preservation of fossils, and the well-expressed geochemical signatures.
Adventure Racing has recently become a popular sport. In the past medical and paramedical staff were frequently positioned at checkpoints throughout the course of the race. Presently there is a developing role for appropriately qualified individuals to access the course by biking, running or swimming and then providing injured racers with on-site first aid prior to their transfer to the nearest medical checkpoint. These medical staff should have not only appropriate first aid skills but also rock rescue techniques, rappelling and other basic rope work as well as be athletically fit. This article explores the new role and attempts to outline what characteristics may be required. PMID:15537411
Elfrey, Priscilla R.; Zacharewicz, Gregory; Ni, marcus
The paucity of existing employer-driven simulation education and the need for workers broadly trained in Modeling & Simulation (M&S) poses a critical need that the simulation community as a whole must address. This paper will describe how this need became an impetus for a new inter-university activity that allows students to learn about simulation by doing it. The event, called Smackdown, was demonstrated for the first time in April at the Spring Simulation Multi-conference. Smackdown is an adventure in international cooperation. Students and faculty took part from the US and Europe supported by IEEE/SISO standards, industry software and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) content of are supply mission to the Moon. The developers see Smackdown providing all participants with a memorable, interactive, problem-solving experience, which can contribute, importantly to the workforce of the future. This is part of the larger need to increase undergraduate education in simulation and could be a prime candidate for senior design projects.
Adventure Learning (AL), a hybrid distance education approach, provides students and teachers with the opportunity to learn about authentic curricular content areas while interacting with adventurers, students, and content experts at various locations throughout the world within an online learning environment (Doering, 2006). An AL curriculum and online environment provides collaborative community spaces where traditional hierarchical classroom roles are blurred and learning is transformed. AL has most recently become popular in K-12 classrooms nationally and internationally with millions of students participating online. However, in the literature, the term "adventure learning" many times gets confused with phrases such as "virtual fieldtrip" and activities where someone "exploring" is posting photos and text. This type of "adventure learning" is not "Adventure Learning" (AL), but merely a slideshow of their activities. The learning environment may not have any curricular and/or social goals, and if it does, the environment design many times does not support these objectives. AL, on the other hand, is designed so that both teachers and students understand that their online and curriculum activities are in synch and supportive of the curricular goals. In AL environments, there are no disparate activities as the design considers the educational, social, and technological affordances (Kirschner, Strijbos, Kreijns, & Beers, 2004); in other words, the artifacts of the learning environment encourage and support the instructional goals, social interactions, collaborative efforts, and ultimately learning. AL is grounded in two major theoretical approaches to learning - experiential and inquiry-based learning. As Kolb (1984) noted, in experiential learning, a learner creates meaning from direct experiences and reflections. Such is the goal of AL within the classroom. Additionally, AL affords learners a real-time authentic online learning experience concurrently as they
It is well known that a few Oceanic Anoxic Events（OAEs）occurred with extreme warming climates during the Middle Cretaceous. Although many models have been proposed[ e.g. reference 1-4], the mechanisms for the occurrences of the OAEs with extreme climates remain unclear. Here, we provide inorganic carbon isotope (δ13C), iron speciation chemistry and trace element records for the later Aptian and the Cenomannian OAEs in the Southern Tibet. Our results indicate that these OAEs in the Tibet were featured by extremely negative δ13Canomalies(-15‰~-35‰),rich LREE with Eu positive anomalies and low iron ratios which suggest oxic bottom water conditions for the depositions .Accordingly, we propose that large-scale releases of methane may have greatly consumed dissolved oxygen and other oxidants in the water columns with increasing carbon emissions, which may at least partially contributed to the multiple developments of the oceanic anoxia and extreme warming in the middle Cretaceous. Reference:1. Larson, R.L. and E. Erba, Onset of the Mid-Cretaceous greenhouse in the Barremian-Aptian: Igneous events and the biological, sedimentary, and geochemical responses. Paleoceanography, 1999. 14(6): p. 663-678. 2. Weissert, H., et al., Correlation of Early Cretaceous carbon isotope stratigraphy and platform drowning events: a possible link? Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 1998. 137(3): p. 189-203. 3. Erbacher, J., et al., Increased thermohaline stratification as a possible cause for an ocean anoxic event in the Cretaceous period. Nature, 2001. 409(6818): p. 325-327. 4. Wilson, P.A. and R.D. Norris, Warm tropical ocean surface and global anoxia during the mid-Cretaceous period. Nature, 2001. 412(6845): p. 425-429.
Duncan, R. A.; Tiraboschi, D.; Erba, E.; Walczak, P.; Clarke, L. J.
We explore the proposed link between submarine plateau volcanism associated with construction of the Ontong Java-Manihiki-Hikurangi plateau (122 Ma) and early Aptian Ocean Anoxic Event 1a (OAE1a) through biostratigraphic data and trace metal abundance anomalies in marine sedimentary sections recovered in cores from DSDP Site 167 (Magellan Rise), ODP Sites 463 and 866 (Mid-Pacific Mountains), and at the Cismon and Piobbico on-land drillsites (Belluno and Umbria-Marche Basins, Italy). Sections were correlated using bio- and magneto-stratigraphic data, and the global d13C isotope anomaly associated with OAE1a. Bulk sediment samples that bracket the OAE1a interval at each site were analyzed by ICP-MS methods. After normalizing element concentrations to Zr to remove the variable contribution of terrigenous material to these sediments, we detected an interval of concentrated metal abundance anomalies that precedes the abrupt positive climb in the d13C isotope excursion, beginning near magnetic chron M0, continuing through the organic-rich interval of anoxic conditions. The metal abundance anomalies (e.g., Sc, Cu, Co, Sn, Cr, Ni, V, Cd, Ag, Bi, Se, W, Mo, Sb, Pb up to 100x background), variable in intensity and pattern of elements, indicate that intermittent hydrothermal activity, in the form of both water/rock exchange and magmatic degassing, introduced large concentrations of trace metals into the Cretaceous ocean at the same time that turnover in plankton communities and increases in isotopically light organic carbon burial occurred. The stratigraphic position of the intervals of trace metal anomalies matches events prior, during and after OAE1a and indicates that intermittent hydrothermal activity on a massive scale triggered abrupt changes in biota, carbon burial and deep ocean oxygen contents. Calcareous nannofossil abundance and composition display major changes in biogenic paleofluxes, temperature and fertility of surface waters, coeval with metal enrichments
McGowan, Michael L.
Problem solving in adventure programs contains physical, social, philosophical, and transcendent (insightful) elements. Through transcendent experiences students reach a high level of performance, tolerance, and understanding. Instructors often attempt to facilitate transcendent experiences through such activities as the Native American…
Gebhardt, Holger; Friedrich, Oliver; Schenk, Bettina; Fox, Lyndsey; Hart, Malcolm; Wagreich, Michael
The oceanic anoxic event at the Cenomanian-Turonian boundary (OAE 2) led to different, usually organic rich, sedimentary successions in various parts of the world. In order to trace the paleoceanographic processes at the northern Tethyan margin, we investigated samples from the unique Rehkogelgraben section in the Eastern Alps. Paleoecologic conditions were reconstructed for strata before, during and after OAE-2 by combining the results of assemblage counts of indicative microfossil groups from planktic (foraminifera, radiolaria) and benthic (foraminifera) realms. Microfossil assemblages, size distributions and accumulation rates show a tripartite subdivision for surface and bottom waters. They indicate oligotrophic surface conditions and oxic bottom waters with a resonably high food supply for the late Cenomanian interval. The OAE period with black shale deposition is characterized by very low numbers but relatively high diversities and a lack of high productivity indicators among planktic foraminifera. Benthic foraminifera show extremely low accumulation rates and are of small size exclusively, pointing to low oxic or dysoxic conditions at the sea floor. Post-OAE assemblages are characterized by mesotrophic planktic species and benthic foraminifera point to a reappearence of oxic bottom waters. It took about 300 Ky to re-establish a pelagic carbonate-producing regime. The Rehkogelgraben record points to unusual paleoceanographic conditions during the OAE 2. The semi-enclosed basin situation of the Penninic Ocean is thought to be responsible for the apparent differences between the high productivity in most parts of the world ocean and the overall absence of high productivity indicators in the foraminiferal assemblages at Rehkogelgraben. Our records show higher benthic and planktic foraminiferal diversities during OAE 2 compared with high productivity areas elsewhere. The Penninic Ocean may have even served as a retreat area during the environmental crisis.
Veletsianos, George; Eliadou, Annita
In this paper we present and discuss the findings of a systematic literature review on the use of educational technology initiatives to foster peace outcomes, and we relate those findings to Adventure Learning. In the first section of the paper, we suggest that technology-infused peace initiatives rely predominantly on targeting antecedents to…
This article provides an overview of trip programming in Alaska for those seeking a low-cost wilderness adventure. Alaska is a land of glaciers, mountains, lakes, rivers, forests, and wildlife. Safety is a major concern when traveling in Alaska. A local guide or outdoor educator can assist with safety and logistical planning. Travelers should plan…
Journal of Adventure Education and Outdoor Leadership, 1996
Explains licensing regulations applicable in the United Kingdom to commercial providers of adventure education programs that offer caving, climbing, trekking, and water sports; provides information on license applications, including licensing standards related to risk assessment and safety management procedures; and addresses issues related to the…
Quezada, Reyes L.; Christopherson, Richard W.
The need to provide alternative and exciting community service-learning experiences with university students has been a challenge to institutions of higher education. One institution was able to capitalize on an idea of integrating challenge and adventure-based activities as a form of community service. This article focuses on undergraduate…
This paper provides information sources and ideas for challenge and adventure activities. Main information sources are listed: libraries, ERIC, and several publishers and programs. Some useful publications are described that provide activities and ideas related to outdoor education, environmental issues, games, special populations, educational…
The Leadership Project uses community partnerships to initiate a systematic response to drug and alcohol use, violence, and crime among teenagers in Alexandria, New Zealand. Aspects of the project include adventure-based violence intervention and counseling in the high school and leadership training at an outdoor education center. Preliminary…
Koseoglu, Suzan; Doering, Aaron
The GoNorth! Adventure Learning (AL) Series delivered educational programs about global climate change and sustainability from 2006 to 2010 via a hybrid-learning environment that included a curriculum designed with activities that worked in conjunction with the travels of Team GoNorth! as they dog sledded throughout the circumpolar Arctic. This…
Hobbs, William D.
Research on leadership in outdoor adventure programs has focused primarily on Educational and Outdoor Skills. Anecdotal and practical experience has suggested that the performance of highly effective leaders may depend instead on distinctive qualities and components closely tied to individual character--a perspective of transformational…
Meyer, Manu Aluli
Addresses the relevance of incorporating culture into wilderness adventure education programs. Examples of Hawaiian culture illustrate the application of culture in developing a foundational philosophy, as a teaching tool, as a communication medium, as a way to reach student and course goals, and as a bridge from wilderness to home life. (LP)
This document is designed as a resource book for senior high school physical education teachers to aid in the development of initiative and adventure activities involving rope exercises. Goals of these exercises are defined as; (1) increasing personal competence; (2) increasing mutual support within a group; (3) developing an increased level of…
Richey, J. D.; Upchurch, G. R., Jr.; Suarez, M. B.; Joeckel, R. M.; Ludvigson, G. A.; John, S. J.; Lomax, B. H.
Ocean Anoxic Events (OAEs) and their associated carbon cycle perturbations are hallmarks of the Cretaceous. Quantification of these short-term disruptions to the carbon cycle is needed to understand the nature and climatic tipping points of greenhouse gas-initiated OAEs. The Rose Creek Pit (RCP) locality, Dakota Formation, southeastern Nebraska, offers a unique opportunity to make these comparisons for OAE1d through a combination of δ13C analysis and stomatal index (SI). RCP is already known to contain the negative δ13C excursion of OAE1d in charcoal and bulk organic matter. We produced new δ13C curves from fossil gymnosperm charcoal (δ13C gym) and vitrain (δ13Cvit) collected at 30cm intervals at RCP. These new curves reproduce the negative δ13C isotopic excursion found in the earlier chemostratigraphic curves and confirm that RCP contains the record of the carbon isotope excursion associated with OAE1d. In the same stratigraphic interval, SI as a proxy for atmospheric CO2 was calculated from dispersed leaf cuticle of Pandemophyllum kvacekii, new morphotypes of Pandemophyllum, and the related species Pabiania variloba. Average SI responds to the negative δ13C excursion (~3‰) by a gradual decrease from 8.2 to 5.1. Both δ13C and SI return to pre-excursion values above the level of the excursion. Furthermore, we calculate a coeval CO2 increase of 141-470 ppm during the negative excursion on the basis of published transfer functions, a value smaller than those calculated for other Mesozoic carbon cycle perturbations assessed with SI (K-T and Tr-J Boundaries, OAE2, TOAE; 179-2000+ ppm). We estimate that between 282-940 Gt of carbon was added to the atmosphere during OAE1d, much less than that estimated for other events (358-4000+ Gt C). Calculated changes in radiative forcing (∆F ≈1.1-4.7 W/m2) and global temperatures (∆T ≈ 0.9-3.8 ⁰C) resulting from increased CO2 also suggest that OAE1d had a smaller global effect than other events (∆F ≈ 2
Cors, Jean; Heimhofer, Ulrich; Bover-Arnal, Telm; Salas, Ramon
Cretaceous oceanic anoxic events (OAEs) have received considerable attention during the last couple of decades and a wealth of information has been obtained on the stratigraphy, paleoceanography and biogeochemistry of these episodes. Up to now, research focused mainly on the marine OAE record, whereas studies investigating the response of the continental biosphere to OAEs are comparatively rare. Here, a quantitative spore-pollen record is presented, which covers the entire Early Aptian OAE1a interval including its onset and aftermath. Sporomorph-bearing deposits from the Forcall Formation, Maestrat basin of E Spain, have been investigated using bulk rock geochemistry (TOC, CaCO3, carbon isotopes) as well as palynofacies analysis and palynology. The carbon-isotope trend shows a very distinct pattern and enables detailed correlation with established curves covering OAE1a. A total of 28 different genera of spores and pollen have been distinguished within the studied 38 samples. Whereas pteridophyte spores and conifer-derived bisaccate pollen show only minor variations with stratigraphic height, non-saccate gymnosperm pollen (notably Classopollis, Araucariacites, Inaperturopollenites) record a major shift during and in the aftermath of OAE1a. Classopollis pollen, produced by the xerophytic Cheirolepidiaceae, is the dominant pollen group before the event (80-90 %) and shows a distinct two-step decrease with lowest abundances (as low as 21 %) occurring within the positive carbon isotope anomaly (C7 segment in Bover-Arnal et al. 2011). This gradual decline is followed by a subsequent rise in Classopollis pollen reaching almost pre-OAE values of 60-80 %. In contrast, Araucariacites and Inaperturopollenites pollen show a distinct increase from low background values (less than 10 %) to become a significant component of the palynological assemblage during the Classopollis drop. The observed changes in pollen distribution patterns are interpreted to reflect a major change in
Gilbertson, Ken; Ewert, Alan
First developed and tested in 1989, the Adventure Model suggests that as adventure participants become more skilled and specialized, they experience predictable changes in several participation behaviors. While previous studies supported the model, they were carried out with college students having similar skill and motivational characteristics.…
Bruner, Eric V.
This paper is designed to acquaint the outdoor professional with the risk management decision making process required for the operation and management of outdoor adventure activities. The document examines the programming implications of fear in adventure activities; the risk management process in adventure programming; a definition of an…
Whittington, Anja; Mack, Erica Nixon; Budbill, Nadine W.; McKenney, Priscilla
This study examined the benefits of all-girls adventure programmes from the perspective of adolescent girls. Participants included 361 girls aged 10-17 years from diverse ethnic and socio-economic backgrounds who completed a variety of adventure programmes. Adventure activities included rock climbing, sea kayaking, mountaineering, backpacking,…
Sibthorp, Jim; Morgan, Cass
Despite operating on the periphery of academic scholarship, adventure-based programs can serve as the prototype for how organized and structured youth development programs should function. Although there are clearly differences in adventure programs and other youth activities, many of the qualities of adventure programs can and should be…
Experiential Education, Outdoor Adventure As a Modality in Youth Care and Residential Treatment. A Survey of Programs, Principles, Research and Practice on the European Continent, Especially the Netherlands.
Orthopedagogisch Centrum Michiel is a multifunctional institution in the eastern Netherlands for youth with emotional problems. The staff of the institution's residential treatment center has gradually become involved with outdoor experiential education through training programs, conferences, special projects, and supervised programs. Activities…
This study investigates the accuracy of the Woodruff-Causey technique for estimating sampling errors for complex statistics. The technique may be applied when data are collected by using multistage clustered samples. The technique was chosen for study because of its relevance to the correct use of multivariate analyses in educational survey…
Tejada, M. G.; Ravizza, G.; Suzuki, K.; Vonderhaar, D.
The large-volume eruption and the short-period of emplacement shown by the geochronological, geological, and geophysical studies of the Ontong Java Plateau (OJP) require some explanation beyond what is already known from plate tectonic processes. Plume impact, bolide impact, and their variants have been proposed to account for the origin of these features. The two end member models (bolide vs. plume) cannot be distinguished from one another based solely on the Os isotopic compositions of the OJP lavas because both meteorites and mantle have unradiogenic Os isotope signature. Additional evidence to test the models can be derived from the platinum group element (PGE) abundances in sedimentary rocks deposited before and during the LIP emplacement. We analyzed the platinum group element (PGE) contents of the Selli Level horizon at Gorgo a Cerbara, central Italy, which was previously analyzed for Os isotope composition, to further test the mantle plume vs. bolide impact models for the origin of the OJP and the Early Cretaceous oceanic anoxic event, OAE1a. We found that Ir concentrations are low compared to other known large impact horizons. Only one black shale bed yielded high Ir concentration of 544 ppt but it is not at the base of the Selli Level interval. In addition chondrite-normalized Os/Ir and Pt/Ir values of 1.4-21 and 7.7-31, respectively, within the Selli Level horizon are nonchondritic, including the bed that yielded the highest concentration of Re and other PGEs. Previous analysis of the Os isotopic compositions of the organic fractions of these sedimentary units showed a major interval of unradiogenic Os isotopic compositions coinciding with the Selli Level (Tejada et al., 2008). The absence of positive correlation between enrichment of PGE and the unradiogenic Os isotopic compositions suggests that the OAE1a event represented by the Selli Level horizon was triggered by a significant amount of mantle input into the marine environment and not by a bolide
Doan, Daniel; Luks, Andrew M
Given the high prevalence of asthma, it is likely that providers working in a pretravel setting will be asked to provide guidance for asthma patients about how to manage their disease before and during wilderness or adventure travel, while providers working in the field setting may need to address asthma-related issues that arise during such excursions. This review aims to provide information to assist providers facing these issues. Relevant literature was identified through the MEDLINE database using a key word search of the English-language literature from 1980 to 2013 using the term "asthma" cross-referenced with "adventure travel," "trekking," "exercise," "exercise-induced bronchoconstriction," "high-altitude," "scuba," and "diving." We review data on the frequency of worsening asthma control during wilderness or adventure travel and discuss the unique aspects of wilderness travel that may affect asthma patients in the field. We then provide a general approach to evaluation and management of asthma before and during a planned sojourn and address 2 particular situations, activities at high altitude and scuba diving, which pose unique risks to asthma patients and warrant additional attention. Although wilderness and adventure travel should be avoided in individuals with poorly controlled disease or worsening control at the time of a planned trip, individuals with well-controlled asthma who undergo appropriate pretravel assessment and planning can safely engage in a wide range of wilderness and adventure-related activities. PMID:24393703
Richards, Kaye, Ed.; Smith, Barbara, Ed.
This proceedings presents a variety of international perspectives on the nature of adventure therapy and charts new insights into its historical, philosophical, theoretical, and practical realms. Following an editorial "Adventure and Therapy: 'Dancing in the Moonlight'" (Kaye Richards, Barbara Smith), the 21 papers are: (1) "Adventure Therapy: A…
Holmden, C. E.; Jacobson, A. D.; Sageman, B. B.; Hurtgen, M.
Cr stable isotopes record mass dependent fractionations that reflect changes in the element's oxidation state. Weathering of igneous rocks on the continents releases Cr(III), which then reacts with manganese dioxide minerals to form Cr(VI) under oxidizing conditions. Cr(VI) is both soluble and mobile in continental weathering environments and eventually accumulates in the oceans. Laboratory experiments show that reduction of Cr(VI) causes light Cr isotopes to partition into the reduced Cr(III), which is insoluble, thus leaving the unreacted pool of soluble Cr(VI) enriched in the heavy isotopes. As Cr(VI) is the thermodynamically favoured species in oxygenated seawater, this leads to the hypothesis that drawdown of seawater Cr(VI) during ocean anoxic events should correlate with positive shifts in seawater derived Cr isotope values in marine sedimentary successions, if the fractionation factor and the various Cr input fluxes remained constant. To test this hypothesis, we measured seawater δ53Cr values preserved in pelagic carbonate sediment deposited in the Western Interior Seaway during OAE 2. Our results show that the onset of ocean anoxia correlates with a decrease in sedimentary δ53Cr, which is opposite to the model prediction. The discrepancy may be reconciled if the sedimentation flux of light Cr isotopes into anoxic sediment was offset by an increase in the input flux of light Cr isotopes to the oceans. Eruption and weathering of the Caribbean Large Igneous Province (LIP) provides one such source.. Other studies have implicated LIP volcanism as a source of anomalously high trace metal abundances in the studied carbonates, as well as mantle-like initial Os isotope ratios in related black shales. We conclude similarly that the increased input of light Cr isotopes to the oceans during OAE 2 masked the expected isotopic response of the ocean Cr cycle to increased ocean anoxia.
Owens, J. D.; Gill, B. C.; Jenkyns, H.; Kuypers, M. M. M.; Severmann, S.; Bates, S.; Lyons, T. W.
Understanding the causes and consequences of oceanic anoxic events (OAEs) has been at the forefront of studies of paleoceanography for the last several decades. This interest stems in large part from the biological and biogeochemical impacts of these events, with possible parallels to recent expansion of coastal hypoxia and broader deoxygenation in the modern ocean. The Mesozoic Era is noted for numerous OAEs that are diagnostically expressed by widespread organic-carbon deposition and coeval positive carbon-isotope excursions. Recent work on Jurassic and Cretaceous OAEs has shown that, coupled with the overall increase in carbon-isotope values, are parallel positive sulfur-isotope excursions in carbonate-associated sulfur (CAS)-a proxy that can faithfully record the isotopic composition of seawater sulfate. The parallel positive carbon and sulfur isotope excursions of OAE 2 (~93.5 Ma) suggest the large-scale, coupled burial of organic carbon and pyrite sulfur, although the peaks of the these shifts are offset by a few hundred thousand years. The sulfate isotope curve for OAE 2 recovered to pre-event levels in ~4 Ma. This observation, coupled with our preliminary modeling results, suggests that sulfate concentrations were between 5 and 7 mM compared to 28 mM present today. We have used biogeochemical box modeling to explore the factors behind the perturbations of the C-S cycles. In order to replicate the isotopic offset between the C and S data, the model demands that euxinic burial of pyrite must have continued a few hundred thousand years after the peak organic-carbon burial. Also, increasing ΔS - the difference between the isotopic composition of marine sulfate and pyrite formed from that sulfate -substantially lessens the required increase in pyrite burial needed to drive the sulfur-isotope excursion. Such a mechanism is likely, given the expansion of euxinia and the attendant increase in pyrite formation in the water column. Quantitative consideration of
Bomou, Brahimsamba; Adatte, Thierry; De Kaenel, Eric; Spangenberg, Jorge; Gertsch, Brian; Föllmi, Karl B.
Several oceanic anoxic episodes (OAE) occurred on a worldwide scale throughout the Cretaceous. They are defined by the widespread accumulation of laminated organic-rich sediments and coincide with a positive excursion in δ13C. The Coniacian-Santonian OAE (= OAE3) is less well known and appears less expressed than the early Aptian and latest Cenomanian OAEs. This OAE appears not to be truly important on a global scale but was more dependent on local or regional conditions, as suggested by the paleogeographic distribution of organic-rich sediments. These are mainly restricted to the equatorial and South Atlantic basins and the Western Interior Seaway, and therein mostly to shallow-water settings and epicontinental seas. The mechanisms and paleoenvironmental conditions leading to and through OAE3 are poorly known, particularly with regards to the marine phosphorus cycle and changes therein, and to the climate conditions in general. Specifically, in our study, we focus on bulk and clay mineralogy, phosphorus, carbon isotopes, high-resolution biostratigraphy, and changes in climate and primary productivity. Several sections from different paleogeographic areas at different paleodepths were studied. Two sections were investigated, are candidates for the global boundary stratotype section and point (GSSP), Olazagutia (NW Spain) and Ten Mile Creek-Arbor Park (Texas, USA); an additional section was analysed in Gabal Ekma (Sinai, Egypt), which exhibits several layers enriched in organic matter associated with extensive bonebeds. In the Olazagutia section, the inoceramid Platyceramus undulatoplicatus, which marks the base of Santonian, occurs well above the Coniacian-Santonian boundary indicated by nannofossil biostratigraphy, and its first occurrence appears to have been environmentally controlled. In Texas, several bentonite layers have been recognized just above the proposed Coniacian-Santonian boundary, which may provide a more accurate age. Based on a weathering index
Best, Steven; Kellner, Douglas
Contemporary youth are major players in the postmodern adventure because it is they who will enter the future and further shape the world to come. For youth today, change is the name of the game and they are forced to adapt to a rapidly mutating and crisis-ridden world characterized by novel information, computer and genetic technologies; a…
Eilers, Gayleen M.
A woman treated for eating disorders, long-term depression, and attempted suicide describes how adventure therapy helped her to confront her personal issues, deal with feelings of inadequacy, take risks, trust other people, and enjoy the beauty of nature. Discusses the role of the facilitator in ensuring a safe environment and leading reflective…
This paper outlines management guidelines for outdoor adventure pursuits based on analysis of accident case studies in the literature. Managing risk, to a large degree, involves managing human errors related to natural environmental hazards. The knowledge needed to manage risk may be gained through personal experience (the most dangerous way),…
Teaff, Joseph; Kablach, John
Reports psychological benefits of participation in caving, rock climbing, ropes, and teams course of 30-day adventure program by 56 delinquent youth (ages 11-18). Concludes rope course satisfied independence, rewards, and variety more than caving; rock climbing satisfied independence and rewards more than caving; caving less beneficial than other…
Couture, Roger T.
Laurentian University (Ontario) offers a 4-year holistic outdoor adventure leadership program that promotes personal growth, develops leadership skills, and trains individuals to be safety-minded in various outdoor settings. A strong environmental ethic is promoted through courses in biology and Canadian Native culture. Practicums, internships,…
Roberts, Bridget; Horwood, Shane; Aunger, Nic; Wong, Michele
Out Doors Inc. is a community-managed mental health organization in Victoria (Australia) that provides psychosocial rehabilitation to adults with mental health needs through outdoor adventure and other recreation experiences. This paper focuses on Out Door Inc.'s Going Places Program. The program, which ranges from 1 day to 4 months, is based on…
Taber, Susan B.
The mathematician Charles Dodgson delighted in creating mathematical puzzles for his friends and students. This article describes some items that he included in "Alice's Adventures in Wonderland" and explores ways of helping students become aware of the mathematics in the book. (Contains 6 figures.)
Ritchie, Stephen; Brinkman, Danielle; Wabano, Mary Jo; Young, Nancy
Connecting through outdoor adventure is a process that may or may not seem obvious. The word "connecting" resonates with a powerful and extensive implied meaning that the authors feel compelled to share. A recent collaborative research project between leaders from the Wikwemikong Unceded Indian Reserve and researchers from Laurentian University…
Donley, Nancy R.
Based on Mark Twain's novel "The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn," this lesson plan presents activities designed to help students understand that identifying and thinking about a key quotation or symbol in a novel can help a reader extract greater meaning from the work; and that a paper analyzing literature should follow a logical organization. The…
Describes and gives examples of integrating adventure activities into existing classroom curricula at three levels: review or metaphors, interwoven activities for content delivery, and total integration into classroom design. Example activities include "Speed Rabbit,""Have You Ever,""Stepping Stones,""Whale Watch," and "Mine Field." (SAS)
Guidebook descriptions of the 3000 worldwide adventure trips open to public participation include highlights, itinerary, level of experience necessary, requirements, location, duration, dates, cost, and addresses and telephone numbers of the operating organizations. The guidebook is organized in four major sections and, within each section, into…
Highlights of my biophysical and biomathematical adventures in radiobiology is presented. Early adventures involved developing state-vector models'' for specific harmful effects (cell killing, life shortening) of exposure to radiation. More recent adventures led to developing hazard-function models'' for predicting biological effects (e.g., cell killing, mutations, tumor induction) of combined exposure to different toxicants. Hazard-function models were also developed for predicting harm to man from exposure to large radiation doses. Major conclusions derived from the modeling adventures are as follows: (1) synergistic effects of different genotoxic agents should not occur at low doses; (2) for exposure of the lung or bone marrow to large doses of photon radiation, low rates of exposure should be better tolerated than high rates; and (3) for some types of radiation (e.g., alpha particles and fission neutrons), moderate doses delivered at a low rate may be more harmful than the same dose given at a high rate. 53 refs., 7 figs.
Doering, Aaron; Scharber, Cassandra; Riedel, Eric; Miller, Charles
Adventure learning (AL) provides learners with opportunities to explore real-world issues through authentic learning experiences within collaborative online learning environments. This paper reports on an AL program, designed using Keller's ARCS motivational model of instructional design, which encompassed more than 3 million learners worldwide.…
Adventures In Movement for the Handicapped, Inc., Dayton, OH.
The handbook on Adventures in Movement for the Handicapped (AIM) gives information about general organizational goals and suggests activities for use by volunteer teachers with blind, deaf, crippled, cerebral palsied, mentally retarded, and autistic children at five ability/age levels. General Information given about each handicap usually includes…
This video offers an exciting four-part adventure about two teenage sleuths who discover the presence of an alien below New York City. As they try to make contact with the alien, they are confronted with a series of mathematical challenges that test their knowledge of the content strands recommended by the National Council of Teachers of…
Coccioni, R.; Galeotti, S.; Sprovieri, M.
Detailed litho-, bio- and chemostratigraphic investigations of the Hauterivian-lowermost Aptian Maiolica pelagic limestones in the Umbria-Marche sequence, allowed to identify that the Selli Level, which is the regional sedimentary expression of the OAE 1a, represents the climax of a ca. 5 myr-long cycle of black shale deposition starting at the lower/upper Barremian boundary within polarity Chronozone M3 and H. similis-H. kutznetsovae planktonic foraminiferal Zone, that is in the lowermost part of the calcareous nannofossil Zone NC 5D. This long-term cycle starts with a prominent short-term event, here named mid-Barremian Event (MBE), which is associated with several changes in the biotic and abiotic records. In particular, a comparison of the available chemo- litho-, and biostratigraphic data from the Umbria-Marche Basin, allows to recognise that the MBE is defined by: 1) a 0.5 per mil positive shift in the carbon isotope values (Hadji, 1993; unpublished data); 2) a major step in the initial evolutive radiation of planktonic foraminifera (unpublished data); 3) a major turnover in the radiolarian assemblages (Jud, 1994; O'Dogherty, 1994). The above mentioned change in carbon isotope values can be confidently correlated over the Mediterranean Tethys which is the sole area where a detailed isotopic record is available for the entire Barremian (Erba et al., 1999; Wissler et al., 2002). These lines of evidence concur to define the MBE as an outstanding event associated with large scale changes in the ocean-climate system likely related to the rapid oceanic Ontong-Java Plateau formation, which eventually led to OAE1a. Remarkably, the MBE largely predates the well known series of biotic and geochemical events occurring prior to the OAE1a and may be considered as the real turning point in the Barremian-Aptian long-term cycle of black-shale deposition and evolutionary turnovers in several fossil groups. References Erba, E., Channell, J.E.T., Claps, M., Jones, C., Larson, R
Kearns, T. J.; Rowe, H. D.
The Late Cretaceous Eagle Ford Formation contains the Cenomanian-Turonian Boundary (CTB) and deposition of this formation represents a relatively brief period of mixed siliciclastic-carbonate mud accumulation during a carbonate dominated period of deposition in South Texas. It is believed that sluggish circulation of the global ocean and Ocean Anoxia Event #2 (OAE-2) resulted in the accumulation of organic-rich mudrock. The study interval represents deposition at the southern end of the relatively warm, shallow Western Interior Seaway (WIS), which connected the paleo-Arctic ocean with the tropical Gulf of Mexico. The ultimate goals of the present study are to 1) enhance our understanding of the environmental conditions during deposition and their role in organic enrichment of the strata, and 2) make linkages between the CTB record in the study area and other global records. The unique geochemistry of the Eagle Ford provides a means of regional and global correlation and comparison of strata that consist of organic-rich mudrock deposited across the CTB. The study incorporates analysis of seven drill cores from South Texas, and each core contains all or a portion of the organic-rich unit in the Eagle Ford. Each core was scanned at a ~1-foot interval using a Bruker handheld x-ray fluorescence (XRF) instrument, providing quantitative analysis of the elemental concentrations: Mg, Al, S, Si, P, K, Ti, Ca, Mn, Fe, Mo, Cr, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Th, Rb, U, Sr, Zr, and V. The TOC, total inorganic carbon (TIC), %N, and the δ15N and δ13CTOC have been measured on three cores. Preliminary results from a series of drill cores reveal that redox-sensitive trace element (RSTE) concentrations increase from more open-ocean sites to more restricted sites in the Maverick Basin of southwest Texas. Molybdenum and uranium and sulfur and TOC are highly elevated in much of the organic-rich strata, indicating prolonged ocean anoxia and euxinia in the region during deposition. TOC values from one
Wieseman, Katherine C.; Cadwell, Doni; Pike, Lisa
Introduces an inquiry-based cooperative learning project in which education students paired up with young children. Provides an experience of inquiry-based pedagogy to education students and a meaningful learning experience to children. (YDS)
Max Roach and the author discuss Roach's efforts to gain recognition of the complexity and importance of American musical forms, particularly jazz, by American university music departments. In addition, Roach describes his approach to marketing his music, an approach which avoids the economic exploitation often suffered by American jazz musicians.…
Social skill development is emerging as an important issue for educators and practitioners in their work with adolescent youth. This presentation will use the results from two ongoing research projects to examine the relationship between adventure-based programming and social skill development in the lives of diverse youth. The first project is…
Sassier, C.; Galland, O.; Raufaste, C.; Mair, K.
The role of Geosciences in our society is of primary importance. Its implications for humanity relate to major challenges such as climate change, managing energy resources, natural hazard mitigation, and water scarcity. Despite these issues being familiar to specialists, this is in general not the case for the public. In a world, where the impact of human activity is beginning to be seen on the environment, knowledge of the Earth and its history is paramount to make informed decisions that will influence our future. The necessity to educate the global population and raise awareness of Geosciences has led UNESCO to designate 2009 the International Year of the Planet Earth. In this context and with the label of the UNESCO, we organized and performed a popular science adventure that was followed in real time by both school children and many adults around the world. The Andean Geotrail consisted of a cycling expedition through a spectacular geological environment, the Andean Cordillera. During the nine month expedition, we cycled 8000 km and walked 400 km from Ushuaia in the Southern tip of Argentina to Nazca in Peru to encounter a rich variety of geological environments: active volcanoes, earthquakes, mineral and hydrocarbon deposits, and fantastic geological scenery. All this makes the Andes a great pedagogical natural laboratory. During the expedition, we visited spectacular geological localities that illustrate key Earth Science phenomena (such as mines and hydrocarbon deposits, erupting volcanoes and seismogenically active areas, and national parks) and discovered their implications for the local people. Along the way, we interviewed local geologists and scientists who helped us understand the geology of their areas. We gathered our own observations with those of the local specialists and published essays, articles and photographs on our website and blog (www.georouteandine.fr/English, http://georouteandine.blogspot.com). Seventeen schools in France and Norway
Du Vivier, A. D. C.; Selby, D.; Condon, D. J.; Takashima, R.; Nishi, H.
Studies of OAE 2 sections beyond the Atlantic Ocean, Western Interior Seaway (WIS) and European pelagic shelf are limited. Here, we present initial osmium isotope stratigraphy (187Os/188Os-Osi) from two proto-Pacific sites that span the Cenomanian-Turonian boundary interval (CTBI): the Yezo Group (YG) section, Hokkaido, Japan, and the Great Valley Sequence (GVS), California, USA; to evaluate the 187Os/188Os seawater chemistry of the proto-Pacific. Additionally we combine new 206Pb/238U zircon CA-ID-TIMS geochronology from five volcanic tuff horizons of the Yezo Group section to test and facilitate inter-basinal integration with the WIS using radio-isotopically constrained age-depth models for both sections, and quantitatively constrain the absolute timing and duration of events across the CTBI. The YG shows an almost identical Osi profile to that of the WIS, and very similar to that of other sites of the proto-Atlantic and European pelagic oceans (Turgeon and Creaser, 2008; Du Vivier et al., 2014). The characteristics of the Osi profile are radiogenic and heterogeneous (˜0.55-0.85) prior to the OAE 2, and synchronous with the inferred OAE 2 onset the Osi abruptly become unradiogenic and remain relatively homogeneous (˜0.20-0.30) before showing a gradual return to more radiogenic Osi (˜ 0.70) throughout the middle to late OAE 2. A206Pb/238U zircon age of an interbedded tuff (HK017) in the adjacent horizon to the first unradiogenic Osi value constrains the age of the Osi inflection at 94.44 ± 0.14 Ma. This age, including uncertainty, agrees with the interpolated age of the same point in the Osi profile (94.28 ± 0.25 Ma) in the only other dated OAE 2 section, the WIS; indicating a coeval shift in seawater chemistry associated with volcanism at the OAE 2 onset at the levels of temporal resolution (ca. 0.1 Myr). Further, prior to the onset of OAE 2 an enhanced radiogenic inflection in the Osi profile of the YG is correlative, within uncertainty, with a similar
Porsild, M.; Doering, A.; Pregont, P.
GoNorth! is an adventure learning series developed at the University of Minnesota in collaboration with NOMADS Online Expeditions. GoNorth! uses real-time experiences of dogsled expeditions on a multimedia saturated website at http://www.PolarHusky.com to motivate and engage millions of K-12 students and teachers. The program is free and research (Doering & Veletsianos, 2007) shows that it can be adopted by any teacher who signs up to use the program. It is currently utilized in 3400+ classrooms across the 50 US States and in 29 countries worldwide. Research (Doering & Veletsianos, 2007; 2008) notes that students working with GoNorth! are excited, motivated, and eager to engage with authentic tasks, solve real-world problems, collaborate with colleagues and experts, and initiate actions in their own community. Our team of educators, scientists and explorers circumnavigate the Arctic traveling by dog team to a new Arctic locale every year. Driven by an environmental question of particular relevance to the given Arctic region, each year a comprehensive natural and social science GoNorth! Curriculum & Activity Guide (450+ pages) is developed reflecting the expedition's current Arctic locale and its indigenous culture. The associated online learning environment delivers comprehensive resources about the region of travel, collaborative opportunities, live field updates and field research findings synched real-time to the curriculum. Field research relevant to understanding patterns of climate change and polar science is conducted with independent researchers featured as "Cool GoNorth! Scientists." Collaborations span from scientists at NASA and the United States Department of Agriculture to student observers in pan-Arctic communities as part of the NSF-supported initiative "What Is Climate Change to You?." This scientific research and fieldwork in turn coincides with the curriculum. The result is a community of learners on the Internet gaining knowledge from Arctic
The fundamental dilemma in adventure programming is eliminating unreasonable risks to participants without also reducing levels of excitement, challenge, and stress. Most accidents are caused by a combination of unsafe conditions, unsafe acts, and error judgments. The best and only way to minimize critical human error in adventure programs is…
Bandoroff, Scott, Ed.; Newes, Sandra, Ed.
"Coming of Age" brings together a group of articles arising from the third International Adventure Therapy Conference held in Victoria, British Columbia, in April 2003. Together, they offer an overview of the field of Adventure Therapy in the new millennium, boasting a strong collection from the field's leading international figures: Martin…
Hastie, Peter A.
Questionnaires assessed anticipation and actual enjoyment of various adventure activites by 60 New Zealand secondary schools students before and after a school-sponsored adventure week. White water rafting was rated most preferred on both occasions. Pre- and posttour comparisons showed a significant increase in enjoyment ranking for horse trekking…
Richards, Kaye; Allin, Linda
The history and etiology of eating disorders are briefly outlined, with attention to their prevalence in adolescent girls. A critical examination of the links among outdoor adventure, eating disorders, and physicality shows how adventure programs can reinforce eating disorders. Strategies are presented that illustrate the potential of outdoor…
Whittington, Anja; Aspelmeier, Jeffery E.; Budbill, Nadine W.
This study examined whether participation in an adventure program increased the resiliency of adolescent girls. Eighty-seven girls who participated in Dirt Divas, a non-profit, adventure program, completed the Resiliency Scale for Children and Adolescents® before and after their experience. Means-comparison tests for within-subjects designs were…
Marsh, Paul E.
What do people mean when they describe backcountry adventure experiences as being "spiritual"? Spiritual aspects of adventure experiences in the wilderness have been recounted anecdotally and recognized in research. This body of research, however, has left the definition of the term spiritual to the individual participants, and has not yet…